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Christopher Columbus
.
Posthumous portrait of Christopher Columbus by Ridolfo Ghirlandaio.^ No authentic contemporary portrait of Christopher Columbus exists.
  • Christopher Columbus - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Christopher Columbus is depicted here in his only state-sponsored, albeit non-authenticated, portrait, painted by Alejo Fernández between 1505 and 1536.
  • Christopher Columbus - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ No authentic contemporary portrait of Columbus has been found; this late 19th-century engraving is one of many conjectural images Christopher Columbus (conjectural image by Sebastiano del Piombo ).
  • Christopher Columbus - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

There are no known authentic portraits of Columbus.
Born c.1451
Genoa, Italy (though disputed)
Died .20 May 1506 (aged c.^ DIED May 20, 1506, Valladolid, Spain, age-related.

^ When he died on May 20, 1506, Columbus believed himself to have been martyred by his king and queen, stripped of the dignity, recognition, and wealth he deserved for his exploits.
  • Imagining Christopher Columbus 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC hss.fullerton.edu [Source type: General]

^ Christopher Columbus died on May 20, 1506 in Valladolid, Spain of age-related causes.

55)
Valladolid, Castile
Nationality Genoese (though disputed)
Other names Genoese: Christoffa Corombo
Italian: Cristoforo Colombo
Catalan: Cristòfor Colom
Spanish: Cristóbal Colón
Portuguese: Cristóvão Colombo
Latin: Christophorus Columbus
Occupation Maritime explorer for the Crown of Castile
Title Admiral of the Ocean Sea; Viceroy and Governor of the Indies
Religion Roman Catholic
Spouse(s) Filipa Moniz (c. 1476-1485)
Children Diego
Fernando
Relatives Giovanni Pellegrino, Giacomo and Bartolomeo Columbus (brothers)
Signature
Christopher Columbus (c. .1451 – 20 May 1506) was a navigator, colonizer, and explorer whose voyages across the Atlantic Ocean led to general European awareness of the American continents in the Western Hemisphere.^ It was the first place permanently colonized by Europeans in the Western Hemisphere.
  • Columbus, The Original American Hero 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.ahealedplanet.net [Source type: Original source]
  • Columbus:
    The Original American Hero
    2 February 2010 15:015 UTC globalization.icaap.org [Source type: Original source]

^ This invaluable guide to navigation was used by Columbus on his voyage across the Atlantic.
  • Was Christopher Columbus a Jew? | Bloggish | Jewish Journal 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.jewishjournal.com [Source type: General]

^ When he died on May 20, 1506, Columbus believed himself to have been martyred by his king and queen, stripped of the dignity, recognition, and wealth he deserved for his exploits.
  • Imagining Christopher Columbus 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC hss.fullerton.edu [Source type: General]

With his four voyages of exploration and several attempts at establishing a settlement on the island of Hispaniola, all funded by Isabella I of Castile, he initiated the process of Spanish colonization which foreshadowed general European colonization of the "New World".
.Although not the first to reach the Americas from Europe—he was preceded by at least one other group, the Norse, led by Leif Ericson, who built a temporary settlement 500 years earlier at L'Anse aux Meadows[1]— Columbus initiated widespread contact between Europeans and indigenous Americans.^ For the first European to land in America was Leif Ericson, a Viking seaman from Greenland (see Ericson).
  • Daily Kos: Christopher Columbus & His Crimes Against Humanity (Edited) 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ One of the first skirmishes between native Americans and Europeans since the time of the Vikings [17] took place when Columbus's men rescued two boys who had just been castrated by their captors.
  • What is Christopher Columbus? 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ While Columbus' calculations underestimated the circumference of the Earth and the distance from the Canary Islands to Japan by the standards of his peers as well as in fact, almost all Europeans held the mistaken opinion that the aquatic expanse between Europe and Asia was uninterrupted.
  • What is Christopher Columbus? 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The term "pre-Columbian" is usually used to refer to the peoples and cultures of the Americas before the arrival of Columbus and his European successors.^ Hero worship of Columbus perhaps reached its zenith around 1892, the 400th anniversary of his first arrival in the Americas.
  • Was Christopher Columbus a Jew? | Bloggish | Jewish Journal 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.jewishjournal.com [Source type: General]

^ American Indian activist Mike Anderson says, "There was a culture here and there were people and there were governments here prior to the arrival of Columbus."
  • The Crimes of Christopher Columbus 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.freerepublic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It was, however, Columbus’s voyage that marked the beginning of the European colonization of the Americas, and that linked Eurasia and Africa to the Americas.
  • Was Christopher Columbus a Jew? | Bloggish | Jewish Journal 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.jewishjournal.com [Source type: General]

.The name Christopher Columbus is the Anglicisation of the Latin Christophorus Columbus.^ We gather from the present act only one new element for our analysis, viz., the name of Christopher Columbus's mother.
  • From THE DISCOVERY OF NORTH AMERICA 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.millersville.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The name Christopher Columbus is the Anglicization of the Latin Christophorus Columbus .
  • What is Christopher Columbus? 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On November 3 , 1493 , Columbus sighted a rugged island that he named Dominica (Latin for Sunday); later that day, he landed at Marie-Galante , which he named Santa Maria la Galante.
  • What is Christopher Columbus? 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The original name in 15th century Genoese language was Christoffa[2] Corombo[3] (pronounced [kriˈʃtɔffa kuˈɹuŋbu]).^ The 15 th century was a dynamic century, a century of change.
  • Christopher Columbus 12 September 2009 0:00 UTC www.millersville.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ For Christian Spain, the conquest of Granada was the most important event in the 15 th century.
  • Christopher Columbus 12 September 2009 0:00 UTC www.millersville.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ See also: Origin theories of Christopher Columbus#Language Although Genoese documents have been found about a weaver named Colombo, some letters which are said to have been written by Columbus are written in a nonstandard form of Spanish mixed with Portuguese or Catalan phonetics.
  • What is Christopher Columbus? 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The name is rendered in modern Italian as Cristoforo Colombo, in Portuguese as Cristóvão Colombo (formerly Christovam Colom), in Catalan as Cristòfor Colom, and in Spanish as Cristóbal Colón.^ Cristoforo Colombo in his mama’s Italian.
  • The Trial of Christopher Columbus 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC red-coral.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Secular humanism is the name of the game, and that also means no special place can be afforded to any Italian/Spanish explorers.
  • The Last Psychiatrist: Christopher Columbus Was Wrong 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC thelastpsychiatrist.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Spanish names of the sovereigns were Fernando and Isabel, and Columbus’ Spanish name was Cristóbal Colón, but I will use their anglicized names in this essay.
  • Columbus:
    The Original American Hero
    2 February 2010 15:015 UTC globalization.icaap.org [Source type: Original source]

.Columbus's initial 1492 voyage came at a critical time of growing national imperialism and economic competition between developing nation states seeking wealth from the establishment of trade routes and colonies.^ Nevertheless, Columbus's voyage came at a critical time of growing national imperialism and economic competition between developing nation states seeking wealth from the establishment of trade routes and colonies .
  • What is Christopher Columbus? 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There the royal couple heard the brothers' pleas; restored their freedom and their wealth; and, after much persuasion, agreed to fund Columbus' fourth voyage.
  • What is Christopher Columbus? 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He was indeed motivated by "greed" in the sense that he sought material wealth through commonly undertaken means - exploration and establishment of new maritime trade routes, conquest and pillage of weaker societies, and enslavement of indigenous peoples.
  • Daily Kos: Christopher Columbus & His Crimes Against Humanity (Edited) 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

In this sociopolitical climate, Columbus's far-fetched scheme won the attention of Isabella I of Castile. .Severely underestimating the circumference of the Earth, he estimated that a westward route from Iberia to the Indies would be shorter than the overland trade route through Arabia.^ Ferdinand believed, and correctly so, that Columbus' estimate on how far the Orient was westward from Spain was ridiculously underestimated.
  • The Crimes of Christopher Columbus 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.freerepublic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The king’s experts believed that the route would be longer than Columbus thought (the actual distance is even longer than the Portuguese believed), and denied Columbus’s request.
  • Was Christopher Columbus a Jew? | Bloggish | Jewish Journal 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.jewishjournal.com [Source type: General]

^ Moreover, Columbus believed one degree represented a shorter distance on the earth's surface than was commonly held.
  • What is Christopher Columbus? 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.If true, this would allow Spain entry into the lucrative spice trade — heretofore commanded by the Arabs and Italians.^ He was simply an Italian entrepreneur looking for a lucrative trade route, not some fiendish Eichmann prototype.
  • Daily Kos: Christopher Columbus & His Crimes Against Humanity (Edited) 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

.Following his plotted course, he instead landed within the Bahamas Archipelago at a locale he named San Salvador.^ Exactly which island in the Bahamas this corresponds to is an unresolved topic; prime candidates are Samana Cay , Plana Cays , or San Salvador Island (named San Salvador in 1925 in the belief that it was Columbus's San Salvador).
  • What is Christopher Columbus? 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On the third day Columbus took six or seven Indians as guides upon his departure from San Salvador and reconnoitered three other islands in the Bahamas.
  • Christopher Columbus 12 September 2009 0:00 UTC www.millersville.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Columbus called the island (in what is now The Bahamas ) San Salvador , although the natives called it Guanahani .
  • What is Christopher Columbus? 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Mistaking the lands he encountered for the East Indies, he referred to the inhabitants as "indios".
.The anniversary of Columbus's 1492 landing in the Americas is usually observed as Columbus Day on 12 October in Spain and throughout the Americas, except Canada.^ Log of October 11-12, 1492.
  • Columbus, The Original American Hero 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.ahealedplanet.net [Source type: Original source]
  • Columbus:
    The Original American Hero
    2 February 2010 15:015 UTC globalization.icaap.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Admiral had landed in Spain on November 7, 1504, and at the time of his writing to Oderico on December 27, over fifty days had lapsed.
  • Christopher Columbus'Origin 12 September 2009 0:00 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: Original source]
  • From THE DISCOVERY OF NORTH AMERICA 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.millersville.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ A mere three days into his gold quest, on October 14 th , Columbus made clear what he thought of the natives' military might.
  • Columbus, The Original American Hero 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.ahealedplanet.net [Source type: Original source]

In the United States it is observed annually on the second Monday in October.

Contents

Early life

.It is commonly, although not universally, believed that Christopher Columbus was born between 25 August and 31 October 1451 in Genoa, part of modern Italy.^ This is the Genoese deed from which it can be argued that Christopher Columbus was born in 1451.
  • Christopher Columbus'Origin 12 September 2009 0:00 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Childhood and Early Years Though biographical facts on Columbus vary from author to author, there is general agreement among most scholars that Cristoforo Colombo was born in Genoa between August 25 and October 31, 1451; that his father was Domenico Colombo, a wool weaver who was also involved in local politics; and that his mother was Suzanna Fontanarossa, daughter of a wool weaver.
  • Christopher Columbus 12 September 2009 0:00 UTC www.millersville.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ These revealing deeds (most of which were discovered in the 19th century) pertaining to a Colombo family were selected among thousands of such documents and construed by scholars to constitute proof that Columbus was a Colombo born in Genoa or nearby between August 26 and October 30, 1451.
  • Christopher Columbus'Origin 12 September 2009 0:00 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: Original source]

[4] .His father was Domenico Colombo, a middle-class wool weaver, who later also had a cheese stand where Christopher was a helper, working both in Genoa and Savona.^ His father was Domenico Colombo , a middle-class wool weaver working between Genoa and Savona .
  • What is Christopher Columbus? 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Childhood and Early Years Though biographical facts on Columbus vary from author to author, there is general agreement among most scholars that Cristoforo Colombo was born in Genoa between August 25 and October 31, 1451; that his father was Domenico Colombo, a wool weaver who was also involved in local politics; and that his mother was Suzanna Fontanarossa, daughter of a wool weaver.
  • Christopher Columbus 12 September 2009 0:00 UTC www.millersville.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Giacomo Calvi., reveals a 19-year old Christopher stipulating a compromise for a debt incurred by him and his father Domenico Colombo.
  • Christopher Columbus'Origin 12 September 2009 0:00 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: Original source]
  • From THE DISCOVERY OF NORTH AMERICA 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.millersville.edu [Source type: Original source]

.His mother was Susanna Fontanarossa.^ It follows, then, that the two abovementioned children are to be identified only as sons of Susanna Fontanarossa, although their mother was, at the time of this deed, married to Domenico Colombo.
  • Christopher Columbus'Origin 12 September 2009 0:00 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: Original source]
  • From THE DISCOVERY OF NORTH AMERICA 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.millersville.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Now Casoni throws the genealogical bombshell: the mother was named Susanna Fontanarossa, and she was born in Saulo Luogo near Nervi.
  • Christopher Columbus'Origin 12 September 2009 0:00 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: Original source]
  • From THE DISCOVERY OF NORTH AMERICA 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.millersville.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Bartolomeo, Giovanni Pellegrino and Giacomo were his brothers.^ Bartolomeo, Giovanni Pellegrino and Giacomo were his brothers.
  • What is Christopher Columbus? 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Christopher had 3 younger brothers, Bartolomeo, Giovanni Pellegrino, and Giacomo, and a sister, Bianchinetta.
  • Was Christopher Columbus a Jew? | Bloggish | Jewish Journal 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.jewishjournal.com [Source type: General]

^ He had three brothers, Bartolomeo, Giacomo, Giovanni-Pellegrino, and a sister, Bianchettina, who married Giacomo Bavarello.
  • Christopher Columbus'Origin 12 September 2009 0:00 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: Original source]
  • From THE DISCOVERY OF NORTH AMERICA 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.millersville.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Bartolomeo worked in a cartography workshop in Lisbon for at least part of his adulthood.^ Bartolomeo worked in a cartography workshop in Lisbon for at least part of his adulthood.
  • What is Christopher Columbus? 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Columbus’ brother Bartolomeo worked as a mapmaker in Lisbon.
  • Was Christopher Columbus a Jew? | Bloggish | Jewish Journal 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.jewishjournal.com [Source type: General]

^ Soon Columbus’ brother Bartolomeo would be in Lisbon, as well, working as a mapmaker and studying geography.
  • Christopher Columbus 12 September 2009 0:00 UTC www.millersville.edu [Source type: Original source]

[5]
.Columbus never wrote in his native language, but it may be assumed this was the Genoese variety of Ligurian.^ Cuneo (probably Columbus close friend, maybe from childhood) wrote the first recorded account of sexual relations between Europeans and natives.
  • Columbus, The Original American Hero 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.ahealedplanet.net [Source type: Original source]

^ For all of Columbus’ rhetoric, conversion apparently was never implemented on Española, except when they began enslaving the natives in the “encomienda” program.
  • Columbus:
    The Original American Hero
    2 February 2010 15:015 UTC globalization.icaap.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Cuneo (probably Columbus’ close friend, maybe from childhood) wrote the first recorded account of sexual relations between Europeans and natives.
  • Columbus:
    The Original American Hero
    2 February 2010 15:015 UTC globalization.icaap.org [Source type: Original source]

.In one of his writings, Columbus claims to have gone to the sea at the age of 10. In 1470 the Columbus family moved to Savona, where Domenico took over a tavern.^ The entire family moved to Savona, west of Genoa, in 1470.
  • Christopher Columbus 12 September 2009 0:00 UTC www.millersville.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ One intriguing aspect of the curate's Historia is that he is the only contemporary historian who ever mentioned Columbus's age.
  • Christopher Columbus'Origin 12 September 2009 0:00 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: Original source]
  • From THE DISCOVERY OF NORTH AMERICA 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.millersville.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The latter two historiographers were in possession of Columbus' writings; they were in close personal contact with him and members of his family.
  • Christopher Columbus'Origin 12 September 2009 0:00 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: Original source]
  • From THE DISCOVERY OF NORTH AMERICA 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.millersville.edu [Source type: Original source]

.In the same year, Columbus was on a Genoese ship hired in the service of René I of Anjou to support his attempt to conquer the Kingdom of Naples.^ In the same year, Columbus was on a Genoese ship hired in the service of René I of Anjou to support his attempt to conquer the Kingdom of Naples .
  • What is Christopher Columbus? 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Only two of the Genoese vessels escaped, and one of these two was the ship which carried Columbus.
  • Christopher Columbus, Complete by Filson Young - Full Text Free Book (Part 1/8) 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ That year, on the evening of August 3, Columbus left from Palos with three ships, the Santa Maria, Niña and Pinta.
  • Was Christopher Columbus a Jew? | Bloggish | Jewish Journal 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.jewishjournal.com [Source type: General]

.In 1473 Columbus began his apprenticeship as business agent for the important Centurione, Di Negro and Spinola families of Genoa.^ In 1473 Columbus began his apprenticeship as business agent for the important Centurione, Di Negro and Spinola families of Genoa.
  • What is Christopher Columbus? 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Columbus and his family have been found in the "Archivio di Stato" (national record office) of Genoa, Italy.
  • What is Christopher Columbus? 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As Genoa retreated to the background so did his association with his family’s wool weaving business.
  • Christopher Columbus 12 September 2009 0:00 UTC www.millersville.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Later he allegedly made a trip to Chios, a Genoese colony in the Aegean Sea.^ In 1474 Columbus was hired as an ordinary sailor on a Mediterranean ship bound for Chios in the Aegean Sea.
  • Christopher Columbus 12 September 2009 0:00 UTC www.millersville.edu [Source type: Original source]

.In May 1476, he took part in an armed convoy sent by Genoa to carry a valuable cargo to northern Europe.^ In May 1476, he took part in an armed convoy sent by Genoa to carry a valuable cargo to northern Europe.
  • What is Christopher Columbus? 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.He docked in Bristol, England[6]; Galway, Ireland and was possibly in Iceland in 1477. In 1479 Columbus reached his brother Bartolomeo in Lisbon, while continuing trading for the Centurione family.^ He docked in Bristol, Galway, in Ireland and very likely, in 1477 he was in Iceland.
  • What is Christopher Columbus? 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Columbus’ brother Bartolomeo worked as a mapmaker in Lisbon.
  • Was Christopher Columbus a Jew? | Bloggish | Jewish Journal 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.jewishjournal.com [Source type: General]

^ In 1479 Columbus reached his brother Bartolomeo in Lisbon , keeping on trading for the Centurione family.
  • What is Christopher Columbus? 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.He married Filipa Moniz Perestrello, daughter of the Porto Santo governor and Portuguese nobleman of Genoese origin Bartolomeu Perestrello.^ Without going into details, it was in either Puerto Santo or in Lisbon that he met his future wife, Doña Filipa de Perestrelo y Moniz, daughter of Bartholomeu Perestrello of Italian origin from Piacenza who had been the Captain or Governor of Puerto Santo.
  • Christopher Columbus'Origin 12 September 2009 0:00 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: Original source]
  • From THE DISCOVERY OF NORTH AMERICA 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.millersville.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Philippa Moniz Perestrello was the daughter of Bartolomeo Perestrello, who had been appointed hereditary governor of the island of Porto Santo on its colonisation by Prince Henry in 1425 and who had died there in 1457.
  • Christopher Columbus, Complete by Filson Young - Full Text Free Book (Part 1/8) 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He held that Columbus' mother-in-law was the daughter of Vasco Martins Moniz and the granddaughter of Henry Moniz, military governor of Silves.
  • Christopher Columbus' family and his Perestrello and Moniz in-laws. 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.wolcottfamily.com [Source type: Original source]

.In 1479 or 1480, his son Diego Columbus was born.^ In 1481, his son, Diego was born.
  • What is Christopher Columbus? 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Their son Diego was born in 1480, and Felipa died in 1485.
  • Was Christopher Columbus a Jew? | Bloggish | Jewish Journal 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.jewishjournal.com [Source type: General]

^ He may also have been the namesake for Columbus' son, Diego.
  • Christopher Columbus' family and his Perestrello and Moniz in-laws. 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.wolcottfamily.com [Source type: Original source]

.Some records report that Felipa died in 1485. It is also speculated that Columbus may have simply left his first wife.^ When he died on May 20, 1506, Columbus believed himself to have been martyred by his king and queen, stripped of the dignity, recognition, and wealth he deserved for his exploits.
  • Imagining Christopher Columbus 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC hss.fullerton.edu [Source type: General]

^ Caonabo, Lord of the House of Gold, fiercest and bravest of them all, who first realised that the Spaniards were enemies to the native peace, after languishing in prison in the house of Columbus at Isabella for some time, had died in captivity during the voyage to Spain.
  • Christopher Columbus, Complete by Filson Young - Full Text Free Book (Part 7/8) 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Tradition holds that Columbus moved to Seville in 1485, and between May of 1486 and September of 1487 he was maintained at the expense of the queen.
  • Christopher Columbus 12 September 2009 0:00 UTC www.millersville.edu [Source type: Original source]

.In either case Columbus found a mistress in Spain in 1487, a 20-year-old orphan named Beatriz Enriquez de Arana.^ Accompanied by his brother Bartolomeo and his 13-year-old son Fernando , he left Cádiz, Spain, on May 11 , 1502 , with the ships Capitana , Gallega , Vizcaína and Santiago de Palos .
  • What is Christopher Columbus? 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Gerolamo Ventimiglia, indicated that a Christopher Columbus of an unnamed father declared to be at that time a citizen of Genoa "approximately" 27 years old.
  • Christopher Columbus'Origin 12 September 2009 0:00 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: Original source]
  • From THE DISCOVERY OF NORTH AMERICA 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.millersville.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ At dawn, Columbus and his armed Spaniards went ashore, unfurled their flags, planted a cross, and claimed the land in the name of the king and queen of Spain.
  • Columbus, The Original American Hero 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.ahealedplanet.net [Source type: Original source]

[7]

Voyages

Navigation plans

Voyages of Christopher Columbus
"Columbus map", drawn ca. 1490 in Lisbon workshop of Bartolomeo and Christopher Columbus[8]
Columbus's geographical concepts
.Europe had long enjoyed a safe land passage to China and India— sources of valued goods such as silk, spices, and opiates— under the hegemony of the Mongol Empire (the Pax Mongolica, or Mongol peace).^ Didn't take me long to find sources stating that Europe new it was round.
  • The Last Psychiatrist: Christopher Columbus Was Wrong 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC thelastpsychiatrist.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There were butts of Malmsey from Candia; aloes and cassia and spices from Socotra; rhubarb from Persia; silk from India; wool from Damascus, raw wool also from Calais and Norwich.
  • Christopher Columbus, Complete by Filson Young - Full Text Free Book (Part 1/8) 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

.With the Fall of Constantinople to the Ottoman Turks in 1453, the land route to Asia became more difficult.^ With the Fall of Constantinople to the Muslims in 1453, the land route to Asia became more difficult.
  • What is Christopher Columbus? 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He directed his course more southward than before, owing to reports of a great land lying west and south of the Antilles and his belief that it was the continent of Asia .
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Christopher Columbus 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

.In response to this the Columbus brothers had, by the 1480s, developed a plan to travel to the Indies, then construed roughly as all of south and east Asia, by sailing directly west across the "Ocean Sea," i.e., the Atlantic.^ By the 1480s, Columbus had developed a plan to travel to the Indies (then roughly meaning all of south and east Asia) by sailing west across the Atlantic, rather than by going south and east around Africa.
  • Was Christopher Columbus a Jew? | Bloggish | Jewish Journal 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.jewishjournal.com [Source type: General]

