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Cholesterylester transfer protein: Wikis


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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Cholesteryl ester transfer protein, plasma

PDB rendering based on 2obd.
Available structures
Symbols CETP;
External IDs OMIM118470 HomoloGene47904 GeneCards: CETP Gene
RNA expression pattern
PBB GE CETP 206210 s at tn.png
More reference expression data
Species Human Mouse
Entrez 1071 n/a
Ensembl ENSG00000087237 n/a
UniProt P11597 n/a
RefSeq (mRNA) NM_000078 n/a
RefSeq (protein) NP_000069 n/a
Location (UCSC) Chr 16:
55.55 - 55.58 Mb
PubMed search [1] n/a

Cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP), also called plasma lipid transfer protein, is a plasma protein that facilitates the transport of cholesteryl esters and triglycerides between the lipoproteins. It collects triglycerides from very-low-density (VLDL) or low-density lipoproteins (LDL) and exchanges them for cholesteryl esters from high-density lipoproteins (HDL), and vice versa. Most of the time, however, CETP does a homoexchange, trading a triglyceride for a triglyceride or a cholesteryl ester for a cholesteryl ester.



The CETP gene is located on the sixteenth chromosome (16q21).

Role in disease

Rare mutations leading to increased function of CETP have been linked to accelerated atherosclerosis.[1] In contrast, a polymorphism (I405V) of the CETP gene leading to lower serum levels has also been linked to exceptional longevity.[2] However, this mutation also increases the prevalence of coronary heart disease in patients with hypertriglyceridemia.[3] The D442G mutation, which lowers CETP levels and increases HDL levels also increases coronary heart disease.[1]

Elaidic acid, a major component of trans fat, increases CETP activity.[4]


As HDL can alleviate atherosclerosis and other cardiovascular diseases, and certain disease states such as the metabolic syndrome feature low HDL, pharmacological inhibition of CETP is being studied as a method of improving HDL levels.[5] To be specific, in a 2004 study, the small molecular agent torcetrapib was shown to increase HDL levels, alone and with a statin, and lower LDL when co-administered with a statin.[6] Studies into cardiovascular endpoints, however, were largely disappointing. While they confirmed the change in lipid levels, most reported an increase in blood pressure, no change in atherosclerosis,[7][8] and, in a trial of a combination of torcetrapib and atorvastatin, an increase in cardiovascular events and mortality.[9]

A compound related to torcetrapib, with the investigative name JTT-705/R1658, is also being studied.[10] It increases HDL levels by 30%, as compared to 60% by torcetrapib.[11] Another CETP inhibitor under development is Merck's MK-0859 anacetrapib, which in initial studies is not shown to increase blood pressure.[12]


  1. ^ a b Zhong S, Sharp DS, Grove JS, Bruce C, Yano K, Curb JD, Tall AR (June 1996). "Increased coronary heart disease in Japanese-American men with mutation in the cholesteryl ester transfer protein gene despite increased HDL levels". J Clin Invest 97 (12): 2917–23. doi:10.1172/JCI118751. ISSN 0021-9738. PMID 8675707. PMC 507389.  
  2. ^ Barzilai N, Atzmon G, Schechter C, Schaefer EJ, Cupples AL, Lipton R, Cheng S, Shuldiner AR (October 2003). "Unique lipoprotein phenotype and genotype associated with exceptional longevity". JAMA 290 (15): 2030–40. doi:10.1001/jama.290.15.2030. ISSN 0098-7484. PMID 14559957.  
  3. ^ Bruce C, Sharp DS, Tall AR (1 May 1998). "Relationship of HDL and coronary heart disease to a common amino acid polymorphism in the cholesteryl ester transfer protein in men with and without hypertriglyceridemia". J Lipid Res 39 (5): 1071–8. ISSN 0022-2275. PMID 9610775.  
  4. ^ Abbey M, Nestel PJ (March 1994). "Plasma cholesteryl ester transfer protein activity is increased when trans-elaidic acid is substituted for cis-oleic acid in the diet". Atherosclerosis 106 (1): 99–107. doi:10.1016/0021-9150(94)90086-8. ISSN 0021-9150. PMID 8018112.  
  5. ^ Barter PJ, Brewer HB Jr, Chapman MJ, Hennekens CH, Rader DJ, Tall AR (February 2003). "Cholesteryl ester transfer protein: a novel target for raising HDL and inhibiting atherosclerosis". Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 23 (2): 160–7. doi:10.1161/01.ATV.0000054658.91146.64. ISSN 1079-5642. PMID 12588754.  
  6. ^ Brousseau ME, Schaefer EJ, Wolfe ML, Bloedon LT, Digenio AG, Clark RW, Mancuso JP, Rader DJ (April 2004). "Effects of an inhibitor of cholesteryl ester transfer protein on HDL cholesterol". N Engl J Med 350 (15): 1505–15. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa031766. ISSN 0028-4793. PMID 15071125.  
  7. ^ Nissen Se, Tardif JC; Investigators, Illustrate (March 2007). "Effect of torcetrapib on the progression of coronary atherosclerosis". N Engl J Med 356 (13): 1304–16. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa070635. ISSN 0028-4793. PMID 17387129.  
  8. ^ Kastelein Jj, van Leuven SI; Investigators, Radiance 1. (April 2007). "Effect of torcetrapib on carotid atherosclerosis in familial hypercholesterolemia" (abstract). N Engl J Med 356 (16): 1620–30. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa071359. ISSN 0028-4793. PMID 17387131.  
  9. ^ U.S. Food and Drug Administration (2006-12-03). "Pfizer Stops All Torcetrapib Clinical Trials in Interest of Patient Safety". Press release.  
  10. ^ El Harchaoui K, van der Steeg WA, Stroes ES, Kastelein JJ (August 2007). "The role of CETP inhibition in dyslipidemia". Curr Atheroscler Rep 9 (2): 125–33. doi:10.1007/s11883-007-0008-5. ISSN 1523-3804. PMID 17877921.  
  11. ^ de Grooth GJ, Kuivenhoven JA, Stalenhoef AF, de Graaf J, Zwinderman AH, Posma JL, van Tol A, Kastelein JJ (May 2002). "Efficacy and safety of a novel cholesteryl ester transfer protein inhibitor, JTT-705, in humans: a randomized phase II dose-response study". Circulation 105 (18): 2159–65. doi:10.1161/01.CIR.0000015857.31889.7B. ISSN 0009-7322. PMID 11994249.;105/18/2159.  
  12. ^ Reuters (2007-10-04). "Merck announces its investigational CETP-Inhibitor, MK-0859, produced positive effects on lipids with no observed blood pressure changes". Reuters, Inc.. Retrieved 2007-11-04.  

Further reading

External links


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