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sulfurchlorineargon
F

Cl

Br
Appearance
pale yellow-green gas
General properties
Name, symbol, number chlorine, Cl, 17
Element category Halogen
Group, period, block 173, p
Standard atomic weight 35.453(2)g·mol−1
Electron configuration [Ne] 3s2 3p5
Electrons per shell 2, 8, 7 (Image)
Physical properties
Phase gas
Density (0 °C, 101.325 kPa)
3.2 g/L
Melting point 171.6 K, -101.5 °C, -150.7 °F
Boiling point 239.11 K, -34.04 °C, -29.27 °F
Critical point 416.9 K, 7.991 MPa
Heat of fusion (Cl2) 6.406 kJ·mol−1
Heat of vaporization (Cl2) 20.41 kJ·mol−1
Specific heat capacity (25 °C) (Cl2)
33.949 J·mol−1·K−1
Vapor pressure
P/Pa 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T/K 128 139 153 170 197 239
Atomic properties
Oxidation states 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, 1, -1
(strongly acidic oxide)
Electronegativity 3.16 (Pauling scale)
Ionization energies
(more)
1st: 1251.2 kJ·mol−1
2nd: 2298 kJ·mol−1
3rd: 3822 kJ·mol−1
Covalent radius 102±4 pm
Van der Waals radius 175 pm
Miscellanea
Crystal structure orthorhombic
Magnetic ordering diamagnetic[1]
Electrical resistivity (20 °C) > 10 Ω·m
Thermal conductivity (300 K) 8.9x10-3  W·m−1·K−1
Speed of sound (gas, 0 °C) 206 m/s
CAS registry number 7782-50-5
Most stable isotopes
Main article: Isotopes of chlorine
iso NA half-life DM DE (MeV) DP
35Cl 75.77% 35Cl is stable with 18 neutrons
36Cl trace 3.01×105 y β 0.709 36Ar
ε - 36S
37Cl 24.23% 37Cl is stable with 20 neutrons
.Chlorine (pronounced /ˈklɔəriːn/ KLOR-een, from the Greek word 'χλωρóς' (khlôros, meaning 'pale green'), is the chemical element with atomic number 17 and symbol Cl.^ Chlorine is a chemical element.
  • Miracle Mineral Solution-Chlorine Dioxide 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.cassiopaea.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Swimmers have reported a bleaching effect of chlorine on their hair, some have developed "green hair", and many a chemical conjunctivitis.

It is a halogen, found in the periodic table in group 17 (formerly VII, VIIa, or VIIb). .As the chloride ion, which is part of common salt and other compounds, it is abundant in nature and necessary to most forms of life, including humans.^ In ion form, chlorine is part of common salt and other compounds, and necessary to most forms of life, including human.
  • Miracle Mineral Solution-Chlorine Dioxide 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.cassiopaea.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A powerful oxidizing agent, it is the most abundant dissolved ion in ocean water, and readily combines with nearly every other element, including sodium to form salt crystals, and magnesium, as magnesium chloride.
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^ If the chlorine dioxide ions encounter no pathogens or other poisons, it deteriorates into table salt and in some instances, hypochlorous acid, which the body can also use.
  • Miracle Mineral Solution-Chlorine Dioxide 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.cassiopaea.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In its elemental form (Cl2 or "dichlorine") under standard conditions, chlorine is a powerful oxidant and is used in bleaching and disinfectants, as well as an essential reagent in the chemical industry.^ Chlorine dioxide can be used to disinfect endoscopes.
  • Miracle Mineral Solution-Chlorine Dioxide 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.cassiopaea.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Perform-Max chemical feed system by Sani King offers the best in bulk feeding and the versatility of using chlorine or bromine.

^ ClO2 and chlorine have long been used as disinfectants of public water supplies.
  • Miracle Mineral Solution-Chlorine Dioxide 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.cassiopaea.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.As a common disinfectant, chlorine compounds are used in swimming pools to keep them clean and sanitary.^ Chlorine dioxide can be used to disinfect endoscopes.
  • Miracle Mineral Solution-Chlorine Dioxide 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.cassiopaea.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ To test my mixture, I bought some chlorine measuring sticks used for swimming pools, and guess what?
  • Miracle Mineral Solution-Chlorine Dioxide 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.cassiopaea.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Chlorine dioxide is used primarily (> 95%) for bleaching of wood pulp, but is also used for the bleaching of flour and for the disinfection of municipal drinking water.
  • Miracle Mineral Solution-Chlorine Dioxide 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.cassiopaea.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In the upper atmosphere, chlorine-containing molecules such as chlorofluorocarbons have been implicated in the destruction of the ozone layer.^ However, quinolines contain secondary or tertiary amino groups which react with chlorine dioxide in such a way that both could destroy each other.
  • Miracle Mineral Solution-Chlorine Dioxide 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.cassiopaea.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Each molecule of trypanothione presents 2 sulfur atoms and 5 secondary amino groups all of which are vulnerable to oxidative destruction from chlorine dioxide (ClO2).
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^ Some builders promote the addition of other systems to compliment the POOL FROG, such as Ozone Systems or Salt Chlorine Generators.

Contents

Characteristics

.At standard temperature and pressure, two chlorine atoms form the diatomic molecule Cl2.^ Pathophysiology: Chlorine is a greenish-yellow, noncombustible gas at room temperature and atmospheric pressure.

^ Each molecule of trypanothione presents 2 sulfur atoms and 5 secondary amino groups all of which are vulnerable to oxidative destruction from chlorine dioxide (ClO2).
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This is a pale yellow-green gas that has its distinctive strong smell, the smell of bleach. The bonding between the two atoms is relatively weak (only of 242.580 ±0.004 kJ/mol) which makes the Cl2 molecule highly reactive.
.Along with fluorine, bromine, iodine and astatine, chlorine is a member of the halogen series that forms the group 17 of the periodic table—the most reactive group of elements.^ Chlorine is a highly reactive element.

^ Yes, under most circumstances the average spa owner will be able to lower their bromine or chlorine levels to 1 ppm.

^ Sampling & analysis methods developed for the detection of toxic oxidants such as bromine, chlorine , chlorine dioxide & iodine in air.

.It combines readily with nearly all elements.^ A powerful oxidizing agent, it is the most abundant dissolved ion in ocean water, and readily combines with nearly every other element, including sodium to form salt crystals, and magnesium, as magnesium chloride.
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.Compounds with oxygen, nitrogen, xenon, and krypton are known, but do not form by direct reaction of the elements.^ We are told that Stabilized oxygen is an oxide of chlorides compound stabilized with the richest known source of nascent oxygen with several atoms per molecule.
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[2] .Chlorine, though very reactive, is not as extremely reactive as fluorine.^ Such are also very reactive with the chlorine dioxide component.
  • Miracle Mineral Solution-Chlorine Dioxide 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.cassiopaea.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Pure chlorine gas does, however, support combustion of organic compounds such as hydrocarbons, although the carbon component tends to burn incompletely, with much of it remaining as soot.^ Does this mean I have too much chlorine in the pool?

^ Chlorine react vigorously with organic compounds including mineral oils and greases.

^ However, they will be testing the gas on other pathogens, such as Salmonella or E. coli, and on other foods.
  • Miracle Mineral Solution-Chlorine Dioxide 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.cassiopaea.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[3] .At 10 °C and atmospheric pressure, one liter of water dissolves 3.10 L of gaseous chlorine, and at 30 °C (86 °F), 1 L of water dissolves only 1.77 liters of chlorine.^ Chlorine dissolves in water at a rate of 6.5 g of chlorine to one litre of water at ambient temperature.

^ If the pressure gauge on the filter is more than 10 pounds above its normal operating pressure or if water flow out of the return jets is sluggish (i.e.

^ Sixty facilities practiced raw water chlorination; of these sites, 86% applied chlorine at a range of 1-6 mg/l with 34% at 0-2 mg/l, 26% at 2-4 mg/l and 26% at 4-6 mg/l.

[4]
.Chlorine is a member of the salt-forming halogen series and is extracted from chlorides through oxidation often by electrolysis.^ However when chlorine binds up with contaminants it forms a compound called chloramines that are no longer effective sanitizers and need to be removed through shocking.

^ The chlorine ion becomes a chloride which basically is just table salt which has no particular power either.
  • Miracle Mineral Solution-Chlorine Dioxide 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.cassiopaea.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In ion form, chlorine is part of common salt and other compounds, and necessary to most forms of life, including human.
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With metals, it forms salts called chlorides. .As the chloride ion, Cl, it is also the most abundant dissolved ion in ocean water.^ A powerful oxidizing agent, it is the most abundant dissolved ion in ocean water, and readily combines with nearly every other element, including sodium to form salt crystals, and magnesium, as magnesium chloride.
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Isotopes

.Chlorine has a wide range of isotopes, the two principal stable isotopes being 35Cl (75.77%) and 37Cl (24.23%); they give chlorine atoms an apparent atomic weight of 35.4527 g/mol.^ A more resistant species grew in chlorinated water aged 23 or 35 days but did not grow in water aged 10 days.

^ They added the teaspoon of vinegar, used a lid and waited for two hours before giving it to the malaria victims.
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Trace amounts of radioactive 36Cl exist in the environment, in a ratio of about 7x10−13 to 1 with stable isotopes. 36Cl is produced in the atmosphere by spallation of 36Ar by interactions with cosmic ray protons. In the subsurface environment, 36Cl is generated primarily as a result of neutron capture by 35Cl or muon capture by 40Ca. 36Cl decays to 36S and to 36Ar, with a combined half-life of 308,000 years. The half-life of this hydrophilic nonreactive isotope makes it suitable for geologic dating in the range of 60,000 to 1 million years. .Additionally, large amounts of 36Cl were produced by irradiation of seawater during atmospheric detonations of nuclear weapons between 1952 and 1958. The residence time of 36Cl in the atmosphere is about 1 week.^ I take magnesium soaks a couple times a week, sauna about three times a week, and things are going along very well.
  • Miracle Mineral Solution-Chlorine Dioxide 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.cassiopaea.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Thus, as an event marker of 1950s water in soil and ground water, 36Cl is also useful for dating waters less than 50 years before the present.^ When I added 1/2 glasses of water, it diluted the mixture out to less than 1 ppm, but the taste was terrible.
  • Miracle Mineral Solution-Chlorine Dioxide 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.cassiopaea.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I have less pain than I've had in 25 years (most of the time, NO pain) and if I have to eat this way the rest of my life to avoid pain, so be it.
  • Miracle Mineral Solution-Chlorine Dioxide 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.cassiopaea.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ JUST ADD WATER -- AND WAIT. Now, Selectrocide (Chlorine dioxide) brings the power of greater than 99% pure chlorine dioxide solutions to point-of-use applications.
  • Miracle Mineral Solution-Chlorine Dioxide 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.cassiopaea.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.36Cl has seen use in other areas of the geological sciences, including dating ice and sediments.^ Bill Henderson Newsletter In other words, do NOT use the chlorine dixoide protocol at the same time as any substance which has Vitamin C, or any other antioxidant, including immune builders.
  • Miracle Mineral Solution-Chlorine Dioxide 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.cassiopaea.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Chlorine dioxide can be used to kill "disease-bearing bacteria, yeasts, molds, fungi and algae", including MRSA and other deadly pathogens.
  • Miracle Mineral Solution-Chlorine Dioxide 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.cassiopaea.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Occurrence

.In nature, chlorine is found primarily as the chloride ion, a component of the salt that is deposited in the earth or dissolved in the oceans — about 1.9% of the mass of seawater is chloride ions.^ The chlorine ion becomes a chloride which basically is just table salt which has no particular power either.
  • Miracle Mineral Solution-Chlorine Dioxide 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.cassiopaea.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Nature’s chlorine dioxide, on the other hand, lasts long enough to do its job, then that which does not furnish the immune system with needed ions becomes nothing more than micro amounts of salt and water.
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^ If the chlorine dioxide ions encounter no pathogens or other poisons, it deteriorates into table salt and in some instances, hypochlorous acid, which the body can also use.
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Even higher concentrations of chloride are found in the Dead Sea and in underground brine deposits. .Most chloride salts are soluble in water, thus, chloride-containing minerals are usually only found in abundance in dry climates or deep underground.^ G-124]**QC REVIEWED** Fire: Small Fires: Water only; no dry chemical, CO2 or Halon.

Common chloride minerals include halite (sodium chloride), sylvite (potassium chloride), and carnallite (potassium magnesium chloride hexahydrate). .Over 2000 naturally-occurring organic chlorine compounds are known.^ Chlorine react vigorously with organic compounds including mineral oils and greases.

^ Because the chlorine atom has a large size and because it usually replaces the much smaller hydrogen atom when it combines with organic compounds, chlorinated organic compounds have a larger volume than their non-chlorinated counterparts.

^ Trihalomethanes are suspect carcinogenic disinfection by-products associated with chlorination of naturally occurring organics in the raw water.
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[5]
.Industrially, elemental chlorine is usually produced by the electrolysis of sodium chloride dissolved in water.^ Recovery is an option to disposal for chlorine in the case of gases from aluminum chloride electrolysis and chlorine in wastewaters.

^ ABSTRACT Sodium chlorite (NaClO2) can be acidified as a convenient method to produce chlorine dioxide (ClO2) which is a strong oxidant and a potent disinfectant.
  • Miracle Mineral Solution-Chlorine Dioxide 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.cassiopaea.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ PEER REVIEWED** Chlorination of water supplies high in organic content may produce chloramines.

Along with chlorine, this chloralkali process yields hydrogen gas and sodium hydroxide, according to the following chemical equation:
2 NaCl + 2 H2O → Cl2 + H2 + 2 NaOH

History

Liquid chlorine
.The most common compound of chlorine, sodium chloride, has been known since ancient times; archaeologists have found evidence that rock salt was used as early as 3000 BC and brine as early as 6000 BC.[6] Hydrochloric acid was probably known to alchemist Abu Musa Jabir ibn Hayyan (Geber) around 800 AD.[7] Before 1400 AD, aqua regia (a mixture of nitric acid and hydrochloric acid) began to be used to dissolve gold,[8] and today this is still one of the few reagents that will dissolve gold.^ The most salient point to know, is that chlorine dioxide has 100 times more energy to do what oxygen normally does, and yet, will not harm healthy cells.
  • Miracle Mineral Solution-Chlorine Dioxide 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.cassiopaea.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Whatever they mean by "oxide of chlorides compound" could be any number of substances from chlorine dioxide (ClO2) to perchloric acid (HClO4).
  • Miracle Mineral Solution-Chlorine Dioxide 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.cassiopaea.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Chlorine dioxide is a chemical compound that consists of one chlorine ion bound to two ions of oxygen.
  • Miracle Mineral Solution-Chlorine Dioxide 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.cassiopaea.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Upon dissolving gold in aqua regia, chlorine gas is released along with other nauseating and irritating gases, but this wasn't known until much more recently.^ I waited for more than 24 hours this time and then I could detect a much stronger smell of chlorine.
  • Miracle Mineral Solution-Chlorine Dioxide 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.cassiopaea.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Mixing household cleaning agents (bleach with acids or ammonia) produces chlorine gas and other active chlorine compounds such as chloramine.

^ Chlorine gas is severely irritating on contact and can be corrosive to the eyes, skin, nose, throat, and mucous membranes; exposure can result in severe or permanent eye injury.

Chlorine was first prepared and studied in 1774 by Swedish chemist Carl Wilhelm Scheele, and therefore he is credited for its discovery.[9] He called it "dephlogisticated muriatic acid air" since it was a gas (then called "airs") and it came from hydrochloric acid (then known as "muriatic acid").[9] .However, he failed to establish chlorine as an element, mistakenly thinking that it was the oxide obtained from the hydrochloric acid (see phlogiston theory).^ Chlorine dioxide can be made by mixing sodium chlorite (NaClO2) with hydrochloric acid (HCl).
  • Miracle Mineral Solution-Chlorine Dioxide 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.cassiopaea.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ PEER REVIEWED** An explosion occurred during the chlorination of S-ethylisothiourea sulfate and formamidine thiolacetic acid-hydrochloric acid.

^ Whatever they mean by "oxide of chlorides compound" could be any number of substances from chlorine dioxide (ClO2) to perchloric acid (HClO4).
  • Miracle Mineral Solution-Chlorine Dioxide 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.cassiopaea.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[9] He named the new element within this oxide as muriaticum.[9] Regardless of what he thought, Scheele did isolate chlorine by reacting MnO2 (as the mineral pyrolusite) with HCl:
4 HCl + MnO2 → MnCl2 + 2 H2O + Cl2
.Scheele observed several of the properties of chlorine: the bleaching effect on litmus, the deadly effect on insects, the yellow green color, and the smell similar to aqua regia.^ Chlorine dioxide appears in solution as a yellow tint which smells exactly like elemental chlorine (Cl2).
  • Miracle Mineral Solution-Chlorine Dioxide 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.cassiopaea.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This reddish-yellow gas crystallizes as orange crystals at −59 °C. As one of several oxides of chlorine, it is a potent and useful oxidizing agent used in water treatment and in bleaching.
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^ Swimmers have reported a bleaching effect of chlorine on their hair, some have developed "green hair", and many a chemical conjunctivitis.

.A number of chemists, including Claude Berthollet, suggested that Scheele's dephlogisticated muriatic acid air must be a combination of oxygen and an undiscovered element, muriaticum.^ In order to be useful to the body, oxygen must be oxygen in its elemental state.
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[10]
.In 1809 Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac and Louis-Jacques Thénard tried to decompose dephlogisticated muriatic acid air by reacting it with charcoal to release the free element muriaticum (and carbon dioxide).^ The former cmpd decomposes into hypochloric acid and oxygen free radicals (.O2-).

[9] They did not succeed and published a report in which they considered the possibility that dephlogisticated muriatic acid air is an element, but were not convinced.[11]
In 1810, Sir Humphry Davy tried the same experiment again, and concluded that it was an element, and not a compound.[9] .He named this new element as chlorine, from the Greek word χλωρος (chlōros), meaning green-yellow.^ Chlorine dioxide appears in solution as a yellow tint which smells exactly like elemental chlorine (Cl2).
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[12] .The name halogen, meaning salt producer, was originally defined for chlorine (in 1811 by Johann Salomo Christoph Schweigger), and it was later applied to the rest of the elements in this family.^ These treatment levels produced finished water with a free residual chlorine levels at a mean of 1.3 mg/l; the minimum was 0.3 mg/l and the maximum was 4.0 mg/l.

[13] In 1822, Michael Faraday liquefied chlorine for the first time.[14]
.Chlorine was first used to bleach textiles in 1785.[15] In 1826, silver chloride was used to produce photographic images for the first time.^ Mixing household cleaning agents (bleach with acids or ammonia) produces chlorine gas and other active chlorine compounds such as chloramine.

^ For example, mixing household bleach (sodium hypochlorite) with acid toilet bowl cleaners produces chlorine gas.

[16] .Chloroform was first used as an anesthetic in 1847.[16] A chlorine solution in lime-water (hypochlorite) was first used as a germicide to prevent the spread of puerperal fever in the maternity wards of Vienna General Hospital in Austria in 1847,[17] and in 1850 by John Snow to disinfect the water supply in London after an outbreak of cholera.^ ClO2 and chlorine have long been used as disinfectants of public water supplies.
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^ Chlorine dioxide (ClO2) is a gas that can be used for water disinfection.
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^ About chlorine dioxide: Chlorine and chlorine dioxide have been used to purify water and kill pathogens in hospitals and for many other antiseptic uses for more than 100 years.
  • Miracle Mineral Solution-Chlorine Dioxide 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.cassiopaea.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The US Department of Treasury called for all water to be disinfected with chlorine by 1918.[16] Polyvinylchloride (PVC) was invented in 1912, initially without a purpose.^ Chlorine dioxide is used primarily (> 95%) for bleaching of wood pulp, but is also used for the bleaching of flour and for the disinfection of municipal drinking water.
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^ As we’ve mentioned, chlorine dioxide is a safe and effective disinfectant in many municipal water delivery systems, hospitals, and even in bioterrorism response.
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^ OXIDES OF CHLORINE AS DISINFECTANTS All bacteria have been shown to be incabable of growing in any medium in which the oxidants (electron grabbers) out-number the reductants (electron donors).
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[16] .Chlorine gas was first introduced as a weapon on April 22, 1915 at Ypres by the German Army,[18][19] and the results of this weapon were disastrous because gas masks had not yet been invented.^ Chlorine gas was first used as a chemical weapon at Ypres, France in 1915.