^ The mindset and ruthlessness and religious re-invention all built up in the "reconquista" which also coincided with their newly developed deep ocean sailing technology which was partly driven by the loss of direct cheaper contact with the overland trade to the east and China when the Turkish conquest of Constantinople occurred.
  • Daily Kos: Christopher Columbus & His Crimes Against Humanity (Edited) 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ But after a public hearing, the Council denied the request on the ground that it was too expensive, that Columbus was only a "visionary" and wrong about distances and measurements, that there was only worthless “rocky points” for land to the west, and that such a plan was contrary to Portugal’s commitment to finding an eastward route to Asia by traveling around Africa.
  • Christopher Columbus 12 September 2009 0:00 UTC www.millersville.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Washington Irving's 1828 biography of Columbus popularized the idea that Columbus had difficulty obtaining support for his plan because Europeans thought the Earth was flat.^ Washington Irving published a mammoth and hugely popular biography of Columbus in 1828, where he invented, among other myths, the story of Columbus proving that the world was not flat.
  • Columbus, The Original American Hero 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.ahealedplanet.net [Source type: Original source]
  • Columbus:
    The Original American Hero
    2 February 2010 15:015 UTC globalization.icaap.org [Source type: Original source]

^ There is no evidence that Columbus thought that Indians were congenitally or racially inferior to Europeans.
  • The Crimes of Christopher Columbus 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.freerepublic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Columbus claimed the reward for himself, because the night land was sighted he thought he earlier saw a light in the West.
  • Columbus:
    The Original American Hero
    2 February 2010 15:015 UTC globalization.icaap.org [Source type: Original source]

[9] .In fact, the primitive maritime navigation of the time relied on the stars and the curvature of the spherical Earth.^ In fact, that the Earth is spherical was evident to most people of his time, especially other sailors and navigators.
  • Was Christopher Columbus a Jew? | Bloggish | Jewish Journal 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.jewishjournal.com [Source type: General]

.The knowledge that the Earth was spherical was widespread, and the means of calculating its diameter using an astrolabe was known to both scholars and navigators.^ The belief that the Earth was spherical was already widespread.
  • Christopher Columbus 12 September 2009 0:00 UTC www.millersville.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ In fact, that the Earth is spherical was evident to most people of his time, especially other sailors and navigators.
  • Was Christopher Columbus a Jew? | Bloggish | Jewish Journal 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.jewishjournal.com [Source type: General]

^ A conscious knowledge of the world as a whole had been a part of human thought for many hundreds of years; and the sphericity of the earth had been a theory in the sixth century before Christ.
  • Christopher Columbus, Complete by Filson Young - Full Text Free Book (Part 1/8) 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

[10] .A spherical Earth had been the general opinion of Ancient Greek science, and this view continued through the Middle Ages (for example, Bede mentions it in The Reckoning of Time).^ Marcello Staglieno states, for example, that Giacomo, being at the time (i.e., 1473) less than 18 years old, was not yet of legal age.
  • Christopher Columbus'Origin 12 September 2009 0:00 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: Original source]
  • From THE DISCOVERY OF NORTH AMERICA 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.millersville.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ In fact, that the Earth is spherical was evident to most people of his time, especially other sailors and navigators.
  • Was Christopher Columbus a Jew? | Bloggish | Jewish Journal 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.jewishjournal.com [Source type: General]

^ Contrast the above phenomenon with the Middle Ages, a time during which there was no mechanism for disseminating new, uncensored, and raw information.
  • Christopher Columbus 12 September 2009 0:00 UTC www.millersville.edu [Source type: Original source]

.In fact Eratosthenes had measured the diameter of the Earth with good precision in the second century BC.[11] Where Columbus did differ from the generally accepted view of his time is his (incorrect) arguments that assumed a significantly smaller diameter for the Earth, claiming that Asia could be easily reached by sailing west across the Atlantic.^ Columbus’ idea of sailing west to get to the east was not original with him, nor did he ever claim that it was.
  • Christopher Columbus 12 September 2009 0:00 UTC www.millersville.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ COLUMBUS I did it for your own good.
  • The Trial of Christopher Columbus 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC red-coral.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Eratosthenes calculated the diameter to 10% accuracy back in 200 BC. Ptolemy (0 AD?) knew it was round, but thought the sun (another sphere) revolved around it.
  • The Last Psychiatrist: Christopher Columbus Was Wrong 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC thelastpsychiatrist.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Most scholars accepted Ptolemy's correct assessment that the terrestrial landmass (for Europeans of the time, comprising Eurasia and Africa) occupied 180 degrees of the terrestrial sphere, and dismissed Columbus's claim that the Earth was much smaller, and that Asia was only a few thousand nautical miles to the west of Europe.^ Most Europeans accepted Ptolemy’s claim that the terrestrial landmass (for Europeans of the time, Eurasia and Africa) occupied 180 degrees of the terrestrial sphere, leaving 180 degrees of water (in fact, it occupies about 120 degrees, leaving 240 degrees unaccounted for at that time).
  • Was Christopher Columbus a Jew? | Bloggish | Jewish Journal 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.jewishjournal.com [Source type: General]

^ But after a public hearing, the Council denied the request on the ground that it was too expensive, that Columbus was only a "visionary" and wrong about distances and measurements, that there was only worthless “rocky points” for land to the west, and that such a plan was contrary to Portugal’s commitment to finding an eastward route to Asia by traveling around Africa.
  • Christopher Columbus 12 September 2009 0:00 UTC www.millersville.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Across the planet, the cultures that had been isolated from the Asia/Europe/Africa pathogens had a disastrous time when first exposed to them, whether they lived in Iceland, Australia, the South Pacific, Hawaii, or the New World.
  • Columbus, The Original American Hero 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.ahealedplanet.net [Source type: Original source]
  • Columbus:
    The Original American Hero
    2 February 2010 15:015 UTC globalization.icaap.org [Source type: Original source]

.Columbus's error was put down to his lack of experience in navigation at sea.^ By this date, Columbus had enough cosmographical knowledge to build a globe and send it to the famed Florentine for his opinion on the idea of reaching Asia by navigating the Ocean Sea westward.
  • Christopher Columbus'Origin 12 September 2009 0:00 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: Original source]
  • From THE DISCOVERY OF NORTH AMERICA 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.millersville.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ By 1501, here Columbus writes, he had been navigating for forty years which, if factual, would indicate that he first went to sea in 1461.
  • Christopher Columbus'Origin 12 September 2009 0:00 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: Original source]
  • From THE DISCOVERY OF NORTH AMERICA 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.millersville.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Before Columbus, tribes had a shared responsibility, for lack of a better way to put it, to the land.
  • Daily Kos: Christopher Columbus & His Crimes Against Humanity (Edited) 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

[12]
.Columbus believed the (incorrect) calculations of Marinus of Tyre, putting the landmass at 225 degrees, leaving only 135 degrees of water.^ Columbus accepted the calculations of d’Ailly, that the land-mass occupied 225 degrees, leaving only 135 degrees of water.
  • Was Christopher Columbus a Jew? | Bloggish | Jewish Journal 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.jewishjournal.com [Source type: General]

^ Moreover, Columbus believed that one degree actually covered less space on the earth’s surface than commonly believed.
  • Was Christopher Columbus a Jew? | Bloggish | Jewish Journal 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.jewishjournal.com [Source type: General]

^ Some historians believe that in these waters off the coast of Africa and the nearby Canary Islands, Columbus observed for himself the ocean phenomenon known as the Canary Current.
  • Christopher Columbus 12 September 2009 0:00 UTC www.millersville.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Moreover, Columbus believed that one degree represented a shorter distance on the Earth's surface than was actually the case.^ Moreover, Columbus believed that one degree actually covered less space on the earth’s surface than commonly believed.
  • Was Christopher Columbus a Jew? | Bloggish | Jewish Journal 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.jewishjournal.com [Source type: General]

^ What they had in many cases represented the store of years, and in all but one or two favoured districts it was quite impossible for them to keep up the amount of the tribute.
  • Christopher Columbus, Complete by Filson Young - Full Text Free Book (Part 5/8) 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ While Columbus had always given the conversion of non-believers as one reason for his explorations, he grew increasingly religious in his later years.
  • Was Christopher Columbus a Jew? | Bloggish | Jewish Journal 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.jewishjournal.com [Source type: General]

.Finally, he read maps as if the distances were calculated in Italian miles (1,238 meters).^ Finally, Columbus read maps as if the distances were calculated in Roman miles (5,000 feet) rather than nautical miles (6,082.66 feet at the equator).
  • Was Christopher Columbus a Jew? | Bloggish | Jewish Journal 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.jewishjournal.com [Source type: General]

.Accepting the length of a degree to be 56⅔ miles, from the writings of Alfraganus, he therefore calculated the circumference of the Earth as 25,255 kilometers at most, and the distance from the Canary Islands to Japan as 3,000 Italian miles (3,700 km, or 2,300 statute miles).^ Columbus concluded that the distance from the Canary Islands to Japan was 2,700 miles.
  • Was Christopher Columbus a Jew? | Bloggish | Jewish Journal 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.jewishjournal.com [Source type: General]

^ Finally, Columbus read maps as if the distances were calculated in Roman miles (5,000 feet) rather than nautical miles (6,082.66 feet at the equator).
  • Was Christopher Columbus a Jew? | Bloggish | Jewish Journal 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.jewishjournal.com [Source type: General]

^ In fact, the distance is about 13,000 miles, and most European sailors and navigators concluded that the Indies were too far away to make his plan worth considering.
  • Was Christopher Columbus a Jew? | Bloggish | Jewish Journal 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.jewishjournal.com [Source type: General]

.Columbus did not realize Alfraganus used the much longer Arabic mile (about 1,830 m).^ Earlier in the year Columbus did find his first real riches on Hispaniola.
  • Christopher Columbus 12 September 2009 0:00 UTC www.millersville.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ To: cyborg What did Columbus have to say about his discovery of America?
  • The Crimes of Christopher Columbus 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.freerepublic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Despite such extreme measures, Columbus did not manage to obtain much gold.
  • Was Christopher Columbus a Jew? | Bloggish | Jewish Journal 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.jewishjournal.com [Source type: General]

Columbus's notes in Latin edition of The Travels of Marco Polo
.The true circumference of the Earth is about 40,000 km (25,000 mi), a figure established by Eratosthenes in the second century BC,[11] and the distance from the Canary Islands to Japan 19,600 km (12,200 mi).^ Columbus concluded that the distance from the Canary Islands to Japan was 2,700 miles.
  • Was Christopher Columbus a Jew? | Bloggish | Jewish Journal 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.jewishjournal.com [Source type: General]

^ But Bede, in the eighth century, established it finally as a part of human knowledge that the earth and all the heavenly bodies were spheres, and after that the fact was not again seriously disputed.
  • Christopher Columbus, Complete by Filson Young - Full Text Free Book (Part 1/8) 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ D.W.]--in the second century the philosopher Crates had constructed a rude sort of globe, on which were marked the known kingdoms of the earth, and some also unknown.
  • Christopher Columbus, Complete by Filson Young - Full Text Free Book (Part 1/8) 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

.No ship that was readily available in the 15th century could carry enough food and fresh water for such a journey.^ Columbus now began to be bewildered, for he discovered that the water over the ship's side was fresh water, and he could not make out where it came from.
  • Christopher Columbus, Complete by Filson Young - Full Text Free Book (Part 5/8) 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ My research of 15th and 16th century Genoese annalists (apart from Giustiniani, Gallo, and Senarega) has yielded no results either.
  • Christopher Columbus'Origin 12 September 2009 0:00 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: Original source]
  • From THE DISCOVERY OF NORTH AMERICA 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.millersville.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Columbus picked the new site, yet the harbor was poor and there was no fresh water nearby, among other problems.
  • Columbus, The Original American Hero 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.ahealedplanet.net [Source type: Original source]
  • Columbus:
    The Original American Hero
    2 February 2010 15:015 UTC globalization.icaap.org [Source type: Original source]

.Most European sailors and navigators concluded, probably correctly, that sailors undertaking a westward voyage from Europe to Asia non-stop would die of thirst or starvation long before reaching their destination.^ By this date, Columbus had enough cosmographical knowledge to build a globe and send it to the famed Florentine for his opinion on the idea of reaching Asia by navigating the Ocean Sea westward.
  • Christopher Columbus'Origin 12 September 2009 0:00 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: Original source]
  • From THE DISCOVERY OF NORTH AMERICA 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.millersville.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ In fact, that the Earth is spherical was evident to most people of his time, especially other sailors and navigators.
  • Was Christopher Columbus a Jew? | Bloggish | Jewish Journal 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.jewishjournal.com [Source type: General]

^ There are even speculations today that people might have migrated to Asia and Europe from North America long ago.
  • Columbus:
    The Original American Hero
    2 February 2010 15:015 UTC globalization.icaap.org [Source type: Original source]

.Catholic Monarchs, however, having completed an expensive war in the Iberian Peninsula, were desperate for a competitive edge over other European countries in trade with the East Indies.^ Only the Iberian kingdoms of Portugal and Spain in the western Mediterranean were having success in their wars against the Muslims.
  • Christopher Columbus 12 September 2009 0:00 UTC www.millersville.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ To the Europeans of this age, all land east of the Indus River was “the Indies.” Because he believed he had reached the Indies, Columbus named the people “Indians.” Other contemporary adventurers, however, were not convinced that this was part of the “Old” World.
  • Christopher Columbus 12 September 2009 0:00 UTC www.millersville.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ While others who had accompanied the Catholic monarchs were rejoicing as they watched the symbols of sovereignty pass to the Christians, Columbus sat dejected.
  • Christopher Columbus 12 September 2009 0:00 UTC www.millersville.edu [Source type: Original source]

Columbus promised such an advantage.
.While Columbus's calculations underestimated the circumference of the Earth and the distance from the Canary Islands to Japan by the standards of his peers as well as in fact, Europeans generally assumed that the aquatic expanse between Europe and Asia was uninterrupted.^ Columbus concluded that the distance from the Canary Islands to Japan was 2,700 miles.
  • Was Christopher Columbus a Jew? | Bloggish | Jewish Journal 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.jewishjournal.com [Source type: General]

^ The fact that Europeans brought the deadly diseases with them, through ship rats who found their way to the indigenous tribes for example, is well established.
  • Daily Kos: Christopher Columbus & His Crimes Against Humanity 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Columbus is celebrated, but only because his "discovery" changed the relationship between the New World and Europe.
  • Daily Kos: Christopher Columbus & His Crimes Against Humanity (Edited) 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

[citation needed]
.There was a further element of key importance in the plans of Columbus, a closely held fact discovered, or otherwise learned, by Columbus: the trade winds.^ Their world was about as close to earthly paradise as human existence has ever come, a fact that was not lost on Columbus, as he often remarked upon it in his log.
  • Columbus, The Original American Hero 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.ahealedplanet.net [Source type: Original source]
  • Columbus:
    The Original American Hero
    2 February 2010 15:015 UTC globalization.icaap.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Columbus began to understand a little of the political order there, and discovered men called caciques were leaders of some sort.
  • Columbus:
    The Original American Hero
    2 February 2010 15:015 UTC globalization.icaap.org [Source type: Original source]

^ There were even plans to erect a statue of Columbus, hundreds of feet tall.
  • Columbus, The Original American Hero 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.ahealedplanet.net [Source type: Original source]
  • Columbus:
    The Original American Hero
    2 February 2010 15:015 UTC globalization.icaap.org [Source type: Original source]

.A brisk wind from the east, commonly called an "easterly", propelled Santa María, La Niña, and La Pinta for five weeks from the Canaries.^ He first sailed to the Canary Islands, where he stayed for a month, and then he started the five week voyage across the ocean.
  • Was Christopher Columbus a Jew? | Bloggish | Jewish Journal 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.jewishjournal.com [Source type: General]

^ That year, on the evening of August 3, Columbus left from Palos with three ships, the Santa Maria, Niña and Pinta.
  • Was Christopher Columbus a Jew? | Bloggish | Jewish Journal 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.jewishjournal.com [Source type: General]

^ The first, owned by Cristóbal Quintero, was called the Pinta ; the second, owned by Juan Niño, was officially named the Santa Clara but known as the Niña .
  • Christopher Columbus 12 September 2009 0:00 UTC www.millersville.edu [Source type: Original source]

.To return to Spain eastward against this prevailing wind would have required several months of an arduous sailing technique, called beating, during which food and drinkable water would have been utterly exhausted.^ When Columbus sailed back to Spain, he gave the men at the fort several admonitions, which amounted to behaving themselves around their native hosts and finding the gold.
  • Columbus:
    The Original American Hero
    2 February 2010 15:015 UTC globalization.icaap.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Their six days' sojourn amid the Queen's Gardens, then, was not a great success; and as soon as they were able they set sail again, standing eastward when the wind permitted them.
  • Christopher Columbus, Complete by Filson Young - Full Text Free Book (Part 7/8) 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ But there was no food there, and as his ships were settling deeper and deeper in the water he had to make sail again and drive eastwards as far as Puerto Santa Gloria, now called Don Christopher's Cove.
  • Christopher Columbus, Complete by Filson Young - Full Text Free Book (Part 7/8) 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

.Columbus returned home by following prevailing winds northeastward from the southern zone of the North Atlantic to the middle latitudes of the North Atlantic, where prevailing winds are eastward (westerly) to the coastlines of Western Europe, where the winds curve southward towards the Iberian Peninsula.^ Columbus sold the western voyages on the premise that the return on investment would be great.
  • Columbus, The Original American Hero 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.ahealedplanet.net [Source type: Original source]
  • Columbus:
    The Original American Hero
    2 February 2010 15:015 UTC globalization.icaap.org [Source type: Original source]

^ On March 10, 1496, Columbus had no choice but to return home hoping to preempt any royal inquiries into the complaints of the settlers.
  • Christopher Columbus 12 September 2009 0:00 UTC www.millersville.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The Bahamas, where Columbus first made landfall in the Western Hemisphere, [49] was the home of perhaps a half million happy people.
  • Columbus, The Original American Hero 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.ahealedplanet.net [Source type: Original source]

[13] .In fact, Columbus was wrong about degrees of longitude to be traversed and wrong about distance per degree, but he was right about a more vital fact: how to use the North Atlantic's great circular wind pattern, clockwise in direction, to get home.^ Columbus was amazed at how helpful the natives were, and in his log he assured his king and queen that “not even a shoe string (more literally “lace point,” used to secure shoes and clothes - ed.
  • Columbus:
    The Original American Hero
    2 February 2010 15:015 UTC globalization.icaap.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Tales from American history : containing the principal facts in the life of Christopher Columbus : for the use of young persons / by the author of American popular lessons.

^ Their world was about as close to earthly paradise as human existence has ever come, a fact that was not lost on Columbus, as he often remarked upon it in his log.
  • Columbus, The Original American Hero 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.ahealedplanet.net [Source type: Original source]
  • Columbus:
    The Original American Hero
    2 February 2010 15:015 UTC globalization.icaap.org [Source type: Original source]

[14][15]

Funding campaign

.In 1485, Columbus presented his plans to John II, King of Portugal.^ Columbus first presented his plan to the court of Portugal in 1485.
  • Was Christopher Columbus a Jew? | Bloggish | Jewish Journal 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.jewishjournal.com [Source type: General]

^ In May, 1505, King Ferdinand finally granted Columbus an audience in which the discoverer was allowed to present his claims to the titles and the riches of the Indies.
  • Christopher Columbus 12 September 2009 0:00 UTC www.millersville.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ In summary, this brief letter informs Colón that the King is willing to re-examine his plans and that he can go back to Portugal without fear of being persecuted by the law.
  • Christopher Columbus'Origin 12 September 2009 0:00 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: Original source]
  • From THE DISCOVERY OF NORTH AMERICA 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.millersville.edu [Source type: Original source]

.He proposed the king equip three sturdy ships and grant Columbus one year's time to sail out into the Atlantic, search for a western route to the Orient, and return.^ In May, 1505, King Ferdinand finally granted Columbus an audience in which the discoverer was allowed to present his claims to the titles and the riches of the Indies.
  • Christopher Columbus 12 September 2009 0:00 UTC www.millersville.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ While Columbus had always given the conversion of non-believers as one reason for his explorations, he grew increasingly religious in his later years.
  • Was Christopher Columbus a Jew? | Bloggish | Jewish Journal 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.jewishjournal.com [Source type: General]

^ Tortuous sailing condition and incredible storms along the coast took their toll on both the ships and on Columbus.
  • Christopher Columbus 12 September 2009 0:00 UTC www.millersville.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Columbus also requested he be made "Great Admiral of the Ocean", appointed governor of any and all lands he discovered, and given one-tenth of all revenue from those lands.^ What seems to be the greatest injustice of all is that the new lands that the Great Navigator, Admiral of the Ocean Seas, Governor and Viceroy discovered were never given his name.
  • Christopher Columbus 12 September 2009 0:00 UTC www.millersville.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ His request for payment (one-tenth of all riches from the Indies and the rank of Admiral of the Ocean, Viceroy and Governor of the Indies) caused the sovereigns to flatly refuse the project.
  • Christopher Columbus 12 September 2009 0:00 UTC www.millersville.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ According to these capitulations, Columbus would gain the titles of Admiral of the Ocean Sea, Viceroy and Governor General of all lands that he would discover, and take for himself to use as he wishes ten percent of whatever would be acquired overseas, whether pearls, precious stones, gold, silver, spices or any other merchandise.
  • Christopher Columbus'Origin 12 September 2009 0:00 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: Original source]
  • From THE DISCOVERY OF NORTH AMERICA 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.millersville.edu [Source type: Original source]

.The king submitted the proposal to his experts, who rejected it.^ Vezinho, who was later to convert to Christianity, headed a committee of savants and experts on nautical matters chosen to consider Columbus’s proposed expedition of discovery.
  • Was Christopher Columbus a Jew? | Bloggish | Jewish Journal 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.jewishjournal.com [Source type: General]

.It was their considered opinion that Columbus's estimation of a travel distance of 2,400 miles (3,860 km) was, in fact, far too short.^ Finally, Columbus read maps as if the distances were calculated in Roman miles (5,000 feet) rather than nautical miles (6,082.66 feet at the equator).
  • Was Christopher Columbus a Jew? | Bloggish | Jewish Journal 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.jewishjournal.com [Source type: General]

^ In fact, the distance is about 13,000 miles, and most European sailors and navigators concluded that the Indies were too far away to make his plan worth considering.
  • Was Christopher Columbus a Jew? | Bloggish | Jewish Journal 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.jewishjournal.com [Source type: General]

^ Dead reckoning is sailing without any landmarks, and estimating how many miles you traveled by simply watching the water go by.
  • Columbus, The Original American Hero 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.ahealedplanet.net [Source type: Original source]
  • Columbus:
    The Original American Hero
    2 February 2010 15:015 UTC globalization.icaap.org [Source type: Original source]

[12]
Arms of Columbus
.In 1488 Columbus appealed to the court of Portugal once again, and once again John invited him to an audience.^ A number of returned settlers and friars lobbied against Columbus at the Spanish court, accusing him of mismanagement.
  • Was Christopher Columbus a Jew? | Bloggish | Jewish Journal 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.jewishjournal.com [Source type: General]

^ When, some years later, word reached him that Queen Isabella and King Ferdinand had once again rejected Columbus’s project and had sent him on his way, Santangel immediately requested and received an audience with Her Majesty.
  • Was Christopher Columbus a Jew? | Bloggish | Jewish Journal 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.jewishjournal.com [Source type: General]

