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Choreia (disease)
Classification and external resources
ICD-10 G25.5
ICD-9 333.5
DiseasesDB 16662
eMedicine neuro/62
MeSH D002819

Choreia (or chorea) is an abnormal involuntary movement disorder, one of a group of neurological disorders called dyskinesias. The term choreia is derived from a Greek word χορεία (a kind of dance, see choreia (dance)), as the quick movements of the feet or hands are vaguely comparable to dancing or piano playing.

The term hemichoreia refers to choreia of one side of the body, such as choreia of one arm and not both (comparable to hemiballismus).

Contents

Presentation

Choreia is characterized by brief, quasi-purposeful, irregular contractions that are not repetitive or rhythmic, but appear to flow from one muscle to the next.

These 'dance-like' movements of choreia (from the same root word as "choreography") often occur with athetosis, which adds twisting and writhing movements.

Causes

Choreia can occur in a variety of conditions and disorders.

Ballism

When choreia is serious, slight movements will become thrashing motions; this form of severe choreia is referred to as ballism. Walking may become peculiar, and include odd postures and leg movements. Unlike ataxia and dystonia, which affect the quality of voluntary movements or parkinsonism, which is a hindrance of voluntary movements, the movements of choreia and ballism occur on their own, without conscious effort.

Treatment

There is no standard course of treatment for choreia. Treatment depends on the type of choreia and the associated disease. Although there are many drugs that can control Choreia, there is no known cure.

Form Treatment
Huntington's-related A common treatment is dopaminergic antagonists, although treatment is largely supportive.
Sydenham's chorea Haloperidol, carbamazepine and valproic acid.Usually involves antibiotic drugs to treat the infection, followed by drug therapy to prevent recurrence.
Choreia gravidarum haloperidol[1][2][3], chlorpromazine alone or in combination with diazepam, also pimozide can also be used.
Wilson's disease Reducing levels of copper in the body using D-penicillinamine, trientine hydrochloride, tetrathiomolybdate, and other chelating agents
Drug-induced choreia Adjusting medication dosages.
Metabolic and endocrine-related choreias Treated according to their causes.

References

  1. ^ Axley J (December 1972). "Rheumatic choreia controlled with haloperidol". The Journal of Pediatrics 81 (6): 1216–7. PMID 4643046.  
  2. ^ Patterson JF (September 1979). "Treatment of choreia gravidarum with haloperidol". Southern Medical Journal 72 (9): 1220–1. PMID 472859. http://meta.wkhealth.com/pt/pt-core/template-journal/lwwgateway/media/landingpage.htm?issn=0038-4348&volume=72&issue=9&spage=1220.  
  3. ^ Donaldson JO (March 1982). "Control of choreia gravidarum with haloperidol". Obstetrics and Gynecology 59 (3): 381–2. PMID 7078886.  

See also

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Template:Infobox disease Chorea is an abnormal involuntary movement disorder, one of a group of neurological disorders called dyskinesias. The term chorea is derived from a Greek word χορεία (a kind of dance, see chorea (dance)), as the quick movements of the feet or hands are vaguely comparable to dancing or piano playing.

The term hemichorea refers to chorea of one side of the body, such as chorea of one arm and not both (comparable to hemiballismus).

Contents

Presentation

File:Hemichorea and dystonia.ogv
Hyperglycemia-induced involuntary movements which, in this case, did not consist of typical hemiballismus, but rather of hemichorea (chorea of one side of the body; initial movements of the right arm in the video) and bilateral dystonia in a 62-year-old Japanese woman with type 1 diabetes.

Chorea is characterized by brief, quasi-purposeful, irregular contractions that are not repetitive or rhythmic, but appear to flow from one muscle to the next.

These 'dance-like' movements of chorea (from the same root word as "choreography") often occur with athetosis, which adds twisting and writhing movements. Lumps called nodules may also form under skin in bony areas.

Causes

Chorea can occur in a variety of conditions and disorders.

  • Chorea is a primary feature of Huntington's disease, a progressive, neurological disorder.
  • Twenty percent of children and adolescents with rheumatic fever develop Sydenham's chorea as a complication.
  • Chorea gravidarum is rare type of chorea which is a complication of pregnancy.
  • Chorea may also be caused by drugs (levodopa, anti-convulsants, anti-psychotics), metabolic disorders, endocrine disorders, and vascular incidents.
  • Ataxia telangiectasia
  • Wilson's disease, a genetic disorder that leads to toxic levels of copper in the body

Ballism

When chorea is serious, slight movements will become thrashing motions; this form of severe chorea is referred to as ballism. Walking may become peculiar, and include odd postures and leg movements. Unlike ataxia and dystonia, which affect the quality of voluntary movements or parkinsonism, which is a hindrance of voluntary movements, the movements of chorea and ballism occur on their own, without conscious effort.

Treatment

There is no standard course of treatment for chorea. Treatment depends on the type of chorea and the associated disease.

Although there are many drugs that can control Chorea, there is no known cure.

Cause Treatment
Huntington's disease A common treatment is dopaminergic antagonists, although treatment is largely supportive.
Sydenham's chorea Haloperidol, carbamazepine and valproic acid.Usually involves antibiotic drugs to treat the infection, followed by drug therapy to prevent recurrence.
Chorea gravidarum haloperidol[1][2][3], chlorpromazine alone or in combination with diazepam, also pimozide can also be used.
Wilson's disease Reducing levels of copper in the body using D-penicillinamine, trientine hydrochloride, tetrathiomolybdate, and other chelating agents
Drug-induced chorea. Adjusting medication dosages.
Metabolic and endocrine-related choreas Treated according to the cause(s) of symptoms.

References

  1. Axley J (December 1972). "Rheumatic chorea controlled with haloperidol". The Journal of Pediatrics 81 (6): 1216–7. PMID 4643046. 
  2. Patterson JF (September 1979). "Treatment of chorea gravidarum with haloperidol". Southern Medical Journal 72 (9): 1220–1. PMID 472859. http://meta.wkhealth.com/pt/pt-core/template-journal/lwwgateway/media/landingpage.htm?issn=0038-4348&volume=72&issue=9&spage=1220. 
  3. Donaldson JO (March 1982). "Control of chorea gravidarum with haloperidol". Obstetrics and Gynecology 59 (3): 381–2. PMID 7078886. 

http://www.undiag.com/symptoms/ataxia.php

See also

Template:Diseases of the nervous system


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