^ Exposure to chlorine gas may be prolonged because its moderate water solubility may not cause upper airway symptoms for several minutes.

^ Chlorine 10/18/2009 11:19 AM .
  • Swimming Pool Chlorine- 3" Tabs - Water Warehouse 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.waterwarehouse.com [Source type: General]

Production

Electrolysis

Chlorine gas
.Chlorine can be manufactured by electrolysis of a sodium chloride solution (brine).^ Recovery is an option to disposal for chlorine in the case of gases from aluminum chloride electrolysis and chlorine in wastewaters.

^ Facilitated by the MMS solution, chlorine dioxide delivers it in spades, as does magnesium chloride, but that’s another part of the health discussion.
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^ Sodium chlorite (NaClO2) or chlorine dioxide (ClO2) solutions are used in certain mouth washes to clear mouth odors and oral bacteria.
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.The production of chlorine results in the co-products caustic soda (sodium hydroxide, NaOH) and hydrogen gas (H2).^ Chlorine gas is severely irritating on contact and can be corrosive to the eyes, skin, nose, throat, and mucous membranes; exposure can result in severe or permanent eye injury.

^ QC REVIEWED** When ether is poured into chlorine gas, an explosion results.

^ Discharge the gas at a moderate rate into an adequate amount of about 15% aqueous sodium hydroxide or other alkali in a suitable container.

.These two products, as well as chlorine itself, are highly reactive.^ Chlorine is a highly reactive element.

^ Orange juice prevents the production of chlorine dioxide, as well as anything that has vitamin C added as a preservative.
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^ Chlorine dioxide (ClO2) is highly reactive with thiols, polyamines, purines, certain amino acids and iron, all of which are necessary for the growth and survival of pathogenic microbes.
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.Chlorine can also be produced by the electrolysis of a solution of potassium chloride, in which case the co-products are hydrogen and caustic potash (potassium hydroxide).^ No by-product caustic produced; fused salt electrolysis of sodium or magnesium chloride.

^ Recovery is an option to disposal for chlorine in the case of gases from aluminum chloride electrolysis and chlorine in wastewaters.

^ Selectrocide (Chlorine dioxide) produces chlorine dioxide simply by submersing the product in water.
  • Miracle Mineral Solution-Chlorine Dioxide 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.cassiopaea.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

There are three industrial methods for the extraction of chlorine by electrolysis of chloride solutions, all proceeding according to the following equations:
Cathode: 2 H+ (aq) + 2 e → H2 (g)
Anode: 2 Cl (aq) → Cl2 (g) + 2 e
Overall process: 2 NaCl (or KCl) + 2 H2O → Cl2 + H2 + 2 NaOH (or KOH)
Mercury cell electrolysis
.Mercury cell electrolysis, also known as the Castner-Kellner process, was the first method used at the end of the nineteenth century to produce chlorine on an industrial scale.^ Chlorine gas was first used as a chemical weapon at Ypres, France in 1915.

^ PEER REVIEWED** Electrolysis of sodium chloride brine in either diaphragm or mercury cathode cells; chlorine is released at the anode.

^ PEER REVIEWED** Produced on a large scale by electrolysis from fused chlorides.

[20][21] The "rocking" cells used have been improved over the years.[22] .Today, in the "primary cell", titanium anodes (formerly graphite ones) are placed in a sodium (or potassium) chloride solution flowing over a liquid mercury cathode.^ PEER REVIEWED** Electrolysis of sodium chloride brine in either diaphragm or mercury cathode cells; chlorine is released at the anode.

.When a potential difference is applied and current flows, chlorine is released at the titanium anode and sodium (or potassium) dissolves in the mercury cathode forming an amalgam.^ PEER REVIEWED** Electrolysis of sodium chloride brine in either diaphragm or mercury cathode cells; chlorine is released at the anode.

^ A chlorine vessel of 1 ton releasing liquid at full flow through an open valve will be empty in about 10 minutes, and a cylinder in far less time.

.This flows continuously into a separate reactor ("denuder" or "secondary cell"), where it is usually converted back to mercury by reaction with water, producing hydrogen and sodium (or potassium) hydroxide at a commercially useful concentration (50% by weight).^ The carboxylic acids neutralize the sodium hydroxide and at the same time convert a small portion of the chlorite (ClO2-) to its conjugate acid known as chlorous acid (HClO2).
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^ They also will be determining ways to make the process viable for use by commercial food producers.
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^ Its most common use in water treatment is as a pre-oxidant prior to chlorination of drinking water to destroy natural water impurities that produce trihalomethanes on exposure to free chlorine.
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The mercury is then recycled to the primary cell.
The mercury process is the least energy-efficient of the three main technologies (mercury, diaphragm and membrane) and there are also concerns about mercury emissions.
It is estimated that there are still around 100 mercury-cell plants operating worldwide. .In Japan, mercury-based chloralkali production was virtually phased out by 1987 (except for the last two potassium chloride units shut down in 2003).^ On the road again....hooray......it's rained for the last two weeks here in the lakes and I'm out of here................one more day to go.

In the United States, there will be only five mercury plants remaining in operation by the end of 2008. In Europe, mercury cells accounted for 43% of capacity in 2006 and Western European producers have committed to closing or converting all remaining chloralkali mercury plants by 2020.[23]
Diaphragm cell electrolysis
.In diaphragm cell electrolysis, an asbestos (or polymer-fiber) diaphragm separates a cathode and an anode, preventing the chlorine forming at the anode from re-mixing with the sodium hydroxide and the hydrogen formed at the cathode.^ PEER REVIEWED** Electrolysis of sodium chloride brine in either diaphragm or mercury cathode cells; chlorine is released at the anode.

^ Chlorine dioxide can be made by mixing sodium chlorite (NaClO2) with hydrochloric acid (HCl).
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^ The study involved 332 male workers on diaphragm cells matched with 382 workers not exposed to chlorine .

[24] This technology was also developed at the end of the nineteenth century. There are several variants of this process: the Le Sueur cell (1893), the Hargreaves-Bird cell (1901), the Gibbs cell (1908), and the Townsend cell (1904).[25][26] .The cells vary in construction and placement of the diaphragm, with some having the diaphragm in direct contact with the cathode.^ PEER REVIEWED** Electrolysis of sodium chloride brine in either diaphragm or mercury cathode cells; chlorine is released at the anode.

.The salt solution (brine) is continuously fed to the anode compartment and flows through the diaphragm to the cathode compartment, where the caustic alkali is produced and the brine is partially depleted.^ PEER REVIEWED** Electrolysis of sodium chloride brine in either diaphragm or mercury cathode cells; chlorine is released at the anode.

^ No by-product caustic produced; fused salt electrolysis of sodium or magnesium chloride.

.As a result, diaphragm methods produce alkali that is quite dilute (about 12%) and of lower purity than do mercury cell methods.^ PEER REVIEWED** Electrolysis of sodium chloride brine in either diaphragm or mercury cathode cells; chlorine is released at the anode.

^ QC REVIEWED** Methods of Manufacturing: PRODUCED ON A LARGE SCALE BY ELECTROLYSIS FROM FUSED CHLORIDES. THE INDUSTRIAL PRODUCT IS ABOUT 99.3% PURE. [Budavari, S. (ed.

.But diaphragm cells are not burdened with the problem of preventing mercury discharge into the environment.^ PEER REVIEWED** Electrolysis of sodium chloride brine in either diaphragm or mercury cathode cells; chlorine is released at the anode.

.They also operate at a lower voltage, resulting in an energy savings over the mercury cell method,[26] but large amounts of steam are required if the caustic has to be evaporated to the commercial concentration of 50%.^ Methods and Results: ClO2 at MFC or below was adopted to treat the cell suspensions of C. albicans ATCC10231.
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^ At the next lower concentration of 2 ug/l, all daphnids died in one test chamber in seven days, but 50% of the daphnids in the duplicate chamber survived and reproduced successfully.

Membrane cell electrolysis
Development of this technology began in the 1970s. The electrolysis cell is divided into two "rooms" by a cation permeable membrane acting as an ion exchanger. .Saturated sodium (or potassium) chloride solution is passed through the anode compartment, leaving at a lower concentration.^ Nevertheless, oral acidified sodium chlorite solutions might even be found safe and effective in them, but probably will need to be administered at lower doses.
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^ QC REVIEWED** When moist chlorine was passed over calcium carbide and potassium hydroxide, a solution of 58% dichloroacetylene was /produced and/ collected in ether.

^ PEER REVIEWED** Electrolysis of sodium chloride brine in either diaphragm or mercury cathode cells; chlorine is released at the anode.

[27] .Sodium (or potassium) hydroxide solution is circulated through the cathode compartment, exiting at a higher concentration.^ QC REVIEWED** When moist chlorine was passed over calcium carbide and potassium hydroxide, a solution of 58% dichloroacetylene was /produced and/ collected in ether.

.A portion of the concentrated sodium hydroxide solution leaving the cell is diverted as product, while the remainder is diluted with deionized water and passed through the electrolysis apparatus again.^ Flow through tests were conducted with nominal sewage concentrations of 1.2 to 20%; untreated Lake Superior water was the dilution water.

^ QC REVIEWED** When moist chlorine was passed over calcium carbide and potassium hydroxide, a solution of 58% dichloroacetylene was /produced and/ collected in ether.

.This method is more efficient than the diaphragm cell and produces very pure sodium (or potassium) hydroxide at about 32% concentration, but requires very pure brine.^ ABSTRACT Sodium chlorite (NaClO2) can be acidified as a convenient method to produce chlorine dioxide (ClO2) which is a strong oxidant and a potent disinfectant.
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^ The chlorine dioxide process is "extraordinarily" better than other chemical methods of eliminating pathogens on produce, he said.
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^ In concentrations at or below the threshold limit value of 1 ppm (more than what is usually generated in home accidents) only minimal findings will occur.

Other electrolytic processes
.Although a much lower production scale is involved, electrolytic diaphragm and membrane technologies are also used industrially to recover chlorine from hydrochloric acid solutions, producing hydrogen (but no caustic alkali) as a co-product.^ Dioxin is a by-product of industrial processes involving chlorine.

^ Mixing household cleaning agents (bleach with acids or ammonia) produces chlorine gas and other active chlorine compounds such as chloramine.

^ JUST ADD WATER -- AND WAIT. Now, Selectrocide (Chlorine dioxide) brings the power of greater than 99% pure chlorine dioxide solutions to point-of-use applications.
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.Furthermore, electrolysis of fused chloride salts (Downs process) also enables chlorine to be produced, in this case as a by-product of the manufacture of metallic sodium or magnesium.^ PEER REVIEWED** Produced on a large scale by electrolysis from fused chlorides.

^ No by-product caustic produced; fused salt electrolysis of sodium or magnesium chloride.

^ Selectrocide (Chlorine dioxide) produces chlorine dioxide simply by submersing the product in water.
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Other methods

Before electrolytic methods were used for chlorine production, the direct oxidation of hydrogen chloride with oxygen or air was used in the Deacon process:
4 HCl + O2 → 2 Cl2 + 2 H2O
This reaction is accomplished with the use of copper(II) chloride (CuCl2) as a catalyst and is performed at high temperature (about 400 °C). The amount of extracted chlorine is approximately 80%. Due to the extremely corrosive reaction mixture, industrial use of this method is difficult and several pilot trials failed in the past. Nevertheless, recent developments are promising. .Recently Sumitomo patented a catalyst for the Deacon process using ruthenium(IV) oxide (RuO2).^ Oxidation of hydrogen chloride with nitrogen oxide as catalyst and absorption of steam with sulfuric acid ("KeloChlor" process).

[28]
.Another earlier process to produce chlorine was to heat brine with acid and manganese dioxide.^ Chlorine dioxide also oxidizes manganese.
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^ ABSTRACT Sodium chlorite (NaClO2) can be acidified as a convenient method to produce chlorine dioxide (ClO2) which is a strong oxidant and a potent disinfectant.
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^ The chlorine dioxide process is "extraordinarily" better than other chemical methods of eliminating pathogens on produce, he said.
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2 NaCl + 2 H2SO4 + MnO2 → Na2SO4 + MnSO4 + 2 H2O + Cl2
.Using this process, chemist Carl Wilhelm Scheele was the first to isolate chlorine in a laboratory.^ Chlorine gas was first used as a chemical weapon at Ypres, France in 1915.

^ The Niagara Falls, New York water treatment plant first used chlorine dioxide for drinking water treatment in 1944 for phenol destruction.
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^ According to third party sources: • Chlorine dioxide is used in many industrial water treatment applications as a biocide including cooling towers, process water and food processing.
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The manganese can be recovered by the Weldon process.[29]
.In the latter half of the 19th century, prior to the adoption of electrolytic methods of chlorine production, there was substantial production of chlorine by these reactions to meet demand for bleach and bleaching powder for use by textile industries; by the 1880s the UK, as well as supporting its own (then not inconsiderable) domestic textile production was exporting 70,000 tons per year of bleaching powder.^ This all sounds easy now, but I did more than 1,000 different tests over a period of one year to figure out all these 'simple' things.
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^ Chlorine dioxide is used primarily (> 95%) for bleaching of wood pulp, but is also used for the bleaching of flour and for the disinfection of municipal drinking water.
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^ Chlorine dioxide has been given a USDA 3-D approval for washing fruits and vegetables to be used as ingredients of meat and poultry products.1 Chlorine dioxide is normally made at the point of use (on-site).
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[30] .This demand was met by capturing hydrochloric acid driven off as a gas during the production of alkali by the Leblanc process, oxidizing this to chlorine (originally by reaction with manganese dioxide), later by direct oxidation by air using the Deacon process (in which case impurities capable of poisoning the catalyst had first to be removed), and subsequently absorbing the chlorine onto lime.^ Again chlorine dioxide is the oxidizer here, not oxygen.
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^ Chlorine dioxide also oxidizes manganese.
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^ Chlorine dioxide (ClO2) is a water-soluble, yellow gas with a characteristic chlorine-like odour and strong oxidizing activity (Moran et al., 1953 ; Fukayama et al., 1986 ; Ogata, 2007 ).
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.Small amounts of chlorine gas can be made in the laboratory by putting concentrated hydrochloric acid in a flask with a side arm and rubber tubing attached.^ Effects of chlorine gas concentrations on people (1 ppm = 3 mg/m 3 ) .

^ Chlorine gas evaporating from the low temp storage tank is reliquefied by a small refrigeration unit and recycled to storage.

^ Significant amounts of vitamin C (ascorbic acid) must not be present at any point in the mixtures or else this will quench the chlorine dioxide (ClO2) and render it ineffective.
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Manganese dioxide is then added and the flask stoppered. The reaction is not greatly exothermic. .As chlorine is denser than air, it can be collected by placing the tube inside a flask where it will displace the air.^ Many gases are heavier than air and will spread along ground and collect in low or confined areas (sewers, basements, tanks).

Once full, the collecting flask can be stoppered.
.Another method for producing small amounts of chlorine gas in a lab is by adding concentrated hydrochloric acid (typically about 5M) to sodium hypochlorite or sodium chlorate solution.^ It is commonly generated by adding acid to sodium chlorite (NaClO2) solution.
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^ ABSTRACT Sodium chlorite (NaClO2) can be acidified as a convenient method to produce chlorine dioxide (ClO2) which is a strong oxidant and a potent disinfectant.
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^ Effects of chlorine gas concentrations on people (1 ppm = 3 mg/m 3 ) .

Industrial production

Liquid Chlorine Analysis
.Large-scale production of chlorine involves several steps and many pieces of equipment.^ Chlorine dioxide was introduced as a drinking water disinfectant on a large scale in 1956, when Brussels, Belgium, changed from chlorine to chlorine dioxide.
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^ PEER REVIEWED** Artificial Pollution Sources: The most important manmade emissions of chlorine are from processes involving the production, transportation, and use of chlorine ...

^ Dioxin is a by-product of industrial processes involving chlorine.

The description below is typical of a membrane plant. .The plant also simultaneously produces sodium hydroxide (caustic soda) and hydrogen gas.^ For example, mixing household bleach (sodium hypochlorite) with acid toilet bowl cleaners produces chlorine gas.

^ Discharge the gas at a moderate rate into an adequate amount of about 15% aqueous sodium hydroxide or other alkali in a suitable container.

^ No by-product caustic produced; fused salt electrolysis of sodium or magnesium chloride.

.A typical plant consists of brine production/treatment, cell operations, chlorine cooling & drying, chlorine compression & liquefaction, liquid chlorine storage & loading, caustic handling, evaporation, storage & loading and hydrogen handling.^ Chlorine gas evaporating from the low temp storage tank is reliquefied by a small refrigeration unit and recycled to storage.

^ The Niagara Falls, New York water treatment plant first used chlorine dioxide for drinking water treatment in 1944 for phenol destruction.
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^ According to third party sources: • Chlorine dioxide is used in many industrial water treatment applications as a biocide including cooling towers, process water and food processing.
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Brine
.Key to the production of chlorine is the operation of the brine saturation/treatment system.^ Chlorine dioxide is also superior to chlorine when operating above pH7, in the presence of ammonia and amines and/or for the control of biofilms in water distribution systems.
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^ Most chlorine dioxide production is done on a scale that would prove deadly for individuals, for example, in municipal water treatment systems, where it is beginning to replace chlorine because it produces no carcinogenic byproducts.
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Maintaining a properly saturated solution with the correct purity is vital, especially for membrane cells. Many plants have a salt pile which is sprayed with recycled brine. Others have slurry tanks that are fed raw salt.
.The raw brine is partially or totally treated with sodium hydroxide, sodium carbonate and a flocculant to reduce calcium, magnesium and other impurities.^ Activated carbon filtration also reduced the total dissolved organic carbon concentrations by 65% and reduced various halogenated methane derivatives by 97-100%.

^ Discharge the gas at a moderate rate into an adequate amount of about 15% aqueous sodium hydroxide or other alkali in a suitable container.

^ Therefore extensive research is warranted to determine if acidified sodium chlorite is effective in treating other infections.
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The brine proceeds to a large clarifier or a filter where the impurities are removed. .The total brine is additionally filtered before entering ion exchangers to further remove impurities.^ The secondary sewage was chlorinated just before entering the diluter systems, and the probable predominant form of total residual chlorine was monochloramine.

At several points in this process, the brine is tested for hardness and strength.
After the ion exchangers, the brine is considered pure, and is transferred to storage tanks to be pumped into the cell room. Brine, fed to the cell line, is heated to the correct temperature to control exit brine temperatures according to the electrical load. .Brine exiting the cell room must be treated to remove residual chlorine and control pH levels before being returned to the saturation stage.^ The secondary sewage was chlorinated just before entering the diluter systems, and the probable predominant form of total residual chlorine was monochloramine.

^ The total residual chlorine concentrations ranged from control to 114 ug/l in one test and control to 136 ug/l in the second.

^ Approx 2-2.5 min after cessation of exposure to the higher chlorine levels, the optical chronaxie returned to baseline levels.

This can be accomplished via dechlorination towers with acid and sodium bisulfite addition. Failure to remove chlorine can result in damage to the cells. .Brine should be monitored for accumulation of both chlorate anions and sulfate anions, and either have a treatment system in place, or purging of the brine loop to maintain safe levels, since chlorate anions can diffuse through the membranes and contaminate the caustic, while sulfate anions can damage the anode surface coating.^ Chlorine -nickel treatment groups with high chlorine concentrations regardless of the level of nickel showed greater percentage mortality than treatment groups with either nickel or chlorine alone.