^ As backing from royal courts in Portugal, France and England fell through, Columbus took his young son and moved to Spain in 1485.
  • Christopher Columbus 12 September 2009 0:00 UTC www.millersville.edu [Source type: Original source]

.It also proved unsuccessful, in part because not long afterwards Bartholomeu Dias returned to Portugal following a successful rounding of the southern tip of Africa.^ Under the tutelage of Prince Henry (later to be given the sobriquet, or nickname, "the Navigator"), who established a school for navigators in southern Portugal, the Portuguese began the exploration of the Western coast of Africa in hopes of finding passage around the tip of Africa.
  • Christopher Columbus 12 September 2009 0:00 UTC www.millersville.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ This prize would elude the Portuguese until a generation after Henry's death in 1460.  Not until 1488 when Bartolomeu Dias returned home after a 16-month voyage did the Portuguese know for sure that a trip around the tip of Africa was feasible.
  • Christopher Columbus 12 September 2009 0:00 UTC www.millersville.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Dias had been commissioned in August of 1487 to discover the tip of Africa, but when he failed to return after a year, King John was ready to reconsider Columbus’ “Enterprise of the Indies.” There is no evidence that Columbus ever made the trip, but in December, 1488, Dias finally returned after 16 months at sea to report that he had rounded the tip of Africa.
  • Christopher Columbus 12 September 2009 0:00 UTC www.millersville.edu [Source type: Original source]

.With an eastern sea route now under its control, Portugal was no longer interested in trailblazing a western route to Asia.^ They no longer needed a westward route to Asia.
  • Christopher Columbus 12 September 2009 0:00 UTC www.millersville.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ CHAPTER VII ADVENTURES BODILY AND SPIRITUAL Columbus had not been long in Portugal before he was off again to sea, this time on a longer voyage than any he had yet undertaken.
  • Christopher Columbus, Complete by Filson Young - Full Text Free Book (Part 1/8) 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ His own voyage ought to have taken far longer than theirs; they had now been nine weeks at sea, and there was nothing to account for their long delay.
  • Christopher Columbus, Complete by Filson Young - Full Text Free Book (Part 5/8) 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

Columbus travelled from Portugal to both Genoa and Venice, but he received encouragement from neither. .Previously he had his brother sound out Henry VII of England, to see if the English monarch might not be more amenable to Columbus's proposal.^ Even Columbus remarked that more than 80% of the native population alive in 1500 died by 1504 (see Sauer, The Early Spanish Main , p.
  • Columbus, The Original American Hero 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.ahealedplanet.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Columbus claimed governorship of the new territories (by prior agreement with the Spanish monarchs) and made several more journeys across the Atlantic.
  • Was Christopher Columbus a Jew? | Bloggish | Jewish Journal 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.jewishjournal.com [Source type: General]

^ He may actually have been there when Columbus arrived, but it was more probable that Columbus, the pioneer of the family, seeing a better field for his brother's talent in Lisbon than in Genoa, sent for him when he himself was established there.
  • Christopher Columbus, Complete by Filson Young - Full Text Free Book (Part 1/8) 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

After much carefully considered hesitation Henry's invitation came, too late. Columbus had already committed himself to Spain.
.He had sought an audience from the monarchs Ferdinand II of Aragon and Isabella I of Castile, who had united many kingdoms in the Iberian Peninsula by marrying, and were ruling together.^ The last of the Moorish rulers was expelled from the Iberian peninsula in the reconquista of 1492 when Ferdinand and Isabella, Los Reyes Catolicos (The Catholic Monarchs), expelled the last of the Moorish rulers, Boabdil of Granada, from the peninsula, uniting most of what is now Spain.
  • The Crimes of Christopher Columbus 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.freerepublic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Spanish king and queen, Ferdinand of Aragon and Isabella of Castile had just conquered Granada, the last Muslim stronghold on the Iberian peninsula, and they received Colombus in Cordoba, Spain (in the kings’ Alcazar) and they agreed to have an expedition sent out to the West.
  • Was Christopher Columbus a Jew? | Bloggish | Jewish Journal 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.jewishjournal.com [Source type: General]

^ Along with a number of other influential Jews, Senior had played a key role in arranging the marriage of Isabella to Ferdinand of Aragon.
  • Was Christopher Columbus a Jew? | Bloggish | Jewish Journal 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.jewishjournal.com [Source type: General]

.On 1 May 1486, permission having been granted, Columbus presented his plans to Queen Isabella, who, in turn, referred it to a committee.^ In May, 1505, King Ferdinand finally granted Columbus an audience in which the discoverer was allowed to present his claims to the titles and the riches of the Indies.
  • Christopher Columbus 12 September 2009 0:00 UTC www.millersville.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ What I have presented here is not controversial to those who have studied Columbus.
  • Columbus:
    The Original American Hero
    2 February 2010 15:015 UTC globalization.icaap.org [Source type: Original source]

^ On August 11th Columbus turned east again after having given up the attempt to find a passage to the north round Paria.
  • Christopher Columbus, Complete by Filson Young - Full Text Free Book (Part 5/8) 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

.After the passing of much time, these savants of Spain, like their counterparts in Portugal, reported back that Columbus had judged the distance to Asia much too short.^ Columbus then tried to get backing from Spain.
  • Was Christopher Columbus a Jew? | Bloggish | Jewish Journal 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.jewishjournal.com [Source type: General]

^ COLUMBUS Oh yes, Don Diego reported some problem, but those stories are much exaggerated.
  • The Trial of Christopher Columbus 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC red-coral.net [Source type: Original source]

^ In February of 1494, Columbus hurriedly sent back to Spain the expeditions first dividends: slaves and gold.
  • Columbus, The Original American Hero 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.ahealedplanet.net [Source type: Original source]

They pronounced the idea impractical, and advised their Royal Highnesses to pass on the proposed venture.
.
Columbus and Queen Isabella.
^ After the wedding of Prince Juan in March 1497, when Queen Isabella had more time to give to external affairs, the promise to Columbus was again remembered, and his position was considered in detail.
  • Christopher Columbus, Complete by Filson Young - Full Text Free Book (Part 5/8) 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ News of the serious illness of Queen Isabella had evidently reached Columbus, and was the chief topic of public interest.
  • Christopher Columbus, Complete by Filson Young - Full Text Free Book (Part 7/8) 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Queen Isabella and King Ferdinand were not entirely convinced by Columbus’s presentation but agreed to submit his project to a commission of scholars.
  • Was Christopher Columbus a Jew? | Bloggish | Jewish Journal 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.jewishjournal.com [Source type: General]

Detail of the Columbus monument in Madrid (1885).
.However, to keep Columbus from taking his ideas elsewhere, and perhaps to keep their options open, the Catholic Monarchs gave him an annual allowance of 12,000 maravedis and in 1489 furnished him with a letter ordering all cities and towns under their domain to provide him food and lodging at no cost.^ In all his voluminous writings, letters, memoirs, and journals, Columbus never once mentions his wife.
  • Christopher Columbus, Complete by Filson Young - Full Text Free Book (Part 1/8) 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It certainly seems clear from all of the above statements that Columbus intended to emphasize the fact he had been born in the city of Genoa and not in the Republic of Genoa or somewhere else.
  • Christopher Columbus'Origin 12 September 2009 0:00 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: Original source]
  • From THE DISCOVERY OF NORTH AMERICA 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.millersville.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Columbus had evidently received the news from a public source, and felt mortified that Diego should not have written him a special letter.
  • Christopher Columbus, Complete by Filson Young - Full Text Free Book (Part 7/8) 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

[16]
.After continually lobbying at the Spanish court and two years of negotiations, he finally had success in 1492. Ferdinand and Isabella had just conquered Granada, the last Muslim stronghold on the Iberian peninsula, and they received Columbus in Córdoba, in the Alcázar castle.^ After several years of lobbying at the Spanish court he was finally successful in 1492.
  • Was Christopher Columbus a Jew? | Bloggish | Jewish Journal 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.jewishjournal.com [Source type: General]

^ It was Pérez who introduced Columbus to the court of Ferdinand and Isabella.
  • Christopher Columbus 12 September 2009 0:00 UTC www.millersville.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The Spanish king and queen, Ferdinand of Aragon and Isabella of Castile had just conquered Granada, the last Muslim stronghold on the Iberian peninsula, and they received Colombus in Cordoba, Spain (in the kings’ Alcazar) and they agreed to have an expedition sent out to the West.
  • Was Christopher Columbus a Jew? | Bloggish | Jewish Journal 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.jewishjournal.com [Source type: General]

.Isabella turned Columbus down on the advice of her confessor, and he was leaving town by mule in despair, when Ferdinand intervened.^ It appeared that Columbus and his men were looking for a reason to make an example out of some natives, and found the opportunity just as they were leaving town.
  • Columbus, The Original American Hero 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.ahealedplanet.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Leaving his brother Diego behind as governor of La Isabella contributed to Columbus’ problems with the settlers.
  • Christopher Columbus 12 September 2009 0:00 UTC www.millersville.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ It looked more like Columbus and his men were looking for a reason to make an example out of some natives, and found the opportunity just as they were "leaving town."
  • Columbus:
    The Original American Hero
    2 February 2010 15:015 UTC globalization.icaap.org [Source type: Original source]

Isabella then sent a royal guard to fetch him and Ferdinand later claimed credit for being "the principal cause why those islands were discovered".
.About half of the financing was to come from private Italian investors, whom Columbus had already lined up.^ Columbus was about a century and a half later.
  • Daily Kos: Christopher Columbus & His Crimes Against Humanity 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ About half of the financing was to come from private investors, which Columbus had already lined up.
  • Was Christopher Columbus a Jew? | Bloggish | Jewish Journal 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.jewishjournal.com [Source type: General]

^ Their world was about as close to earthly paradise as human existence has ever come, a fact that was not lost on Columbus, as he often remarked upon it in his log.
  • Columbus, The Original American Hero 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.ahealedplanet.net [Source type: Original source]
  • Columbus:
    The Original American Hero
    2 February 2010 15:015 UTC globalization.icaap.org [Source type: Original source]

.Financially broke after the Granada campaign, the monarchs left it to the royal treasurer to shift funds among various royal accounts on behalf of the enterprise.^ Invited to the royal camp as the monarchs prepared for their final battle with the Muslims in Granada, the future discoverer made his final presentation.
  • Christopher Columbus 12 September 2009 0:00 UTC www.millersville.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The major financiers were two court officials – both Jewish conversos – Louis de Santangel, chancellor of the royal household, and Gabriel Sanchez, treasurer of Aragon.
  • Was Christopher Columbus a Jew? | Bloggish | Jewish Journal 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.jewishjournal.com [Source type: General]

^ Some carried out administrative functions such as treasurers, chamberlains, and captains of the guard in the various royal households.
  • Christopher Columbus' family and his Perestrello and Moniz in-laws. 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.wolcottfamily.com [Source type: Original source]

.Columbus was to be made "Admiral of the Seas" and would receive a portion of all profits.^ Columbus was made Admiral of the High Seas and granted an inheritable governorship to the new territories he would discover, as well as a portion of all profits.
  • Was Christopher Columbus a Jew? | Bloggish | Jewish Journal 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.jewishjournal.com [Source type: General]

^ Columbus made four trips in all, amid storms, threatened mutinies, and, on the third trip, envious palace hangers-on had him put in chains.
  • The Crimes of Christopher Columbus 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.freerepublic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Columbus made sure the Spaniards would be on their best behavior for those initial encounters.
  • Columbus, The Original American Hero 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.ahealedplanet.net [Source type: Original source]

.The terms were unusually generous, but as his son later wrote, the monarchs did not really expect him to return.^ It can be assumed also that Cristoforo later on became generally recognized as the son of Domenico Colombo, as indeed the two witnesses in the deed testified to the best of their knowledge.
  • Christopher Columbus'Origin 12 September 2009 0:00 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: Original source]
  • From THE DISCOVERY OF NORTH AMERICA 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.millersville.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ At a time when it was generally expected that sons follow their fathers in the family business, it was, nevertheless, natural for them to turn to the seas for a career.
  • Christopher Columbus 12 September 2009 0:00 UTC www.millersville.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ And return I did, ten months later, with a great fleet of seventeen ships, twelve hundred men, and my brothers Bartolome and Diego.
  • The Trial of Christopher Columbus 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC red-coral.net [Source type: Original source]

.According to the contract that Columbus made with King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella, if Columbus discovered any new islands or mainland, he would receive many high rewards.^ He also carried letters of credence from Queen Isabella and King Ferdinand.
  • Was Christopher Columbus a Jew? | Bloggish | Jewish Journal 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.jewishjournal.com [Source type: General]

^ Discovered: New painting of Columbus.
  • Was Christopher Columbus a Jew? | Bloggish | Jewish Journal 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.jewishjournal.com [Source type: General]

^ Many of the Spanish settlers of the new colony were discontent, having been misled by Columbus about the supposedly bountiful riches of the new world.
  • Was Christopher Columbus a Jew? | Bloggish | Jewish Journal 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.jewishjournal.com [Source type: General]

.In terms of power, he would be given the rank of Admiral of the Ocean Sea and appointed Viceroy and Governor of all the new lands.^ What seems to be the greatest injustice of all is that the new lands that the Great Navigator, Admiral of the Ocean Seas, Governor and Viceroy discovered were never given his name.
  • Christopher Columbus 12 September 2009 0:00 UTC www.millersville.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ According to these capitulations, Columbus would gain the titles of Admiral of the Ocean Sea, Viceroy and Governor General of all lands that he would discover, and take for himself to use as he wishes ten percent of whatever would be acquired overseas, whether pearls, precious stones, gold, silver, spices or any other merchandise.
  • Christopher Columbus'Origin 12 September 2009 0:00 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: Original source]
  • From THE DISCOVERY OF NORTH AMERICA 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.millersville.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1991, the National Education Association weighed in against the Admiral of the Ocean Seas, urging its members at a national conference to promote the new multiculturalist party line that Columbus was a mass murderer and criminal.
  • The Crimes of Christopher Columbus 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.freerepublic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.He had the right to nominate three persons, from whom the sovereigns would choose one, for any office in the new lands.^ Contingents of sailor-historians have worshipped Columbus as one of history’s great navigators, and have engaged in senseless debates regarding where Columbus first landed in the New World.
  • Columbus:
    The Original American Hero
    2 February 2010 15:015 UTC globalization.icaap.org [Source type: Original source]

^ He bore himself with intolerable arrogance and insolence, discharging one of Columbus's personal bodyguard on the ground that no one should hold any office on the island except with his consent.
  • Christopher Columbus, Complete by Filson Young - Full Text Free Book (Part 5/8) 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The rest I was going to let go, but there was such a hue and cry from the colonists, that I had to let each one choose a few Indians for personal servants.
  • The Trial of Christopher Columbus 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC red-coral.net [Source type: Original source]

.He would be entitled to 10% of all the revenues from the new lands in perpetuity; this part was denied to him in the contract, although it was one of his demands.^ In his later years Columbus demanded that the Spanish Crown give him 10% of all profits made in the new lands, pursuant to earlier agreements.
  • Was Christopher Columbus a Jew? | Bloggish | Jewish Journal 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.jewishjournal.com [Source type: General]

^ Fuentes isn't asking us to forget the past; nor is he asking us to deny Christopher Columbus; he is merely asking us to imagine a new Christopher Columbus and with him and his sister to discover and create a new world.
  • Imagining Christopher Columbus 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC hss.fullerton.edu [Source type: General]

^ All the early chroniclers of the New World’s invasion remarked on how thickly populated the lands were.
  • Columbus:
    The Original American Hero
    2 February 2010 15:015 UTC globalization.icaap.org [Source type: Original source]

.Additionally, he would also have the option of buying one-eighth interest in any commercial venture with the new lands and receive one-eighth of the profits.^ Not, indeed, a very attractive or inspiring figure of a man; not the man whose company one would likely have sought very much, or whose conversation one would have found very interesting.
  • Christopher Columbus, Complete by Filson Young - Full Text Free Book (Part 1/8) 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Enslavement of the natives had not been one of the stated goals of this expedition and it was offensive to the queen; yet Columbus justified Indian enslavement on the grounds that it would be profitable.
  • Christopher Columbus 12 September 2009 0:00 UTC www.millersville.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ To end the rebellion the Viceroy had to agree to the demand of the rebels that each one receive a plot of land and the Indians who lived on it.
  • Christopher Columbus 12 September 2009 0:00 UTC www.millersville.edu [Source type: Original source]

Columbus was later arrested in 1500 and supplanted from these posts. .After his death, Columbus's sons, Diego and Fernando, took legal action to enforce their father's contract.^ His son Fernando, age 14, and brother Bartolomeo accompanied Columbus on this fourth and final voyage.
  • Christopher Columbus 12 September 2009 0:00 UTC www.millersville.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Both Father las Casas, who wrote The History of the Indies , and his son Fernando indicate that there had been correspondence between Columbus and Toscanelli.
  • Christopher Columbus 12 September 2009 0:00 UTC www.millersville.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Letter written by CHRISTOPHER COLUMBUS to DON DIEGO, his Son, December 1, 1504.
  • Christopher Columbus, Complete by Filson Young - Full Text Free Book (Part 7/8) 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

.Many of the smears against Columbus were initiated by the Castilian crown during these lengthy court cases, known as the pleitos colombinos.^ A number of returned settlers and friars lobbied against Columbus at the Spanish court, accusing him of mismanagement.
  • Was Christopher Columbus a Jew? | Bloggish | Jewish Journal 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.jewishjournal.com [Source type: General]

^ The uncompromising determination of "Baltasar Colón" (so named in the court papers) must have appeared to many as a character trait that could only belong to a reincarnated Christopher Columbus.
  • Christopher Columbus'Origin 12 September 2009 0:00 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: Original source]
  • From THE DISCOVERY OF NORTH AMERICA 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.millersville.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ "It would be well for Carbajal and Jeronimo--[Jeronimo de Aguero, a landowner in Espanola and a friend of Columbus]--to be at the-Court at this time, and talk of our affairs with these Lords and with the Secretary.
  • Christopher Columbus, Complete by Filson Young - Full Text Free Book (Part 7/8) 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

The family had some success in their first litigation, as a judgment of 1511 confirmed Diego's position as Viceroy, but reduced his powers. Diego resumed litigation in 1512, which lasted until 1536, and further disputes continued until 1790.[17]

First voyage

First voyage
First voyage
.On the evening of 3 August 1492, Columbus departed from Palos de la Frontera with three ships; one larger carrack, Santa María, nicknamed Gallega (the Galician), and two smaller caravels, Pinta (the Painted) and Santa Clara, nicknamed Niña after her owner Juan Niño of Moguer.^ Columbus sailed on August 3, 1492.
  • Was Christopher Columbus a Jew? | Bloggish | Jewish Journal 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.jewishjournal.com [Source type: General]

^ One of Columbus’ first stops in Spain was the monastery La Rábida at Palos de la Frontera.
  • Christopher Columbus 12 September 2009 0:00 UTC www.millersville.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ That year, on the evening of August 3, Columbus left from Palos with three ships, the Santa Maria, Niña and Pinta.
  • Was Christopher Columbus a Jew? | Bloggish | Jewish Journal 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.jewishjournal.com [Source type: General]

[18] .They were property of Juan de la Cosa and the Pinzón brothers (Martín Alonso and Vicente Yáñez), but the monarchs forced the Palos inhabitants to contribute to the expedition.^ The third ship, Columbus' flagship (a small round ship with a large hold, most likely a nao ), was owned by Juan de la Cosa and called the Santa María .
  • Christopher Columbus 12 September 2009 0:00 UTC www.millersville.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Juan de Coloma, a royal secretary, had a hand in drawing up the contract between Columbus and the Catholic monarchs.
  • Was Christopher Columbus a Jew? | Bloggish | Jewish Journal 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.jewishjournal.com [Source type: General]

^ At Valladolid, Las Casas argued against Juan Gineas de Sepualveda, another theologian, that Indians were human beings.
  • The Crimes of Christopher Columbus 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.freerepublic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Columbus first sailed to the Canary Islands, which were owned by Castile, where he restocked the provisions and made repairs.^ In 1494, the Spaniards invaded the Canaries’ largest island, Tenerife, for the first time.
  • Columbus:
    The Original American Hero
    2 February 2010 15:015 UTC globalization.icaap.org [Source type: Original source]

^ After a southern passage to the Canary Islands where the Niña had her sails replaced with square rigging and the Pinta’s rudder was repaired, the voyagers departed the known world on the 6 th of September, 1492.
  • Christopher Columbus 12 September 2009 0:00 UTC www.millersville.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ From these three captains, after giving them full sailing directions for reaching Espanola, Columbus parted company off the island of Ferro.
  • Christopher Columbus, Complete by Filson Young - Full Text Free Book (Part 5/8) 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

.On 6 September he departed San Sebastián de la Gomera for what turned out to be a five-week voyage across the ocean.^ He who had so often occupied himself in ports and harbours with the fitting out of ships and preparations for a voyage now completed at San Domingo the simple preparations for the last voyage he was to take.
  • Christopher Columbus, Complete by Filson Young - Full Text Free Book (Part 7/8) 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ (French) (as Editor) Le Tour du Monde; À travers la Perse Orientale Journal des voyages et des voyageurs; 2e Sem.
  • Browse By Author: C - Project Gutenberg 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Tradition has it that Christopher Colón arrived in Spain at Palos de La Frontera on board a ship with his son Diego, then about five years old.
  • Christopher Columbus'Origin 12 September 2009 0:00 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: Original source]
  • From THE DISCOVERY OF NORTH AMERICA 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.millersville.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Land was sighted at 2 a.m. on 12 October 1492, by a sailor named Rodrigo de Triana (also known as Juan Rodríguez Bermejo) aboard Pinta.^ Log of October 11-12, 1492.
  • Columbus, The Original American Hero 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.ahealedplanet.net [Source type: Original source]
  • Columbus:
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^ Two hour past midnight on the morning of October 12 a lookout named Rodrígo de Triana (sometimes called Juan Rodríguez Bermejo), on the Pinta , cried out “ Tierra!
  • Christopher Columbus 12 September 2009 0:00 UTC www.millersville.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ There is still much discussion about which island he reached, but at least it is quite certain that it was one of the Bahamas (landing was on October 12, 1492).
  • Was Christopher Columbus a Jew? | Bloggish | Jewish Journal 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.jewishjournal.com [Source type: General]

[19] .Columbus called the island (in what is now The Bahamas) San Salvador; the natives called it Guanahani.^ Instead of searching for provisions while Columbus was off exploring other islands, the men left behind raided native villages in search of riches.
  • Christopher Columbus 12 September 2009 0:00 UTC www.millersville.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Columbus began calling himself the Christ-bearer right after the first voyage, but the tally for Columbus' reign was: native deaths = millions; native conversions = zero.
  • Columbus:
    The Original American Hero
    2 February 2010 15:015 UTC globalization.icaap.org [Source type: Original source]

^ OJEDA It could also apply to gold mining, which Columbus has kept as his personal monopoly until now, with the result that little gold has been mined and the island's resources are still not fully explored.
  • The Trial of Christopher Columbus 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC red-coral.net [Source type: Original source]

