Chlorocebus: Wikis

  
  

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Vervet monkeys[1]
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Primates
Family: Cercopithecidae
Subfamily: Cercopithecinae
Genus: Chlorocebus
Gray, 1870
Type species
Simia aethiops
Linnaeus, 1766
Species

Chlorocebus sabaeus
Chlorocebus aethiops
Chlorocebus djamdjamensis
Chlorocebus tantalus
Chlorocebus pygerythrus
Chlorocebus cynosuros

The vervet monkeys or green monkeys are medium-sized primates from the family of Old World monkeys. There are six species currently recognized, although some classify them all as a single species with numerous subspecies. Either way, they make up the entirety of the genus Chlorocebus.

The native range of these monkeys is sub-Saharan Africa from Senegal and Ethiopia down to South Africa. However, in previous centuries, a number of these monkeys were taken as pets by slavers, and were transported across the Atlantic Ocean to the Caribbean islands, along with the enslaved Africans. The monkeys subsequently escaped or were released and became naturalized. The descendents of those populations are found on the West Indian islands of Barbados, Saint Kitts, Nevis, Anguilla, and Saint Maarten. A colony also exists in Broward County, Florida.[2]

Contents

Description

The dorsal fur of the vervet monkey varies by species from pale yellow through grey-green brown to dark brown, while the lower portion and the hair ring around the face is a whitish yellow. The face, hands, and feet are hairless and black, although their abdominal skin is bluish. Males have a blue scrotum and red penis. Vervet monkeys reach an adult size of from 40 to 43 cm for males and 34 to 39 cm for females, with a tail measuring 30 to 50 cm long. Males weigh from 4 to 4.5 kg and females weigh from 2.5 to 3.5 kg.[3]

Behavior and habitat

Vervet monkey with blue scrotum

Unlike the closely related guenons, vervets are not primarily forest dwellers, rather, they are semi-arboreal and semi-terrestrial, spending most of the day on the ground feeding and then sleeping at night in the trees. However they must drink each day and are dependent on water, so they are never far from rivers or lakes. Like most other members of the Cercopithecoidea superfamily, they have cheek pouches for storing food. They are diurnal, and are particularly active in the early morning and in the later afternoon or early evening.

Green monkeys live in large groups, which can consist of some males, many females and their offspring, and can be as large as 80 animals. The group hierarchy plays an important role: dominant males and females are given priority in the search for food, and are groomed by subordinate members of the group. While young males must leave their group once they are fully mature, females remain and take on the role of their mothers. These monkeys are territorial animals, and a group can occupy an area of approximately 0.1 to 1 km². They use a wide variety of vocalizations. They can with warn off members of other groups from their territory, and they can also warn members of their own troop of dangers from predators, using different calls for different predators. Monkeys scream when they are disciplined by members of the troop. Facial expressions and body posturing serve as additional communication tools. Their social interactions are highly complex. Where alliances can be formed for benefit, deception is sometimes used. Physical affection is important between family members.

Yawning vervet monkey in Samburu National Reserve, Kenya

Vervet monkeys are omnivores. The majority of their diet, however, is grasses and fruits. Occasionally they also eat small vertebrates and insects. On the island of Saint Kitts, vervet monkeys will commonly steal brightly coloured alcoholic drinks left behind by tourists on the beach.[4] Many tourists have also found out these monkeys will deliver a powerful bite if they are cornered or threatened. Care should be taken when approaching any vervet monkeys, although these monkeys will retreat from a confrontational situation if given an escape route. If at one point they were domesticated in centuries gone past, they are no longer. In Africa, the documented attacks by these monkeys are extremely rare as compared with dog attacks, in spite of living very closely with humans and often being threatened by humans and their dogs.

In order to signal mating readiness, the female presents her vulva to the male. Since groups are made of several more females than males, each male mates with several females. Generally, the Vervet male will display a striking light-blue scrotal pouch, most prevalent during the mating season. Males do not take part in raising the young, but other females of the group (the "aunties") take part in sharing the burden. The dominance hierarchy also comes into play, as the offspring of the more dominant group members get preferential treatment. The gestation time is about 160 days, and births are typically of a single young. The births usually happen at the beginning of the rainy season, when there is sufficient food available. The young are weaned at about 6 months of age and are fully mature in 4 to 5 years. The life expectancy of the green monkeys is 25 years in captivity, and about 10–12 years in the wild.