^ This is especially true of ClO2 gas at very low concentrations (subtoxic levels) that are sufficiently safe to use in places of human activity without evacuation.
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^ So a complete treatment of Epstein Barr should include both the treatment of the virus itself and an immune boosting treatment.
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Cell room
The building that houses many electrolytic cells is usually called a cell room or cell house, although some plants are built outdoors. This building contains support structures for the cells, connections for supplying electrical power to the cells and piping for the fluids. Monitoring and control of the temperatures of the feed caustic and brine is done to control exit temperatures. Also monitored are the voltages of each cell which vary with the electrical load on the cell room that is used to control the rate of production. Monitoring and control of the pressures in the chlorine and hydrogen headers is also done via pressure control valves.
Direct current is supplied via a rectified power source. Plant load is controlled by varying the current to the cells. .As the current is increased, flow rates for brine and caustic and deionized water are increased, while lowering the feed temperatures.^ Ultra violet irradiation eliminated up to 99% of the total chlorine in municipal water; Ultra violet dechlorination was sensitive to flow rate.

^ The toxicity of chlorinated effluents increased with increasing temperature in fresh water environments.

Cooling and drying
.Chlorine gas exiting the cell line must be cooled and dried since the exit gas can be over 80 °C (176 °F) and contains moisture that allows chlorine gas to be corrosive to iron piping.^ Chlorine gas is severely irritating on contact and can be corrosive to the eyes, skin, nose, throat, and mucous membranes; exposure can result in severe or permanent eye injury.

^ A system constructed of steel must itself be dry before allowing chlorine to enter in it.

^ Traces of moisture in chlorine lead to rapid corrosion of steel, copper and nickel.

Cooling the gas allows for a large amount of moisture from the brine to condense out of the gas stream. This reduces both the cooling requirements and feed flow of sulfuric acid required in the drying towers. Cooling also improves the efficiency of both the compression and the liquefaction stage that follows. Chlorine exiting is ideally between 18 °C (64 °F) and 25 °C (77 °F). After cooling the gas stream passes through a series of towers with counter flowing sulfuric acid. The sulfuric acid is fed into the final tower at 98% and the first tower typically has a strength between 66% and 76% depending on materials of construction. These towers progressively remove any remaining moisture from the chlorine gas. After exiting the drying towers the chlorine is filtered to remove any remaining sulfuric acid.
Compression and liquefaction
Several methods of compression may be used: liquid ring, reciprocating, or centrifugal. .The chlorine gas is compressed at this stage and may be further cooled by inter- and after-coolers.^ One or two breaths of gas accumulating above swimming pool or spa chlorinator tablets may cause marked respiratory distress and hypoxemia.

^ Exposure to chlorine gas may be prolonged because its moderate water solubility may not cause upper airway symptoms for several minutes.

After compression it flows to the liquefiers, where it is cooled enough to liquefy. .Non condensable gases and remaining chlorine gas are vented off as part of the pressure control of the liquefaction systems.^ Chlorine dioxide is also superior to chlorine when operating above pH7, in the presence of ammonia and amines and/or for the control of biofilms in water distribution systems.
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^ Pathophysiology: Chlorine is a greenish-yellow, noncombustible gas at room temperature and atmospheric pressure.

^ Approx 7-8 tons of chlorine gas formed a cloud over part of Mjondalen and down the valley to Drammen, 10 km away.

.These gases are routed to a gas scrubber, producing sodium hypochlorite, or used in the production of hydrochloric acid (by combustion with hydrogen) or ethylene dichloride (by reaction with ethylene).^ Mixing household cleaning agents (bleach with acids or ammonia) produces chlorine gas and other active chlorine compounds such as chloramine.

^ Chlorine dioxide can be made by mixing sodium chlorite (NaClO2) with hydrochloric acid (HCl).
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^ For example, mixing household bleach (sodium hypochlorite) with acid toilet bowl cleaners produces chlorine gas.

Storage and loading
Liquid chlorine is typically gravity-fed to storage tanks. .It can be loaded into rail or road tankers via pumps or padded with compressed dry gas.^ MARKETED IN THE FORM OF GAS OVER LIQ COMPRESSED INTO STEEL CYLINDERS. [Budavari, S. (ed.

Caustic handling, evaporation, storage and loading
.Caustic, fed to the cell room flows in a loop that is simultaneously bled off to storage with a part diluted with deionized water and returned to the cell line for strengthening within the cells.^ Flow through tests were conducted with nominal sewage concentrations of 1.2 to 20%; untreated Lake Superior water was the dilution water.

^ PEER REVIEWED** Environmental considerations- Water spill: Add dilute caustic soda (NaOH).

The caustic exiting the cell line must be monitored for strength, to maintain safe concentrations. Too strong or too weak a solution may damage the membranes. Membrane cells typically produce caustic in the range of 30% to 33% by weight. The feed caustic flow is heated at low electrical loads to control its exit temperature. Higher loads require the caustic to be cooled, to maintain correct exit temperatures. .The caustic exiting to storage is pulled from a storage tank and may be diluted for sale to customers who require weak caustic or for use on site.^ Easy to use and does not require HAZMAT or complicated equipment * Can be made on-site in specific quantities and in concentrations desired.
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Another stream may be pumped into a multiple effect evaporator set to produce commercial 50% caustic. .Rail cars and tanker trucks are loaded at loading stations via pumps.^ Fire: If tank, rail car or tank truck is involved in a fire, ISOLATE for 800 meters (1/2 mile) in all directions; also, consider initial evacuation for 800 meters (1/2 mile) in all directions.

Hydrogen handling
.Hydrogen produced may be vented unprocessed directly to the atmosphere or cooled, compressed and dried for use in other processes on site or sold to a customer via pipeline, cylinders or trucks.^ This produces superoxide radical (*OO-), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and other reactive oxidant toxic species (ROTS).
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^ Chlorine dioxide is used in many industrial water treatment applications as a biocide including cooling towers, process water and food processing.
  • Miracle Mineral Solution-Chlorine Dioxide 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.cassiopaea.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ According to third party sources: • Chlorine dioxide is used in many industrial water treatment applications as a biocide including cooling towers, process water and food processing.
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.Some possible uses include the manufacture of hydrochloric acid or hydrogen peroxide, as well as desulfurization of petroleum oils, or use as a fuel in boilers or fuel cells.^ Just an experiment in using the "oil brush" tools and inserting some text.

^ We prefer dioxychlor because it provides a steady release of oxygen in the blood rather than the very rapid dramatic release you get when you use hydrogen peroxide.
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^ If the chlorine dioxide ions encounter no pathogens or other poisons, it deteriorates into table salt and in some instances, hypochlorous acid, which the body can also use.
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In Porsgrunn the byproduct is used for the hydrogen fueling station at Hynor.
Energy consumption
Production of chlorine consumes a large amount of energy.[31] .Energy consumption per unit weight of product is not far below that for iron and steel manufacture[32] and greater than for the production of glass[33] or cement.^ Even on the stem cavity and calyx, the gas reduced the pathogen to a far greater extent than currently possible with other methods.
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[34]
.The amount of electrical energy required to produce a given amount of chlorine is fixed by the nature of the electrochemical reaction.^ Some sodium chlorate (NaClO3) should also be produced in vivo by a slow reaction of chlorine dioxide (ClO2) with water under alkaline conditions.
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^ Without the use of vinegar, lemon, lime or citric acid, a tiny amount of chlorine dioxide is all that will be produced.
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^ Its most common use in water treatment is as a pre-oxidant prior to chlorination of drinking water to destroy natural water impurities that produce trihalomethanes on exposure to free chlorine.
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Any energy savings, therefore, can only be made by improving the efficiency of the process and reducing ancillary energy use.

Compounds

For general references to the chloride ion (Cl), including references to specific chlorides, see chloride. .For other chlorine compounds see chlorate (ClO3), chlorite (ClO2), hypochlorite (ClO), and perchlorate (ClO4), and chloramine (NH2Cl).^ Various compounds classifiable as oxides of chlorine such as sodium hypochlorite and chlorine dioxide are already widely used as disinfectants.
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^ Whatever they mean by "oxide of chlorides compound" could be any number of substances from chlorine dioxide (ClO2) to perchloric acid (HClO4).
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^ Furthermore, it does not create harmful compounds from other constituents in the water as chlorine does.
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[35]
Other chlorine-containing compounds include:

Oxidation states

Oxidation
state
Name Formula Example compounds
−1 chlorides Cl ionic chlorides, organic chlorides, hydrochloric acid
0 chlorine Cl2 elemental chlorine
+1 hypochlorites ClO sodium hypochlorite, calcium hypochlorite
+3 chlorites ClO2 sodium chlorite
+4 chlorine dioxide ClO2
+5 chlorates ClO3 sodium chlorate, potassium chlorate, chloric acid
+7 perchlorates ClO4 potassium perchlorate, perchloric acid, magnesium perchlorate
organic perchlorates, ammonium perchlorate, dichlorine heptoxide
.Chlorine exists in all odd numbered oxidation states from −1 to +7, as well as the elemental state of zero.^ OXIDES OF CHLORINE AS DISINFECTANTS All bacteria have been shown to be incabable of growing in any medium in which the oxidants (electron grabbers) out-number the reductants (electron donors).
  • Miracle Mineral Solution-Chlorine Dioxide 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.cassiopaea.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The average number of chlorine exposure years for all workers was 10.9.

^ All three species grew well in the same water that had not been chlorinated.

.Progressing through the states, hydrochloric acid can be oxidized using manganese dioxide, or hydrogen chloride gas oxidized catalytically by air to form elemental chlorine gas.^ Chlorine dioxide also oxidizes manganese.
  • Miracle Mineral Solution-Chlorine Dioxide 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.cassiopaea.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Chlorine dioxide (ClO2) is a gas that can be used for water disinfection.
  • Miracle Mineral Solution-Chlorine Dioxide 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.cassiopaea.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Again chlorine dioxide is the oxidizer here, not oxygen.
  • Miracle Mineral Solution-Chlorine Dioxide 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.cassiopaea.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The solubility of chlorine in water is increased if the water contains dissolved alkali hydroxide.^ EMERG/topic851.htm Background: Chlorine gas is a pulmonary irritant with intermediate water solubility that causes acute damage in the upper and lower respiratory tract.

^ Application of a chlorine treatment generally increased the direct and promutagenic activity, but the extent of the increase depended on the type of water chlorinated.

^ Chlorine dissolves in water at a rate of 6.5 g of chlorine to one litre of water at ambient temperature.

This is due to disproportionation:
Cl2 + 2 OH → Cl + ClO + H2O
In hot concentrated alkali solution disproportionation continues:
2 ClO → Cl + ClO2
ClO + ClO2 → Cl + ClO3
.Sodium chlorate and potassium chlorate can be crystallized from solutions formed by the above reactions.^ Sodium chlorate (NaClO3) is a trace ingredient present in Jim Humble's antimalarial solution.
  • Miracle Mineral Solution-Chlorine Dioxide 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.cassiopaea.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some sodium chlorate (NaClO3) should also be produced in vivo by a slow reaction of chlorine dioxide (ClO2) with water under alkaline conditions.
  • Miracle Mineral Solution-Chlorine Dioxide 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.cassiopaea.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

If their crystals are heated, they undergo the final disproportionation step.
4 ClO3 → Cl + 3 ClO4
This same progression from chloride to perchlorate can be accomplished by electrolysis. The anode reaction progression is:[36]
Reaction Electrode
potential
Cl + 2 OH → ClO + H2O + 2 e +0.89 volts
ClO + 2 OHClO2 + H2O + 2 e +0.67 volts
ClO2 + 2 OHClO3 + H2O + 2 e +0.33 volts
ClO3 + 2 OHClO4 + H2O + 2 e +0.35 volts
Each step is accompanied at the cathode by
2 H2O + 2 e → 2 OH + H2 (−0.83 volts)

Applications and uses

Production of industrial and consumer products

.Chlorine's principal applications are in the production of a wide range of industrial and consumer products.^ According to third party sources: • Chlorine dioxide is used in many industrial water treatment applications as a biocide including cooling towers, process water and food processing.
  • Miracle Mineral Solution-Chlorine Dioxide 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.cassiopaea.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Applications” of chlorine dioxide range from 1 drop to a maximum of 15, except in life critical situations, where the maximum may be doubled.
  • Miracle Mineral Solution-Chlorine Dioxide 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.cassiopaea.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Chlorine dioxide is used in many industrial water treatment applications as a biocide including cooling towers, process water and food processing.
  • Miracle Mineral Solution-Chlorine Dioxide 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.cassiopaea.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[37][38] .For example, it is used in making plastics, solvents for dry cleaning and metal degreasing, textiles, agrochemicals and pharmaceuticals, insecticides, dyestuffs, household cleaning products, etc.^ I've decided to detox with the cocktail/dietary adjustments and sauna for a while longer before going back and using the MMS. It just makes more sense to get rid of metals etc before killing off the bugs.
  • Miracle Mineral Solution-Chlorine Dioxide 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.cassiopaea.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Purification and disinfection

.Chlorine is an important chemical for water purification (such as water treatment plants), in disinfectants, and in bleach.^ Some benefits of chlorine dioxide disinfection include longer shelf-life of produce, minimal equipment corrosion, significantly less water use, reduced chemical costs, and reduced packinghouse sanitation costs.
  • Miracle Mineral Solution-Chlorine Dioxide 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.cassiopaea.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Chlorine dioxide was introduced as a drinking water disinfectant on a large scale in 1956, when Brussels, Belgium, changed from chlorine to chlorine dioxide.
  • Miracle Mineral Solution-Chlorine Dioxide 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.cassiopaea.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ozone (O3) or chlorine dioxide (ClO2) are often used to disinfect public water supplies or to sanitize and deodorize waste water.
  • Miracle Mineral Solution-Chlorine Dioxide 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.cassiopaea.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Chlorine in water is more than three times more effective as a disinfectant against Escherichia coli than an equivalent concentration of bromine, and is more than six times more effective than an equivalent concentration of iodine.^ It is more effective as a disinfectant in most circumstances than chlorine against water borne pathogenic microbes such as viruses[1] , bacteria and protozoa – including the cysts of Giardia and the oocysts of Cryptosporidium.
  • Miracle Mineral Solution-Chlorine Dioxide 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.cassiopaea.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ So you see it's the chlorine dioxide ion (the combination of chlorine and oxygen) that does the work and it has a great deal more ability to oxidize pathogens than oxygen.
  • Miracle Mineral Solution-Chlorine Dioxide 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.cassiopaea.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Chlorine dioxide is used primarily (> 95%) for bleaching of wood pulp, but is also used for the bleaching of flour and for the disinfection of municipal drinking water.
  • Miracle Mineral Solution-Chlorine Dioxide 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.cassiopaea.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[39]
.Chlorine is usually used (in the form of hypochlorous acid) to kill bacteria and other microbes in drinking water supplies and public swimming pools.^ Drinking extra water usually relieves this.
  • Miracle Mineral Solution-Chlorine Dioxide 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.cassiopaea.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ ClO2 and chlorine have long been used as disinfectants of public water supplies.
  • Miracle Mineral Solution-Chlorine Dioxide 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.cassiopaea.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ To test my mixture, I bought some chlorine measuring sticks used for swimming pools, and guess what?
  • Miracle Mineral Solution-Chlorine Dioxide 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.cassiopaea.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In most private swimming pools chlorine itself is not used, but rather sodium hypochlorite, formed from chlorine and sodium hydroxide, or solid tablets of chlorinated isocyanurates.^ To test my mixture, I bought some chlorine measuring sticks used for swimming pools, and guess what?
  • Miracle Mineral Solution-Chlorine Dioxide 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.cassiopaea.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The genius of it is the formulating of the two most abundant and important electrolytes of body fluid, sodium and chlorine, to act as the oxygen carriers.
  • Miracle Mineral Solution-Chlorine Dioxide 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.cassiopaea.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In ion form, chlorine is part of common salt and other compounds, and necessary to most forms of life, including human.
  • Miracle Mineral Solution-Chlorine Dioxide 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.cassiopaea.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Even small water supplies are now routinely chlorinated.^ PEER REVIEWED** Chlorination of water supplies high in organic content may produce chloramines.

^ As we’ve mentioned, chlorine dioxide is a safe and effective disinfectant in many municipal water delivery systems, hospitals, and even in bioterrorism response.
  • Miracle Mineral Solution-Chlorine Dioxide 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.cassiopaea.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ JUST ADD WATER -- AND WAIT. Now, Selectrocide (Chlorine dioxide) brings the power of greater than 99% pure chlorine dioxide solutions to point-of-use applications.
  • Miracle Mineral Solution-Chlorine Dioxide 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.cassiopaea.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[3] (See also chlorination)
.It is often impractical to store and use poisonous chlorine gas for water treatment, so alternative methods of adding chlorine are used.^ Chlorine dioxide (ClO2) is a gas that can be used for water disinfection.
  • Miracle Mineral Solution-Chlorine Dioxide 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.cassiopaea.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Chlorine dioxide is used primarily (> 95%) for bleaching of wood pulp, but is also used for the bleaching of flour and for the disinfection of municipal drinking water.
  • Miracle Mineral Solution-Chlorine Dioxide 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.cassiopaea.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ EMERG/topic851.htm Background: Chlorine gas is a pulmonary irritant with intermediate water solubility that causes acute damage in the upper and lower respiratory tract.

.These include hypochlorite solutions, which gradually release chlorine into the water, and compounds like sodium dichloro-s-triazinetrione (dihydrate or anhydrous), sometimes referred to as "dichlor", and trichloro-s-triazinetrione, sometimes referred to as "trichlor". These compounds are stable while solid and may be used in powdered, granular, or tablet form.^ Some benefits of chlorine dioxide disinfection include longer shelf-life of produce, minimal equipment corrosion, significantly less water use, reduced chemical costs, and reduced packinghouse sanitation costs.
  • Miracle Mineral Solution-Chlorine Dioxide 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.cassiopaea.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Chlorine dioxide is used primarily (> 95%) for bleaching of wood pulp, but is also used for the bleaching of flour and for the disinfection of municipal drinking water.
  • Miracle Mineral Solution-Chlorine Dioxide 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.cassiopaea.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Stabilized Oxygen mixture with water doesn't taste too bad before the chlorine is released, but afterwards it's pretty bad.
  • Miracle Mineral Solution-Chlorine Dioxide 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.cassiopaea.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.When added in small amounts to pool water or industrial water systems, the chlorine atoms hydrolyze from the rest of the molecule forming hypochlorous acid (HOCl) which acts as a general biocide killing germs, micro-organisms, algae, and so on.^ About chlorine dioxide: Chlorine and chlorine dioxide have been used to purify water and kill pathogens in hospitals and for many other antiseptic uses for more than 100 years.
  • Miracle Mineral Solution-Chlorine Dioxide 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.cassiopaea.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Chlorine dioxide is also superior to chlorine when operating above pH7, in the presence of ammonia and amines and/or for the control of biofilms in water distribution systems.
  • Miracle Mineral Solution-Chlorine Dioxide 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.cassiopaea.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Adding more water does not weaken the CL02 that is being generated.
  • Miracle Mineral Solution-Chlorine Dioxide 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.cassiopaea.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Chemistry

Elemental chlorine is an oxidizer. It undergoes halogen substitution reactions with lower halide salts. .For example, chlorine gas bubbled through a solution of bromide or iodide anions oxidizes them to bromine and iodine respectively.^ This reddish-yellow gas crystallizes as orange crystals at −59 °C. As one of several oxides of chlorine, it is a potent and useful oxidizing agent used in water treatment and in bleaching.
  • Miracle Mineral Solution-Chlorine Dioxide 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.cassiopaea.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For example, mixing household bleach (sodium hypochlorite) with acid toilet bowl cleaners produces chlorine gas.