.Exactly which island in the Bahamas this corresponds to is an unresolved topic; prime candidates are Samana Cay, Plana Cays, or San Salvador Island (so named in 1925 in the belief that it was Columbus's San Salvador).^ He saw another peak of the mainland to the northwest, which was the peninsula of Paria, and to which Columbus, taking it to be another island, gave the name of Isla de Gracia.
  • Christopher Columbus, Complete by Filson Young - Full Text Free Book (Part 5/8) 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ A happy sailor sighted a West Indian island and on October 12, in the name of his sponsors, Columbus claimed the real estate for Spain.
  • The Crimes of Christopher Columbus 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.freerepublic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On the third day Columbus took six or seven Indians as guides upon his departure from San Salvador and reconnoitered three other islands in the Bahamas.
  • Christopher Columbus 12 September 2009 0:00 UTC www.millersville.edu [Source type: Original source]

.The indigenous people he encountered, the Lucayan, Taíno or Arawak, were peaceful and friendly.^ The Native Americans he encountered, the Taíno or Arawak, were peaceful and friendly.
  • Was Christopher Columbus a Jew? | Bloggish | Jewish Journal 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.jewishjournal.com [Source type: General]

^ Columbus admitted that no fort was necessary among such friendly and peaceful people, but he could not put aside his European conditioning.
  • Columbus, The Original American Hero 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.ahealedplanet.net [Source type: Original source]
  • Columbus:
    The Original American Hero
    2 February 2010 15:015 UTC globalization.icaap.org [Source type: Original source]

.From the 12 October 1492 entry in his journal he wrote of them, "Many of the men I have seen have scars on their bodies, and when I made signs to them to find out how this happened, they indicated that people from other nearby islands come to San Salvador to capture them; they defend themselves the best they can.^ Log of October 11-12, 1492.
  • Columbus, The Original American Hero 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.ahealedplanet.net [Source type: Original source]
  • Columbus:
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^ Columbus wrote of savage cannibals, people with an eye in the middle of their forehead (log entries of November 4 th and 23 rd , 1492), and dog-like noses that drink the blood of their victims after cutting their throats and castrating them (log entry of November 4 th , 1492).
  • Columbus, The Original American Hero 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.ahealedplanet.net [Source type: Original source]

^ They called themselves Taínos, which in their language means something like (smugly) "the Good People".
  • The Trial of Christopher Columbus 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC red-coral.net [Source type: Original source]

I believe that people from the mainland come here to take them as slaves. .They ought to make good and skilled servants, for they repeat very quickly whatever we say to them.^ As slaves in Spain they would more quickly become Christians and learn the skills of civilization than if they stayed here.
  • The Trial of Christopher Columbus 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC red-coral.net [Source type: Original source]

.I think they can very easily be made Christians, for they seem to have no religion.^ Week followed week, and they made very poor progress.
  • Christopher Columbus, Complete by Filson Young - Full Text Free Book (Part 5/8) 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ No historian has yet made this point (that I am aware of), but as the Spaniards made many unsubstantiated accusations of native cannibalism, they ate human-fed dogs.
  • Columbus, The Original American Hero 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.ahealedplanet.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The Spanish colony, moreover, seemed to have made something of a hero of Columbus during his long absence, and they received him with enthusiasm.
  • Christopher Columbus, Complete by Filson Young - Full Text Free Book (Part 7/8) 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

.If it pleases our Lord, I will take six of them to Your Highnesses when I depart, in order that they may learn our language."^ May our Lord have you in His keeping.
  • Christopher Columbus, Complete by Filson Young - Full Text Free Book (Part 7/8) 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ OJEDA I reckon they can do whatever they choose to, seeing as they're the ones giving the orders and we're the ones taking them, don't you think, Admiral?
  • The Trial of Christopher Columbus 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC red-coral.net [Source type: Original source]

^ May our Lord have you in His Holy keeping.
  • Christopher Columbus, Complete by Filson Young - Full Text Free Book (Part 7/8) 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

[20] .He remarked that their lack of modern weaponry and even metal-forged swords or pikes was a tactical vulnerability, writing, "I could conquer the whole of them with 50 men, and govern them as I pleased."^ His log informed his king and queen that “with 50 men you could subject every one and make them do what you wished.” .
  • Columbus:
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    2 February 2010 15:015 UTC globalization.icaap.org [Source type: Original source]

[21] .Columbus also explored the northeast coast of Cuba (landed on 28 October) and the northern coast of Hispaniola, by 5 December.^ On this first voyage, Columbus also explored the northeast coast of Cuba (landed on October 28) and the northern coast of Hispaniola.
  • Was Christopher Columbus a Jew? | Bloggish | Jewish Journal 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.jewishjournal.com [Source type: General]

^ After sailing along the coast of Cuba, asking about gold and riches, Columbus reached the island that he named La Isla Espaola, on December 6, 1492.
  • Columbus, The Original American Hero 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.ahealedplanet.net [Source type: Original source]

^ After sailing along the coast of Cuba, asking about gold and riches, Columbus reached the island that he named La Isla Española, on December 6, 1492.
  • Columbus:
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    2 February 2010 15:015 UTC globalization.icaap.org [Source type: Original source]

.Here, the Santa Maria ran aground on Christmas morning 1492 and had to be abandoned.^ Here the Santa Maria ran aground and had to be abandoned.
  • Was Christopher Columbus a Jew? | Bloggish | Jewish Journal 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.jewishjournal.com [Source type: General]

^ What were three of the motivations that led him to set sail on August 3, 1492 on the Pinta, the Nina, and the Santa Maria from the "Southern Spanish port of Palos?"
  • Daily Kos: Christopher Columbus & His Crimes Against Humanity (Edited) 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ On December 25, 1492, with Columbus aboard, the Santa Maria ran aground at night while a boy was steering.
  • Columbus, The Original American Hero 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.ahealedplanet.net [Source type: Original source]
  • Columbus:
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.He was received by the native cacique Guacanagari, who gave him permission to leave some of his men behind.^ Presiding over the southwestern region, known as Xaragu, was Anacaona, the highly respected widow of Caonab, the cacique who received the gift of those shiny manacles.
  • Columbus, The Original American Hero 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.ahealedplanet.net [Source type: Original source]

^ After buying some bows and arrows from the natives, Columbus men tried buying more, as Columbus instructed them to.
  • Columbus, The Original American Hero 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.ahealedplanet.net [Source type: Original source]

^ One anecdote which was funny, in a sick way, was how Columbus men captured an uncooperative cacique, Caonab, who Columbus said was the principal king of the island.
  • Columbus, The Original American Hero 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.ahealedplanet.net [Source type: Original source]

.Columbus left 39 men and founded the settlement of La Navidad in what is now present-day Haiti.^ Columbus founded the settlement La Navidad and left 39 men.
  • Was Christopher Columbus a Jew? | Bloggish | Jewish Journal 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.jewishjournal.com [Source type: General]

^ Columbus made it a policy not to allow his men to leave the ships unchaperoned, because they robbed and raped with abandon when left on their own.
  • Columbus, The Original American Hero 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.ahealedplanet.net [Source type: Original source]
  • Columbus:
    The Original American Hero
    2 February 2010 15:015 UTC globalization.icaap.org [Source type: Original source]

^ It must have been a very humiliating circumstance to Columbus that in the preparations which he was now (February 1498) making for the equipment of his new expedition a great difficulty was found in procuring ships and men.
  • Christopher Columbus, Complete by Filson Young - Full Text Free Book (Part 5/8) 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

[22] .Before returning to Spain, Columbus also kidnapped some ten to twenty-five natives and took them back with him.^ Twenty-six natives survived the trip back to the Spain.
  • Columbus, The Original American Hero 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.ahealedplanet.net [Source type: Original source]
  • Columbus:
    The Original American Hero
    2 February 2010 15:015 UTC globalization.icaap.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Columbus then tried to get backing from Spain.
  • Was Christopher Columbus a Jew? | Bloggish | Jewish Journal 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.jewishjournal.com [Source type: General]

^ As a consequence, he kidnapped some of the Tainos and took them back to Spain.
  • Daily Kos: Christopher Columbus & His Crimes Against Humanity 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Daily Kos: Christopher Columbus & His Crimes Against Humanity (Edited) 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

.Only seven or eight of the native Indians arrived in Spain alive, but they made quite an impression on Seville.^ In only eight years we've caused the deaths of tens of thousands of Indians.
  • The Trial of Christopher Columbus 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC red-coral.net [Source type: Original source]

^ No historian has yet made this point (that I am aware of), but as the Spaniards made many unsubstantiated accusations of native cannibalism, they ate human-fed dogs.
  • Columbus, The Original American Hero 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.ahealedplanet.net [Source type: Original source]

^ They duly arrived on the evening appointed; not the caciques alone, but large numbers of the native population, well prepared for whatever might take place.
  • Christopher Columbus, Complete by Filson Young - Full Text Free Book (Part 7/8) 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

[19]
.Columbus headed for Spain, but another storm forced him into Lisbon.^ Columbus made four trips in all, amid storms, threatened mutinies, and, on the third trip, envious palace hangers-on had him put in chains.
  • The Crimes of Christopher Columbus 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.freerepublic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It strains credibility to think that Columbus, just as he was heading back to Spain, received his first hostile response, especially if one reads the accounts of it.
  • Columbus, The Original American Hero 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.ahealedplanet.net [Source type: Original source]
  • Columbus:
    The Original American Hero
    2 February 2010 15:015 UTC globalization.icaap.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Spanish force was divided into three main divisions, under the command of Christopher and Bartholomew Columbus and Ojeda respectively.
  • Christopher Columbus, Complete by Filson Young - Full Text Free Book (Part 5/8) 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

He anchored next to the King's harbor patrol ship on 4 March 1493 in Portugal. .After spending more than one week in Portugal, he set sail for Spain.^ In point of historical fact, there were and still are available more letters written in vulgar Italian or Genoese than one would wish to read.
  • Christopher Columbus'Origin 12 September 2009 0:00 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: Original source]
  • From THE DISCOVERY OF NORTH AMERICA 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.millersville.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Tibet, with one of the planet's most inhospitable climates, is ten times more densely populated than that.
  • Columbus, The Original American Hero 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.ahealedplanet.net [Source type: Original source]
  • Columbus:
    The Original American Hero
    2 February 2010 15:015 UTC globalization.icaap.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The religious beliefs of Apocalyptic Christianity were yet another one of Columbus' motivations for setting sail; consequently, it was the most illogical motivation he possessed.
  • Daily Kos: Christopher Columbus & His Crimes Against Humanity (Edited) 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

.He crossed the bar of Saltes and entered the harbour of Palos on 15 March 1493. Word of his finding new lands rapidly spread throughout Europe.^ Word of his discovery of new lands rapidly spread throughout Europe.
  • Was Christopher Columbus a Jew? | Bloggish | Jewish Journal 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.jewishjournal.com [Source type: General]

^ Within a year, the Latin translation ran through nine editions, thus spreading the news of the New World throughout Europe.
  • Was Christopher Columbus a Jew? | Bloggish | Jewish Journal 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.jewishjournal.com [Source type: General]

^ The standard sequence of events was going ashore to new land, claiming it for Spain, planting a cross, and asking where the gold was.
  • Columbus:
    The Original American Hero
    2 February 2010 15:015 UTC globalization.icaap.org [Source type: Original source]

.There is increasing modern scientific evidence that this voyage also brought syphilis back from the New World.^ He was named Admiral of the Ocean Sea, cut in on 10% of the New Worlds loot, and a second voyage was immediately planned.
  • Columbus, The Original American Hero 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.ahealedplanet.net [Source type: Original source]

^ It's a great policy, and am glad to see President Bush going back to historical ideas in the modern world ;0) .
  • The Crimes of Christopher Columbus 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.freerepublic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Columbus made four voyages to the New World.
  • Columbus, The Original American Hero 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.ahealedplanet.net [Source type: Original source]
  • Columbus:
    The Original American Hero
    2 February 2010 15:015 UTC globalization.icaap.org [Source type: Original source]

.Many of the crew members who served on this voyage later joined the army of King Charles VIII in his invasion of Italy in 1495 resulting in the spreading of the disease across Europe and as many as 5 million deaths.^ Columbus began calling himself the Christ-bearer right after the first voyage, but the tally for Columbus' reign was: native deaths = millions; native conversions = zero.
  • Columbus:
    The Original American Hero
    2 February 2010 15:015 UTC globalization.icaap.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Peter Moniz da Silva was also a member of the royal council of King John III, who came to the throne in 1521, and was given royal grants in 1523.
  • Christopher Columbus' family and his Perestrello and Moniz in-laws. 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.wolcottfamily.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Some years later, at the urging of his son, Joseph, he settled in Venice, where he served as a diplomat for the republic until his death in 1508.
  • Was Christopher Columbus a Jew? | Bloggish | Jewish Journal 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.jewishjournal.com [Source type: General]

[23][24]

Second voyage

Second voyage
.Columbus left Cádiz (modern Spain), on 24 September 1493 to find new territories, with 17 ships carrying supplies, and about 1,200 men to colonize the region.^ He left for his second voyage (1493-1496) on September 24 1493, with 17 ships carrying supplies and about 1200 men to assist in the subjugation of the Taíno and the colonization of the region.
  • Was Christopher Columbus a Jew? | Bloggish | Jewish Journal 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.jewishjournal.com [Source type: General]

^ Because their largest ship was destroyed, Columbus left behind about 40 Spaniards and they built a fort from the ships timbers.
  • Columbus, The Original American Hero 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.ahealedplanet.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Every Taino over 14 years of age was to give a hawk’s bell (about the size of a thimble) of gold to the rulers (Columbus and his men) every three months.
  • Columbus:
    The Original American Hero
    2 February 2010 15:015 UTC globalization.icaap.org [Source type: Original source]

The colonists included priests, farmers, and soldiers. This was part of a new policy - not just exploitation, but settlement and conversion of the natives to Christianity.[25] .On 13 October the ships left the Canary Islands as they had on the first voyage, following a more southerly course.^ He laid his course more southerly than on his first voyage, first sighting Dominica, which is quite rugged, so he turned north, discovering and naming Guadeloupe, Montserrat, Antigua, and Nevis in the Lesser Antilles, landing on them and claiming them for Spain as he did the Virgin Islands and Puerto Rico.
  • Was Christopher Columbus a Jew? | Bloggish | Jewish Journal 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.jewishjournal.com [Source type: General]

^ On October 15th the ships anchored at an island where the natives “let us go anywhere we desired and gave us anything we asked.” After staying a couple of hours and determining there was no gold, they prepared to leave.
  • Columbus:
    The Original American Hero
    2 February 2010 15:015 UTC globalization.icaap.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1494, the Spaniards invaded the Canaries’ largest island, Tenerife, for the first time.
  • Columbus:
    The Original American Hero
    2 February 2010 15:015 UTC globalization.icaap.org [Source type: Original source]

.On 3 November 1493, Columbus sighted a rugged island that he named Dominica (Latin for Sunday); later that day, he landed at Marie-Galante, which he named Santa Maria la Galante.^ He laid his course more southerly than on his first voyage, first sighting Dominica, which is quite rugged, so he turned north, discovering and naming Guadeloupe, Montserrat, Antigua, and Nevis in the Lesser Antilles, landing on them and claiming them for Spain as he did the Virgin Islands and Puerto Rico.
  • Was Christopher Columbus a Jew? | Bloggish | Jewish Journal 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.jewishjournal.com [Source type: General]

^ The Admiral had landed in Spain on November 7, 1504, and at the time of his writing to Oderico on December 27, over fifty days had lapsed.
  • Christopher Columbus'Origin 12 September 2009 0:00 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: Original source]
  • From THE DISCOVERY OF NORTH AMERICA 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.millersville.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The point being, like the Santa Claus fable, I think it's appropriate to teach children that Columbus discovered the New World and that's why we celebrate this day and later on they'll learn that he was a genocidal bastard.
  • Daily Kos: Christopher Columbus & His Crimes Against Humanity (Edited) 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

After sailing past Les Saintes (Los Santos, The Saints), he arrived at Guadeloupe Santa María de Guadalupe de Extremadura, after the image of the Virgin Mary venerated at the Spanish monastery of Villuercas, in Guadalupe (Spain), which he explored between 4 November and 10 November 1493.
.Michele da Cuneo, Columbus’s childhood friend from Savona, sailed with Columbus during the second voyage and wrote: "In my opinion, since Genoa was Genoa, there was never born a man so well equipped and expert in the art of navigation as the said lord Admiral."^ The main point of this theory is that Columbus never said he was from Genoa but from the Republic of Genoa.
  • Was Christopher Columbus a Jew? | Bloggish | Jewish Journal 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.jewishjournal.com [Source type: General]

^ While I was in the boat I captured a very beautiful Carib woman the said Lord Admiral gave to me, and with whom, having taken her into my cabin, she being naked according to their custom, I conceived desire to take pleasure.
  • Columbus, The Original American Hero 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.ahealedplanet.net [Source type: Original source]
  • Columbus:
    The Original American Hero
    2 February 2010 15:015 UTC globalization.icaap.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Whether by provident design or, more likely, by accident, the treasure of Europe that Columbus had transported to the Indies but never successfully delivered had remained the safest, the most secure cargo of all the many voyages since.
  • Imagining Christopher Columbus 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC hss.fullerton.edu [Source type: General]

[26] .Columbus named the small island of "Saona ...^ He saw another peak of the mainland to the northwest, which was the peninsula of Paria, and to which Columbus, taking it to be another island, gave the name of Isla de Gracia.
  • Christopher Columbus, Complete by Filson Young - Full Text Free Book (Part 5/8) 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ A happy sailor sighted a West Indian island and on October 12, in the name of his sponsors, Columbus claimed the real estate for Spain.
  • The Crimes of Christopher Columbus 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.freerepublic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After sailing along the coast of Cuba, asking about gold and riches, Columbus reached the island that he named La Isla Espaola, on December 6, 1492.
  • Columbus, The Original American Hero 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.ahealedplanet.net [Source type: Original source]

to honor Michele da Cuneo, his friend from Savona."[27]
The exact course of his voyage through the Lesser Antilles is debated, but it seems likely that he turned north, sighting and naming several islands, including Montserrat (for Santa Maria de Montserrate, after the Blessed Virgin of the Monastery of Montserrat, which is located on the Mountain of Montserrat, in Catalonia, Spain), Antigua (after a church in Seville, Spain, called Santa Maria la Antigua, meaning "Old St. Mary's"), Redonda (for Santa Maria la Redonda, Spanish for "round", owing to the island's shape), Nevis (derived from the Spanish, Nuestra Señora de las Nieves, meaning "Our Lady of the Snows", because Columbus thought the clouds over Nevis Peak made the island resemble a snow-capped mountain), Saint Kitts (for St. Christopher, patron of sailors and travelers), Sint Eustatius (for the early Roman martyr, St. Eustachius), Saba (also for St. Christopher?), Saint Martin (San Martin), and Saint Croix (from the Spanish Santa Cruz, meaning "Holy Cross"). .He also sighted the island chain of the Virgin Islands (and named them Islas de Santa Ursula y las Once Mil Virgenes, Saint Ursula and the 11,000 Virgins, a cumbersome name that was usually shortened, both on maps of the time and in common parlance, to Islas Virgenes), and he also named the islands of Virgin Gorda (the fat virgin), Tortola, and Peter Island (San Pedro).^ He was vicar of the parish of Camara de Lobos on the island of Madeira prior to 1473, and in that year exchanged parishes with Stephen Vaz, vicar of San Miguel in Azores.
  • Christopher Columbus' family and his Perestrello and Moniz in-laws. 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.wolcottfamily.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Here we will use the English equivalents for many common foreign given names; John for Joao and Juan, Peter for Pedro and Pierre, etc.
  • Christopher Columbus' family and his Perestrello and Moniz in-laws. 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.wolcottfamily.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Vida de Cristóbal Colón / Bartolomé de las Casas ; sobre la edición de André Saint-Lu de Historia de las Indias.

.He continued to the Greater Antilles, and landed at Puerto Rico (originally San Juan Bautista, in honor of Saint John the Baptist, a name that was later supplanted by Puerto Rico (English: Rich Port) while the capital retained the name, San Juan) on 19 November 1493. One of the first skirmishes between native Americans and Europeans since the time of the Vikings[28] took place when Columbus's men rescued two boys who had just been castrated by their captors.^ The natives fled at the attack by Columbus men.
  • Columbus, The Original American Hero 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.ahealedplanet.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The natives fled at the attack by Columbus' men.
  • Columbus:
    The Original American Hero
    2 February 2010 15:015 UTC globalization.icaap.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Later Columbus was stranded on Jamaica for a year; he sent two men by canoe to get help from Hispaniola; in the meantime, he impressed the local population by correctly predicting an eclipse of the moon.
  • Was Christopher Columbus a Jew? | Bloggish | Jewish Journal 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.jewishjournal.com [Source type: General]

.On 22 November Columbus returned to Hispaniola, where he intended to visit Fuerte de la Navidad (Christmas Fort), built during his first voyage, and located on the northern coast of Haiti.^ On this first voyage, Columbus also explored the northeast coast of Cuba (landed on October 28) and the northern coast of Hispaniola.
  • Was Christopher Columbus a Jew? | Bloggish | Jewish Journal 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.jewishjournal.com [Source type: General]

^ Route of Columbus along the north coast of Haiti and the site of Navidad / Samuel Eliot Morison .

^ Caonabo, Lord of the House of Gold, fiercest and bravest of them all, who first realised that the Spaniards were enemies to the native peace, after languishing in prison in the house of Columbus at Isabella for some time, had died in captivity during the voyage to Spain.
  • Christopher Columbus, Complete by Filson Young - Full Text Free Book (Part 7/8) 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

.Columbus found Fuerte de la Navidad in ruins, destroyed by the native Taino people.^ Columbus founded the settlement La Navidad and left 39 men.
  • Was Christopher Columbus a Jew? | Bloggish | Jewish Journal 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.jewishjournal.com [Source type: General]

^ In addition to Luis de Santangel, Alfonso de la Caballeria, and Juan Sanchez, two other individuals merit attention as supporters of Columbus at the Spanish court.
  • Was Christopher Columbus a Jew? | Bloggish | Jewish Journal 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.jewishjournal.com [Source type: General]

^ Colón pudo no volver : la fundación de La Navidad / Demetrio Ramos.