Human interaction

In the Caribbean islands, interactions between humans and monkeys are sometimes problematic. On the island of Barbados, farmers complain about the monkeys damaging their crops, and many try to find ways to keep the monkeys at bay. On Halloween of 2006 a monkey was suspected of being the cause of an island-wide 8-hour blackout. The monkey apparently climbed a light pole and tripped an 11,000- and 24,000-volt powerline early that morning.

In Africa, many monkeys are killed by powerlines, dogs, vehicles, shooting, poisoning, and hunting, both as a food source and as a source of traditional medicines. Added to this, there is an increase in desertification, and loss of habitat due to agriculture and urbanisation. As a result the population numbers in troops are declining in urban areas to an average of between 15 and 25 individuals, with many troops disappearing altogether.[5][6][7][8]

Use in scientific research and vaccine production

The African green monkey has been the focus of much scientific research since the 1950s and cell lines derived from its tissues are still used today to produce vaccines for polio[9] and smallpox[citation needed].

Vero cells are a continuous cell line derived from epithelial cells of the African green monkey kidney, and are widely used for research in immunology and infectious disease.

Classification and species

The classification of the vervets is undergoing change. They were previously lumped together with the medium-sized arboreal African monkeys of the Cercopithecus genus, the guenons, where they were classified as a single species, Cercopithecus aethiops. More species[citation needed] and subspecies are expected to be identified as scientists study this genus further.

References

  1. ^ Groves, C. (2005). Wilson, D. E., & Reeder, D. M. ed. Mammal Species of the World (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 158–160. ISBN 0-801-88221-4. http://www.bucknell.edu/msw3/browse.asp?id=12100504. 
  2. ^ Development evolves; they adapt. St. Petersburg Times. Accessed 2008-07-11
  3. ^ Cawthon Lang K. A. 2005. Primate Factsheets: Vervet (Chlorocebus) Taxonomy, Morphology, & Ecology Accessed 2006-01-04.
  4. ^ Alcoholic Vervet Monkeys! - Weird Nature - BBC Worldwide [1] Accessed 2009-09-15.
  5. ^ Monkey shuts down island for seven hours. Caribbean Broadcasting Corporation. Archive copy at the Internet Archive. Accessed 2008-07-11
  6. ^ Monkey business leaves Barbados without electricity. Caribbean Net News. Accessed 2008-07-11
  7. ^ Monkey business. The Barbados Advocate. Archive copy at the Internet Archive. Accessed 2008-07-11
  8. ^ The morning the power went out in Barbados. The Barbados Advocate. Archive copy at the Internet Archive. Accessed 2008-07-11
  9. ^ Cells in Culture. Microscopy Resources Center. Accessed 2008-07-11

External links


Wikispecies

Up to date as of January 23, 2010

From Wikispecies

Chlorocebus aethiops, type species

Taxonavigation

Main Page
Cladus: Eukaryota
Supergroup: Unikonta
Cladus: Opisthokonta
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Cladus: Deuterostomia
Phylum: Chordata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Infraphylum: Gnathostomata
Superclassis: Tetrapoda
Classis: Mammalia
Subclassis: Theria
Infraclassis: Placentalia
Ordo: Primates
Subordo: Haplorrhini
Infraordo: Simiiformes
Parvordo: Catarrhini
Superfamilia: Cercopithecoidea
Familia: Cercopithecidae
Subfamilia: Cercopithecinae
Tribus: Cercopithecini
Genus: Chlorocebus
Species: C. aethiops - C. cynosurus - C. djamdjamensis - C. pygerythrus - C. sabaeus - C. tantalus

Name

Chlorocebus, Gray, 1870

Type species: Simia sabaea Linnaeus, 1766 (= Simia aethiops Linnaeus, 1758)

Synonyms

  • Callithrix Reichenbach, 1862 [not of Erxleben, 1777]
  • Cynocebus Gray, 1870

Vernacular names

Afrikaans: Blauaap
Deutsch: Grüne Meerkatze
English: Vervet Monkeys, Green monkeys
Français: Vervet
Nederlands: Groene meerkatten

References

  • Chlorocebus on Mammal Species of the World.
    Don E. Wilson & DeeAnn M. Reeder (editors). 2005. Mammal Species of the World. A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed).







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