^ Sampling & analysis methods developed for the detection of toxic oxidants such as bromine, chlorine , chlorine dioxide & iodine in air.

.Like the other halogens, chlorine participates in free-radical substitution reactions with hydrogen-containing organic compounds.^ Because the chlorine atom has a large size and because it usually replaces the much smaller hydrogen atom when it combines with organic compounds, chlorinated organic compounds have a larger volume than their non-chlorinated counterparts.

^ Chlorine react vigorously with organic compounds including mineral oils and greases.

^ Mixing household cleaning agents (bleach with acids or ammonia) produces chlorine gas and other active chlorine compounds such as chloramine.

.This reaction is often—but not invariably—non-regioselective, and hence, may result in a mixture of isomeric products.^ However, chlorine dioxide takes them out suddenly, which may result in a dramatic reaction.
  • Miracle Mineral Solution-Chlorine Dioxide 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.cassiopaea.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Why Must I Feel Sick?” The nauseating feeling that you may experience would be the result of chlorine dioxide encountering, dislodging – hence the “sick” feeling – and then destroying pathogens encountered.
  • Miracle Mineral Solution-Chlorine Dioxide 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.cassiopaea.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

It is often difficult to control the degree of substitution as well, so multiple substitutions are common. If the different reaction products are easily separated, e.g. by distillation, substitutive free-radical chlorination .(in some cases accompanied by concurrent thermal dehydrochlorination) may be a useful synthetic route.^ In some cases, however, if healthy people are so surrounded by people who are infected, they may become so loaded with the virus they can develop the disease.
  • Miracle Mineral Solution-Chlorine Dioxide 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.cassiopaea.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Industrial examples of this are the production of methyl chloride, methylene chloride, chloroform and carbon tetrachloride from methane, allyl chloride from propylene, and trichloroethylene and tetrachloroethylene from 1,2-dichloroethane.^ New York, NY: Van Nostrand Rheinhold Co., 1993 260]**PEER REVIEWED** Manufacture of carbon tetrachloride, ethylene and propylene oxides, glycols, trichloroethylene, perchloroethylene, chloroform, vinylidene chloride, polychloroprene, hydrogen chloride, metal chlorides, chloracetic acid, chloral, synthetic glycerine, methyl chlorides, chlorinated benzenes, tetraethyl lead, fluorine compounds, titanium tetrachloride, monochloroacetic acid, phosgene, chloroisocyanuric acid, phosphorus chloride, dichlorobutene, and chlorinated paraffins.

^ QC REVIEWED** Methods of Manufacturing: PRODUCED ON A LARGE SCALE BY ELECTROLYSIS FROM FUSED CHLORIDES. THE INDUSTRIAL PRODUCT IS ABOUT 99.3% PURE. [Budavari, S. (ed.

.Like the other halides, chlorine undergoes electrophilic additions reactions, most notably, the chlorination of alkenes and aromatic compounds with a Lewis acid catalyst.^ Whatever they mean by "oxide of chlorides compound" could be any number of substances from chlorine dioxide (ClO2) to perchloric acid (HClO4).
  • Miracle Mineral Solution-Chlorine Dioxide 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.cassiopaea.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Furthermore, it does not create harmful compounds from other constituents in the water as chlorine does.
  • Miracle Mineral Solution-Chlorine Dioxide 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.cassiopaea.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This weak acid acts like a blasting cap by lowering the pH of the chlorine dioxide, without setting it off.
  • Miracle Mineral Solution-Chlorine Dioxide 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.cassiopaea.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Organic chlorine compounds tend to be less reactive in nucleophilic substitution reactions than the corresponding bromine or iodine derivatives, but they tend to be cheaper.^ Because the chlorine atom has a large size and because it usually replaces the much smaller hydrogen atom when it combines with organic compounds, chlorinated organic compounds have a larger volume than their non-chlorinated counterparts.

^ This reactivity in biological systems makes it difficult to study the pharmacokinetics of chlorine and to separate the effects of chlorine from those of the chlorine compounds and metabolites.

^ Whatever they mean by "oxide of chlorides compound" could be any number of substances from chlorine dioxide (ClO2) to perchloric acid (HClO4).
  • Miracle Mineral Solution-Chlorine Dioxide 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.cassiopaea.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.They may be activated for reaction by substituting with a tosylate group, or by the use of a catalytic amount of sodium iodide.^ After adding the activator, the chemical reaction that turns sodium chlorite into chlorine dioxide takes only about three minutes.
  • Miracle Mineral Solution-Chlorine Dioxide 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.cassiopaea.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Chlorine is used extensively in organic and inorganic chemistry as an oxidizing agent and in substitution reactions because chlorine often imparts many desired properties to an organic compound, due to its electronegativity.^ It also oxidizes organic compounds, but more slowly than inorganic compounds.

^ PEER REVIEWED** Environmental Fate: Aquatic Fate: The stability of free chlorine in natural water is very low because it is a strong oxidizing agent and rapidly oxidizes inorganic compounds.

^ Chlorine react vigorously with organic compounds including mineral oils and greases.

.Chlorine compounds are used as intermediates in the production of a number of important commercial products that do not contain chlorine.^ Whatever they mean by "oxide of chlorides compound" could be any number of substances from chlorine dioxide (ClO2) to perchloric acid (HClO4).
  • Miracle Mineral Solution-Chlorine Dioxide 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.cassiopaea.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Various compounds classifiable as oxides of chlorine such as sodium hypochlorite and chlorine dioxide are already widely used as disinfectants.
  • Miracle Mineral Solution-Chlorine Dioxide 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.cassiopaea.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Chlorine dioxide has been given a USDA 3-D approval for washing fruits and vegetables to be used as ingredients of meat and poultry products.1 Chlorine dioxide is normally made at the point of use (on-site).
  • Miracle Mineral Solution-Chlorine Dioxide 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.cassiopaea.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Examples are: polycarbonates, polyurethanes, silicones, polytetrafluoroethylene, carboxymethyl cellulose and propylene oxide.

Use as a weapon

  • World War I
.Chlorine gas, also known as bertholite, was first used as a weapon in World War I by Germany on April 22, 1915 in the Second Battle of Ypres.^ Chlorine gas was first used as a chemical weapon at Ypres, France in 1915.

^ In fact, it was used in World War I as a poison gas.

^ Of the 70,552 American soldiers poisoned with various gasses in World War I, 1,843 were exposed to chlorine gas.

As described by the soldiers it had a distinctive smell of a mixture between pepper and pineapple. It also tasted metallic and stung the back of the throat and chest. .Chlorine can react with water in the mucosa of the lungs to form hydrochloric acid, an irritant which can be lethal.^ EMERG/topic851.htm Background: Chlorine gas is a pulmonary irritant with intermediate water solubility that causes acute damage in the upper and lower respiratory tract.

^ Chlorine dioxide can be made by mixing sodium chlorite (NaClO2) with hydrochloric acid (HCl).
  • Miracle Mineral Solution-Chlorine Dioxide 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.cassiopaea.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ PEER REVIEWED** An explosion occurred during the chlorination of S-ethylisothiourea sulfate and formamidine thiolacetic acid-hydrochloric acid.

.The damage done by chlorine gas can be prevented by a gas mask, or other filtration method, which makes the overall chance of death by chlorine gas much lower than those of other chemical weapons.^ The chlorine dioxide process is "extraordinarily" better than other chemical methods of eliminating pathogens on produce, he said.
  • Miracle Mineral Solution-Chlorine Dioxide 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.cassiopaea.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Thus it is reasonable to expect that any damage to Plasmodia caused by oxides of chlorine is compounded by conversion of ferrous (Fe++) cofactors to ferric (Fe+++) or other alterations of iron compounds.
  • Miracle Mineral Solution-Chlorine Dioxide 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.cassiopaea.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ EMERG/topic851.htm Background: Chlorine gas is a pulmonary irritant with intermediate water solubility that causes acute damage in the upper and lower respiratory tract.

.It was pioneered by a German scientist later to be a Nobel laureate, Fritz Haber of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute in Berlin, in collaboration with the German chemical conglomerate IG Farben, who developed methods for discharging chlorine gas against an entrenched enemy.^ The chlorine dioxide process is "extraordinarily" better than other chemical methods of eliminating pathogens on produce, he said.
  • Miracle Mineral Solution-Chlorine Dioxide 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.cassiopaea.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sampling & analysis methods developed for the detection of toxic oxidants such as bromine, chlorine , chlorine dioxide & iodine in air.

^ Chlorine gas was first used as a chemical weapon at Ypres, France in 1915.

.It is alleged that Haber's role in the use of chlorine as a deadly weapon drove his wife, Clara Immerwahr, to suicide.^ Chlorine gas was first used as a chemical weapon at Ypres, France in 1915.

^ Chlorine dioxide can be used to kill "disease-bearing bacteria, yeasts, molds, fungi and algae", including MRSA and other deadly pathogens.
  • Miracle Mineral Solution-Chlorine Dioxide 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.cassiopaea.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.After its first use, chlorine was utilized by both sides as a chemical weapon, but it was soon replaced by the more deadly gases phosgene and mustard gas.^ Chlorine gas was first used as a chemical weapon at Ypres, France in 1915.

^ This reddish-yellow gas crystallizes as orange crystals at −59 °C. As one of several oxides of chlorine, it is a potent and useful oxidizing agent used in water treatment and in bleaching.
  • Miracle Mineral Solution-Chlorine Dioxide 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.cassiopaea.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Lately chlorine dioxide has been used more and more frequently, especially to purify water.
  • Miracle Mineral Solution-Chlorine Dioxide 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.cassiopaea.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[40]
  • Iraq War
.Chlorine gas has also been used by insurgents against the local population and coalition forces in the Iraq War in the form of chlorine bombs.^ Of the 70,552 American soldiers poisoned with various gasses in World War I, 1,843 were exposed to chlorine gas.

^ This reddish-yellow gas crystallizes as orange crystals at −59 °C. As one of several oxides of chlorine, it is a potent and useful oxidizing agent used in water treatment and in bleaching.
  • Miracle Mineral Solution-Chlorine Dioxide 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.cassiopaea.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Approx 7-8 tons of chlorine gas formed a cloud over part of Mjondalen and down the valley to Drammen, 10 km away.

.On March 17, 2007, for example, three chlorine filled trucks were detonated in the Anbar province killing two and sickening over 350.[41] Other chlorine bomb attacks resulted in higher death tolls, with more than 30 deaths on two separate occasions.^ Saturday, March 17, 2007 .

^ Nausea indicates that MMS is killing more pathogens than the elimination system can handle, resulting in temporary-but-serious nausea.
  • Miracle Mineral Solution-Chlorine Dioxide 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.cassiopaea.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ So you see it's the chlorine dioxide ion (the combination of chlorine and oxygen) that does the work and it has a great deal more ability to oxidize pathogens than oxygen.
  • Miracle Mineral Solution-Chlorine Dioxide 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.cassiopaea.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[42] .Most of the deaths were caused by the force of the explosions rather than the effects of chlorine, since the toxic gas is readily dispersed and diluted in the atmosphere by the blast.^ Effects of chlorine gas concentrations on people (1 ppm = 3 mg/m 3 ) .

^ EMERG/topic851.htm Background: Chlorine gas is a pulmonary irritant with intermediate water solubility that causes acute damage in the upper and lower respiratory tract.

^ Pathophysiology: Chlorine is a greenish-yellow, noncombustible gas at room temperature and atmospheric pressure.

.The Iraqi authorities have tightened up security for chlorine, which is essential for providing safe drinking water for the population.^ Chlorine dioxide is used primarily (> 95%) for bleaching of wood pulp, but is also used for the bleaching of flour and for the disinfection of municipal drinking water.
  • Miracle Mineral Solution-Chlorine Dioxide 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.cassiopaea.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ (You can expand the 3 minutes out to 10 minutes, and after adding the juice or water you can wait up to an hour before drinking.
  • Miracle Mineral Solution-Chlorine Dioxide 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.cassiopaea.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As we’ve mentioned, chlorine dioxide is a safe and effective disinfectant in many municipal water delivery systems, hospitals, and even in bioterrorism response.
  • Miracle Mineral Solution-Chlorine Dioxide 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.cassiopaea.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Chlorine cracking

Chlorine "attack" of an acetal resin plumbing joint.
.The element is widely used for purifying water owing to its powerful oxidizing properties, especially potable water supplies and water used in swimming pools.^ To test my mixture, I bought some chlorine measuring sticks used for swimming pools, and guess what?
  • Miracle Mineral Solution-Chlorine Dioxide 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.cassiopaea.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This reddish-yellow gas crystallizes as orange crystals at −59 °C. As one of several oxides of chlorine, it is a potent and useful oxidizing agent used in water treatment and in bleaching.
  • Miracle Mineral Solution-Chlorine Dioxide 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.cassiopaea.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ JUST ADD WATER -- AND WAIT. Now, Selectrocide (Chlorine dioxide) brings the power of greater than 99% pure chlorine dioxide solutions to point-of-use applications.
  • Miracle Mineral Solution-Chlorine Dioxide 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.cassiopaea.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Several catastrophic collapses of swimming pool ceilings have occurred owing to stress corrosion cracking of stainless steel rods used to suspend them.^ To test my mixture, I bought some chlorine measuring sticks used for swimming pools, and guess what?
  • Miracle Mineral Solution-Chlorine Dioxide 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.cassiopaea.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hypochlorites (ClO-) are commonly used as bleaching agents, as swimming pool sanitizers, and as disinfectants.
  • Miracle Mineral Solution-Chlorine Dioxide 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.cassiopaea.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some companies provide swimming pool systems that use this same strategy.
  • Miracle Mineral Solution-Chlorine Dioxide 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.cassiopaea.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[43] Some polymers are also sensitive to attack, including acetal resin and polybutene. .Both materials were used in hot and cold water domestic supplies, and stress corrosion cracking caused widespread failures in the USA in the 1980s and 90s.^ ClO2 and chlorine have long been used as disinfectants of public water supplies.
  • Miracle Mineral Solution-Chlorine Dioxide 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.cassiopaea.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ozone (O3) or chlorine dioxide (ClO2) are often used to disinfect public water supplies or to sanitize and deodorize waste water.
  • Miracle Mineral Solution-Chlorine Dioxide 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.cassiopaea.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Boston, MA: Butterworth-Heinemann Ltd., 1990 998]**PEER REVIEWED** With aluminum: Corrosive failure of a vaporizer used in manufacture of aluminum chloride caused liquid chlorine to contact molten aluminum.

.One example shows an acetal joint in a water supply system, which when it fractured, caused substantial physical damage to computers in the labs below the supply.^ EMERG/topic851.htm Background: Chlorine gas is a pulmonary irritant with intermediate water solubility that causes acute damage in the upper and lower respiratory tract.

The cracks started at injection molding defects in the joint and grew slowly until finally triggered. The fracture surface shows iron and calcium salts which were deposited in the leaking joint from the water supply before failure.

Other uses

.Chlorine is used in the manufacture of numerous organic chlorine compounds, the most significant of which in terms of production volume are 1,2-dichloroethane and vinyl chloride, intermediates in the production of PVC.^ Chlorine react vigorously with organic compounds including mineral oils and greases.

^ In ion form, chlorine is part of common salt and other compounds, and necessary to most forms of life, including human.
  • Miracle Mineral Solution-Chlorine Dioxide 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.cassiopaea.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Chlorine and ammonia are the toxic chemicals most commonly used in quantities large enough to pose a major hazard.

Other particularly important organochlorines are methyl chloride, methylene chloride, chloroform, vinylidene chloride, trichloroethylene, perchloroethylene, allyl chloride, epichlorohydrin, chlorobenzene, dichlorobenzenes and trichlorobenzenes.
.Chlorine is also used in the production of chlorates and in bromine extraction.^ Chlorine dioxide has been given a USDA 3-D approval for washing fruits and vegetables to be used as ingredients of meat and poultry products.1 Chlorine dioxide is normally made at the point of use (on-site).
  • Miracle Mineral Solution-Chlorine Dioxide 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.cassiopaea.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ PEER REVIEWED** Artificial Pollution Sources: The most important manmade emissions of chlorine are from processes involving the production, transportation, and use of chlorine ...

Health effects

Skull and crossbones.svg
NFPA 704
NFPA 704.svg
.Chlorine is a toxic gas that irritates the respiratory system.^ Inhalation or aerosol exposure to chlorine dioxide gas is highly irritating and generally not recommended.
  • Miracle Mineral Solution-Chlorine Dioxide 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.cassiopaea.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Chlorine gas is severely irritating on contact and can be corrosive to the eyes, skin, nose, throat, and mucous membranes; exposure can result in severe or permanent eye injury.

^ EMERG/topic851.htm Background: Chlorine gas is a pulmonary irritant with intermediate water solubility that causes acute damage in the upper and lower respiratory tract.

.Because it is heavier than air, it tends to accumulate at the bottom of poorly ventilated spaces.^ Vapors from liquefied gas are initially heavier than air and spread along ground.

^ Many gases are heavier than air and will spread along ground and collect in low or confined areas (sewers, basements, tanks).

.Chlorine gas is a strong oxidizer, which may react with flammable materials.^ Chlorine dioxide (ClO2) is a water-soluble, yellow gas with a characteristic chlorine-like odour and strong oxidizing activity (Moran et al., 1953 ; Fukayama et al., 1986 ; Ogata, 2007 ).
  • Miracle Mineral Solution-Chlorine Dioxide 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.cassiopaea.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This reddish-yellow gas crystallizes as orange crystals at −59 °C. As one of several oxides of chlorine, it is a potent and useful oxidizing agent used in water treatment and in bleaching.
  • Miracle Mineral Solution-Chlorine Dioxide 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.cassiopaea.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Linton said the gas is so effective because it's a strong oxidizing agent.
  • Miracle Mineral Solution-Chlorine Dioxide 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.cassiopaea.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[44]
.Chlorine is detectable in concentrations of as low as 0.2 ppm.^ Effects of chlorine gas concentrations on people (1 ppm = 3 mg/m 3 ) .

^ All but 6 of the workers had exposures below 1 ppm, and 21 had TWAs above 0.52 ppm; the average concentration of chlorine ranged from 0.006 to 1.42 ppm with a mean of 0.15 ppm.

^ It was concluded/ that even though chlorine does not produce any serious subjective symptoms at low concentrations, it adversely affects pulmonary function transiently.

.Coughing and vomiting may occur at 30 ppm and lung damage at 60 ppm.^ GASTROINTESTINAL 0.2.8.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE o Vomiting may occur following initial exposure.

^ The acute symptoms and signs included cough, dyspnea, expectoration, physical changes in the lungs, fever, and vomiting.

^ Moderate irritation of upper resp tract; 30 ppm: Immediate chest pain, vomiting, dyspnea, cough; 40-60 ppm: Toxic pneumonitis and pulmonary edema; 430 ppm: Lethal over 30 min; 1000 ppm: Fatal within a few min.

.About 1000 ppm can be fatal after a few deep breaths of the gas.^ The gas becomes fatal at concentrations of 100-150 ppm with an exposure duration of 5-10 minutes.

^ For example, 14 ppm for 30 minutes results in severe pulmonary damage; 430 ppm or more for 30 minutes, or 34 to 51 ppm for 60 minutes may be fatal; and 1,000 ppm can be fatal within a few breaths.

^ A few whiffs of the vapor or gas can cause death, or contact with the vapor or liquid may be fatal, if it penetrates the fire fighter's normal protective gear.

[4] .Breathing lower concentrations can aggravate the respiratory system, and exposure to the gas can irritate the eyes.^ Exposure to chlorine gas at an air concentration of 1 to 3 ppm produces mild irritation; 3 to 6 ppm, itching, stinging and burning of the eyes, lacrimation, blepharospasm, as well as burning of the nose and throat, sneezing, coughing, and bloody nose or sputum; 5 to 10 ppm, moderate upper respiratory irritation; 10 to 20 ppm, intense irritation; 30 ppm, chest pain, vomiting, dyspnea and cough.