.Among the ruins were the corpses of eleven of the first thirty-nine Spanish to have attempted New World colonization.^ Many of the Spanish settlers of the new colony were discontent, having been misled by Columbus about the supposedly bountiful riches of the new world.
  • Was Christopher Columbus a Jew? | Bloggish | Jewish Journal 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.jewishjournal.com [Source type: General]

^ Debate has raged for centuries regarding where Columbus first landed in the New World.
  • Columbus:
    The Original American Hero
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^ European diseases had already killed countless natives, but 1518 saw the first recorded epidemic of smallpox in the New World.
  • Columbus, The Original American Hero 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.ahealedplanet.net [Source type: Original source]

.Columbus then moved more than 100 kilometers eastwards, establishing a new settlement, which he called La Isabela, likewise on the northern coast of Hispaniola, in the present-day Dominican Republic.^ CAONABO looks much younger than when we saw him in prison, and ANACAONA is more mature than when we saw her at COLUMBUS’first landing.
  • The Trial of Christopher Columbus 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC red-coral.net [Source type: Original source]

^ You're not accusing Columbus of keeping more than his ten percent of the take, are you?
  • The Trial of Christopher Columbus 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC red-coral.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Columbus seems to imply that it was) and at this time, an investor could not find a more secure place in the world than in that bank.
  • Christopher Columbus'Origin 12 September 2009 0:00 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: Original source]
  • From THE DISCOVERY OF NORTH AMERICA 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.millersville.edu [Source type: Original source]

.However, La Isabela proved to be a poorly chosen location, and the settlement was short-lived.^ He established a new settlement at Isabella, on the north coast of Hispaniola where gold had first been discovered; it was a poor location and the settlement was short-lived.
  • Was Christopher Columbus a Jew? | Bloggish | Jewish Journal 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.jewishjournal.com [Source type: General]

He left Hispaniola on 24 April 1494, arrived at Cuba (naming it Juana) on 30 April. .He explored the southern coast of Cuba, which he believed to be a peninsula rather than an island, and several nearby islands, including the Isle of Pines (Isla de las Pinas, later known as La Evangelista, The Evangelist).^ He explored the south coast of Cuba but did not round the western end, thus convincing himself that it was a peninsula rather than an island, and discovered Jamaica.
  • Was Christopher Columbus a Jew? | Bloggish | Jewish Journal 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.jewishjournal.com [Source type: General]

^ He stood to the south-east, and reached the Isle of Pines, to which he gave the name of Evangelista, where the water-casks were filled, and from there he tried to sail back to the east.
  • Christopher Columbus, Complete by Filson Young - Full Text Free Book (Part 5/8) 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He also undertook several voyages to the western coast of Africa and the island of Puerto Santo.
  • From THE DISCOVERY OF NORTH AMERICA 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.millersville.edu [Source type: Original source]

.He reached Jamaica on May 5. He retraced his route to Hispaniola, arriving on August 20, before he finally returned to Spain.^ Help finally arrived, and he returned to Spain in 1504.
  • Was Christopher Columbus a Jew? | Bloggish | Jewish Journal 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.jewishjournal.com [Source type: General]

^ After two years of practical confinement in Spain, which would have sufficed to demoralize anyone else, he finally sailed away on May 30, 1498, engaged in a new mission which on August 1 would result in the discovery of an entire new continent: South America.
  • Christopher Columbus'Origin 12 September 2009 0:00 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: Original source]
  • From THE DISCOVERY OF NORTH AMERICA 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.millersville.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ On Guadeloupe, Columbus may have rescued Taino women the Caribs had "bride captured, and returned them home (although Cuneo wrote that they were sent to Spain as a "sample").
  • Columbus, The Original American Hero 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.ahealedplanet.net [Source type: Original source]

Third voyage

Third voyage
.On 30 May 1498, Columbus left with six ships from Sanlúcar, Spain, for his third trip to the New World.^ Story of the discovery of the new world by Columbus.

^ It was brought to the New World from Spain by Christopher Columbus, later shipped to the rest of Europe.
  • Daily Kos: Christopher Columbus & His Crimes Against Humanity 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Angel Rosenblat, the leading minimalist scholar on the pre-contact population of the New World, believes the count of one million was more Columbus hyperbole.
  • Columbus:
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.He was accompanied by the father of Bartolomé de Las Casas.^ To the credit of the Spanish, there were at least some who lamented the slaughter of the natives, the priest Bartolomé Las Casas most prominent among them.
  • Columbus:
    The Original American Hero
    2 February 2010 15:015 UTC globalization.icaap.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Colón y Las Casas : poder y contrapoder en la filosofía de la historia latinoamericana / Joaquín Sánchez Macgrégor.

^ Casas, Bartolomé de las, 1474-1566 .

.Columbus led the fleet to the Portuguese island of Porto Santo, his wife's native land.^ Isabel Perestrelo, married Peter Correa de Cunha, governor of Porto Santo from 1459 to 1473, and in 1485 captain of the island of Terciera in the Azores.
  • Christopher Columbus' family and his Perestrello and Moniz in-laws. 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.wolcottfamily.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He was appointed Governor of Porto Santo in 1473, and married Guiomar Vaz, daughter, or possibly a granddaughter of, Tristan Vaz Teixeira, first governor of Machico on the island of Madeira.
  • Christopher Columbus' family and his Perestrello and Moniz in-laws. 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.wolcottfamily.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1446, he was granted a charter as hereditary governor of the island of Porto Santo, in which document he is called "a gentleman of my house" by Prince Henry.
  • Christopher Columbus' family and his Perestrello and Moniz in-laws. 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.wolcottfamily.com [Source type: Original source]

.He then sailed to Madeira and spent some time there with the Portuguese captain João Gonçalves da Camara before sailing to the Canary Islands and Cape Verde.^ In 1494, the Spaniards invaded the Canaries’ largest island, Tenerife, for the first time.
  • Columbus:
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^ From these three captains, after giving them full sailing directions for reaching Espanola, Columbus parted company off the island of Ferro.
  • Christopher Columbus, Complete by Filson Young - Full Text Free Book (Part 5/8) 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ That he should have made an exact landfall and sailed into the Bay of Isabella, never having been there before, was a certificate of the highest skill in navigation.
  • Christopher Columbus, Complete by Filson Young - Full Text Free Book (Part 5/8) 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

.Columbus landed on the south coast of the island of Trinidad on 31 July.^ He therefore sailed due south until he once more sighted the beautiful northern coast of that island, following it to the west and landing, as his custom was, whenever he saw a good harbour or anchorage.
  • Christopher Columbus, Complete by Filson Young - Full Text Free Book (Part 5/8) 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ After sailing along the coast of Cuba, asking about gold and riches, Columbus reached the island that he named La Isla Espaola, on December 6, 1492.
  • Columbus, The Original American Hero 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.ahealedplanet.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The land seen was the low coast to the west of the Orinoco, and thinking that it was an island he gave it the name of Isla Sancta.
  • Christopher Columbus, Complete by Filson Young - Full Text Free Book (Part 5/8) 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

.From 4 August through 12 August he explored the Gulf of Paria which separates Trinidad from Venezuela.^ He sailed north past the mouths of the Amazon and Orinoco through the Gulf of Paria, and reached Espanola in June 1500.
  • Christopher Columbus, Complete by Filson Young - Full Text Free Book (Part 5/8) 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

.He explored the mainland of South America, including the Orinoco River.^ This time he discovered the island of Trinidad (July 31) and the mainland of South America, including the Orinoco River, before returning to Hispaniola.
  • Was Christopher Columbus a Jew? | Bloggish | Jewish Journal 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.jewishjournal.com [Source type: General]

^ Taino is a name given to the Arawakan people of the Greater Antilles, related to their mainland cousins in South America, from where they originally emigrated.
  • Columbus, The Original American Hero 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.ahealedplanet.net [Source type: Original source]
  • Columbus:
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.He also sailed to the islands of Chacachacare and Margarita Island and sighted and named Tobago (Bella Forma) and Grenada (Concepcion).^ Once outside they bore away to the northward, sighting the islands of Tobago and Grenada and, turning westward again, came to the islands of Cubagua and Margarita, where three pounds of pearls were bartered from the natives.
  • Christopher Columbus, Complete by Filson Young - Full Text Free Book (Part 5/8) 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ After sailing along the coast of Cuba, asking about gold and riches, Columbus reached the island that he named La Isla Espaola, on December 6, 1492.
  • Columbus, The Original American Hero 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.ahealedplanet.net [Source type: Original source]

^ After sailing along the coast of Cuba, asking about gold and riches, Columbus reached the island that he named La Isla Española, on December 6, 1492.
  • Columbus:
    The Original American Hero
    2 February 2010 15:015 UTC globalization.icaap.org [Source type: Original source]

.Columbus returned to Hispaniola on 19 August to find that many of the Spanish settlers of the new colony were discontented, having been misled by Columbus about the supposedly bountiful riches of the new world.^ Americans about this new world.
  • Daily Kos: Christopher Columbus & His Crimes Against Humanity 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Story of the discovery of the new world by Columbus.

^ In the novel, a rich and greedy man involves a North American Indian professor and her poet lover, her troubled son, and their baby daughter in the search for the fabled crown which Columbus reportedly brought to the New World.
  • Imagining Christopher Columbus 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC hss.fullerton.edu [Source type: General]

.An entry in his journal from September 1498 reads, "From here one might send, in the name of the Holy Trinity, as many slaves as could be sold..."^ Here we will use the English equivalents for many common foreign given names; John for Joao and Juan, Peter for Pedro and Pierre, etc.
  • Christopher Columbus' family and his Perestrello and Moniz in-laws. 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.wolcottfamily.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In August, 1498, this entry appears in his Journal : (note the use of third person; this section comes from the abstract of las Casas) .
  • Imagining Christopher Columbus 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC hss.fullerton.edu [Source type: General]

^ Here is my plan: you have a good canoe; why should some one not go over to Espanola in it and send back a ship for us?"
  • Christopher Columbus, Complete by Filson Young - Full Text Free Book (Part 7/8) 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

.Since Columbus supported the enslavement of the Hispaniola natives for economic reasons, he ultimately refused to baptize them, as Catholic law forbade the enslavement of Christians.^ It appeared that Columbus and his men were looking for a reason to make an example out of some natives, and found the opportunity just as they were leaving town.
  • Columbus, The Original American Hero 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.ahealedplanet.net [Source type: Original source]

^ It looked more like Columbus and his men were looking for a reason to make an example out of some natives, and found the opportunity just as they were "leaving town."
  • Columbus:
    The Original American Hero
    2 February 2010 15:015 UTC globalization.icaap.org [Source type: Original source]

^ It is sometimes claimed that the reason Columbus had a hard time receiving support for this plan was that Europeans believed in a flat earth.
  • Was Christopher Columbus a Jew? | Bloggish | Jewish Journal 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.jewishjournal.com [Source type: General]

[29]
He had some of his crew hanged for disobeying him. .A number of returning settlers and sailors lobbied against Columbus at the Spanish court, accusing him and his brothers of gross mismanagement.^ A number of returned settlers and friars lobbied against Columbus at the Spanish court, accusing him of mismanagement.
  • Was Christopher Columbus a Jew? | Bloggish | Jewish Journal 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.jewishjournal.com [Source type: General]

^ Many of the Spanish settlers of the new colony were discontent, having been misled by Columbus about the supposedly bountiful riches of the new world.
  • Was Christopher Columbus a Jew? | Bloggish | Jewish Journal 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.jewishjournal.com [Source type: General]

^ Don Isaac ben Judah Abravanel ( 1437 - 1508 ) a close associate of Senior, was another supporter of Columbus at the Spanish court.
  • Was Christopher Columbus a Jew? | Bloggish | Jewish Journal 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.jewishjournal.com [Source type: General]

On his return he was arrested for a period (see Governorship and arrest section below).

Fourth voyage

Fourth voyage
Before leaving for his fourth voyage, Columbus wrote a letter to the Governors of the Bank of St. George, Genoa, dated at Seville, 2 April 1502.[30] He wrote "Although my body is here my heart is always near you."[31]
.Columbus made a fourth voyage nominally in search of the Strait of Malacca to the Indian Ocean.^ He was shipwrecked on his fourth voyage, and the natives of Jamaica fed the surviving crewmembers for a year, while Columbus’ men had a mutiny and not only killed each other but natives.
  • Columbus:
    The Original American Hero
    2 February 2010 15:015 UTC globalization.icaap.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Columbus made four voyages to the New World.
  • Columbus, The Original American Hero 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.ahealedplanet.net [Source type: Original source]
  • Columbus:
    The Original American Hero
    2 February 2010 15:015 UTC globalization.icaap.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Columbus, the story of Don Cristóbal Colón, Admiral of the Ocean / and his four voyages westward to the Indies, according to contemporary sources, retold and illustrated by Björn Landström.

.Accompanied by his brother Bartolomeo and his 13-year-old son Fernando, he left Cádiz, (modern Spain), on 11 May 1502, with the ships Capitana, Gallega, Vizcaína and Santiago de Palos.^ From these deeds, one can establish, with a reasonable degree of certainty, that a Christopher, son of a Domenico Colombo, was indeed born in Genoa or nearby in the year 1451.
  • Christopher Columbus'Origin 12 September 2009 0:00 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: Original source]
  • From THE DISCOVERY OF NORTH AMERICA 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.millersville.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ He left Cadiz with four small and wormeaten caravels on May 11, 1502.
  • Christopher Columbus'Origin 12 September 2009 0:00 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: Original source]
  • From THE DISCOVERY OF NORTH AMERICA 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.millersville.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Sancho's family fled to Spain in May of 1483, where his father died later the same year.
  • Christopher Columbus' family and his Perestrello and Moniz in-laws. 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.wolcottfamily.com [Source type: Original source]

He sailed to Arzila on the Moroccan coast to rescue Portuguese soldiers whom he had heard were under siege by the Moors. On June 15, they landed at Carbet on the island of Martinique (Martinica). A hurricane was brewing, so he continued on, hoping to find shelter on Hispaniola. .He arrived at Santo Domingo on 29 June but was denied port, and the new governor refused to listen to his storm prediction.^ The caravel which broke her mast in starting from Santo Domingo has arrived in the Algarves.
  • Christopher Columbus, Complete by Filson Young - Full Text Free Book (Part 7/8) 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Nevertheless, Don Luis sailed for Santo Domingo to assume his new role.
  • Christopher Columbus'Origin 12 September 2009 0:00 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: Original source]
  • From THE DISCOVERY OF NORTH AMERICA 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.millersville.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Even after his death, his travels continued: first interred in Valladolid and then in Seville, the will of his son Diego, who had been governor of Hispaniola, had the corpse transferred to Santo Domingo in 1542.
  • Was Christopher Columbus a Jew? | Bloggish | Jewish Journal 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.jewishjournal.com [Source type: General]

.Instead, while Columbus's ships sheltered at the mouth of the Rio Jaina, the first Spanish treasure fleet sailed into the hurricane.^ On June 21st, when he sailed from Gomera, he divided his fleet of six vessels into two squadrons.
  • Christopher Columbus, Complete by Filson Young - Full Text Free Book (Part 5/8) 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ What Cortes and Pizarro sailed into was quite another matter from the island peoples Columbus knew.
  • The Crimes of Christopher Columbus 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.freerepublic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Just as the ships were all ready to sail, one of the hurricanes which occur periodically in the West Indies burst upon the island, lashing the sea into a wall of advancing foam that destroyed everything before it.
  • Christopher Columbus, Complete by Filson Young - Full Text Free Book (Part 5/8) 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

.Columbus's ships survived with only minor damage, while twenty-nine of the thirty ships in the governor's fleet were lost to the 1 July storm.^ He was shipwrecked on his fourth voyage, and the natives of Jamaica fed the surviving crewmembers for a year, while Columbus' men had a mutiny and not only killed each other, but natives.
  • Columbus, The Original American Hero 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.ahealedplanet.net [Source type: Original source]

^ He was shipwrecked on his fourth voyage, and the natives of Jamaica fed the surviving crewmembers for a year, while Columbus’ men had a mutiny and not only killed each other but natives.
  • Columbus:
    The Original American Hero
    2 February 2010 15:015 UTC globalization.icaap.org [Source type: Original source]

^ His ship was attacked near Cape S. Vicente, was on fire and sinking, but Columbus survived by swimming to shore, later reaching Lisbon.
  • Christopher Columbus'Origin 12 September 2009 0:00 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: Original source]
  • From THE DISCOVERY OF NORTH AMERICA 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.millersville.edu [Source type: Original source]

.In addition to the ships, 500 lives (including that of the governor, Francisco de Bobadilla) and an immense cargo of gold were surrendered to the sea.^ Columbus eventually fell out of favor with the Crown, and Francisco de Bobadilla and Nicolás de Ovando succeeded Columbus as the governor of Española in 1500 and 1501.
  • Columbus:
    The Original American Hero
    2 February 2010 15:015 UTC globalization.icaap.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Columbus eventually fell out of favor with the Crown, and Francisco de Bobadilla and Nicols de Ovando succeeded Columbus as the governor of Espaola in 1500 and 1501.
  • Columbus, The Original American Hero 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.ahealedplanet.net [Source type: Original source]

^ And no sooner had they anchored than a hurricane came on, and brought up a sea so heavy that the Admiral was convinced that his ships could not live within it.
  • Christopher Columbus, Complete by Filson Young - Full Text Free Book (Part 7/8) 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

.After a brief stop at Jamaica, Columbus sailed to Central America, arriving at Guanaja (Isla de Pinos) in the Bay Islands off the coast of Honduras on 30 July.^ In one of many ironies of the New Worlds discovery, the second voyage first made landfall at Guadeloupe (after a brief stop for Columbus to claim Martinique).
  • Columbus, The Original American Hero 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.ahealedplanet.net [Source type: Original source]

^ After sailing along the coast of Cuba, asking about gold and riches, Columbus reached the island that he named La Isla Espaola, on December 6, 1492.
  • Columbus, The Original American Hero 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.ahealedplanet.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Columbus sailed to Cuba and Jamaica - killing natives, enjoying a hearty welcome, or both - and he was always searching for gold.
  • Columbus:
    The Original American Hero
    2 February 2010 15:015 UTC globalization.icaap.org [Source type: Original source]

.Here Bartolomeo found native merchants and a large canoe, which was described as "long as a galley" and was filled with cargo.^ He made friends here with a powerful cacique named Amerro, from whom he bought a large canoe, and paid for it with some of the clothing off his back.
  • Christopher Columbus, Complete by Filson Young - Full Text Free Book (Part 7/8) 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

On 14 August he landed on the American mainland at Puerto Castilla, near Trujillo, Honduras. He spent two months exploring the coasts of Honduras, Nicaragua, and Costa Rica, before arriving in Almirante Bay, Panama on 16 October.
Columbus intimidates natives by predicting lunar eclipse
.On 5 December 1502, Columbus and his crew found themselves in a storm unlike any they had ever experienced.^ It appeared that Columbus and his men were looking for a reason to make an example out of some natives, and found the opportunity just as they were leaving town.
  • Columbus, The Original American Hero 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.ahealedplanet.net [Source type: Original source]

^ It looked more like Columbus and his men were looking for a reason to make an example out of some natives, and found the opportunity just as they were "leaving town."
  • Columbus:
    The Original American Hero
    2 February 2010 15:015 UTC globalization.icaap.org [Source type: Original source]

In his journal Columbus writes,
.For nine days I was as one lost, without hope of life.^ He said afterwards to Mendez that it was the happiest day of his life, for that he had never hoped to leave the place alive.
  • Christopher Columbus, Complete by Filson Young - Full Text Free Book (Part 7/8) 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

Eyes never beheld the sea so angry, so high, so covered with foam. .The wind not only prevented our progress, but offered no opportunity to run behind any headland for shelter; hence we were forced to keep out in this bloody ocean, seething like a pot on a hot fire.^ It was only when news came that a fleet of caravels was expected from Spain that Ovando could no longer prevent Mendez from going to San Domingo and, purchasing one of them.
  • Christopher Columbus, Complete by Filson Young - Full Text Free Book (Part 7/8) 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ One would have thought that Mendez now had enough of canoe voyages, but he had no sooner got back than he offered to set out again, only stipulating that an armed force should march along the coast by land to secure his safety until he could stand across to Espanola.
  • Christopher Columbus, Complete by Filson Young - Full Text Free Book (Part 7/8) 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ We need only follow the career of Porras and his deserters for the present far enough to see them safely off the premises and out of the way of the Admiral and our narrative.
  • Christopher Columbus, Complete by Filson Young - Full Text Free Book (Part 7/8) 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

.Never did the sky look more terrible; for one whole day and night it blazed like a furnace, and the lightning broke with such violence that each time I wondered if it had carried off my spars and sails; the flashes came with such fury and frightfulness that we all thought that the ship would be blasted.^ Like this one he should have read more.
  • Daily Kos: Christopher Columbus & His Crimes Against Humanity 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ For his greed for gold could be coldly construed as a more practical reason, except for all of the Indigenous People he would in the future have to exterminate to get it, which he probably did not yet know of at the time.
  • Daily Kos: Christopher Columbus & His Crimes Against Humanity (Edited) 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ For his greed for gold could be coldly construed as a more practical reason, except for all of the Indigenous People he would in the future have to exterminate to get it, which he probally did not yet know of at the time.
  • Daily Kos: Christopher Columbus & His Crimes Against Humanity 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

.All this time the water never ceased to fall from the sky; I do not say it rained, for it was like another deluge.^ The Indians had never heard anything like it, and were all awe-struck by its magical sound.
  • The Trial of Christopher Columbus 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC red-coral.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Of Espanola and Paria and all the other lands I never think without the tears falling from my eyes; I believe that the example of these ought to serve for the others."
  • Christopher Columbus, Complete by Filson Young - Full Text Free Book (Part 7/8) 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

.The men were so worn out that they longed for death to end their dreadful suffering.^ It appeared that Columbus and his men were looking for a reason to make an example out of some natives, and found the opportunity just as they were leaving town.
  • Columbus, The Original American Hero 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.ahealedplanet.net [Source type: Original source]

^ It looked more like Columbus and his men were looking for a reason to make an example out of some natives, and found the opportunity just as they were "leaving town."
  • Columbus:
    The Original American Hero
    2 February 2010 15:015 UTC globalization.icaap.org [Source type: Original source]

[32]
.In Panama, Columbus learned from the natives of gold and a strait to another ocean.^ A mere three days into his gold quest, on October 14 th , Columbus made clear what he thought of the natives' military might.
  • Columbus, The Original American Hero 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.ahealedplanet.net [Source type: Original source]

^ In Columbus’ log of December 26, 1492, he made clear his purpose for the journey: to find enough gold to finance another Crusade to conquer Jerusalem.
  • Columbus:
    The Original American Hero
    2 February 2010 15:015 UTC globalization.icaap.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Columbus sailed to Cuba and Jamaica - killing natives, enjoying a hearty welcome, or both - and he always searched for gold.
  • Columbus, The Original American Hero 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.ahealedplanet.net [Source type: Original source]

After much exploration, in January 1503 he established a garrison at the mouth of the Rio Belen. On 6 April one of the ships became stranded in the river. At the same time, the garrison was attacked, and the other ships were damaged (Shipworms also damaged the ships in tropical waters.[33]). Columbus left for Hispaniola on 16 April heading north. .On 10 May he sighted the Cayman Islands, naming them "Las Tortugas" after the numerous sea turtles there.^ After sailing along the coast of Cuba, asking about gold and riches, Columbus reached the island that he named La Isla Espaola, on December 6, 1492.
  • Columbus, The Original American Hero 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.ahealedplanet.net [Source type: Original source]

^ After sailing along the coast of Cuba, asking about gold and riches, Columbus reached the island that he named La Isla Española, on December 6, 1492.
  • Columbus:
    The Original American Hero
    2 February 2010 15:015 UTC globalization.icaap.org [Source type: Original source]

His ships next sustained more damage in a storm off the coast of Cuba. Unable to travel farther, on 25 June 1503, they were beached in St. Ann's Bay, Jamaica.
.For a year Columbus and his men remained stranded on Jamaica.^ Every Taino over 14 years of age was to give a hawk’s bell (about the size of a thimble) of gold to the rulers (Columbus and his men) every three months.
  • Columbus:
    The Original American Hero
    2 February 2010 15:015 UTC globalization.icaap.org [Source type: Original source]

^ He was shipwrecked on his fourth voyage, and the natives of Jamaica fed the surviving crewmembers for a year, while Columbus’ men had a mutiny and not only killed each other but natives.
  • Columbus:
    The Original American Hero
    2 February 2010 15:015 UTC globalization.icaap.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Every Taino over 14 years of age was to give a hawks bell (about the size of a thimble) of gold to the rulers (Columbus and his men) every three months.
  • Columbus, The Original American Hero 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.ahealedplanet.net [Source type: Original source]

