Chondrichthyes: Wikis

  

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Cartilaginous fishes
Fossil range: 415–0 Ma[1]
Early Devonian to Present
Great white shark, Carcharodon carcharias
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Infraphylum: Gnathostomata
Class: Chondrichthyes
Huxley, 1880
Subclasses

Elasmobranchii
Holocephali

Chondrichthyes (pronounced /kɒnˈdrɪkθi.iːz/) or cartilaginous fishes are jawed fish with paired fins, paired nares, scales, two-chambered hearts, and skeletons made of cartilage rather than bone. They are divided into two subclasses: Elasmobranchii (sharks, rays and skates) and Holocephali (chimaera, sometimes called ghost sharks, which are sometimes separated into their own class).

Within the infraphylum Gnathostomata, cartilaginous fishes are distinct from all other jawed vertebrates, the extant members of which all fall into Teleostomi.

Contents

Anatomy

Skeleton

The skeleton is cartilaginous. The notochord, which is present in the young, is gradually replaced by cartilage. Chondrichthyes also lack ribs, so if they left the water, the larger species's own body weight would crush their internal organs long before they would suffocate.

As they do not have bone marrow, red blood cells are produced in the spleen and special tissue around the gonads. They are also produced in an organ called Leydig's Organ which is only found in cartilaginous fishes, although some do not possess it. Another unique organ is the epigonal organ which probably has a role in the immune system. The subclass Holocephali, which is a very specialized group, lacks both of these organs.

Appendages

Their tough skin is covered with dermal teeth (again with Holocephali as an exception as the teeth are lost in adults, only kept on the clasping organ seen on the front of the male's head), also called placoid scales or dermal denticles, making it feel like sandpaper. In most species, all dermal denticles are oriented in one direction, making the skin feel very smooth if rubbed in one direction and very rough if rubbed in the other.

Originally the pectoral and pelvic girdles, which do not contain any dermal elements, did not connect. In later forms, each pair of fins became ventrally connected in the middle when scapulocoracoid and pubioischiadic bars evolved. In rays, the pectoral fins have connected to the head and are very flexible.

One of the primary characteristics present in most sharks is the heterocercal tail, which aids in locomotion.[2]

Body covering

Chondrichthyes have toothlike scales called denticles or placoid scales. Denticles provide two functions, protection, and in most cases streamlining. Mucous glands exist in some species as well.

It is assumed that their oral teeth evolved from dermal denticles which migrated into the mouth, but it could be the other way around as the teleost bony fish Denticeps clupeoides has most of its head covered by dermal teeth (as does, probably, Atherion elymus, another bony fish). This is most likely a secondary evolved characteristic which means there is not necessarily a connection between the teeth and the original dermal scales.

The old placoderms did not have teeth at all, but had sharp bony plates in their mouth. Thus, it is unknown which of the dermal or oral teeth evolved first. Neither is it sure how many times it has happened if it turns out to be the case. It has even been suggested that the original bony plates of all the vertebrates are gone and that the present scales are just modified teeth, even if both teeth and the body armor have a common origin a long time ago. But for the moment there is no evidence of this.

Respiratory system

Chondrichthyes all breathe through 5-7 gills, depending on the species. In general, pelagic species must keep swimming to keep oxygenated water moving through their gills whilst demersal species can actively pump water in through their spiracles and out through their gills. However, this is only a general rule and many species differ.

A spiracle is a small hole found behind each eye. These can be tiny and circular, such as found on the Nurse Shark (Ginglymostoma cirratum), to extended and slit-like, such as found on the Wobbegongs (Orectolobidae). Many larger, pelagic species such as the Mackerel Sharks (Lamnidae) and the Thresher Sharks (Alopiidae) no longer possess them.

Biology

Fertilization is internal. Development is usually live birth (ovoviviparous species) but can be through eggs (oviparous). Some rare species are viviparous. There is no parental care after birth; however, some Chondrichthyes do guard their eggs.

Taxonomy

The extant members of the Chondrichthyes are the sharks and rays, belonging to the subclass Elasmobranchii, and the chimaeras, belonging to the subclass Holocephali. Nelson's 2006 Fishes of the World arranges the class as follows:

* position uncertain

References

  1. ^ Botella, H., P.C.J. Donoghue and C. Martínez-Pérez (May 2009). "Enameloid microstructure in the oldest known chondrichthyan teeth". Acta Zoologica 90 (Supplement 1): 103–108.
  2. ^ Function of the heterocercal tail in sharks: quantitative wake dynamics during steady horizontal swimming and vertical maneuvering - The Journal of Experimental Biology 205, 2365–2374 (2002)

Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

Contents

Translingual

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Etymology

Ancient Greek chondros = cartilage, ichthys = fish

Proper noun

Chondrichthyes

  1. a taxonomic class, within subphylum Vertebrata - the cartilaginous fish

Related terms

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Wikispecies

Up to date as of January 23, 2010

From Wikispecies

Taxonavigation

Main Page
Cladus: Eukaryota
Supergroup: Unikonta
Cladus: Opisthokonta
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Cladus: Deuterostomia
Phylum: Chordata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Infraphylum: Gnathostomata
Classis: Chondrichthyes
Subclasses: Elasmobranchii - Holocephali