^ EMERG/topic851.htm Background: Chlorine gas is a pulmonary irritant with intermediate water solubility that causes acute damage in the upper and lower respiratory tract.

^ Chlorine gas is severely irritating on contact and can be corrosive to the eyes, skin, nose, throat, and mucous membranes; exposure can result in severe or permanent eye injury.

[45]
.Chlorine's toxicity comes from its oxidizing power.^ The chlorine ion however, in this case, has a powerful ability to oxidize.
  • Miracle Mineral Solution-Chlorine Dioxide 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.cassiopaea.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.When chlorine is inhaled at concentrations above 30ppm it begins to react with water and cells which change it into hydrochloric acid (HCl) and hypochlorous acid (HClO).^ The former cmpd decomposes into hypochloric acid and oxygen free radicals (.O2-).

^ When a few drops are added to a glass of water, the alkalinity of the drops is neutralized by the water and ions in the drops become unstable and begin to release chlorine.
  • Miracle Mineral Solution-Chlorine Dioxide 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.cassiopaea.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Chlorine dioxide can be made by mixing sodium chlorite (NaClO2) with hydrochloric acid (HCl).
  • Miracle Mineral Solution-Chlorine Dioxide 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.cassiopaea.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.When used at specified levels for water disinfection, although chlorine reaction with water itself usually doesn't represent a major concern for human health, other materials present in the water can generate disinfection by-products that can damage human health.^ ClO2 and chlorine have long been used as disinfectants of public water supplies.
  • Miracle Mineral Solution-Chlorine Dioxide 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.cassiopaea.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Chlorine dioxide can be used to disinfect endoscopes.
  • Miracle Mineral Solution-Chlorine Dioxide 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.cassiopaea.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Chlorine dioxide (ClO2) is a gas that can be used for water disinfection.
  • Miracle Mineral Solution-Chlorine Dioxide 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.cassiopaea.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[46][47]

See also

References

  1. ^ Magnetic susceptibility of the elements and inorganic compounds, in Handbook of Chemistry and Physics 81st edition, CRC press.
  2. ^ Windholz, Martha et al., ed (1976). Merck Index of Chemicals and Drugs, 9th ed.. Rahway, N.J.: Merck & Co.. ISBN 0911910263. 
  3. ^ a b Hammond, C. R. (2000). The Elements, in Handbook of Chemistry and Physics 81st edition. CRC press. ISBN 0849304814. 
  4. ^ a b "WebElements.com – Chlorine". Mark Winter [The University of Sheffield and WebElements Ltd, UK]. http://www.webelements.com/webelements/elements/text/Cl/index.html. Retrieved 2007-03-17. 
  5. ^ "Risk assessment and the cycling of natural organochlorines". Euro Chlor. http://www.eurochlor.org/upload/documents/document236.pdf. Retrieved 2007-08-12. 
  6. ^ "The earliest salt production in the world: an early Neolithic exploitation in Poiana Slatinei-Lunca, Romania". http://antiquity.ac.uk/ProjGall/weller/. Retrieved 2008-07-10. 
  7. ^ Pereira, Jonathan (1854). The elements of materia medica and therapeutics, Volume 1. Longman, Brown, Green, and Longmans. p. 387. http://books.google.com/books?id=RXEhAAAAYAAJ&pg=RA1-PA387. 
  8. ^ Hoover, Herbert Clark (2003). Georgius Agricola de Re Metallica. Kessinger Publishing. p. 354. ISBN 0766131971. http://books.google.com/books?id=oWoChuYV2GUC&pg=PA354. 
  9. ^ a b c d e f "17 Chlorine". Elements.vanderkrogt.net. http://elements.vanderkrogt.net/elem/cl.html. Retrieved 2008-09-12. 
  10. ^ Ihde, Aaron John (1984). The development of modern chemistry. Courier Dover Publications. p. 158. ISBN 0486642356. http://books.google.com/books?id=34KwmkU4LG0C&pg=PA158. 
  11. ^ Gay-Lussac, Joseph Louis; Thénard, Louis-Jacques (1809). "On the nature and the properties of muriatic acid and of oxygenated muriatic acid". Mémoires de Physique et de Chimie de la Société d'Arcueil 2: 339–358. http://web.lemoyne.edu/~giunta/thenard.html. 
  12. ^ Sir Humphry Davy (1811). "On a Combination of Oxymuriatic Gas and Oxygene Gas". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society 101: 155–162. doi:10.1098/rstl.1811.0008. http://www.chemteam.info/Chem-History/Davy-Chlorine-1811.html. 
  13. ^ Snelders, H. A. M. (1971). "J. S. C. Schweigger: His Romanticism and His Crystal Electrical Theory of Matter". Isis 62 (3): 328. http://www.jstor.org/pss/229946. 
  14. ^ "Discovery of Chlorine". http://badley.info/history/Discovery-of-Chlorine-Great-Britain.event.html. Retrieved 2008-07-10. 
  15. ^ "History of Chlorine". http://members.aol.com/manbio999/chlorine.htm. Retrieved 2008-07-10. 
  16. ^ a b c d Jacqueline Brazin. "Chlorine & its Consequences". http://ocw.mit.edu/NR/rdonlyres/Earth--Atmospheric--and-Planetary-Sciences/12-091January--IAP--2006/0EF9264B-3205-44A3-8306-8E8364917DF0/0/brazin.pdf. Retrieved 2008-07-10. 
  17. ^ "Chlorine Story". americanchemistry. http://www.americanchemistry.com/s_chlorine/sec_content.asp?CID=1166&DID=4476&CTYPEID=109. Retrieved 2008-07-10. 
  18. ^ "Chlorine - History". http://www.drcordas.com/education/weaponsmassd/Chlorine.pdf. Retrieved 2008-07-10. 
  19. ^ "Weaponry: Use of Chlorine Gas Cylinders in World War I". historynet.com. http://www.historynet.com/weaponry-use-of-chlorine-gas-cylinders-in-world-war-i.htm. Retrieved 2008-07-10. 
  20. ^ Pauling, Linus (1970). General Chemistry. Dover publications. ISBN 0-486-65622-5. 
  21. ^ "Electrolytic Processes for Chlorine and Caustic Soda". Lenntech Water treatment & air purification Holding B.V., Rotterdamseweg 402 M, 2629 HH Delft, The Netherlands. http://www.lenntech.com/Chemistry/electolytic-chlorine-caustic.htm. Retrieved 2007-03-17. 
  22. ^ "Mercury cell". Euro Chlor. http://www.eurochlor.org/animations/mercury-cell.asp. Retrieved 2007-08-15. 
  23. ^ "Regional Awareness-raising Workshop on Mercury Pollution". UNEP. http://www.chem.unep.ch/Mercury/Pretoria-proceedings-finalPDFwriter.pdf. Retrieved 2007-10-28. 
  24. ^ "Diaphragm cell". Euro Chlor. http://www.eurochlor.org/animations/diaphragm-cell.asp. Retrieved 2007-08-15. 
  25. ^ "The Electrolysis of Brine". Salt Manufacturers' Association. http://www.saltsense.co.uk/hist-chem12.htm. Retrieved 2007-03-17. 
  26. ^ a b Kiefer, David M.. "When the Industry Charged Ahead". Chemistry Chronicles. http://pubs.acs.org/subscribe/journals/tcaw/11/i04/html/04chemistry.html. Retrieved 2007-03-17. 
  27. ^ "Membrane cell". Euro Chlor. http://www.eurochlor.org/animations/membrane-cell.asp. Retrieved 2007-08-15. 
  28. ^ Lopez, N; Gomezsegura, J; Marin, R; Perezramirez, J (2008). "Mechanism of HCl oxidation (Deacon process) over RuO2". Journal of Catalysis 255: 29. doi:10.1016/j.jcat.2008.01.020. 
  29. ^ "The Chlorine Industry". Lenntech Water treatment & air purification Holding B.V., Rotterdamseweg 402 M, 2629 HH Delft, The Netherlands. http://www.lenntech.com/Chemistry/chlorine-industry.htm. Retrieved 2007-03-17. 
  30. ^ Reader W J (1970 SBN 19 215937 2). Imperial Chemical Industries; A History. Volume 1. The Forerunners 1870-1926. Oxford University Press. p. 102.  citing Haber L F (1958). The Chemical Industry during the Nineteenth Century. Oxford: Clarendon Press. 
  31. ^ "Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control (IPPC) - Reference Document on Best Available Techniques in the Chlor-Alkali Manufacturing Industry". European Commission. http://www.jrc.es/pub/english.cgi/d733217/05%20Reference%20Document%20on%20Best%20Available%20Techniques%20in%20the%20Chlor-Alkali%20Manufacturing%20industry%20%28adopted%20Dec%202001%29%20-%205.2%20Mb. Retrieved 2007-09-02. 
  32. ^ "Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control (IPPC) - Best Available Techniques Reference Document on the Production of Iron and Steel". European Commission. http://www.jrc.es/pub/english.cgi/d733208/02%20Best%20Available%20Techniques%20Reference%20Document%20on%20the%20Production%20of%20Iron%20and%20Steel%20%28adopted%20Dec%202001%29%20-%209.4Mb. Retrieved 2007-09-02. 
  33. ^ "Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control (IPPC) - Reference Document on Best Available Techniques in the Glass Manufacturing Industry". European Commission. http://www.jrc.es/pub/english.cgi/d733226/08%20Reference%20Document%20on%20Best%20Available%20Techniques%20in%20the%20Glass%20Manufacturing%20Industry%20%28adopted%20Dec%202001%29%20-%202.7%20Mb. Retrieved 2007-09-02. 
  34. ^ "Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control (IPPC) - Reference Document on Best Available Techniques in the Cement and Lime Manufacturing Industries". European Commission. http://www.jrc.es/pub/english.cgi/d733211/03%20Reference%20Document%20on%20Best%20Available%20Techniques%20in%20the%20Cement%20and%20Lime%20Manufacturing%20Industries%20%28adopted%20Dec%202001%29%20-%201.3%20Mb. Retrieved 2007-09-02. 
  35. ^ "Chlorine compounds of the month". Euro Chlor. http://www.eurochlor.org/index.asp?page=678. Retrieved 2007-08-29. 
  36. ^ Cotton, F. Albert and Wilkinson, Geoffrey (1966). Advanced Inorganic Chemistry, 2nd ed.. John Wiley & sons. p. 568. 
  37. ^ "Uses". Euro Chlor. http://www.eurochlor.org/uses. Retrieved 2007-08-20. 
  38. ^ "Chlorine Tree". Chlorine Tree. http://www.chlorinetree.org. Retrieved 2007-08-20. 
  39. ^ Koski TA, Stuart LS, Ortenzio LF (1966). "Comparison of chlorine, bromine, iodine as disinfectants for swimming pool water". Applied Microbiology 14 (2): 276–279. PMID 4959984.& PMC 546668. http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pubmed&pubmedid=4959984. 
  40. ^ "Weapons of War: Poison Gas". First World War.com. http://www.firstworldwar.com/weaponry/gas.htm. Retrieved 2007-08-12. 
  41. ^ Mahdi, Basim (2007-03-17). "Iraq gas attack makes hundreds ill". CNN. http://www.cnn.com/2007/WORLD/meast/03/17/iraq.main/index.html. Retrieved 2007-03-17. 
  42. ^ "'Chlorine bomb' hits Iraq village". BBC News. 2007-05-17. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/6660585.stm. Retrieved 2007-05-17. 
  43. ^ Bertolini, Luca; Elsener, Bernhard; Pedeferri, Pietro; Polder, Rob B. (2004). Corrosion of steel in concrete: prevention, diagnosis, repair. Wiley-VCH. p. 148. ISBN 3527308008. http://books.google.com/books?id=cEmq232h1zcC&pg=PA148. 
  44. ^ "Chlorine MSDS". October 23, 1997 (Revised November 1999. http://www.westlake.com/datasheets/MSDS_Chlorine.pdf. 
  45. ^ Winder, Chris (2001). "The Toxicology of Chlorine". Environmental Research 85 (2): 105–114. doi:10.1006/enrs.2000.4110. PMID 11161660. 
  46. ^ "What's in your Water?: Disinfectants Create Toxic By-products". ACES News. College of Agricultural, Consumer and Environmental Sciences - University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. 2009-03-31. http://www.aces.uiuc.edu/news/stories/news4724.html. Retrieved 2009-03-31. 
  47. ^ Richardson, D.; Plewa, J.; Wagner, D.; Schoeny, R.; Demarini, M. (Nov 2007). "Occurrence, genotoxicity, and carcinogenicity of regulated and emerging disinfection by-products in drinking water: a review and roadmap for research". Mutation research 636 (1-3): 178–242. doi:10.1016/j.mrrev.2007.09.001. ISSN 0027-5107. PMID 17980649.  edit

External links


1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

.CHLORINE (symbol Cl, atomic weight 35.46 (0=16), a gaseous chemical element of the halogen group, taking its name from the colour, greenish-yellow (Gr.^ Chlorine is a greenish-yellow gas.

^ The chemical symbol for chlorine is Cl .
  • Tox Town - Chlorine - Toxic chemicals and environmental health risks where you live and work - Text Version 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC toxtown.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Cl 35.452700 Chlorine .
  • Chlorine 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.3rd1000.com [Source type: Reference]

xXcopos). .It was discovered in 1774 by Scheele, who called it dephlogisticated muriatic acid; about 1785, C. L. Berthollet, regarding it as being a compound of hydrochloric acid and oxygen, termed it oxygenized muriatic acid. This view was generally held until about 1810-1811, when Sir H. Davy showed definitely that it was an element, and gave it the name which it now bears.^ Chlorine was given its name in 1810 by Humphry Davy , who insisted that it was in fact an element.

^ This view was generally held until about 1810-1811, when Sir H. Davy showed definitely that it was an element, and gave it the name which it now bears.

^ Chlorine in its gaseous state was discovered by Karl W. Scheele in 1774 and identified as an element by Humphrey Davy in 1810.
  • Water Purification Handbook Chapter 27 Chlorine and Chlorine alternatives 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.gewater.com [Source type: Academic]

.Chlorine is never found in nature in the uncombined condition, but in combination with the alkali metals it occurs widely distributed in the form of rock-salt (sodium chloride); as sylvine and carnallite, at Stassfiirt; and to a smaller extent in various other minerals such as matlockite and horn-mercury.^ In nature chlorine is found only as the chloride ion .

^ Chlorine can usually be found bond to sodium (Na), or in kitchen salt (sodium chloride; NaCl).
  • chlorine as disinfectant for water 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.lenntech.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Large quantities of chlorine can be found in the ground as rock salts or halite.
  • chlorine as disinfectant for water 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.lenntech.com [Source type: Reference]

.In the form of alkaline chlorides it is found in sea-water and various spring waters, and in the tissues of animals and plants; while, as hydrochloric acid it is found in volcanic gases.^ HCl Hydrochloric acid or hydrogen chloride .
  • Chlorine compounds glossary: chemistry of dioxins, chlorinated solvents and trichlorothane 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.eurochlor.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Cyanuric acid is a weak acid and in swimming pool water forms various cyanurates, which are weakly alkaline.
  • chlorine stabilizer/conditioner: pool water chemistry & help - stabilizing the swimming pool chlorine level 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.askalanaquestion.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Chlorine does NOT form hydrochloric acid on contact with water.
  • How to Handle a Chlorine Bomb | Danger Room | Wired.com 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.wired.com [Source type: General]

.The preparation of chlorine, both on the small scale and commercially, depends on the oxidation of hydrochloric acid; the usual oxidizing agent is manganese dioxide, which, when heated with concentrated hydrochloric acid, forms manganese chloride, water and chlorine: - Mn02-I-4HC1=MnC12+2H20+ C1 2. The manganese dioxide may be replaced by various other substances, such as red lead, lead dioxide, potassium bichromate, and potassium permanganate.^ HCl Hydrochloric acid or hydrogen chloride .
  • Chlorine compounds glossary: chemistry of dioxins, chlorinated solvents and trichlorothane 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.eurochlor.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Chlorine can also be prepared from hydrochloric acid by oxidation of the hydrogen chloride (Deacon's process) and from bleaching powder.
  • chlorine Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about chlorine 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In water it quickly forms hypochlorous acid (the killing form of chlorine).
  • Chlorine Sanitiser 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.tps.com.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Instead of heating hydrochloric acid with manganese dioxide, use is frequently made of a mixture of common salt and manganese dioxide, to which concentrated sulphuric acid is added and the mixture is then heated: - Mn02 -}-2NaC1+3H 2 SO 4 = MnSO 4 +2NaHSO 4 +2H 2 0+C1 2. Chlorine may also be obtained by the action of dilute sulphuric acid on bleaching powder.^ Figure 4: chlorine is often used as a bleach Bleaching powder (CaOCl 2 ) can also be used.
  • chlorine as disinfectant for water 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.lenntech.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Cyanuric Acid is only used with chlorine.
  • Chlorine 19 November 2009 17:57 UTC www.poolmanual.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Chlorine dioxide can be made by mixing sodium chlorite (NaClO2) with hydrochloric acid (HCl).
  • Miracle Mineral Solution-Chlorine Dioxide 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.cassiopaea.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Owing to the enormous quantities of chlorine required for various industrial purposes, many processes have been devised, either for the recovery of the manganese from the crude manganese chloride of the chlorine stills, so that it can be again utilized, or for the purpose of preparing chlorine without the necessity of using manganese in any form (see Alkali Manufacture).^ Chlorine is also used widely in the manufacture of many everyday items.

^ The advantage of this process is that the chlorine used for activation is available for other purposes.
  • Water Purification Handbook Chapter 27 Chlorine and Chlorine alternatives 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.gewater.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Modern chlorine chemistry is based on the chlor alkali process which uses electrolysis to split the sodium chloride (common salt) molecule into its constituent parts of chlorine gas and caustic soda.

.Owing to the reduction in the supply of available hydrochloric acid (on account of the increasing use of the "ammonia-soda" process in place of the "Leblanc" process for the manufacture of soda) Weldon tried to adapt the former to the production of chlorine or hydrochloric acid.^ Cyanuric Acid is only used with chlorine.
  • Chlorine 19 November 2009 17:57 UTC www.poolmanual.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Owing to the reduction in the supply of available hydrochloric acid (on account of the increasing use of the " ammonia -soda" process in place of the "Leblanc" process for the manufacture of soda) Weldon tried to adapt the former to the production of chlorine or hydrochloric acid.

^ It is chiefly obtained as a by-product in the manufacture of soda- ash by the Leblanc process (see Alkali Manufacture ).

.His method consisted in using magnesia instead of lime for the recovery of the ammonia (which occurs in the form of ammonium chloride in the ammonia-soda process), and then by evaporating the magnesium chloride solution and heating the residue in steam, to condense the acid vapours and so obtain hydrochloric acid.^ HCl Hydrochloric acid or hydrogen chloride .
  • Chlorine compounds glossary: chemistry of dioxins, chlorinated solvents and trichlorothane 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.eurochlor.org [Source type: Reference]

^ His method consisted in using magnesia instead of lime for the recovery of the ammonia (which occurs in the form of ammonium chloride in the ammonia-soda process), and then by evaporating the magnesium chloride solution and heating the residue in steam , to condense the acid vapours and so obtain hydrochloric acid.

^ At 300° C. the ammonium chloride is decomposed by the magnesia, with the formation of magnesium chloride and ammonia.

.One day before him E. Solvay had patented the same process, but neither of them was able to make the method a commercial success.^ One day before him E. Solvay had patented the same process, but neither of them was able to make the method a commercial success.

^ One of them is Doctor Norman Liebergott—50 years plus in the pulp and paper industry, more than 60 plus patents, knows the pulp and paper industry bleaching process in and out.
  • Interview with Chlorine Free Products Association Executive Director Archie Beaton 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC talk.lcipaper.com [Source type: General]

^ Methods: Patients were instructed to rinse the mouth with 0.8% ClO2 mouth rinse (DioxiDent) twice daily for one minute and to soak their dentures overnight in the ClO2 for 10 days.
  • Miracle Mineral Solution-Chlorine Dioxide 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.cassiopaea.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, in conjunction with Pechiney, of Salindres (near Alais, France), the Weldon-Pechiney process was worked out.^ However, in conjunction with Pechiney, of Salindres (near Alais , France ), the Weldon-Pechiney process was worked out.