.A Spaniard, Diego Mendez, and some natives paddled a canoe to get help from Hispaniola.^ S. .S.A.S. XMY Xpo FERENS." Diego Mendez found some one among the Spaniards to accompany him, but his name is not recorded.
  • Christopher Columbus, Complete by Filson Young - Full Text Free Book (Part 7/8) 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ While they were busy with their trial Diego Mendez managed to escape, got back to the canoe, and worked his way back in it alone to the harbour where the Spaniards were encamped.
  • Christopher Columbus, Complete by Filson Young - Full Text Free Book (Part 7/8) 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Mendez, therefore, left his friends to enjoy some little repose before continuing their journey to San Domingo, and, taking six natives of Espanola to row his canoe; set off along the coast towards the capital.
  • Christopher Columbus, Complete by Filson Young - Full Text Free Book (Part 7/8) 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

.That island's governor, Nicolás de Ovando y Cáceres, detested Columbus and obstructed all efforts to rescue him and his men.^ Columbus made four trips in all, amid storms, threatened mutinies, and, on the third trip, envious palace hangers-on had him put in chains.
  • The Crimes of Christopher Columbus 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.freerepublic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ovando had indeed lost all but the outer semblance of a man; the soul or animating part of him had entirely gone to corruption.
  • Christopher Columbus, Complete by Filson Young - Full Text Free Book (Part 7/8) 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ They had been ransacking the island before then, but when Columbus was sick it was a free for all.
  • Columbus, The Original American Hero 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.ahealedplanet.net [Source type: Original source]
  • Columbus:
    The Original American Hero
    2 February 2010 15:015 UTC globalization.icaap.org [Source type: Original source]

.In the meantime Columbus, in a desperate effort to induce the natives to continue provisioning him and his hungry men, successfully intimidated the natives by correctly predicting a lunar eclipse for 29 February 1504, using the Ephemeris of the German astronomer Regiomontanus.^ The natives fled at the attack by Columbus men.
  • Columbus, The Original American Hero 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.ahealedplanet.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The natives fled at the attack by Columbus' men.
  • Columbus:
    The Original American Hero
    2 February 2010 15:015 UTC globalization.icaap.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Columbus indicated to the local natives that his captives were with him because they had harmed him, but that ruse probably did not work very well.
  • Columbus:
    The Original American Hero
    2 February 2010 15:015 UTC globalization.icaap.org [Source type: Original source]

[34] .Help finally arrived, no thanks to the governor, on 29 June 1504, and Columbus and his men arrived in Sanlúcar, Spain, on 7 November.^ The Admiral had landed in Spain on November 7, 1504, and at the time of his writing to Oderico on December 27, over fifty days had lapsed.
  • Christopher Columbus'Origin 12 September 2009 0:00 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: Original source]
  • From THE DISCOVERY OF NORTH AMERICA 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.millersville.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ On November 28th they arrived at the fort, looking for those 40 men left behind near the friendly village of Guacanagarí.
  • Columbus:
    The Original American Hero
    2 February 2010 15:015 UTC globalization.icaap.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Letter written by CHRISTOPHER COLUMBUS to DON DIEGO, November 28, 1504.
  • Christopher Columbus, Complete by Filson Young - Full Text Free Book (Part 7/8) 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

Governorship and arrest

.During Columbus's stint as governor and viceroy, he had been accused of governing tyrannically.^ Public inquiry into the conduct and actions of Don Christopher Columbus, in his capacity as Governor of the Indies and Viceroy of the King and Queen.
  • The Trial of Christopher Columbus 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC red-coral.net [Source type: Original source]

Columbus was physically and mentally exhausted; his body was wracked by arthritis and his eyes by ophthalmia. .In October 1499, he sent two ships to Spain, asking the Court of Spain to appoint a royal commissioner to help him govern.^ ESPINOZA The king sent him as the Royal Inquisitor.
  • The Trial of Christopher Columbus 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC red-coral.net [Source type: Original source]

^ With only two ships left, I decided to leave a colony here, and return to Spain for reinforcements.
  • The Trial of Christopher Columbus 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC red-coral.net [Source type: Original source]

^ After being put on display at Columbus’ “royal palace,” he was shipped to Spain with his fancy jewelry.
  • Columbus:
    The Original American Hero
    2 February 2010 15:015 UTC globalization.icaap.org [Source type: Original source]

.The Court appointed Francisco de Bobadilla, a member of the Order of Calatrava; however, his authority stretched far beyond what Columbus had requested.^ Cordova, Spain, illegitimate son by Beatrice de Aranha, page at court 1492, accompanied Columbus on his 4 th voyage, author of a biography of his fathers life, d.
  • Christopher Columbus' family and his Perestrello and Moniz in-laws. 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.wolcottfamily.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Columbus eventually fell out of favor with the Crown, and Francisco de Bobadilla and Nicolás de Ovando succeeded Columbus as the governor of Española in 1500 and 1501.
  • Columbus:
    The Original American Hero
    2 February 2010 15:015 UTC globalization.icaap.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Columbus eventually fell out of favor with the Crown, and Francisco de Bobadilla and Nicols de Ovando succeeded Columbus as the governor of Espaola in 1500 and 1501.
  • Columbus, The Original American Hero 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.ahealedplanet.net [Source type: Original source]

.Bobadilla was given total control as governor from 1500 until his death in 1502. Arriving in Santo Domingo while Columbus was away, Bobadilla was immediately peppered with complaints about all three Columbus brothers: Christopher, Bartolomé, and Diego.^ BOBADILLA All three brothers share this mansion?
  • The Trial of Christopher Columbus 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC red-coral.net [Source type: Original source]

^ COLUMBUS (winces) Bobadilla is not Governor!
  • The Trial of Christopher Columbus 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC red-coral.net [Source type: Original source]

^ I left my brothers in charge in Santo Domingo, and I proceeded to set up a base camp seventy miles inland, at Fort Concepción.
  • The Trial of Christopher Columbus 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC red-coral.net [Source type: Original source]

.Consuelo Varela, a Spanish historian, states: "Even those who loved him [Columbus] had to admit the atrocities that had taken place."^ One intriguing aspect of the curate's Historia is that he is the only contemporary historian who ever mentioned Columbus's age.
  • From THE DISCOVERY OF NORTH AMERICA 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.millersville.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ What I have presented here is not controversial to those who have studied Columbus.
  • Columbus:
    The Original American Hero
    2 February 2010 15:015 UTC globalization.icaap.org [Source type: Original source]

^ As it was, those who remained witnessed with no very cheerful emotions the departure of their companions, and even in some cases fell to tears and lamentations.
  • Christopher Columbus, Complete by Filson Young - Full Text Free Book (Part 7/8) 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

[35][36]
Columbus before the Queen, imagined[37] by Emanuel Gottlieb Leutze, 1843
.As a result of these testimonies and without being allowed a word in his own defense, Columbus, upon his return, had manacles placed on his arms and chains on his feet and was cast into prison to await return to Spain.^ Columbus made it a policy not to allow his men to leave the ships unchaperoned, because they robbed and raped with abandon when left on their own.
  • Columbus, The Original American Hero 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.ahealedplanet.net [Source type: Original source]
  • Columbus:
    The Original American Hero
    2 February 2010 15:015 UTC globalization.icaap.org [Source type: Original source]

^ CAONABO No one can free me without the key to these chains.
  • The Trial of Christopher Columbus 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC red-coral.net [Source type: Original source]

^ On Guadeloupe, Columbus may have rescued Taino women the Caribs had "bride captured, and returned them home (although Cuneo wrote that they were sent to Spain as a "sample").
  • Columbus, The Original American Hero 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.ahealedplanet.net [Source type: Original source]

He was 53 years old.
.On 1 October 1500, Columbus and his two brothers, likewise in chains, were sent back to Spain.^ In February of 1494, Columbus hurriedly sent back to Spain the expeditions first dividends: slaves and gold.
  • Columbus, The Original American Hero 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.ahealedplanet.net [Source type: Original source]

^ A happy sailor sighted a West Indian island and on October 12, in the name of his sponsors, Columbus claimed the real estate for Spain.
  • The Crimes of Christopher Columbus 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.freerepublic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The colonists were outraged and tried getting the priest sent back to Spain.
  • Columbus:
    The Original American Hero
    2 February 2010 15:015 UTC globalization.icaap.org [Source type: Original source]

Once in Cádiz, a grieving Columbus wrote to a friend at court:
It is now seventeen years since I came to serve these princes with the Enterprise of the Indies. .They made me pass eight of them in discussion, and at the end rejected it as a thing of jest.^ Indeed the first thing we notice when we study other cultures is that without exception they reject the cultural relativism that is a uniquely Western ideology.
  • The Crimes of Christopher Columbus 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.freerepublic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Nevertheless I persisted therein... .Over there I have placed under their sovereignty more land than there is in Africa and Europe, and more than 1,700 islands...^ CAONABO looks much younger than when we saw him in prison, and ANACAONA is more mature than when we saw her at COLUMBUS’first landing.
  • The Trial of Christopher Columbus 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC red-coral.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Columbus seems to imply that it was) and at this time, an investor could not find a more secure place in the world than in that bank.
  • Christopher Columbus'Origin 12 September 2009 0:00 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: Original source]
  • From THE DISCOVERY OF NORTH AMERICA 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.millersville.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ In point of historical fact, there were and still are available more letters written in vulgar Italian or Genoese than one would wish to read.
  • Christopher Columbus'Origin 12 September 2009 0:00 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: Original source]
  • From THE DISCOVERY OF NORTH AMERICA 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.millersville.edu [Source type: Original source]

In seven years I, by the divine will, made that conquest. At a time when I was entitled to expect rewards and retirement, I was incontinently arrested and sent home loaded with chains... .The accusation was brought out of malice on the basis of charges made by civilians who had revolted and wished to take possession on the land....^ The focus was all on the Spaniards and their awe of the new land, taking possession of it in the name of the King and Queen, the glory, etc.
  • Columbus, The Original American Hero 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.ahealedplanet.net [Source type: Original source]
  • Columbus:
    The Original American Hero
    2 February 2010 15:015 UTC globalization.icaap.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Multiculturalists who wish to take non-Western cultures seriously must take seriously their repudiation of relativism.
  • The Crimes of Christopher Columbus 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.freerepublic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Christopher Columbus: "Gold is most excellent; gold is treasure, and he who possesses it does all he wishes to in this world."
  • Daily Kos: Christopher Columbus & His Crimes Against Humanity (Edited) 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

.I beg your graces, with the zeal of faithful Christians in whom their Highnesses have confidence, to read all my papers, and to consider how I, who came from so far to serve these princes...^ ANACAONA My father says they are the sky people from Turey, those who came to visit us many generations past, and have come again.
  • The Trial of Christopher Columbus 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC red-coral.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Peter was also called "my singer" by King John III, who came to the throne in 1521.
  • Christopher Columbus' family and his Perestrello and Moniz in-laws. 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.wolcottfamily.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Bernaldez seems to have been a graceful confident to whom Columbus revealed in detail some of the most interesting aspects of his actions in the New World.
  • Christopher Columbus'Origin 12 September 2009 0:00 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: Original source]
  • From THE DISCOVERY OF NORTH AMERICA 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.millersville.edu [Source type: Original source]

now at the end of my days have been despoiled of my honor and my property without cause, wherein is neither justice nor mercy.[38]
.According to testimony of 23 witnesses during his trial, Columbus regularly used barbaric acts of torture to govern Hispaniola.^ The Trial of Christopher Columbus THE TRIAL OF CHRISTOPHER COLUMBUS A Drama by John Curl A recreation of events that took place on the island of Haiti (Hispaniola) in the year 1500.
  • The Trial of Christopher Columbus 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC red-coral.net [Source type: Original source]

^ THE TRIAL OF CHRISTOPHER COLUMBUS ACT I SCENE: A dungeon.
  • The Trial of Christopher Columbus 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC red-coral.net [Source type: Original source]

[29]
.Columbus and his brothers lingered in jail for six weeks before busy King Ferdinand ordered their release.^ Before he met with Ferdinand and Isabella, Columbus drafted a memorial regarding future colonization plans for the new lands.
  • Columbus:
    The Original American Hero
    2 February 2010 15:015 UTC globalization.icaap.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Before he met with Ferdinand and Isabella, Columbus drafted a memorial regarding future colonization plans.
  • Columbus, The Original American Hero 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.ahealedplanet.net [Source type: Original source]

.Not long after, the king and queen summoned the Columbus brothers to the Alhambra palace in Granada.^ At dawn, Columbus and his armed Spaniards went ashore, unfurled their flags, planted a cross, and claimed the land in the name of the king and queen of Spain.
  • Columbus, The Original American Hero 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.ahealedplanet.net [Source type: Original source]

^ At dawn Columbus and his armed Spaniards went ashore, unfurled their flags, planted a cross, and claimed the land in the name of the king and queen of Spain.
  • Columbus:
    The Original American Hero
    2 February 2010 15:015 UTC globalization.icaap.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Columbus was amazed at the natives helpfulness, and assured his king and queen that not even a shoe string [more literally "lace point," used to secure shoes and clothes - Ed.
  • Columbus, The Original American Hero 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.ahealedplanet.net [Source type: Original source]

.There the royal couple heard the brothers' pleas; restored their freedom and wealth; and, after much persuasion, agreed to fund Columbus's fourth voyage.^ He was shipwrecked on his fourth voyage, and the natives of Jamaica fed the surviving crewmembers for a year, while Columbus’ men had a mutiny and not only killed each other but natives.
  • Columbus:
    The Original American Hero
    2 February 2010 15:015 UTC globalization.icaap.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Casas on Columbus : background and the second and fourth voyages / Nigel Griffin, editor and translator ; introduction by Anthony Pagden.

^ There are easily sufficient funds to pay all salaries due in the Royal Colonial Service, which have been withheld unlawfully and under false pretenses.
  • The Trial of Christopher Columbus 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC red-coral.net [Source type: Original source]

But the door was firmly shut on Columbus's role as governor. .Henceforth Nicolás de Ovando y Cáceres was to be the new governor of the West Indies.^ Columbus eventually fell out of favor with the Crown, and Francisco de Bobadilla and Nicolás de Ovando succeeded Columbus as the governor of Española in 1500 and 1501.
  • Columbus:
    The Original American Hero
    2 February 2010 15:015 UTC globalization.icaap.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Columbus eventually fell out of favor with the Crown, and Francisco de Bobadilla and Nicols de Ovando succeeded Columbus as the governor of Espaola in 1500 and 1501.
  • Columbus, The Original American Hero 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.ahealedplanet.net [Source type: Original source]

Later life

Santa María, Columbus' flagship in first voyage, at his Valladolid house
Tomb in Seville Cathedral. The remains are borne by kings of Castile, Leon, Aragon and Navarre.
.While Columbus had always given the conversion of non-believers as one reason for his explorations, he grew increasingly religious in his later years.^ Angel Rosenblat, the leading minimalist scholar on the pre-contact population of the New World, believes the count of one million was more Columbus hyperbole.
  • Columbus:
    The Original American Hero
    2 February 2010 15:015 UTC globalization.icaap.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Fifteen years later, the town of Cogoleto revived its own claim as the birthplace of Columbus.
  • Christopher Columbus'Origin 12 September 2009 0:00 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: Original source]
  • From THE DISCOVERY OF NORTH AMERICA 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.millersville.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ From these deeds, one can establish, with a reasonable degree of certainty, that a Christopher, son of a Domenico Colombo, was indeed born in Genoa or nearby in the year 1451.
  • Christopher Columbus'Origin 12 September 2009 0:00 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: Original source]
  • From THE DISCOVERY OF NORTH AMERICA 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.millersville.edu [Source type: Original source]

.In his later years, Columbus demanded that the Spanish Crown give him 10% of all profits made in the new lands, pursuant to earlier agreements.^ COLUMBUS (to OJEDA) Give him the whip.
  • The Trial of Christopher Columbus 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC red-coral.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Columbus made four trips in all, amid storms, threatened mutinies, and, on the third trip, envious palace hangers-on had him put in chains.
  • The Crimes of Christopher Columbus 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.freerepublic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He died with his children, servants, and a few comrades around him (Sale, 214), but his death went unnoticed and officially unrecorded until ten years later.
  • Imagining Christopher Columbus 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC hss.fullerton.edu [Source type: General]

Because he had been relieved of his duties as governor, the crown did not feel bound by these contracts, and his demands were rejected. After his death, his family sued in the pleitos colombinos for part of the profits from trade with America.
.On 20 May 1506, at about age 55, Columbus died in Valladolid, fairly wealthy from the gold his men had accumulated in Hispaniola.^ When he died on May 20, 1506, Columbus believed himself to have been martyred by his king and queen, stripped of the dignity, recognition, and wealth he deserved for his exploits.
  • Imagining Christopher Columbus 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC hss.fullerton.edu [Source type: General]

^ When Columbus sailed back to Spain, he gave the men at the fort several admonitions, which amounted to behaving themselves around their native hosts and finding the gold.
  • Columbus:
    The Original American Hero
    2 February 2010 15:015 UTC globalization.icaap.org [Source type: Original source]

^ My interpretation of the letter may reveal also the quincentennial question of whether when the great discoverer died on May 20, 1506, he was rich or poor.
  • Christopher Columbus'Origin 12 September 2009 0:00 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: Original source]
  • From THE DISCOVERY OF NORTH AMERICA 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.millersville.edu [Source type: Original source]

At his death, he was still convinced that his journeys had been along the east coast of Asia. .According to a study, published in February 2007, by Antonio Rodriguez Cuartero, Department of Internal Medicine of the University of Granada, he died of a heart attack caused by Reiter's Syndrome (also called reactive arthritis).^ These conclusions as well as his own further studies were published in the Miscellanea Storica-Atti della Societa' Ligure di Storia Patria, vol.
  • Christopher Columbus'Origin 12 September 2009 0:00 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: Original source]
  • From THE DISCOVERY OF NORTH AMERICA 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.millersville.edu [Source type: Original source]

.According to his personal diaries and notes by contemporaries, the symptoms of this illness (burning pain during urination, pain and swelling of the knees, and conjunctivitis) were clearly evident in his last three years.^ Imagine this concession from the discoverer's own son who, during the Admiral's last two-year voyage, had shared situations of life and death with him.
  • Christopher Columbus'Origin 12 September 2009 0:00 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: Original source]
  • From THE DISCOVERY OF NORTH AMERICA 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.millersville.edu [Source type: Original source]

[39]
.Columbus's remains were first interred at Valladolid, then at the monastery of La Cartuja in Seville (southern Spain) by the will of his son Diego, who had been governor of Hispaniola.^ He may also have been the namesake for Columbus' son, Diego.
  • Christopher Columbus' family and his Perestrello and Moniz in-laws. 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.wolcottfamily.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The two Diego Moniz who lived in Columbus' time, for example, are generally called, Diego Moniz, treasurer to Prince Ferdinand, and Diego Moniz, military governor of Silves, while Vasco Gil Moniz and Vasco Martins Moniz are usually called by their full names in order to distinguish between them.
  • Christopher Columbus' family and his Perestrello and Moniz in-laws. 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.wolcottfamily.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Cordova, Spain, illegitimate son by Beatrice de Aranha, page at court 1492, accompanied Columbus on his 4 th voyage, author of a biography of his fathers life, d.
  • Christopher Columbus' family and his Perestrello and Moniz in-laws. 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.wolcottfamily.com [Source type: Original source]

In 1542 the remains were transferred to Santo Domingo, in eastern Hispaniola. .In 1795 the French took over Hispaniola, and the remains were moved to Havana, Cuba.^ When in 1795 (with the Treaty of Basel), the Spanish part of the island was surrendered to France of Napoleon, the remains of the First Admiral were pompously transferred to the Cathedral of Havana, Cuba.
  • Christopher Columbus'Origin 12 September 2009 0:00 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: Original source]
  • From THE DISCOVERY OF NORTH AMERICA 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.millersville.edu [Source type: Original source]

.After Cuba became independent following the Spanish-American War in 1898, the remains were moved back to Spain, to the Cathedral of Seville,[40] where they were placed on an elaborate catafalque.^ Spanish American Literature since Independence .
  • Imagining Christopher Columbus 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC hss.fullerton.edu [Source type: General]

^ With the independence of Cuba in 1898, the presumed remains of the discoverer were transported to Spain where they were reinterred once more in the Monastery of the "Cartuja de La Cuevas" in Seville where they still rest today.
  • Christopher Columbus'Origin 12 September 2009 0:00 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: Original source]
  • From THE DISCOVERY OF NORTH AMERICA 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.millersville.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The few remaining natives were to be freed and moved into villages to live somewhat like they had before Columbus arrived.
  • Columbus:
    The Original American Hero
    2 February 2010 15:015 UTC globalization.icaap.org [Source type: Original source]

However, a lead box bearing an inscription identifying "Don Christopher Columbus" and containing bone fragments and a bullet was discovered at Santo Domingo in 1877.
.To lay to rest claims that the wrong relics had been moved to Havana and that Columbus's remains had been left buried in the cathedral at Santo Domingo, DNA samples were taken in June 2003 (History Today August 2003).^ The few remaining natives were to be freed and moved into villages to live somewhat like they had before Columbus arrived.
  • Columbus:
    The Original American Hero
    2 February 2010 15:015 UTC globalization.icaap.org [Source type: Original source]

^ When in 1795 (with the Treaty of Basel), the Spanish part of the island was surrendered to France of Napoleon, the remains of the First Admiral were pompously transferred to the Cathedral of Havana, Cuba.
  • Christopher Columbus'Origin 12 September 2009 0:00 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: Original source]
  • From THE DISCOVERY OF NORTH AMERICA 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.millersville.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The few remaining natives were to be freed and moved into villages to live somewhat as they had before Columbus arrived.
  • Columbus, The Original American Hero 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.ahealedplanet.net [Source type: Original source]

The results are not conclusive. .Initial observations suggested that the bones did not appear to belong to somebody with the physique or age at death associated with Columbus.^ I make this observation because misinformed writers have suggested that the Admiral did not write in Italian since Italian could not be understood on paper.
  • Christopher Columbus'Origin 12 September 2009 0:00 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: Original source]
  • From THE DISCOVERY OF NORTH AMERICA 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.millersville.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The uncompromising determination of "Baltasar Colón" (so named in the court papers) must have appeared to many as a character trait that could only belong to a reincarnated Christopher Columbus.
  • Christopher Columbus'Origin 12 September 2009 0:00 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: Original source]
  • From THE DISCOVERY OF NORTH AMERICA 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.millersville.edu [Source type: Original source]

[41] DNA extraction proved difficult; only a few limited fragments of mitochondrial DNA could be isolated. .However, such as they are, these do appear to match corresponding DNA from Columbus's brother, giving support to the idea that the two had the same mother and that the body therefore may be that of Columbus.^ FRIAR MONTESINOS These people have no idea of what's yours or mine; they give freely of all they have.
  • The Trial of Christopher Columbus 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC red-coral.net [Source type: Original source]

^ On Guadeloupe, Columbus may have rescued Taino women the Caribs had "bride captured, and returned them home (although Cuneo wrote that they were sent to Spain as a "sample").
  • Columbus, The Original American Hero 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.ahealedplanet.net [Source type: Original source]

^ ESPINOZA COLUMBUS wasn't giving out enough food to keep a body alive.
  • The Trial of Christopher Columbus 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC red-coral.net [Source type: Original source]

[42][43] .The authorities in Santo Domingo have not allowed the remains there to be exhumed, so it is unknown if any of those remains could be from Columbus's body.^ COLUMBUS There they are again, those moans.
  • The Trial of Christopher Columbus 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC red-coral.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Las Casas admired Columbus, and probably could not conceive of freeing his slaves, and it probably was not practical anyway, since there were no "free Indians" living near the white man in those days.
  • Columbus:
    The Original American Hero
    2 February 2010 15:015 UTC globalization.icaap.org [Source type: Original source]

^ I know, because I was there when I was young, in Santo Domingo, Columbus' capital, on the Caribbean island of Española, called Haiti by the natives.
  • The Trial of Christopher Columbus 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC red-coral.net [Source type: Original source]

The location of the Dominican remains is in "the Colombus Lighthouse" or Faro a Colón which is in Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic.