References

  • Roberts, C.D.; Paulin, C.D.; Stewart, A.L.; McPhee, R.P.; McDowall, R.M. (compilers) 2009: Checklist of New Zealand Chordata: living lancelets, jawless fishes, cartilaginous fishes, and bony fishes. Pp. 527-536 in Gordon, D.P. (ed.) New Zealand inventory of biodiversity. Volume 1. Kingdom Animalia. Radiata, Lophotrochozoa, Deuterostomia. Canterbury University Press, Christchurch, New Zealand. ISBN 978-1-877257-72-8

Vernacular names

Български: Хрущялни риби
Česky: Paryby
Српски / Srpski: Рушљорибе
Dansk: Bruskfisk
Deutsch: Knorpelfische
Eesti: Kõhrkalad
Ελληνικά: Χονδριχθύες
English: Cartilaginous fish, Chondrichthyes
Español: Condrictios, Peces cartilaginosos
Esperanto: Kartilagaj fiŝoj
Français: Chondrichthyens
한국어: 연골어류
Hrvatski: Hrskavičnjače
Íslenska: Brjóskfiskar
Italiano: Condritti
עברית: דגי סחוס
Latina: Chondrichthyes
Lietuvių: Kremzlinės žuvys
Magyar: Porcos halak
Nederlands: Kraakbeenvissen
日本語: 軟骨魚綱
‪Norsk (bokmål)‬: Bruskfisker
Polski: Ryby chrzęstnoszkieletowe
Português: Seláceo
Română: Pești cartilaginoși
Русский: Хрящевые рыбы
Slovenčina: Drsnokožce
Suomi: Rustokalat
Svenska: Broskfiskar
Türkçe: Kıkırdaklı balıklar
Українська: Хрящові риби
中文: 软骨鱼纲
Wikimedia Commons For more multimedia, look at Chondrichthyes on Wikimedia Commons.

Simple English

Cartilaginous fish
Fossil range: Early Silurian - Recent
File:White
Great White Shark, Carcharodon carcharias
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Infraphylum: Gnathostomata
Class: Chondrichthyes
Huxley, 1880

Chondrichthyes or cartilaginous fishes are jawed fish with paired fins, paires nostrils, scales, two-chambered hearts, and skeletons made of cartilage rather than bone. They are divided into two subclasses: Elasmobranchii (sharks, rays and skates) and Holocephali (chimaera, sometimes called ghost sharks).

Taxonomy

  • Class Chondrichthyes
    • Subclass Elasmobranchii (sharks, rays and skates)
      • Superorder Batoidea (rays and skates), containing the orders:
        1. Rajiformes (common rays and skates)
        2. Pristiformes (Sawfishes)
        3. Torpediniformes (electric rays)
      • Superorder Selachimorpha (sharks), containing the orders:
        1. Hexanchiformes Two families are found within this order. Species of this order are distinguished from other sharks by having additional gill slits (either six or seven). Examples from this group include the cow sharks, frilled shark and even a shark that looks on first inspection to be a marine snake.
        2. Squaliformes Three families and more than 80 species are found within this order. These sharks have two dorsal fins, often with spines, and no anal fin. They have teeth designed for cutting in both the upper and lower jaws. Examples from this group include the bramble sharks, dogfish and roughsharks.
        3. Pristiophoriformes One family is found within this order. These are the sawsharks, with an elongate, toothed snout that they use for slashing the fishes that they then eat.
        4. Squatiniformes One family is found within this order. These are flattened sharks that can be distinguished from the similar appearing skates and rays by the fact that they have the gill slits along the side of the head like all other sharks. They have a caudal fin (tail) with the lower lobe being much longer in length than the upper, and are commonly referred to as angel sharks.
        5. Heterodontiformes One family is found within this order. They are commonly referred to as the bullhead, or horn sharks. They have a variety of teeth allowing them to grasp and then crush shellfishes.
        6. Orectolobiformes Seven families are found within this order. They are commonly referred to as the carpet sharks, including zebra sharks, nurse sharks, wobbegongs and the largest of all fishes, the whale sharks. They are distinguished by having barbels at the edge of the nostrils. Most, but not all are nocturnal.
        7. Carcharhiniformes Eight families are found within this order. It is the largest order, containing almost 200 species. They are commonly referred to as the groundsharks, and some of the species include the blue, tiger, bull, reef and oceanic whitetip sharks (collectively called the requiem sharks) along with the houndsharks, catsharks and hammerhead sharks. They are distinguished by an elongated snout and a nictitating membrane which protects the eyes during an attack.
        8. Lamniformes Seven families are found within this order. They are commonly referred to as the mackerel sharks. They include the goblin shark, basking shark, megamouth, the thresher, mako shark and great white shark. They are distinguished by their large jaws and ovoviviparous reproduction. The Lamniformes contains the extinct Megalodon (Carcharodon megalodon), which like most extinct sharks is only known by the teeth (the only bone found in these cartilaginous fishes, and therefore are often the only fossils produced). A reproduction of the jaw was based on some of the largest teeth (up to almost 7 inches in length) and suggested a fish that could grow 120 feet in length. The jaw was realized to be inaccurate, and estimates revised downwards to around 50 feet.
    • Subclass Holocephali (chimaera)

References

Look up Chondrichthyes in Wikispecies, a directory of species
pcd:Pichons cartiladjineus







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