.The residual magnesium chloride of the ammonia-soda process is evaporated until it ceases to give off hydrochloric acid, and is then mixed with more magnesia; the magnesium oxychloride formed is broken into small pieces and heated in a current of air, when it gives up its chlorine, partly in the uncombined condition and partly in the form of hydrochloric acid, and leaves a residue of magnesia, which can again be utilized for the decomposition of more ammonium chloride (W. Weldon, Journ.^ HCl Hydrochloric acid or hydrogen chloride .
  • Chlorine compounds glossary: chemistry of dioxins, chlorinated solvents and trichlorothane 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.eurochlor.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The reason was that the chlorine was not going off into the air nearly as fast.
  • Miracle Mineral Solution-Chlorine Dioxide 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.cassiopaea.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Chlorine does NOT form hydrochloric acid on contact with water.
  • How to Handle a Chlorine Bomb | Danger Room | Wired.com 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.wired.com [Source type: General]

of Soc. of Chem. Industry,
1884, p. 387). Greater success attended the efforts of Ludwig Mond, of the firm of Brunner, Mond & Co. .In this process the ammonium chloride is volatilized in large iron retorts lined with Doulton tiles, and then led into large upright wrought-iron cylinders lined with fire-bricks.^ Before large diameter PVC pipe was developed, water transmission lines were made of ductile iron (DI) pipe.
  • Chlorine 19 November 2009 17:57 UTC www.freedom.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Mineral Removal: You can remove large amounts of iron from water by adding chlorine to oxidize the clear soluble iron into the filterable reddish insoluble form.
  • Chlorination, Chlorine and Sodium Hypochlorite 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.apswater.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.These cylinders are filled with pills, made of a mixture of magnesia, potassium chloride and fireclay, the object of the potassium chloride being to prevent any formation of hydrochloric acid, which might occur if the magnesia was not perfectly dry.^ HCl Hydrochloric acid or hydrogen chloride .
  • Chlorine compounds glossary: chemistry of dioxins, chlorinated solvents and trichlorothane 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.eurochlor.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Chlorine can also be prepared from hydrochloric acid by oxidation of the hydrogen chloride (Deacon's process) and from bleaching powder.
  • chlorine Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about chlorine 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Also supply potassium carbonate, barium sulphate, hydrochloric acid, liquid chlorine, stearic acid and potassium carbonates.
  • Chlorine, Chlorine Manufacturers Suppliers Exporters of Chlorine 19 November 2009 17:57 UTC www.indianchemicalportal.com [Source type: News]

At 300° C. the ammonium chloride is decomposed by the magnesia, with the formation of magnesium chloride and ammonia. .The mixture is now heated to 600° C. in a current of hot dry gas, containing no free oxygen (the gas from the carbonating plant being used), and then a current of air at the same temperature is passed in.^ Now, add poison gas to the mixture.
  • How to Handle a Chlorine Bomb | Danger Room | Wired.com 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.wired.com [Source type: General]

^ Gases are as a rule less soluble in hot water, and when water is heated or the free chlorine content in water is greatly reduced, the chlorine escaping into the air.
  • Chlorine Kills... 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC chlorinekills.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Chlorine-free alternatives that use oxygen, ozone, UV, ionic treatment and other methods are available to disinfect swimming pools, as well."
  • Chlorine 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.gjne.com [Source type: Academic]

.Decomposition takes place and the issuing gas contains 18-20% of chlorine.^ For example, chlorine and methane gas can be reacted with each other to form a series of chlorine-containing compounds.
  • Halogens - Fluorine, Chlorine, Bromine, Iodine, Astatine 12 September 2009 10:23 UTC www.scienceclarified.com [Source type: Reference]

^ This is because companies do not want to make a risk management plan for chlorine gas, as this takes up a lot of their time and money.
  • chlorine as disinfectant for water 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.lenntech.com [Source type: Reference]

^ It is indisputable that should a large chlorine release such as the Graniteville accident take place in the future, it would pose a substantial danger to the public.
  • Issue Brief: Industrial Chemicals as Weapons: Chlorine 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.nti.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This percentage drops gradually, and when it is reduced to about 3% the temperature of the apparatus is lowered, by the admission of air, to about 350° C., and the air stream containing the small percentage of chlorine is led off to a second cylinder of pills, which have just been treated with ammonium chloride vapour and are ready for the hot air current.^ Gases are as a rule less soluble in hot water, and when water is heated or the free chlorine content in water is greatly reduced, the chlorine escaping into the air.
  • Chlorine Kills... 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC chlorinekills.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Chlorine is a greenish-yellow poisonous gas with a disagreeable, suffocating odor; it is about two and one-half times as dense as air.
  • chlorine Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about chlorine 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Both of the acids formed by hydrolysis react with alkalinity to reduce buffering capacity of water and lower pH. Every pound of chlorine gas added to water removes about 1.4 lb of alkalinity.
  • Water Purification Handbook Chapter 27 Chlorine and Chlorine alternatives 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.gewater.com [Source type: Academic]

With four cylinders the process is continuous (L. Mond, British Assoc. Reports, 1896, P. 734).
.More recently, owing to the production of caustic soda by electrolytic methods, much chlorine has consequently been produced in the same manner (see Alkali Manufacture).^ See more related product stories: .
  • Halogen Lamps operate at 24 Volts., GE Company, GE Lighting 1 February 2010 2:16 UTC news.thomasnet.com [Source type: General]
  • Halogen Lights last up to 6,000 hours., GE Company, GE Lighting 1 February 2010 2:16 UTC news.thomasnet.com [Source type: General]

^ See more product news in: .
  • Halogen Lamps operate at 24 Volts., GE Company, GE Lighting 1 February 2010 2:16 UTC news.thomasnet.com [Source type: General]
  • Halogen Lights last up to 6,000 hours., GE Company, GE Lighting 1 February 2010 2:16 UTC news.thomasnet.com [Source type: General]

^ Which methods can be used to produce chlorine?
  • chlorine as disinfectant for water 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.lenntech.com [Source type: Reference]

.Chlorine is a gas of a greenish-yellow colour, and possesses a characteristic unpleasant and suffocating smell.^ Chlorine is a greenish-yellow gas.

^ Chlorine gas is greenish-yellow, and its density is about 2 times that of air.
  • Water Purification Handbook Chapter 27 Chlorine and Chlorine alternatives 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.gewater.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Chlorine is a greenish-yellow gas with a characteristic pungent odor.
  • Chlorine 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.osha.gov [Source type: Academic]

.It can be liquefied at - 34° C. under atmospheric pressure, and at - 102° C. it solidifies and crystallizes.^ Because of the hazards of chlorine leakage, feed equipment is designed to maintain the chlorine gas below atmospheric pressure by operating under a vacuum.
  • Water Purification Handbook Chapter 27 Chlorine and Chlorine alternatives 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.gewater.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Moderate amt may be handled in high strength tanks as a liquefied gas under pressure.

Its specific heat at constant pressure is 0 1155, and at constant volume 0 08731 (A. Strecker, Wied. Ann., 1877 [2], 13, p. .20); and its refractive index 1.000772, whilst in the liquid condition the refractive index is 1.367. The density is 2.4885 (air (Treadwell and Christie, Zeit.^ PEER REVIEWED** Spectral Properties: INDEX OF REFRACTION: 1.0008 (GAS); 1.367 (LIQ) [Weast, R.C. (ed.

anorg. Chem.,
1905, 47, p. 44 6). .Its critical temperature is 146° C. Liquid and solid chlorine are both yellow in colour.^ Product Description Chlorine is greenish-yellow liquid with very irritating odor.
  • Chlorine, Chlorine Manufacturers & Suppliers 19 November 2009 17:57 UTC www.alibaba.com [Source type: General]

^ Chlorine is a greenish-yellow, noncombustible gas at room temperature and atmospheric pressure.
  • Toxicity, Chlorine Gas: eMedicine Emergency Medicine 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Solid calcium burns spontaneously in chlorine at elevated temperatures.

.The gas must be collected either by downward displacement, since it is soluble in water and also attacks mercury; or over a saturated salt solution, in which it is only slightly soluble.^ Chlorine is slightly soluble in water.
  • How to Handle a Chlorine Bomb | Danger Room | Wired.com 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.wired.com [Source type: General]

^ Because chlorine is water soluble, exposure to the gas irritates the mucous membranes and eyes at concentrations (in air) of under 3 parts per million (ppm).
  • Issue Brief: Industrial Chemicals as Weapons: Chlorine 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.nti.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Chlorine is soluble in water; its aqueous solution, called chlorine water, consists of a mixture of chlorine, hydrochloric acid, and hypochlorous acid; only a part of the chlorine introduced actually goes into solution, the major part reacting chemically with the water.
  • chlorine Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about chlorine 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

.At ordinary temperatures it unites directly with many other elements; thus with hydrogen, combination takes place in direct sunlight with explosive violence; arsenic, antimony, thin copper foil and phosphorus take fire in an atmosphere of chlorine, forming the corresponding chlorides.^ In its elemental form chlorine is highly poisonous.

^ Chlorine reacts readily with hydrogen to form hydrogen chloride.
  • chlorine Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about chlorine 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Organic chemistry uses this element extensively as an oxidizing agent and in substitution because chlorine often imparts many desired properties in an organic compound when it is substituted for hydrogen (as in synthetic rubber production).

.Many compounds containing hydrogen are readily decomposed by the gas; for example, a piece of paper dipped in turpentine inflames in an atmosphere of chlorine, producing hydrochloric acid and a copious deposit of soot; a lighted taper burns in chlorine with a dull smoky flame.^ HCl Hydrochloric acid or hydrogen chloride .
  • Chlorine compounds glossary: chemistry of dioxins, chlorinated solvents and trichlorothane 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.eurochlor.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Hydrogen chloride is produced by burning hydrogen and chlorine together and is also a by-product of the chlorination of organic compounds.
  • Chlorine compounds glossary: chemistry of dioxins, chlorinated solvents and trichlorothane 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.eurochlor.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Hydrogen chloride gas is very soluble in water, reacting with it to produce hydrochloric acid.
  • Hydrogen halides as acids 12 September 2009 10:23 UTC www.chemguide.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The solution of chlorine in water, when freshly prepared, possesses a yellow colour, but on keeping becomes colourless, on account of its decomposition into hydrochloric acid and oxygen.^ Underchloric acid is split into hydrochloric acid (HCl) and atomair oxygen (O).
  • chlorine as disinfectant for water 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.lenntech.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Chlorine does NOT form hydrochloric acid on contact with water.
  • How to Handle a Chlorine Bomb | Danger Room | Wired.com 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.wired.com [Source type: General]

^ Chlorine reacts slowly with water forming hydrochloric acid and chloric(I) acid.

.It is on this property that its bleaching and disinfecting power depends (see Bleaching).^ The disinfecting properties of chlorine in water are based on the oxidising power of the free oxygen atoms and on chlorine substitution reactions.
  • chlorine as disinfectant for water 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.lenntech.com [Source type: Reference]

.Water saturated with chlorine at 0° C. deposits crystals of a hydrate C1 2.8H 2 O, which is readily decomposed at a higher temperature into its constituents.^ This is attributed to the distance between the chlorine dioxide injection point at the reservoir and the hot water systems and higher water temperatures leading to increased decay rates and loss of chlorine dioxide gas in boiler head space.
  • Evaluation of a Chlorine Dioxide Secondary Disinfection System 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.wwdmag.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Gases are as a rule less soluble in hot water, and when water is heated or the free chlorine content in water is greatly reduced, the chlorine escaping into the air.
  • Chlorine Kills... 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC chlorinekills.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Chlorine water has strong oxidizing properties resulting from the oxygen set free when the unstable hypochlorous acid decomposes.
  • chlorine Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about chlorine 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

.Chlorine hydrate has an historical importance, as by sealing it up in a bent tube, and heating the end containing the hydrate, whilst the other limb of the tube was enclosed in a freezing mixture, M. Faraday was first able to obtain liquid chlorine.^ CHLORINATED AROMATICS Collective term for chlorinated derivatives of benzene, toluene, phenol, naphthalene and bi-phenyl and other compounds containing at least one benzene ring.
  • Chlorine compounds glossary: chemistry of dioxins, chlorinated solvents and trichlorothane 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.eurochlor.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Containers of chlorine may explode in the heat of the fire and should be moved from the fire area if it is possible to do so safely.
  • Chlorine 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.osha.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ The term originated from the need to compare other chlorine-containing compounds to gaseous chlorine.
  • Water Purification Handbook Chapter 27 Chlorine and Chlorine alternatives 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.gewater.com [Source type: Academic]

.Chlorine is used commercially for the extraction of gold and for the manufacture of "bleaching powder" and of chlorates.^ Figure 4: chlorine is often used as a bleach Bleaching powder (CaOCl 2 ) can also be used.
  • chlorine as disinfectant for water 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.lenntech.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Chlorine's most important use is as a bleach in the manufacture of paper and cloth.
  • ATSDR - MMG: Chlorine 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.atsdr.cdc.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Genetic damage and toxicity to fish and essential micro-organisms still occur with treated effluent from mills that use chlorine dioxide as a bleaching agent.
  • Pulp Pollution Primer 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.rfu.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It also finds an extensive use in organic chemistry as a substituting and oxidizing agent, as well as for the preparation of addition compounds.^ This powerful oxidizing agent is used for: .
  • Water Purification Handbook Chapter 27 Chlorine and Chlorine alternatives 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.gewater.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Chlorine is used extensively in organic and inorganic chemistry as an oxidizing agent and in substitution reactions because chlorine often imparts many desired properties to an organic compound when it is substituted for hydrogen (as in synthetic rubber production) because of its high electron affinity.
  • Chlorine 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.3rd1000.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Organic chemistry demands much from chlorine, both as an oxidizing agent and in substitution, since it often brings many desired properties in an organic compound when substituted for hydrogen, as in one form of synthetic rubber.
  • Chlorine 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.3rd1000.com [Source type: Reference]

For purposes of substitution, the free element as a rule only works slowly on saturated compounds, but the reaction may be accelerated by the action of sunlight or on warming, or by using a "carrier." In these latter cases the reaction may proceed in different directions; thus, with the aromatic hydrocarbons, chlorine in the cold or in the presence of a carrier substitutes in the benzene nucleus, but in the presence of sunlight or on warming, substitution takes place in the side chain. .Iodine, antimony trichloride, molybdenum pentachloride, ferric chloride, ferric oxide, antimony, tin, stannic oxide and ferrous sulphate have all been used as chlorine carriers.^ Chlorine is also used widely as a chemical reagent in the synthesis and manufacture of metallic chlorides, chlorinated solvents, pesticides, polymers, synthetic rubbers, and refrigerants.
  • ATSDR - MMG: Chlorine 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.atsdr.cdc.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Thus motivated I sought to learn all I could about the chemistry of the oxides of chlorine.
  • Miracle Mineral Solution-Chlorine Dioxide 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.cassiopaea.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The anti-chlorine advocates have no interest in further studies; their goal is not scientific fact, or even consensus, but a total ban on all uses of chlorine.
  • Chlorine 19 November 2009 17:57 UTC www.freedom.org [Source type: Academic]

.The atomic weight of chlorine was determined by J. Berzelius and by F. Penny (Phil.^ Atomic Weight 35 Chlorine in an element of the halogen group.

Trans.,
18 39, 1 3). J. S. Stas, from the synthesis of silver chloride, obtained the value 35.457 (O =16), and C. Marignac found the value 34.462. More recent determinations are: H. B. Dixon and E. C. Edgar (Phil. Trans., 1905); T. W. Richards and G. Jones (Abst. J.C.S., 1907); W. A. Noyes and H. C. Weber (ibid., 1908), and Edgar (ibid., 1908).
Hydrochloric Acid. - .Chlorine combines with hydrogen to form hydrochloric acid, HC1, the only known compound of these two elements.^ HCl Hydrochloric acid or hydrogen chloride .
  • Chlorine compounds glossary: chemistry of dioxins, chlorinated solvents and trichlorothane 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.eurochlor.org [Source type: Reference]

^ In its elemental form chlorine is highly poisonous.

^ Cyanuric Acid is only used with chlorine.
  • Chlorine 19 November 2009 17:57 UTC www.poolmanual.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The acid itself was first obtained by J. R. Glauber in about 1648, but J. Priestley in 1772 was the first to isolate it in the gaseous condition, and Sir H. Davy in 1810 showed that it contained hydrogen and chlorine only, as up to that time it was considered to contain oxygen.^ Cyanuric Acid is only used with chlorine.
  • Chlorine 19 November 2009 17:57 UTC www.poolmanual.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Is it time to load the chlorinator up?
  • chlorine stabilizer/conditioner: pool water chemistry & help - stabilizing the swimming pool chlorine level 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.askalanaquestion.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Water is made up of oxygen and hydrogen.
  • Miracle Mineral Solution-Chlorine Dioxide 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.cassiopaea.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

It may be prepared by the direct union of its constituents (see Burgess and Chapman, J.C.S., 1906, 8 9, p. .1 399), but on the large scale and also for the preparation of small quantities it is made by the decomposition of salt by means of concentrated sulphuric acid, NaC1-j-H 2 SO 4 =NaHSO 4 +HC1. It is chiefly obtained as a by-product in the manufacture of soda-ash by the Leblanc process (see Alkali Manufacture).^ Modern chlorine chemistry is based on the chlor alkali process which uses electrolysis to split the sodium chloride (common salt) molecule into its constituent parts of chlorine gas and caustic soda.

^ In addition, a main byproduct of chlorine manufacture, sodium hydroxide (caustic soda), is itself an important industrial chemical (the chlorine production process is known as the Chlor-Alkali process for this reason).
  • Issue Brief: Industrial Chemicals as Weapons: Chlorine 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.nti.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Old generation methods were large in scale, required numerous hazardous chemicals and produced dangerous concentrations of chlorine dioxide with uncertainty as to the purity of the final product.
  • Evaluation of a Chlorine Dioxide Secondary Disinfection System 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.wwdmag.com [Source type: Academic]

.The commercial acid is usually yellow in colour and contains many impurities, such as traces of arsenic, sulphuric acid, chlorine, ferric chloride and sulphurous acid; but these do not interfere with its application to the preparation of bleaching powder, in which it is chiefly consumed.^ Many municipalities are experimenting with a variety of disinfectants to either take the place of chlorine or to be used in addition, as a way of cutting down on the amount of chlorine added to the water However these alternatives such as chlorine dioxide, bromine chloride, chloromines, etc., are just as dangerous as chlorine.
  • Chlorine Kills... 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC chlorinekills.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Sodium hypochlorite, which is a component of commercial bleaches, cleaning solutions, and disinfectants for drinking water and waste water purification systems and swimming pools, releases chlorine gas when it comes in contact with acids.
  • ATSDR - MMG: Chlorine 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.atsdr.cdc.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ In addition, chlorine derivatives (materials containing chlorine atoms chemically bound to other elements) are used as bleaching agents, construction materials (especially polyvinyl chloride, or PVC), high purity silicon precursors (e.g.
  • Issue Brief: Industrial Chemicals as Weapons: Chlorine 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.nti.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Without further purification it is also used for "souring" in bleaching, and in tin and lead soldering.^ In fact, 75% of the houses built before 1978 contained lead based paint, and before 1987 the solder used for plumbing typically contained 50% lead.
  • Drinking Water Contaminant Glossary - FridgeFilters.com 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.fridgefilters.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ ECF, or Elemental Chlorine Free , is a pulp industry term created to describe pulp bleached without "elemental" chlorine gas, but this process still uses chlorine compounds.
  • Pulp Pollution Primer 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.rfu.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Bleach is used for disinfection, water purification, sanitary cleaners and for whitening paper, soap, straw and cotton.
  • Chlorine compounds glossary: chemistry of dioxins, chlorinated solvents and trichlorothane 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.eurochlor.org [Source type: Reference]

.It is a colourless gas, which can be condensed by cold and pressure to a liquid boiling at - 83.7° C., and can also be solidified, the solid melting at - 112.5° C. (K. Olszewski).^ It condenses to an amber liquid at approximately -34 degrees C (-29.2 degrees F) or at high pressures.
  • Chlorine 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.osha.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Condensation - (Gaseous) water vapor that begins to change to tiny water droplets (a liquid state) or ice crystals when the air gets cold enough.
  • Atmospheric Chemistry Glossary 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.shsu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Hydrogen fluoride has an abnormally high boiling point for the size of the molecule (293 K or 20°C), and could condense to a liquid on a cool day.
  • Hydrogen halides as acids 12 September 2009 10:23 UTC www.chemguide.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Its critical temperature is 52.3° C., and its critical pressure is 86 atmos.^ PEER REVIEWED** Critical Temperature & Pressure: CRITICAL TEMP: 144 DEG C; CRITICAL PRESSURE: 76.1 ATM [Budavari, S. (ed.