Legacy

Columbus Lighthouse (Faro a Colón), Santo Domingo
.Although among non-Native Americans Christopher Columbus is traditionally considered the discoverer of America, Columbus was preceded by the various cultures and civilizations of the indigenous peoples of the Americas, as well as the Western world's Vikings at L'Anse aux Meadows.^ Columbus indicated to the local natives that his captives were with him because they had harmed him, but that ruse probably did not work very well.
  • Columbus:
    The Original American Hero
    2 February 2010 15:015 UTC globalization.icaap.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Franklin is saying, in other words, if the barbarians can work out their problems and form a union, surely we civilized people can do as well.
  • The Crimes of Christopher Columbus 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.freerepublic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Bigelow uses Columbus, His Enterprise as a textbook for his class, and the students then studied history textbooks and critiqued their highly slanted presentations of the New World’s “discovery.” The people being discovered may as well have not existed as far as the textbooks went.
  • Columbus:
    The Original American Hero
    2 February 2010 15:015 UTC globalization.icaap.org [Source type: Original source]

.He is regarded more accurately as the person who brought the Americas into the forefront of Western attention.^ There is no grater villain for multiculturalists than Christopher Columbus, who introduced Western Christian Civilization to the Americas.
  • The Crimes of Christopher Columbus 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.freerepublic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

."Columbus's claim to fame isn't that he got there first," explains historian Martin Dugard, "it's that he stayed."^ Ferdinand Columbus claim that Bartholomew was one of the discoverers of Porto Santo in 1418 is contradicted by the historian, Zurara, who says that Perestrelo first went there when the island was being settled in the 1430s.
  • Christopher Columbus' family and his Perestrello and Moniz in-laws. 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.wolcottfamily.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Contingents of sailor-historians have worshipped Columbus as one of history’s great navigators, and have engaged in senseless debates regarding where Columbus first landed in the New World.
  • Columbus:
    The Original American Hero
    2 February 2010 15:015 UTC globalization.icaap.org [Source type: Original source]

^ It was flimsy evidence, but Columbus claimed the reward, stealing it from the sailor who first sighted land.
  • Columbus:
    The Original American Hero
    2 February 2010 15:015 UTC globalization.icaap.org [Source type: Original source]

[44] The popular idea that he was first person to envision a rounded earth is false. .The rounded shape of the earth has already been known in ancient times.^ By the time ancient Greece was falling under the control of Rome, in North America the Adena Culture already had been flourishing for a thousand years.
  • Daily Kos: Christopher Columbus & His Crimes Against Humanity (Edited) 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

.Jeffrey Burton Russell states that the modern view that people of the Middle Ages believed that the Earth was flat is said to have entered the popular imagination in the 19th century, thanks largely to the publication of Washington Irving's fantasy The Life and Voyages of Christopher Columbus in 1828.[45] By Columbus's time, educated men were in agreement as to its spherical shape, even if many people believed otherwise.^ Journals and other documents on the life and voyages of Christopher Columbus.

^ Life and voyages of Christopher Columbus : to which are added those of his companions / by Washington Irving.

^ History of the life and voyages of Christopher Columbus / by Washington Irving ; in four volumes.

More contentious was the size of the earth, and whether it was possible in practical terms to cross such a vast body of water.
Replicas of Niña, Pinta and Santa Maria sailed from Spain to the Chicago Columbian Exposition
Amerigo Vespucci's travel journals, published 1502-4, convinced Martin Waldseemüller that the discovered place was not India, as Columbus always believed, but a new continent, and in 1507, a year after Columbus's death, Waldseemüller published a world map calling the new continent America from Vespucci's Latinized name "Americus".
.Historically the British had downplayed Columbus and emphasized the role of the Venetian John Cabot as a pioneer explorer; but for the emerging United States, Cabot made a poor national hero.^ The voyages of Columbus and of John Cabot, ed.

^ To emphasize the heroism of Columbus and his successors as navigators, and to de-emphasize their genocide, is not a technical necessity but an ideological choice.
  • Columbus:
    The Original American Hero
    2 February 2010 15:015 UTC globalization.icaap.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Why do we celebrate Columbus Day in the United States?
  • Columbus:
    The Original American Hero
    2 February 2010 15:015 UTC globalization.icaap.org [Source type: Original source]

Veneration of Columbus in America dates back to colonial times. .The name Columbia for "America" first appeared in a 1738 weekly publication of the debates of the British Parliament.^ In the family tree of Christopher, according to Isnardi, a name for the discoverer's mother appears for the first time: .
  • From THE DISCOVERY OF NORTH AMERICA 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.millersville.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ To my knowledge, the first 19th century publication which appeared in print was the work (already examined) of Galleani Napione (Giovanni Francesco, Count of "Cocconato and Passareto").
  • Christopher Columbus'Origin 12 September 2009 0:00 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: Original source]
  • From THE DISCOVERY OF NORTH AMERICA 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.millersville.edu [Source type: Original source]

[46] .The use of Columbus as a founding figure of New World nations and the use of the word 'Columbia', or simply the name 'Columbus', spread rapidly after the American Revolution.^ Americans about this new world.
  • Daily Kos: Christopher Columbus & His Crimes Against Humanity 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Story of the discovery of the new world by Columbus.

^ In the novel, a rich and greedy man involves a North American Indian professor and her poet lover, her troubled son, and their baby daughter in the search for the fabled crown which Columbus reportedly brought to the New World.
  • Imagining Christopher Columbus 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC hss.fullerton.edu [Source type: General]

In 1812, the name 'Columbus' was given to the newly founded capitol of Ohio. .During the last two decades of the 18th century the name "Columbia" was given to the federal capital District of Columbia, South Carolina's new capital city Columbia, the Columbia River, and numerous other places.^ Cities, streets, a river and other places are named for him.
  • Columbus, The Original American Hero 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.ahealedplanet.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Sheridan Square in the West Village of New York City is named for the general and his statue is displayed nearby in Christopher Street Park.
  • Daily Kos: Christopher Columbus & His Crimes Against Humanity 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Surnames had only come into general use in Portugal during the 15th century, and many people still followed the old system of using their father's first name as their last.
  • Christopher Columbus' family and his Perestrello and Moniz in-laws. 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.wolcottfamily.com [Source type: Original source]

Outside the United States the name was used in 1819 for the Gran Colombia, a precursor of the modern Republic of Colombia. .The main plaza in Mayagüez, Puerto Rico is called Plaza Colón in honor of the Admiral.^ Admiral) called himself "Colón."
  • From THE DISCOVERY OF NORTH AMERICA 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.millersville.edu [Source type: Original source]

[47][48]
Portrait of Christopher Columbus juxtaposed with his three ships
.A candidate for sainthood in the Catholic Church in 1866, Celebration of Columbus's legacy perhaps reached a zenith in 1892 when the 400th anniversary of his first arrival in the Americas occurred.^ Personal narrative of the first voyage of Columbus to America.

^ America celebrates Columbus Day because Columbus was a "winner."
  • Columbus, The Original American Hero 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.ahealedplanet.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Life of Columbus, the discoverer of America [electronic resource] : to which are added the lives of other celebrated navigators.

.Monuments to Columbus like the Columbian Exposition in Chicago were erected throughout the United States and Latin America extolling him.^ The past is present in Latin America; the past is past in the United States."
  • Imagining Christopher Columbus 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC hss.fullerton.edu [Source type: General]

^ By the same token, however, I also find that if it wasn't for him and his voyages, there probably never would have been a United States of America - the greatest nation on Earth - and the world would be a far worse place without the U.S. It's a difficult question.
  • The Crimes of Christopher Columbus 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.freerepublic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The part of America called the United States had been not only a haven for the oppressed but an example to the world.
  • The Crimes of Christopher Columbus 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.freerepublic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Numerous cities, towns, counties, and streets have been named after him, including the capital cities of two U.S. states, Ohio and South Carolina.^ Sheridan Square in the West Village of New York City is named for the general and his statue is displayed nearby in Christopher Street Park.
  • Daily Kos: Christopher Columbus & His Crimes Against Humanity 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Sheridan County, Montana, Sheridan County, Wyoming, and Sheridan County, Kansas, are named for him, as are the cities of Sheridan, Montana (in Madison County) Sheridan, Wyoming, Sheridan, Arkansas, and Sheridan, Oregon.
  • Daily Kos: Christopher Columbus & His Crimes Against Humanity 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Sheridan Circle[52] and Sheridan Street[53] in Washington, D.C., are also named for him.
  • Daily Kos: Christopher Columbus & His Crimes Against Humanity 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

.In 1909, descendants of Columbus undertook to dismantle the Columbus family chapel in Spain and move it to a site near State College, Pennsylvania, where it may now be visited by the public.^ For all his adventures, Columbus died in bed in 1506, in Spain, surrounded by his family, friends and his seven servants, a man rich from the plunder of the New World.
  • Columbus:
    The Original American Hero
    2 February 2010 15:015 UTC globalization.icaap.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Sancho's family fled to Spain in May of 1483, where his father died later the same year.
  • Christopher Columbus' family and his Perestrello and Moniz in-laws. 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.wolcottfamily.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It is generally accepted that Columbus moved from Portugal to Spain at the end of 1484 or in the first half of 1485.
  • Christopher Columbus'Origin 12 September 2009 0:00 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: Original source]
  • From THE DISCOVERY OF NORTH AMERICA 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.millersville.edu [Source type: Original source]

.At the museum associated with the chapel, there are a number of Columbus relics worthy of note, including the armchair which the "Admiral of the Ocean Sea" used at his chart table.^ Recommended by: snakelass , realalaskan , yaque There are a number of factors to consider, including that their technology, including military technology, was not all that advanced over the First Peoples.
  • Daily Kos: Christopher Columbus & His Crimes Against Humanity (Edited) 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Four voyages of Columbus : a history in eight documents, including five by Christopher Columbus, in the original Spanish, with English translations / translated and edited with introduction and notes by Cecil Jane.

^ Admiral of the Ocean Sea, baptized for the patron of travelers, Saint Christopher, the Christ Bearer.
  • The Trial of Christopher Columbus 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC red-coral.net [Source type: Original source]

.More recent views of Columbus, particularly those of Native Americans, have tended to be much more critical.^ COLUMBUS Oh yes, Don Diego reported some problem, but those stories are much exaggerated.
  • The Trial of Christopher Columbus 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC red-coral.net [Source type: Original source]

^ After buying some bows and arrows from the natives, Columbus men tried buying more, as Columbus instructed them to.
  • Columbus, The Original American Hero 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.ahealedplanet.net [Source type: Original source]

^ CAONABO looks much younger than when we saw him in prison, and ANACAONA is more mature than when we saw her at COLUMBUS’first landing.
  • The Trial of Christopher Columbus 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC red-coral.net [Source type: Original source]

[49][50][51] .This is because the native Taino of Hispaniola, where Columbus began a rudimentary tribute system for gold and cotton, disappeared so rapidly after contact with the Spanish, due to overwork and especially, after 1519, when the first pandemic struck Hispaniola,[52] due to European diseases.^ Columbus designed a tribute system.
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^ A mere three days into his gold quest, on October 14 th , Columbus made clear what he thought of the natives' military might.
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^ Columbus indicated to the local natives that his captives were with him because they had harmed him, but that ruse probably did not work very well.
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.The native Taino people of the island were systematically enslaved via the encomienda system.^ I explained to my son, who is part Native American, that Columbus was not a great guy--that he never discovered America, he enslaved people, and treated them badly.
  • Daily Kos: Christopher Columbus & His Crimes Against Humanity (Edited) 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Espaola was the center of that island civilization, and a people known today as the Taino dominated it.
  • Columbus, The Original American Hero 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.ahealedplanet.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Columbus inferred from native gestures that natives from other islands enslaved them.
  • Columbus, The Original American Hero 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.ahealedplanet.net [Source type: Original source]

.The pre-Columbian population is estimated to have been perhaps 250,000-300,000. According to the historian Gonzalo Fernandez de Oviedo y Valdes by 1548, 56 years after Columbus landed, less than five hundred Taino were left on the island.^ Fernandez de Oviedo y Valdes, Gonzalo, 1478-1557.

^ It is futile to apply today's moral standards to Columbus's deeds of five hundred years ago.
  • Imagining Christopher Columbus 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC hss.fullerton.edu [Source type: General]

^ Warfare, forced labor, starvation and disease reduced Hispaniola's Taino population (estimated at one million to two million in 1492) to extinction within 30 years.
  • Daily Kos: Christopher Columbus & His Crimes Against Humanity (Edited) 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

[53] .In another hundred years, perhaps only a handful remained.^ Only fifteen years after "discovery," the Spanish were taking accurate head counts of the remaining natives.
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^ Only fifteen years after discovery, the Spanish were taking accurate head counts of the remaining natives.
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.However, some analyses of the question of Columbus's legacy for Native Americans do not clearly distinguish between the actions of Columbus himself, who died well before the first pandemic to hit Hispaniola or the height of the encomienda system, and those of later European governors and colonists on Hispaniola.^ One European was wounded and later died.
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^ These personal idiosyncracies surface in his surviving writings as well as in the descriptions and analyses of him reflected in the works of many people who knew him personally.
  • Christopher Columbus'Origin 12 September 2009 0:00 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: Original source]
  • From THE DISCOVERY OF NORTH AMERICA 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.millersville.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Columbus indicated to the local natives that his captives were with him because they had harmed him, but that ruse probably did not work very well.
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Physical appearance

.Although an abundance of artwork involving Christopher Columbus exists, no authentic contemporary portrait has been found.^ There is no grater villain for multiculturalists than Christopher Columbus, who introduced Western Christian Civilization to the Americas.
  • The Crimes of Christopher Columbus 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.freerepublic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This letter clearly indicates that the Genoese had accepted Cogoleto as the true birthplace of Christopher Columbus; therefore, one concludes, in 1586 the Genoese as yet had found no documentation whatsoever to assert their claim that Genoa was the actual birthplace: .
  • From THE DISCOVERY OF NORTH AMERICA 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.millersville.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Now add to this difficulty the fact that no record exists indicating that Christopher, after he had left Genoa, ever called himself Colombo or Columbus.
  • Christopher Columbus'Origin 12 September 2009 0:00 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: Original source]
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[54] .James W. Loewen, author of Lies My Teacher Told Me, said that the various posthumous portraits have no historical value.^ We don’t question the facts, we just absorb information that is handed to us because we trust the role models that are handing it out.”[ 59 ] As James Loewen remarks in his seminal Lies my Teacher Told Me , the real hero in American history textbooks is America itself.
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^ As James Loewen remarked in his seminal Lies my Teacher Told Me , the real hero in American history textbooks is America itself.
  • Columbus, The Original American Hero 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.ahealedplanet.net [Source type: Original source]

[55]
Sometime between 1505 and 1536, Alejo Fernández painted an altarpiece, The Virgin of the Navigators, that includes a depiction of Columbus. .The painting was commissioned for a chapel in Seville's Casa de Contratación (House of Trade) and remains there to this day, as the earliest known painting about the discovery of the Americas.^ Truth about Columbus and the discovery of America.

^ This novel is about the future discovery of America.
  • Imagining Christopher Columbus 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC hss.fullerton.edu [Source type: General]

^ In any event, whether Christopher reached Portugal in 1470 as an experienced sailor or in 1476 as a representative of a Genoese merchant house, he was to remain there until 1485.
  • Christopher Columbus'Origin 12 September 2009 0:00 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: Original source]
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[56][57]
.At the 1893 World's Columbian Exposition, 71 alleged portraits of Columbus were displayed, most did not match contemporary descriptions.^ According to an official at the 1893 Columbian Exhibition in Chicago, Columbus’ likeness was second place to Jesus in how often it has been produced.
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^ The 1893 Exposition was a huge event that attracted 24 million visitors, for the largest event attendance in world history to that time.
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^ Bernaldez seems to have been a graceful confident to whom Columbus revealed in detail some of the most interesting aspects of his actions in the New World.
  • Christopher Columbus'Origin 12 September 2009 0:00 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: Original source]
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[58] .These writings describe him as having reddish hair, which turned to white early in his life, light colored eyes,[59] as well as being a lighter skinned person with too much sun exposure turning his face red.^ These personal idiosyncracies surface in his surviving writings as well as in the descriptions and analyses of him reflected in the works of many people who knew him personally.
  • Christopher Columbus'Origin 12 September 2009 0:00 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: Original source]
  • From THE DISCOVERY OF NORTH AMERICA 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.millersville.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The latter two historiographers were in possession of Columbus' writings; they were in close personal contact with him and members of his family.
  • Christopher Columbus'Origin 12 September 2009 0:00 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: Original source]
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.In keeping with descriptions of Columbus having had auburn hair or (later) white hair, some textbooks use the Sebastiano del Piombo painting (which in its normal-sized resolution shows Columbus's hair as auburn) so often that it has become the iconic image of Columbus accepted by popular culture.^ Tales from American history : containing the principal facts in the life of Christopher Columbus : for the use of young persons / by the author of American popular lessons.

^ Bigelow uses Columbus, His Enterprise as a textbook for his class, and the students then studied history textbooks and critiqued their highly slanted presentations of the New World's "discovery."
  • Columbus, The Original American Hero 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.ahealedplanet.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Modern scholarship does not take the heroic image of Columbus seriously, and yet the "revisionists" are taken to task for their critiques of Columbus image and other popular myths.
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.Accounts consistently describe Columbus as a large and physically strong man of some six feet or more in height, easily taller than the average European of his day.^ Cuneo (probably Columbus close friend, maybe from childhood) wrote the first recorded account of sexual relations between Europeans and natives.
  • Columbus, The Original American Hero 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.ahealedplanet.net [Source type: Original source]

^ After buying some bows and arrows from the natives, Columbus men tried buying more, as Columbus instructed them to.
  • Columbus, The Original American Hero 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.ahealedplanet.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Descriptions such as Comas, typical of the European perspective, said far more about Europeans than the natives.
  • Columbus, The Original American Hero 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.ahealedplanet.net [Source type: Original source]

[60]

Popular culture

Isabella and Columbus under dome of California State Capitol
.Columbus, an important historical figure, has been depicted in fiction and in popular films and television.^ Columbus was an important historical figure who changed history but who was also not really in control of what happened after his voyages of discovery or had any understanding of what would end up happening.
  • Daily Kos: Christopher Columbus & His Crimes Against Humanity (Edited) 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

.In 1958, the Italian playwright Dario Fo wrote a satirical play about Columbus titled Isabella, tre caravelle e un cacciaballe (Isabella, three tall ships and a con man).^ Because their largest ship was destroyed, Columbus left behind about 40 Spaniards and they built a fort from the ships timbers.
  • Columbus, The Original American Hero 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.ahealedplanet.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Every Taino over 14 years of age was to give a hawk’s bell (about the size of a thimble) of gold to the rulers (Columbus and his men) every three months.
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^ Every Taino over 14 years of age was to give a hawks bell (about the size of a thimble) of gold to the rulers (Columbus and his men) every three months.
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In 1997 Fo was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature. .The play was translated into English in 1988 by Ed Emery and is downloadable on the internet.^ Columbus letter of 1493; a facsimile of the copy in the William L. Clements library, with a new translation into English by Frank E. Robbins.

^ Bearslayer A free translation from the unrhymed Latvian into English heroic verse (English) (as Translator) Crosby, Ernest Howard, 1856-1907 .
  • Browse By Author: C - Project Gutenberg 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Columbus letter of 1493; a facsimile of the copy in the William L. Clements Library, with a new translation into English by Frank E. Robbins.

[61]
In 1991, author Salman Rushdie published a fictional representation of Columbus in The New Yorker, "Christopher Columbus and Queen Isabella of Spain Consummate Their Relationship, Santa Fe, January, 1492".[62]
.In Pastwatch: The Redemption of Christopher Columbus (1996) science fiction novelist Orson Scott Card focuses on Columbus' life and activities, but the novel's action also deals with a group of scientists from the future who travel back to the 15th century with the goal of changing the pattern of European contact with the Americas.^ Tales from American history : containing the principal facts in the life of Christopher Columbus : for the use of young persons / by the author of American popular lessons.

^ History of the voyages of Christopher Columbus [microform] : and the discovery of America, and the West-Indies.

^ Life and voyages of Christopher Columbus : to which are added those of his companions / by Washington Irving.

.British author Stephen Baxter includes Columbus' quest for royal sponsorship as a crucial historical event in his 2007 science fiction novel Navigator (ISBN 978-0-441-01559-7), the third entry in the author's Time's Tapestry Series.^ Columbus’ hagiographers again have a difficult time explaining such behaviour, which was possibly to fulfill royal objectives to search for Asia.
  • Columbus:
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^ For some time in 1497, Columbus was the guest of one of his few remaining friends, Andres Bernaldez, the curate of the Royal Palaces.
  • Christopher Columbus'Origin 12 September 2009 0:00 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: Original source]
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^ Columbus hagiographers again have a difficult time explaining such behavior, which was possibly to fulfill royal objectives to search for Asia.
  • Columbus, The Original American Hero 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.ahealedplanet.net [Source type: Original source]

.American author Mark Twain based the time traveler's trick in A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur's Court on Columbus' successful prediction of a lunar eclipse during his fourth voyage to the New World.^ Written during his fourth and final voyage to the New World, in a letter to the King and Queen.
  • Columbus, The Original American Hero 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.ahealedplanet.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Americans about this new world.
  • Daily Kos: Christopher Columbus & His Crimes Against Humanity 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Columbus made four voyages to the New World.
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Columbus has also been portrayed in cinema and television, including mini-series, films and cartoons. Most notably, he was portrayed by Gérard Depardieu in the 1992 film by Ridley Scott, 1492: Conquest of Paradise. .Scott presented Columbus as a forward-thinking idealist, as opposed to the view that he was ruthless and responsible for the misfortune of Native Americans.^ I think the latter best reflects Columbus's personal view of Apocalyptic Christianity.
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  • Daily Kos: Christopher Columbus & His Crimes Against Humanity (Edited) 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It strains credibility to think that Columbus, just as he was heading back to Spain, received his first hostile response, especially if one reads the accounts of it.
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^ Tags: Christopher Columbus , Genocide , Native American Holocaust , Slavery , teaching ( all tags ) :: Previous Tag Versions .
  • Daily Kos: Christopher Columbus & His Crimes Against Humanity (Edited) 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

.Other productions include the TV mini-series Christopher Columbus (1985) with Gabriel Byrne as Columbus; Christopher Columbus: The Discovery, a 1992 biopic film by Alexander Salkind; Christopher Columbus, a 1949 film starring Fredric March as Columbus; and the comedy, Carry On Columbus (1992).^ History of the voyages of Christopher Columbus [microform] : and the discovery of America, and the West-Indies.