.The gas fumes strongly in moist air, and it is rapidly dissolved by water, one volume of water at o° C. absorbing 503 volumes of the gas.^ Be sure to keep those high concentrations of alcohol tightly sealed; they'll absorb water out of the air pretty rapidly.
  • Do you pre-burn automotive halogen bulbs? - CandlePowerForums 1 February 2010 2:16 UTC www.candlepowerforums.com [Source type: General]

^ Because chlorine is water soluble, exposure to the gas irritates the mucous membranes and eyes at concentrations (in air) of under 3 parts per million (ppm).
  • Issue Brief: Industrial Chemicals as Weapons: Chlorine 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.nti.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This reddish-yellow gas crystallizes as orange crystals at −59 °C. As one of several oxides of chlorine, it is a potent and useful oxidizing agent used in water treatment and in bleaching.
  • Miracle Mineral Solution-Chlorine Dioxide 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.cassiopaea.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The gas does not obey Henry's law, that is, its solubility in water is not proportional to its pressure.^ Because chlorine is water soluble, exposure to the gas irritates the mucous membranes and eyes at concentrations (in air) of under 3 parts per million (ppm).
  • Issue Brief: Industrial Chemicals as Weapons: Chlorine 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.nti.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ EMERG/topic851.htm Background: Chlorine gas is a pulmonary irritant with intermediate water solubility that causes acute damage in the upper and lower respiratory tract.

^ Exposure to chlorine gas may be prolonged because its moderate water solubility may not cause upper airway symptoms for several minutes.

.It is one of the "strong" acids, being ionized to the extent of about 91.4% in decinormal solution.^ A strong acid is one which is fully ionised in solution.
  • Hydrogen halides as acids 12 September 2009 10:23 UTC www.chemguide.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Always activate the MMS drops with one of the food acids, either lemon juice drops, or lime juice drops, or citric acid solution drops (to make citric acid solution add 1 level tablespoon of citric acid and 9 tablespoons of water.
  • Miracle Mineral Solution-Chlorine Dioxide 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.cassiopaea.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One of the nice things about being in the same office is that we can share ideas and learn from the experiences of our peers.

.The strongest aqueous solution of hydrochloric acid at 15° C. contains 42.9% of the acid, and has a specific gravity of 1.212. Perfectly dry hydrochloric acid gas has no action on metals, but in aqueous solution it dissolves many of them with evolution of hydrogen and formation of chlorides.^ HCl Hydrochloric acid or hydrogen chloride .
  • Chlorine compounds glossary: chemistry of dioxins, chlorinated solvents and trichlorothane 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.eurochlor.org [Source type: Reference]

^ HYDROGEN CHLORIDE Hydrogen chloride is a colourless gas with a pungent odour; its aqueous solution is known as hydrochloric acid.
  • Chlorine compounds glossary: chemistry of dioxins, chlorinated solvents and trichlorothane 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.eurochlor.org [Source type: Reference]

^ When hydrogen chloride dissolves in water it becomes hydrochloric acid.
  • chlorine as disinfectant for water 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.lenntech.com [Source type: Reference]

.The salts of hydrochloric acid, known as chlorides, can, in most cases, be prepared by dissolving either the metal, its hydroxide, oxide, or carbonate in the acid; or by heating the metal in a current of chlorine, or by precipitation.^ When hydrogen chloride dissolves in water it becomes hydrochloric acid.
  • chlorine as disinfectant for water 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.lenntech.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Chlorine is also used widely as a chemical reagent in the synthesis and manufacture of metallic chlorides, chlorinated solvents, pesticides, polymers, synthetic rubbers, and refrigerants.
  • ATSDR - MMG: Chlorine 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.atsdr.cdc.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ We know that the current best method for preparing "halogens" in flux materials for quantitative analysis, is to convert the two different chemical types (ionic and covalent) to the ionic halide salts by using a so-called "oxygen bomb", whereby the material to be tested is placed in a metal chamber that is pressurized with oxygen and then heated.

The majority of the metallic chlorides are solids (stannic chloride, titanic chloride and antimony pentachloride are liquids) which readily volatilize on heating. .Many are readily soluble in water, the chief exceptions being silver chloride, mercurous chloride, cuprous chloride and palladious chloride which are insoluble in water, and thallous chloride and lead chloride which are only slightly soluble in cold water, but are readily soluble in hot water.^ Chlorine is slightly soluble in water.
  • How to Handle a Chlorine Bomb | Danger Room | Wired.com 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.wired.com [Source type: General]

^ Gases are as a rule less soluble in hot water, and when water is heated or the free chlorine content in water is greatly reduced, the chlorine escaping into the air.
  • Chlorine Kills... 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC chlorinekills.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Chlorine is only slightly soluble in water, but on contact with moisture it forms hypochlorous acid (HClO) and hydrochloric acid (HCl); the unstable HClO readily decomposes, forming oxygen free radicals.
  • ATSDR - MMG: Chlorine 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.atsdr.cdc.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Bismuth and antimony chlorides are decomposed by water with production of oxychlorides, whilst titanium tetrachloride yields titanic acid under the same conditions.^ The hydrochloric acid also breaks down; its breakdown products will lower the pH of the water (makes it more acidic).” .
  • How to Handle a Chlorine Bomb | Danger Room | Wired.com 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.wired.com [Source type: General]

^ The clinical chemistry and urine analysis yielded results wherein the values for the control and test rats are consistent with reported values for rats under standard laboratory conditions.

^ Chlorine concentrations in water decline very quickly under a variety of swimming pool and environmental conditions.
  • A Matter of Concern 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC coachsci.sdsu.edu [Source type: Academic]

.All the metallic chlorides, with the exception of those of the alkali and alkaline earth metals, are reduced either to the metallic condition or to that of a lower chloride on heating in a current of hydrogen; most are decomposed by concentrated sulphuric acid.^ The compound is released into the air by direct and indirect sources and breaks down in the lower atmosphere into carbon dioxide, phosgene (carbonic dichloride), and hydrogen chloride.
  • Atmospheric Chemistry Glossary 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.shsu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ In the Antarctic stratosphere, molecular chlorine along with nitric acid are formed by the reaction of hydrogen chloride and chlorine nitrate--both stratospheric chlorine reservoir species.
  • Atmospheric Chemistry Glossary 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.shsu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Oxidation of hydrogen chloride with nitrogen oxide as catalyst and absorption of steam with sulfuric acid ("KeloChlor" process).

.They can be distinguished from the corresponding bromides and iodides by the fact that on distillation with a mixture of potassium bichromate and concentrated sulphuric acid they yield chromium oxychloride, whereas bromides and iodides by the same treatment give bromine and iodine respectively.^ They interfere so much so that this treatment should not be taken at the same time as certain other alternative cancer treatments which include vitamin C, other antioxidants or immune builders.
  • Miracle Mineral Solution-Chlorine Dioxide 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.cassiopaea.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Some metallic chlorides readily form double chlorides, the most important of these double salts being the platinochlorides of the alkali metals.^ Chlorine (Cl[2]) is a highly reactive, pale green gas produced industrially by the electrolysis of readily available aqueous sodium chloride (table salt).
  • Issue Brief: Industrial Chemicals as Weapons: Chlorine 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.nti.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most water softeners use salt (sodium chloride) to regenerate or clean themselves.
  • Well Water Chlorination Systems and Options 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.budgetwater.com [Source type: General]

^ A powerful oxidizing agent, it is the most abundant dissolved ion in ocean water, and readily combines with nearly every other element, including sodium to form salt crystals, and magnesium, as magnesium chloride.
  • Miracle Mineral Solution-Chlorine Dioxide 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.cassiopaea.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The chlorides of the nonmetallic elements are usually volatile fuming liquids of low boilingpoint, which can be distilled without decomposition and are decomposed by water. .Hydrochloric acid and its metallic salts can be recognized by the formation of insoluble silver chloride, on adding silver nitrate to their nitric acid solution, and also by the formation of chromium oxychloride (see above).^ In the Antarctic stratosphere, molecular chlorine along with nitric acid are formed by the reaction of hydrogen chloride and chlorine nitrate--both stratospheric chlorine reservoir species.
  • Atmospheric Chemistry Glossary 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.shsu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ But in sea water as well as in natural mineral formations, chlorine exists in the safe, inorganic form as the safe negative chloride ion (salt - NaCl).

^ You can produce chlorine dioxide with a single drop, when an “activator” of vinegar, lemon juice, or a 10% solution of citric acid is added.
  • Miracle Mineral Solution-Chlorine Dioxide 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.cassiopaea.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Chlorides can be estimated quantitatively by conversion into silver chloride, or if in the form of alkaline chlorides (in the absence of other metals, and of any free acids) by titration with standard silver nitrate solution, using potassium chromate as an indicator.^ Chlorine is also used widely as a chemical reagent in the synthesis and manufacture of metallic chlorides, chlorinated solvents, pesticides, polymers, synthetic rubbers, and refrigerants.
  • ATSDR - MMG: Chlorine 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.atsdr.cdc.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Disinfection of bacteria in water systems by using electrolytically generated copper:silver and reduced levels of free chlorine.
  • A Matter of Concern 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC coachsci.sdsu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ PCF, or Process Chlorine Free , indicates that a product is made with recycled fibres and that no chlorine compounds have been used in the recycling process.
  • Pulp Pollution Primer 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.rfu.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Chlorine and oxygen do not combine directly, but compounds can be obtained indirectly.^ So you see it's the chlorine dioxide ion (the combination of chlorine and oxygen) that does the work and it has a great deal more ability to oxidize pathogens than oxygen.
  • Miracle Mineral Solution-Chlorine Dioxide 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.cassiopaea.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Combined residual chlorination is the application of chlorine to water to react with ammonia (natural or added) or other nitrogen compounds to produce a combined available chlorine residual.
  • Water Purification Handbook Chapter 27 Chlorine and Chlorine alternatives 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.gewater.com [Source type: Academic]

^ That compound reacts directly > with chlorine (hypochlorites), chloramines and free ammonia.
  • Chlorine 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.thekrib.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Three oxides are known: chlorine monoxide, Cl 2 0, chlorine peroxide, C102, and chlorine heptoxide, C1207.
.Chlorine monoxide results on passing chlorine over dry precipitated mercuric oxide.^ The reaction of chlorine and ethylene is explosive at room temperature over yellow mercuric oxide, mercurous oxide, or silver oxide.

^ QC REVIEWED** The reaction of chlorine and methane is explosive at room temperature over yellow mercuric oxide.

^ QC REVIEWED** Chlorine reacts rapidly at room temperature with both mercuric oxide and silver oxide.

.It is a pale yellow gas which can be condensed, on cooling, to a dark-coloured liquid boiling at 5° C. (under a pressure of 737.9 mm.^ Because of the hazards of chlorine leakage, feed equipment is designed to maintain the chlorine gas below atmospheric pressure by operating under a vacuum.
  • Water Purification Handbook Chapter 27 Chlorine and Chlorine alternatives 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.gewater.com [Source type: Academic]

^ It condenses to an amber liquid at approximately -34 degrees C (-29.2 degrees F) or at high pressures.
  • Chlorine 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.osha.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Pathophysiology: Chlorine is a greenish-yellow, noncombustible gas at room temperature and atmospheric pressure.

). It is extremely unstable, decomposing with extreme violence on the slightest shock or disturbance, or on exposure to sunlight. .It is readily soluble in water, with which it combines to form hypochlorous acid.^ It readily dissolves in water, where it combines with molecules of oxygen and hydrogen to form hypochlorous acid and hypochlorite ion.
  • Chlorine 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.gjne.com [Source type: Academic]

^ It reacts with water to form hypochlorous acid and hydrochloric acid.
  • How to Handle a Chlorine Bomb | Danger Room | Wired.com 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.wired.com [Source type: General]

^ Alternatively, chlorine may be converted to hypochlorous acid which can penetrate cells and react with cytoplasmic proteins to form N-chloro derivatives that destroy cell structure.
  • ATSDR - MMG: Chlorine 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.atsdr.cdc.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Sulphur, phosphorus, carbon compounds, and the alkali metals react violently with the gas, taking fire with explosive decomposition.^ Chlorine reacts explosively or forms explosive compounds with many common substances such as acetylene, ether, turpentine, ammonia, fuel gas, hydrogen, and finely divided metals.
  • ATSDR - MMG: Chlorine 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.atsdr.cdc.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ When dosing chlorine one has to take into acount that chlorine reacts with compounds in the water.
  • chlorine as disinfectant for water 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.lenntech.com [Source type: Reference]

^ It is a strong oxidizing agent and can react explosively or form explosive compounds with many common substances.
  • ATSDR - MMG: Chlorine 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.atsdr.cdc.gov [Source type: Academic]

.A. J. Balard determined the volume composition of the gas by decomposition over mercury on gentle warming, followed by the absorption of the chlorine produced with potassium hydroxide, and then measured the residual oxygen.^ Chlorine (Cl[2]) is a highly reactive, pale green gas produced industrially by the electrolysis of readily available aqueous sodium chloride (table salt).
  • Issue Brief: Industrial Chemicals as Weapons: Chlorine 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.nti.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Mixing household cleaning agents (bleach with acids or ammonia) produces chlorine gas and other active chlorine compounds such as chloramine.

^ When chlorine gas is added to water, it reacts to form hypochlorite and hydrochloric acid: CL2 + H2O ---> HOCl + H + Cl the hypochlorite can further ionize to form: HOCL <---> H + OCl "Free residual chlorine" is the usual measure of chlorination effectiveness, which is the sum of [HOCL] and [OCl].
  • Chlorine 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.thekrib.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Chlorine peroxide was first obtained by Sir H. Davy in 1815 by the action of concentrated sulphuric acid on potassium chlorate.^ Potassium peroxide sulphate and chlorine did not result in a significant improvement in water quality.
  • A Matter of Concern 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC coachsci.sdsu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ First, the water molecule (H 2 O) is broken down, causing electrons to be released which reduce the chlorine atom of underchloric acid to chloride (Cl - ).
  • chlorine as disinfectant for water 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.lenntech.com [Source type: Reference]

^ NOTE: If the chlorine level stays too high for an extended period of time, the first chemical you need to have tested is the Cyanuric Acid level.
  • Chlorine 19 November 2009 17:57 UTC www.poolmanual.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.As this oxide is a dangerous explosive, great care must be taken in its preparation; the chlorate is finely powdered and added in the cold, in small quantities at a time, to the acid contained in a retort.^ Remember, once drained and refilled, Cyanuric Acid ("Conditioner" or "Stabilizer") will need to be added again, because tap water contains almost no trace of Cyanuric Acid.
  • Chlorine 19 November 2009 17:57 UTC www.poolmanual.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The carboxylic acids neutralize the sodium hydroxide and at the same time convert a small portion of the chlorite (ClO2-) to its conjugate acid known as chlorous acid (HClO2).
  • Miracle Mineral Solution-Chlorine Dioxide 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.cassiopaea.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Every time a stabilized chlorine is added, some cyanuric acid is contributed to the water.
  • chlorine stabilizer/conditioner: pool water chemistry & help - stabilizing the swimming pool chlorine level 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.askalanaquestion.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.After solution the retort is gently heated by warm water when the gasisliberated: 3KC10 3 +2H 2 SO 4 = KC104+2KHS04+H20+C102. A mixture of chlorine peroxide and chlorine is obtained by the action of hydrochloric acid on potassium chlorate, and similarly, on warming a mixture of potassium chlorate and oxalic acid to 70° C. on the water bath, a mixture of chlorine peroxide and carbon dioxide is obtained.^ Chlorine dioxide dissolves in water to produce chlorate and chlorite ions.
  • Chlorine Dioxide 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.osha.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Gases are as a rule less soluble in hot water, and when water is heated or the free chlorine content in water is greatly reduced, the chlorine escaping into the air.
  • Chlorine Kills... 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC chlorinekills.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Sodium hypochlorite, which is a component of commercial bleaches, cleaning solutions, and disinfectants for drinking water and waste water purification systems and swimming pools, releases chlorine gas when it comes in contact with acids.
  • ATSDR - MMG: Chlorine 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.atsdr.cdc.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Chlorine peroxide must be collected by displacement, as it is soluble in water and readily attacks mercury.^ Chlorine is slightly soluble in water.
  • How to Handle a Chlorine Bomb | Danger Room | Wired.com 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.wired.com [Source type: General]

^ It is highly water soluble (3 L chlorine/ 1 L water).
  • chlorine as disinfectant for water 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.lenntech.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Gases are as a rule less soluble in hot water, and when water is heated or the free chlorine content in water is greatly reduced, the chlorine escaping into the air.
  • Chlorine Kills... 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC chlorinekills.com [Source type: Academic]

It is a heavy gas of a deep yellow colour and possesses an unpleasant smell. .It can be liquefied, the liquid boiling at 9.9° C., and on further cooling it solidifies at - 79° C. It is very explosive, being resolved into its constituents by influence of light, on warming, or on application of shock.^ The tourists are crashing into each other so much the air is full of sirens and when they are not crashing at the traffic lights they are being carted off on stretchers with heatstroke.

.It is a very powerful oxidant; a mixture of potassium chlorate and sugar in about equal proportions spontaneously inflames when touched with a rod moistened with concentrated sulphuric acid, the chlorine peroxide liberated setting fire to the sugar, which goes on burning.^ Chlorine dioxide is a powerful oxidant.
  • Water Purification Handbook Chapter 27 Chlorine and Chlorine alternatives 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.gewater.com [Source type: Academic]

^ If concentrated chlorine gas or chlorine-generating solutions contact the skin, chemical burns may occur; treat as thermal burns.
  • ATSDR - MMG: Chlorine 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.atsdr.cdc.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Water dissolves about twice its volume of chlorine gas, forming a mixture of hydrochloric acid and hypochlorous acids.
  • How to Handle a Chlorine Bomb | Danger Room | Wired.com 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.wired.com [Source type: General]

.Similarly, phosphorus can be burned under water by covering it with a little potassium chlorate and running in a thin stream of concentrated sulphuric acid (see papers by Bray, Zeit.^ Because chlorine is water soluble, exposure to the gas irritates the mucous membranes and eyes at concentrations (in air) of under 3 parts per million (ppm).
  • Issue Brief: Industrial Chemicals as Weapons: Chlorine 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.nti.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Chlorine concentrations in water decline very quickly under a variety of swimming pool and environmental conditions.
  • A Matter of Concern 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC coachsci.sdsu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Proteins which present residue(s) of the amino acid L-cysteine are discussed above under TARGETING THIOLS. L-tyrosine presents a phenol group and is therefore similarly vulnerable.
  • Miracle Mineral Solution-Chlorine Dioxide 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.cassiopaea.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

phys. Chem.,
1906, et seq.).
.Chlorine heptoxide was obtained by A. Michael by slowly adding perchloric acid to phosphoric oxide below - 10° C.; the mixture is allowed to stand for a day and then gently warmed, when the oxide distils over as a colourless very volatile oil of boiling-point 82° C. It turns to a greenish-yellow colour in two or three days and gives off a greenish gas; it explodes violently on percussion or in contact with a flame, and is gradually converted into perchloric acid by the action of water.^ Chlorine gas is greenish-yellow, and its density is about 2 times that of air.
  • Water Purification Handbook Chapter 27 Chlorine and Chlorine alternatives 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.gewater.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Chlorine does NOT form hydrochloric acid on contact with water.
  • How to Handle a Chlorine Bomb | Danger Room | Wired.com 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.wired.com [Source type: General]

^ Due to these same work schedules or errands, you may inadvertently neglect chlorine for a day or two, and the level will drop below that 1.0 minimum ppm-this is where poor water chemistry issues, such as cloudy or murky water, as well as the presence of algae, become very probable.
  • Chlorine 19 November 2009 17:57 UTC www.poolmanual.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.On the addition of iodine to this oxide, chlorine is liberated and a white substance is produced, which decomposes, on heating to 380° C., into iodine and oxygen; bromine is without action (see A. Michael, Amer.^ Gases are as a rule less soluble in hot water, and when water is heated or the free chlorine content in water is greatly reduced, the chlorine escaping into the air.
  • Chlorine Kills... 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC chlorinekills.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Halides are highly reactive elements in the halogen family: fluorine, chlorine, bromine, and iodine.
  • Pulp Pollution Primer 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.rfu.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In addition, smoke inhilation can be a health problem even without PVC and brominated flame retardants.

Chem. Jour.,
1900, vol. 23; 1901, vol. 25).
.Several oxy-acids of chlorine are known, namely, hypochlorous acid, HC10, chlorous acid, HC10 2 (in the form of its salts), chloric acid, HC10 3, and perchloric acid, HC10 4. Hypochlorous acid is formed when chlorine monoxide dissolves in water, and can be prepared (in dilute solution) by passing chlorine through water containing precipitated mercuric oxide in suspension.^ Water dissolves about twice its volume of chlorine gas, forming a mixture of hydrochloric acid and hypochlorous acids.
  • How to Handle a Chlorine Bomb | Danger Room | Wired.com 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.wired.com [Source type: General]

^ The chlorine contained in processed drinking water."
  • Chlorine Kills... 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC chlorinekills.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Chlorine does NOT form hydrochloric acid on contact with water.
  • How to Handle a Chlorine Bomb | Danger Room | Wired.com 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.wired.com [Source type: General]

.Precipitated calcium carbonate may be used in place of the mercuric oxide, or a hypochlorite may be decomposed by a dilute mineral acid and the resulting solution distilled.^ The use of high-hardness waters for dilution can cause precipitation of calcium salts due to the high pH of the hypochlorite solution.
  • Water Purification Handbook Chapter 27 Chlorine and Chlorine alternatives 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.gewater.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The purine ring was more resistant to attack, but parabanic acid resulted from the reaction of aqueous hypochlorite with guanine, adenine, or xanthine for one week.

^ Determination of a worker's exposure to airborne chlorine is made using amidget fritted glass bubbler (MFGB) containing a 0.1 percent solution of sulfamic acid.
  • Chlorine 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.osha.gov [Source type: Academic]

.For this purpose a filtered solution of bleaching-powder and a very dilute solution of nitric acid may be employed.^ This may allow it to combine with other substances, creating a very important substance that the immune system utilizes to make hypochlorous acid.
  • Miracle Mineral Solution-Chlorine Dioxide 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.cassiopaea.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Chlorine gas can also be generated by the salt process (which employs the reaction between sodium chloride and nitric acid), by the hydrochloric acid oxidation process, and by the electrolysis of hydrochloric acid solutions.
  • Water Purification Handbook Chapter 27 Chlorine and Chlorine alternatives 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.gewater.com [Source type: Academic]

^ However, clothing or skin soaked with industrial-strength chlorine bleach or similar solutions may be corrosive to rescuers and may release harmful chlorine gas.
  • ATSDR - MMG: Chlorine 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.atsdr.cdc.gov [Source type: Academic]

.The acid is only known in aqueous solution, and only dilute solutions can be distilled without decomposition.^ As you have pointed out the only solution in your situation is to reduce the irritation to breathing -- flushing the air as much as possible by diluting and/or removing it with "clean" air.

^ Then when we add apple juice (or other juice without vitamin C) it dilutes the solution so that there is about 1 ppm of chlorine dioxide in the total apple juice mixture.
  • Miracle Mineral Solution-Chlorine Dioxide 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.cassiopaea.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The diluted solution can be taken without food to enhance effectiveness but this often causes nausea.
  • Miracle Mineral Solution-Chlorine Dioxide 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.cassiopaea.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The solution has a pale yellow colour, and is a strong oxidizing and bleaching agent; it is readily decomposed by hydrochloric acid, with evolution of oxygen.^ Chlorine is only slightly soluble in water, but on contact with moisture it forms hypochlorous acid (HClO) and hydrochloric acid (HCl); the unstable HClO readily decomposes, forming oxygen free radicals.
  • ATSDR - MMG: Chlorine 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.atsdr.cdc.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Because ozone is a strong oxidizing agent, it is a potential safety hazard.
  • Water Purification Handbook Chapter 27 Chlorine and Chlorine alternatives 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.gewater.com [Source type: Academic]

^ It is a gas at room temperature and when released, it readily reacts with oxidizing agents, most quickly with hydroxyl radical, half life ~ 40 days.
  • Atmospheric Chemistry Glossary 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.shsu.edu [Source type: Academic]

.The salts of this acid are known as hypochlorites, and like the acid itself are very unstable, so that it is almost impossible to obtain them pure.^ False statement:Good bacteria cant be harmed-- what about GOOD bacteria that thrive in ACID environments ( almost all of the probiotics like lactobacillus).
  • Miracle Mineral Solution-Chlorine Dioxide 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.cassiopaea.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Meat comes out very tender and juicy, and oven chips taste almost like they were fried (normally they are a bit hard when done in a conventional oven).
  • JML Halogen Oven : Read reviews and compare prices at Ciao.co.uk 1 February 2010 2:16 UTC www.ciao.co.uk [Source type: General]

.A solution of sodium hypochlorite (Eau de Javel), which can be prepared by passing chlorine into a cold aqueous solution of caustic soda, has been extensively used for bleaching purposes.^ Sodium hypochlorite, also referred to as liquid bleach, is the most widely used of all the chlorinated bleaches.
  • Water Purification Handbook Chapter 27 Chlorine and Chlorine alternatives 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.gewater.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Sodium hypochlorite can be used in place of the gaseous chlorine to generate chlorine dioxide.
  • Water Purification Handbook Chapter 27 Chlorine and Chlorine alternatives 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.gewater.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Chlorine (Cl[2]) is a highly reactive, pale green gas produced industrially by the electrolysis of readily available aqueous sodium chloride (table salt).
  • Issue Brief: Industrial Chemicals as Weapons: Chlorine 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.nti.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.One of the most important derivatives of hypochlorous acid is bleaching powder.^ Hypochlorous acid is probably the most important acid of the immune system.
  • Miracle Mineral Solution-Chlorine Dioxide 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.cassiopaea.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Alternatively, chlorine may be converted to hypochlorous acid which can penetrate cells and react with cytoplasmic proteins to form N-chloro derivatives that destroy cell structure.
  • ATSDR - MMG: Chlorine 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.atsdr.cdc.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ This may allow it to combine with other substances, creating a very important substance that the immune system utilizes to make hypochlorous acid.
  • Miracle Mineral Solution-Chlorine Dioxide 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.cassiopaea.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Sodium hypochlorite can be prepared by the electrolysis of brine solution in the presence of carbon electrodes, having no diaphragm in the electrolytic cell, and mixing the anode and cathode products by agitating the liquid.^ PEER REVIEWED** Electrolysis of sodium chloride brine in either diaphragm or mercury cathode cells; chlorine is released at the anode.

^ Chlorine is generated commercially by the electrolysis of a brine solution, typically sodium chloride, in any of three types of cells: diaphragm, mercury, or membrane.
  • Water Purification Handbook Chapter 27 Chlorine and Chlorine alternatives 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.gewater.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Chlorine is produced commercially by electrolysis of sodium chloride brine.
  • ATSDR - MMG: Chlorine 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.atsdr.cdc.gov [Source type: Academic]

.The temperature should be kept at about 15° C., and the concentration of the hypochlorite produced must not be allowed to become too great, in order to prevent reduction taking place at the cathode.^ Your hardness is not low and you should not allow it to rise higher, by using calcium hypochlorite.
  • chlorine stabilizer/conditioner: pool water chemistry & help - stabilizing the swimming pool chlorine level 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.askalanaquestion.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Applying this method to data for the Great Lakes produces strong multi-media evidence for large declines in PCB concentrations over the last 30 years.
  • Canadian Chlorine Coordinating Committee 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.cfour.org [Source type: Academic]

^ It is indisputable that should a large chlorine release such as the Graniteville accident take place in the future, it would pose a substantial danger to the public.
  • Issue Brief: Industrial Chemicals as Weapons: Chlorine 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.nti.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Chlorous acid is not known in the pure condition; but its sodium salt is prepared by the action of sodium peroxide on a solution of chlorine peroxide: 2C10 2 +Na 2 0 2 =2NaC10 2 +0 2. The silver and lead salts are unstable, being decomposed with explosive violence at 100° C. On adding a caustic alkali solution to one of chlorine peroxide, a mixture of a chlorite and a chlorate is obtained.^ It is commonly generated by adding acid to sodium chlorite (NaClO2) solution.
  • Miracle Mineral Solution-Chlorine Dioxide 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.cassiopaea.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Mixtures of chlorine and hydrogen gases are explosive.

^ Chlorine (Cl[2]) is a highly reactive, pale green gas produced industrially by the electrolysis of readily available aqueous sodium chloride (table salt).
  • Issue Brief: Industrial Chemicals as Weapons: Chlorine 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.nti.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Chloric acid was discovered in 1786 by C. L. Berthollet, and is best prepared by decomposing barium chlorate with the calculated amount of dilute sulphuric acid. .The aqueous solution can be concentrated in vacuo over sulphuric acid until it contains 40% of chloric acid.^ Determination of a worker's exposure to airborne chlorine is made using amidget fritted glass bubbler (MFGB) containing a 0.1 percent solution of sulfamic acid.
  • Chlorine 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.osha.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Further concentration leads to decomposition, with evolution of oxygen and formation of perchloric acid.^ The reaction of chlorine gas and water increases the H + ion concentration and decreases pH by the formation of hydrochloric acid.
  • Water Purification Handbook Chapter 27 Chlorine and Chlorine alternatives 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.gewater.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Formation and Evolution of Trihalomethanes and Haloacetic Acids in Drinking Water Distribution Systems.
  • Canadian Chlorine Coordinating Committee 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.cfour.org [Source type: Academic]

.The concentrated solution is a powerful oxidizing agent; organic matter being oxidized so rapidly that it frequently inflames.^ This powerful oxidizing agent is used for: .
  • Water Purification Handbook Chapter 27 Chlorine and Chlorine alternatives 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.gewater.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Ozone is a very effective, clean oxidizing agent possessing powerful antibacterial and antiviral properties.
  • Water Purification Handbook Chapter 27 Chlorine and Chlorine alternatives 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.gewater.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Personnel may also use a large amount of a concentrated solution of reducing agent (bisulfites or soda ash to dilute the chlorine dioxide.
  • Chlorine Dioxide 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.osha.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Hydrochloric acid, sulphuretted hydrogen and sulphurous acid are rapidly oxidized by chloric acid.^ In chemically pure water, molecular chlorine reacts with water and rapidly hydrolyzes to hypochlorous acid (HOCl) and hydrochloric acid (HCl): .
  • Water Purification Handbook Chapter 27 Chlorine and Chlorine alternatives 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.gewater.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Chlorine reacts with hydrogen sulfide and water to form hydrochloric acid, and it reacts with carbon monoxide and sulfur dioxide to form phosgene and sulfuryl chloride.
  • Chlorine 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.osha.gov [Source type: Academic]

J. S. Stas determined its composition by the analysis of pure silver chlorate. The salts of this acid are known as chlorates (q.v.).
Perchloric acid is best prepared by distilling potassium perchlorate with concentrated sulphuric acid. .According to Sir H. Roscoe, pure perchlo: is acid distils over at first, but if the distillation be continued a white crystalline mass of hydrated perchloric acid, HC104 H20, passes over; this is due to the decomposition of some of the acid into water and lower oxides of chlorine, the water produced then combining with the pure acid to produce the hydrated form.^ LIQUID CHLORINE: Water is combined with the chlorine gas to produce liquid chlorine.
  • Chlorine 19 November 2009 17:57 UTC www.poolmanual.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Gases are as a rule less soluble in hot water, and when water is heated or the free chlorine content in water is greatly reduced, the chlorine escaping into the air.
  • Chlorine Kills... 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC chlorinekills.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The results: 95% of the chickens given chlorine added to distilled water developed atherosclerosis within a few months.
  • Chlorine Kills... 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC chlorinekills.com [Source type: Academic]

.This solid, on redistillation, gives the pure acid, which is a liquid boiling at 39° C. (under a pressure of 56 mm.^ Under increased pressure or at temperatures below -30ºF, it is a clear, amber-colored liquid.
  • ATSDR - MMG: Chlorine 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.atsdr.cdc.gov [Source type: Academic]

) and of specific gravity 1.764 0,2'). The crystalline hydrate melts at 50° C. The pure acid decomposes slowly on standing, but is stable in dilute aqueous solution. .It is a very powerful oxidizing agent; wood and paper in contact with the acid inflame with explosive violence.^ There are dozens of research papers which state that when it comes in contact with strong stomach acids, it breaks down into oxygen immediately.
  • Miracle Mineral Solution-Chlorine Dioxide 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.cassiopaea.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is a strong oxidizing agent and can react explosively or form explosive compounds with many common substances.
  • ATSDR - MMG: Chlorine 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.atsdr.cdc.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Hypochlorous acid/ [Hoyano Y et al; Biochem Biophys Res Commun 53 (4): 1195-9 (1973)]**PEER REVIEWED** Chlorine is a strong oxidizing agent that forms both hypochlorous and hydrochloric acid on contact with moist mucous membranes.

In contact with the skin it produces painful wounds. .It may be distinguished from chloric acid by the fact that it does not give chlorine peroxide when treated with concentrated sulphuric acid, and that it is not reduced by sulphurous acid.^ Alternatively, chlorine may be converted to hypochlorous acid which can penetrate cells and react with cytoplasmic proteins to form N-chloro derivatives that destroy cell structure.
  • ATSDR - MMG: Chlorine 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.atsdr.cdc.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ It was concluded/ that even though chlorine does not produce any serious subjective symptoms at low concentrations, it adversely affects pulmonary function transiently.

^ High cyanuric acid levels can reduce chlorine efficiency, but is not directly linked to water clarity issues.
  • chlorine stabilizer/conditioner: pool water chemistry & help - stabilizing the swimming pool chlorine level 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.askalanaquestion.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The salts of the acid are known as the perchlorates, and are all soluble in water; the potassium and rubidium salts, however, are only soluble to a slight extent.^ Chlorine is only slightly soluble in water, but on contact with moisture it forms hypochlorous acid (HClO) and hydrochloric acid (HCl); the unstable HClO readily decomposes, forming oxygen free radicals.
  • ATSDR - MMG: Chlorine 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.atsdr.cdc.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ The more sophisticated chemical testing software programs we use to analysis water all make a 30% adjustment for cyanuric acid, in the total alkalinity readings.
  • chlorine stabilizer/conditioner: pool water chemistry & help - stabilizing the swimming pool chlorine level 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.askalanaquestion.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ C4 is enhancing this study by supporting the collection and analysis of haloacetic acids (HAA) and lead in all collected water samples.
  • Canadian Chlorine Coordinating Committee 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.cfour.org [Source type: Academic]

Potassium perchlorate, Kcio 4, can be obtained by carefully heating the chlorate until it first melts and then nearly all solidifies again. .The fused mass is then extracted with water to remove potassium chloride, and warmed with hydrochloric acid to remove unaltered chlorate, and finally extracted with water again, when a residue of practically pure perchlorate is obtained.^ PPS. As a matter of standard practice, I use pure tap water whenever possible, to avoid accidents with osmotic-shock problems.
  • Chlorine 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.thekrib.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Chlorine dioxide reacts with water or steam to form toxic and corrosive fumes of hydrochloric acid.
  • Chlorine Dioxide 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.osha.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Whatever they mean by "oxide of chlorides compound" could be any number of substances from chlorine dioxide (ClO2) to perchloric acid (HClO4).
  • Miracle Mineral Solution-Chlorine Dioxide 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.cassiopaea.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The alkaline perchlorates are isomorphous with the permanganates.


Simple English

[[File:|thumb|Chlorine gas in a tube]] Chlorine (chemical symbol Cl) is a chemical element. Its atomic number (which is the number of protons in it) is 17, and its atomic mass is 35.45. It is part of the 7th column (halogens) on the periodic table of elements.

Contents

Properties

Physical properties

Chlorine is very irritating and greenish-yellow gas. It has a strong smell like bleach. It is toxic. It can be made into a liquid when cooled. It is heavier than air.

Chemical properties

Chlorine is highly reactive. It is more reactive than bromine but less reactive than fluorine. It reacts with most things to make chlorides. It can even burn things instead of oxygen. It dissolves in water to make a mixture of hypochlorous acid and hydrochloric acid. The more acidic it is, the more chlorine is made; the more basic it is, the more hypochlorous acid (normally turned into hypochlorite) and hydrochloric acid (normally turned into chlorides) are there. Chlorine reacts with bromides and iodides to make bromine and iodine.

Chlorine compounds

It exists in several oxidation states: -1, +1, +3, +4, +5, and +7. The -1 state is most often in chloride. Chlorides are not reactive. The +1 state is found in hypochlorites. It is a strong oxidizing agent, as are all + oxidation state compounds. +3 is found in chlorites. +4 is found in chlorine dioxide, a common chlorine compound that is not a chloride. +5 is found in chlorates. +7 is found in perchlorates. Hypochlorites are most reactive, while perchlorates are the least reactive.

Many organic compounds have chlorine in them. Freon has chlorine in it. PVC (Poly-vinyl chloride), a common plastic, has chlorine in it.

Chlorine oxides can be made, but most of them are very reactive and unstable.

Occurrence

Chlorine is not found as an element. Sodium chloride is the most common chlorine ore. It is found in the ocean (sea salt) and in the ground (rock salt). There are some organic compounds that have chlorine in them, too.

Preparation

It is made by electrolysis (the passing of electricity through a solution to make chemical reactions happen) of sodium chloride. This is known as the chloralkali process. It can also be made by reacting hydrogen chloride with oxygen and a catalyst. It can be made in the laboratory by reacting manganese dioxide with hydrochloric acid. It is made when sodium hypochlorite reacts with hydrochloric acid. This is a dangerous reaction that can happen without anyone knowing.

Uses

Chlorine is used widely to purify water (usually in a swimming pool), as a disinfectant and bleach, and in the making of many important compounds including chloroform and carbon tetrachloride. It was used as a poison gas in some wars.

History

It was discovered in 1774 by Carl Wilhelm Scheele who thought it had oxygen in it. Chlorine was named in 1810 by Humphry Davy who insisted it was an element. The US made all water chlorinated (added chlorine to water) by 1918.

Safety

It is poisonous in large amounts and can damage skin. When it is inhaled, it irritates the lungs, eyes, and skin badly. It can cause fire with some things because it is very reactive. It is heavier than air, so it can fill up enclosed spaces.

Related pages

frr:Kloor


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 14, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Chlorine, which are similar to those in the above article.








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