^ (Fuson, The Log of Christopher Columbus, page 29, and his sentiment is held by many others.
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^ Christopher Columbus, myth, metaphor, and metamorphosis in the Atlantic world, 1492-1992 / Franklin W. Knight.

.Christopher Columbus appears as a Great Explorer in the 2008 strategy video game, Civilization Revolution.^ Christopher Columbus, a Greek nobleman; a disquisition concerning the origin and early life of the great discoverer and a refutation of the charges against him which have appeared in certain recent publications, by Seraphim G. Canoutas.

^ In Lisbon, Columbus met his younger brother Bartolome' Colón who, like Christopher, had a great inclination for cartography.
  • Christopher Columbus'Origin 12 September 2009 0:00 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: Original source]
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^ The Colombo of Cogoleto (Christopher Columbus) who is so great in Spain, as you know, has among other things ordered in his testament, according to our understanding, that in his memory a house (?
  • From THE DISCOVERY OF NORTH AMERICA 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.millersville.edu [Source type: Original source]

[63]

Notes

  1. ^ "Parks Canada — L'Anse aux Meadows National Historic Site of Canada". Pc.gc.ca. 2009-04-24. http://www.pc.gc.ca/lhn-nhs/nl/meadows/index_e.asp. Retrieved 2009-07-29. 
  2. ^ Rime diverse, Pavia, 1595, p.117
  3. ^ Ra Gerusalemme deliverâ, Genoa, 1755, XV-32
  4. ^ Phillips, William D., and Carla Rahn Phillips. The Worlds of Christopher Columbus. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1992. Page 9.
    "Even with less than a complete record, however, scholars can state with assurance that Columbus was born in the republic of Genoa in northern Italy, although perhaps not in the city itself, and that his family made a living in the wool business as weavers and merchants...The two main early biographies of Columbus have been taken as literal truth by hundreds of writers, in large part because they were written by individual closely connected to Columbus or his writings. ...Both biographies have serious shortcomings as evidence."
  5. ^ Encyclopedia Britannica, 1993 ed., Vol. 16, pp. 605ff / Morison, Christopher Columbus, 1955 ed., pp. 14ff
  6. ^ "It is most probable that Columbus visited Bristol, where he was introduced to English commerce with Iceland." Bedini, Silvio A. and David Buisseret (1992). The Christopher Columbus encyclopedia, Volume 1, University of Michigan press, republished by Simon & Schuster, ISBN 0131426702, p. 175
  7. ^ "Christopher Columbus Biography Page 2". Columbus-day.123holiday.net. http://columbus-day.123holiday.net/christopher_columbus_2.html. Retrieved 2009-07-29. 
  8. ^ "Marco Polo et le Livre des Merveilles", ISBN 9782354040079 p.37
  9. ^ Boller, Paul F (1995). Not So!:Popular Myths about America from Columbus to Clinton. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780195091861. 
  10. ^ Russell, Jeffrey Burton 1991. Inventing the Flat Earth. Columbus and modern historians, Praeger, New York, Westport, London 1991;
    Zinn, Howard 1980. A People's History of the United States, HarperCollins 2001. p.2
  11. ^ a b Sagan, Carl. Cosmos; the mean circumference of the Earth is 40,041.47 km.
  12. ^ a b Morison, Samuel Eliot, Admiral of the Ocean Sea: The Life of Christopher Columbus Boston, 1942
  13. ^ "The First Voyage Log". http://www.columbusnavigation.com/v1a.shtml. Retrieved 2008-04-18. 
  14. ^ "Christopher Columbus and the Spanish Empire". http://www.ucalgary.ca/applied_history/tutor/eurvoya/columbus.html. Retrieved 2008-04-18. 
  15. ^ "Trade Winds and the Hadley Cell". http://earthguide.ucsd.edu/virtualmuseum/climatechange1/08_1.shtml. Retrieved 2008-04-18. 
  16. ^ Durant, Will "The Story of Civilization" vol. vi, "The Reformation". Chapter XIII, page 260.
  17. ^ Mark McDonald, "Ferdinand Columbus, Renaissance Collector (1488-1539)", 2005, British Museum Press, ISBN 9780714126449
  18. ^ The Original Nina The Columbus Foundation
  19. ^ a b Clements R. Markham, ed. The Journal of Christopher Columbus (During His First Voyage). ASIN B000I1OMXM. 
  20. ^ Robert H. Fuson, ed The Log of Christopher Columbus, Tab Books, 1992, International Marine Publishing, ISBN 0-87742-316-4
  21. ^ "Columbus Day sparks debate over explorer's legacy". http://media.www.michigandaily.com/media/storage/paper851/news/2004/10/12/News/Columbus.Day.Sparks.Debate.Over.Explorers.Legacy-1425748.shtml. 
  22. ^ Maclean, Frances (January 2008). "The Lost Fort of Columbus". Smithsonian Magazine. http://www.smithsonianmag.com/history-archaeology/fort-of-columbus-200801.html. Retrieved 2008-01-24. 
  23. ^ CBC News Staff (January 2008). "Study traces origins of syphilis in Europe to New World". http://www.cbc.ca/health/story/2008/01/14/syphilis-columbus.html. Retrieved 2008-01-15. 
  24. ^ Harper, Kristin, et al. (January 2008). "On the Origin of the Treponematoses: A Phylogenetic Approach". http://www.plosntds.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pntd.0000148. Retrieved 2008-01-21. 
  25. ^ Baccus, M. Kazim Utilization, Misuse, and Development of Human Resources in the Early West Ind Colonies Wilfrid Laurier University Press (2 Jan 2000) ISBN: 978-0889209824 pp.6-7
  26. ^ Felipe Fernández-Armesto, Columbus, Oxford Univ. Press, (1991) pp. 103-104
  27. ^ Paolo Emilio Taviani, Columbus the Great Adventure, Orion Books, New York (1991) p. 185
  28. ^ Phillips, Jr., William D. & Carla Rahn Phillips (1992). The Worlds of Christopher Columbus. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521350976. 
  29. ^ a b Who really sailed the ocean blue in 1492?, Christian Science Monitor, 17 October 2006
  30. ^ 'Letter from Christopher Columbus to the Governors of the Bank of St. George, Genoa. Dated at Seville, April 2nd, 1502'
  31. ^ [1]
  32. ^ Morison, Samuel Eliot,Admiral of the Ocean Sea: A Life of Christopher Columbus, Boston, 1942, page 617.
  33. ^ The History Channel. Columbus: The Lost Voyage.
  34. ^ Samuel Eliot Morison, Admiral of the Ocean Sea: A Life of Christopher Columbus, 1942, pp. 653–54. Samuel Eliot Morison, Christopher Columbus, Mariner, 1955, pp. 184-92.
  35. ^ Giles Tremlett (2006-08-07). "Lost document reveals Columbus as tyrant of the Caribbean". The Guardian. http://www.guardian.co.uk/spain/article/0,,1838823,00.html?gusrc=rss&feed=12. Retrieved 2006-10-10. 
  36. ^ Bobadilla's 48-page report—derived from the testimonies of 23 people who had seen or heard about the treatment meted out by Columbus and his brothers—had originally been lost for centuries, but was rediscovered in 2005 in the Spanish archives in Valladolid. It contained an account of Columbus's seven-year reign as the first Governor of the Indies.
  37. ^ The Brooklyn Museum catalogue notes that the most likely source for Leutze's trio of Columbus paintings is Washington Irving’s best-selling Life and Voyages of Columbus (1828).
  38. ^ Samuel Eliot Morison, Admiral of the Ocean Sea: A Life of Christopher Columbus, p. 576.
  39. ^ "Cause of the death of Columbus (in Spanish)". Eluniversal.com.mx. http://www.eluniversal.com.mx/notas/408828.html. Retrieved 2009-07-29. 
  40. ^ "''Cristóbal Colón: traslación de sus restos mortales a la ciudad de Sevilla'' at Fundación Biblioteca Virtual Miguel de Cervantes". Cervantesvirtual.com. http://www.cervantesvirtual.com/servlet/SirveObras/12368307610158273876213/p0000001.htm. Retrieved 2009-07-29. 
  41. ^ Giles Tremlett, Young bones lay Columbus myth to rest, The Guardian, August 11, 2004
  42. ^ Lorenzi, Rossella (October 6, 2004). "DNA Suggests Columbus Remains in Spain". Discovery News. http://dsc.discovery.com/news/briefs/20041004/columbus.html. Retrieved 2006-10-11. 
  43. ^ DNA verifies Columbus’ remains in Spain, Associated Press, May 19, 2006
  44. ^ Dugard, Martin. The Last Voyage of Columbus. Little, Brown and Company: New York, 2005.
  45. ^ Russell, Jeffrey B.. "The Myth of the Flat Earth". American Scientific Affiliation. http://www.asa3.org/ASA/topics/history/1997Russell.html. Retrieved 2007-03-14. 
  46. ^ The Gentleman's Magazine, Vol. 8, June 1738, p. 285
  47. ^ "Plaza Colón" (in Spanish). http://www.mayaguezpr.gov/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=191&Itemid=163. Retrieved 2009-07-27. 
  48. ^ Rigau, Jorge (2009). Puerto Rico Then and Now. San Diego, California: Thunder Bay Press. pp. 74–75. 
  49. ^ "Christopher Columbus and the Indians by Howard Zinn". Newhumanist.com. http://www.newhumanist.com/md2.html. Retrieved 2008-09-05. 
  50. ^ "Jack Weatherford, Examining the reputation of Christopher Columbus". Hartford-hwp.com. 2001-04-20. http://www.hartford-hwp.com/Taino/docs/columbus.html. Retrieved 2009-07-29. 
  51. ^ "Pre-Columbian Hispaniola — Arawak/Taino Indians". Hartford-hwp.com. 2001-09-15. http://www.hartford-hwp.com/archives/43a/100.html. Retrieved 2009-07-29. 
  52. ^ Alfred W. Crosby, The Columbian Exchange, Westport,1972, p. 39, 47.
  53. ^ Alfred Crosby, The Columbian Exchange (Westport, 1972) p. 45.
  54. ^ Alden, Henry Mills. Harper's New Monthly Magazine. Volume 84, Issues 499-504. Published by Harper & Brothers, 1892. Originally from Harvard University. Digitized on December 16, 2008. 732. Retrieved on September 8, 2009. 'Major, Int. Letters of Columbus, ixxxviii., says "Not one of the so-called portraits of Columbus is unquestionably authentic." They differ from each other, and cannot represent the same person.'
  55. ^ Loewen, James W. Lies My Teacher Told Me. 1st Touchstone ed, Simon & Schuster, 1996. ISBN 0684818868. 55.
  56. ^ John Noble, Susan Forsyth, Vesna Maric, Paula Hardy. Andalucía. Lonely Planet, 2007, p. 100
  57. ^ Linda Biesele Hall, Teresa Eckmann. Mary, mother and warrior, University of Texas Press, 2004, p. 46
  58. ^ Morison, Samuel Eliot Admiral of the Ocean Sea: A Life of Christopher Columbus, pg. 47-48, Boston 1942.
  59. ^ Bartolomé de Las Casas, Historia de las Indias, ed. Agustín Millares Carlo, 3 vols. (Mexico City, 1951), book 1, chapter 2, 1:29. The Spanish word garzos is now usually translated as "light blue," but it seems to have connoted light grey-green or hazel eyes to Columbus's contemporaries. The word rubio can mean "blonde," "fair," or "ruddy." The Worlds of Christopher Columbus by William D. & Carla Rahn Phillips, pg. 282.
  60. ^ "DNA Tests on the bones of Christopher Columbus's bones, on his relatives and on Genoese and Catalin claimaints". http://www.christopher-columbus.eu/dna-tests.htm. Retrieved 2009-02-09. 
  61. ^ "Dario Fo Archives online". http://www.oocities.com/dariofoarchive/isabella.html. Retrieved 2009-10-12. 
  62. ^ The New Yorker, 17 June 1991, p. 32.
  63. ^ Civilization Revolution: Great People "CivFanatics" Retrieved on 4th September 2009

References

.
  • Cohen, J.M. (1969) The Four Voyages of Christopher Columbus: Being His Own Log-Book, Letters and Dispatches with Connecting Narrative Drawn from the Life of the Admiral by His Son Hernando Colon and Others.^ He was shipwrecked on his fourth voyage, and the natives of Jamaica fed the surviving crewmembers for a year, while Columbus' men had a mutiny and not only killed each other, but natives.
    • Columbus, The Original American Hero 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.ahealedplanet.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ See Fernando Coln, The Life of the Admiral Christopher Columbus , Benjamin Keen, translator, pp.
    • Columbus, The Original American Hero 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.ahealedplanet.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Second, Columbus has several stops along the way (actually the four voyages), some of which tempt him to end his quest.
    • Imagining Christopher Columbus 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC hss.fullerton.edu [Source type: General]

    .London UK: Penguin Classics.
  • Cook, Sherburn and Woodrow Borah (1971) Essays in Population History, Volume I.^ The challenge was accepted by scholars who also taught at Berkeley, most notably Carl Sauer, Sherburne Cook and Woodrow Borah.
    • Columbus, The Original American Hero 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.ahealedplanet.net [Source type: Original source]

    .Berkeley CA: University of California Press
  • Crosby, A. W. (1987) The Columbian Voyages: the Columbian Exchange, and their Historians. Washington, DC: American Historical Association.
  • Davidson, Miles H. (1997) Columbus Then and Now: A Life Reexamined, Norman and London, University of Oklahoma Press.
  • Fuson, Robert H. (1992) The Log of Christopher Columbus.^ See Fernando Coln, The Life of the Admiral Christopher Columbus , Benjamin Keen, translator, pp.
    • Columbus, The Original American Hero 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.ahealedplanet.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ In that spirit, this essay will investigate the feat of Christopher Columbus, the original American hero.
    • Columbus, The Original American Hero 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.ahealedplanet.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ See the scholarly edition of The Book of Prophecies by Roberto Rusconi, translated by Blair Sullivan, University of California Press, Berkeley, 1997.
    • Columbus, The Original American Hero 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.ahealedplanet.net [Source type: Original source]

    .International Marine Publishing
  • Keen, Benjamin (1978) The Life of the Admiral Christopher Columbus by his Son Ferdinand, Westport CT: Greenwood Press.
  • Loewen, James.^ See Fernando Coln, The Life of the Admiral Christopher Columbus , Benjamin Keen, translator, pp.
    • Columbus, The Original American Hero 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.ahealedplanet.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Don Diego Colón, the Second Admiral of the Ocean Sea, son of Christopher, had died in 1526.
    • Christopher Columbus'Origin 12 September 2009 0:00 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: Original source]
    • From THE DISCOVERY OF NORTH AMERICA 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.millersville.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ See Fernando Coln, The Life of the Admiral Christopher Columbus , Benjamin Keen, translator, p.
    • Columbus, The Original American Hero 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.ahealedplanet.net [Source type: Original source]

    .Lies My Teacher Told Me
  • Morison, Samuel Eliot, Admiral of the Ocean Sea: A Life of Christopher Columbus, Boston, Little, Brown and Company, 1942.
  • Morison, Samuel Eliot, Christopher Columbus, Mariner, Boston, Little, Brown and Company, 1955
  • Phillips, W. D. and C. R. Phillips (1992) The Worlds of Christopher Columbus. Cambridge UK: Cambridge University Press.
  • Sale, Kirkpatrick The Conquest of Paradise: Christopher Columbus and the Columbian Legacy Plume, 1991
  • Turner, Jack (2004) Spice: The History of a Temptation.^ See Fernando Coln, The Life of the Admiral Christopher Columbus , Benjamin Keen, translator, pp.
    • Columbus, The Original American Hero 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.ahealedplanet.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ See Sale, The Conquest of Paradise , p.
    • Columbus, The Original American Hero 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.ahealedplanet.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ From this marriage in 1479 or 1480, Diego Colón was born, the future Second Admiral of the Ocean Sea.
    • Christopher Columbus'Origin 12 September 2009 0:00 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: Original source]
    • From THE DISCOVERY OF NORTH AMERICA 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.millersville.edu [Source type: Original source]

    .New York: Random House.
  • Wilford, John Noble (1991) The Mysterious History of Columbus: An Exploration of the Man, the Myth, the Legacy.^ New York: Random House, 1983.
    • Imagining Christopher Columbus 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC hss.fullerton.edu [Source type: General]

    ^ If there is a core of nobility to Columbus, a part of the man uncolored by his deeds and their consequences good or bad, it is the part of him that searched for a new route, a new way.
    • Imagining Christopher Columbus 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC hss.fullerton.edu [Source type: General]

    ^ Consider the following quote from his Christopher Columbus and the Bank of Saint George, New York, 1888, p.
    • Christopher Columbus'Origin 12 September 2009 0:00 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: Original source]
    • From THE DISCOVERY OF NORTH AMERICA 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.millersville.edu [Source type: Original source]

    New York: Alfred A. Knopf.

External links

.

Quotes

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiquote

I should not proceed by land to the East, as is customary, but by a Westerly route, in which direction we have hitherto no certain evidence that any one has gone.
Christopher Columbus (c. .145120 May 1506) (Cristoforo Colombo in Italian, Cristóbal Colón in Spanish, Cristóvão Colombo in Portuguese) was an explorer and trader who crossed the Atlantic Ocean and reached the Americas on October 12th 1492 under the flag of Castilian Spain.^ He died on May 20, 1506 .
  • Christopher Columbus: Extracts from Journal 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC history-world.org [Source type: Original source]

^ May 1506 ) was an explorer and trade r who crossed the Atlantic Ocean and reached the Americas on October 12 , 1492 under the flag of Castile .
  • Christopher Columbus - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ October 30 1451 – 20 May 1506 ) was an explorer and trader , who crossed the Atlantic Ocean and reached the Americas on October 12 , 1492 under the flag of Castile .
  • Christopher Columbus - Free net encyclopedia 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.netipedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Contents

Sourced

.
  • I should be judged as a captain who went from Spain to the Indies to conquer a people numerous and warlike, whose manners and religion are very different from ours, who live in sierras and mountains, without fixed settlements, and where by divine will I have placed under the sovereignty of the King and Queen our Lords, an Other World, whereby Spain, which was reckoned poor, is become the richest of countries.^ The payment of the people who went with me has been delayed.
    • Christopher Columbus, Complete by Filson Young - Full Text Free Book (Part 7/8) 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ In 1496 three of his Genoese cousins agreed to share the cost of sending one of them, Giovanni, to serve "Lord Christopher Columbus, Admiral of the King of Spain".
    • Geneaology of Christopher Columbus 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.thepirateking.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ But the net effect of taking in students as juniors and seniors who are severely under-credited and without exams is devastating to our accountability data - the only thing that appears to matter in education these days.
    • Christopher Columbus High School: A Context for Accountability | GothamSchools 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC gothamschools.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    • Letter to Doña Juana de Torres, October 1500

Journal of the First Voyage

These quotations are translations derived from a summary made by Bartolomé de Las Casas, the original having been lost.
.
  • I should not proceed by land to the East, as is customary, but by a Westerly route, in which direction we have hitherto no certain evidence that any one has gone.^ "Your Highnesses, as Catholic Christians, and princes who love and promote the holy Christian faith, and are enemies of the doctrine of Mahomet, and of all idolatry and heresy, determined to send me, Christopher Columbus, to the above-mentioned countries of India, to see the said princes, people, and territories, and to learn their disposition and the proper method of converting them to our holy faith; and furthermore directed that I should not proceed by land to the East, as is customary, but by a Westerly route, in which direction we have hitherto no certain evidence that anyone has gone.
    • Christopher Columbus - Free net encyclopedia 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.netipedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Your Highnesses, as Catholic Christians, and princes who love and promote the holy Christian faith, and are enemies of the doctrine of Mahomet, and of all idolatry and heresy, determined to send me, Christopher Columbus, to the above-mentioned countries of India, to see the said princes, people, and territories, and to learn their disposition and the proper method of converting them to our holy faith; and furthermore directed that I should not proceed by land to the East, as is customary, but by a Westerly route, in which direction we have hitherto no certain evidence that anyone has gone.
    • Christopher Columbus - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Your Highnesses, as Catholic Christians, and princes who love and promote the holy Christian faith, and are enemies of the doctrine of Mahomet, and of all idolatry and heresy, determined to send me, Christopher Columbus, to the above-mentioned countries of India, to see the said princes, people, and territories, and to learn their disposition and the proper method of converting them to our holy faith; and furthermore directed that I should not proceed by land to the East, as is customary, but by a Westerly route, in which direction we have hitherto no certain evidence that any one has gone.
    • Medieval Sourcebook: Christopher Columbus: Extracts from Journal 20 September 2009 12:15 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]
    • Medieval Sourcebook: Christopher Columbus: Extracts from Journal 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

  • "Thanks be to God," says the Admiral; "the air is soft as in April in Seville, and it is a pleasure to be in it, so fragrant it is."
    • 8 October 1492
  • Here the men lost all patience, and complained of the length of the voyage, but the Admiral encouraged them in the best manner he could, representing the profits they were about to acquire, and adding that it was to no purpose to complain, having come so far, they had nothing to do but continue on to the Indies, till with the help of our Lord, they should arrive there. .
    • Variant translation: Here the people could stand it no longer and complained of the long voyage; but the Admiral cheered them as best he could, holding out good hope of the advantages they would have.^ He has a good disposition, and is no longer a boy.
      • Christopher Columbus, Complete by Filson Young - Full Text Free Book (Part 7/8) 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

      ^ Here the men lost all patience, and complained of the length of the voyage, but the Admiral encouraged them in the best manner he could, representing the profits they were about to acquire, and adding that it was to no purpose to complain, having come so far, they had nothing to do but continue on to the Indies, till with the help of our Lord, they should arrive there.
      • Medieval Sourcebook: Christopher Columbus: Extracts from Journal 20 September 2009 12:15 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]
      • Medieval Sourcebook: Christopher Columbus: Extracts from Journal 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

      ^ FRIAR MONTESINOS These people have no idea of what's yours or mine; they give freely of all they have.
      • The Trial of Christopher Columbus 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC red-coral.net [Source type: Original source]

      .He added that it was useless to complain, he had come [to go] to the Indies, and so had to continue it until he found them, with the help of Our Lord.
    • 10 October 1492
  • Saw pardelas and a green rush near the vessel.^ Saw pardelas and a green rush near the vessel.
    • Medieval Sourcebook: Christopher Columbus: Extracts from Journal 20 September 2009 12:15 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]
    • Medieval Sourcebook: Christopher Columbus: Extracts from Journal 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Here the men lost all patience, and complained of the length of the voyage, but the Admiral encouraged them in the best manner he could, representing the profits they were about to acquire, and adding that it was to no purpose to complain, having come so far, they had nothing to do but continue on to the Indies, till with the help of our Lord, they should arrive there.
    • Medieval Sourcebook: Christopher Columbus: Extracts from Journal 20 September 2009 12:15 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]
    • Medieval Sourcebook: Christopher Columbus: Extracts from Journal 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ I hope in our Lord to depart this coming week, but you must not write less often on that account.
    • Christopher Columbus, Complete by Filson Young - Full Text Free Book (Part 7/8) 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

    .The crew of the Pinta saw a cane and a log; they also picked up a stick which appeared to have been carved with an iron tool, a piece of cane, a plant which grows on land, and a board.^ The crew of the Pinta saw a cane and a log; they also picked up a stick which appeared to have been carved with an iron tool, a piece of cane, a plant which grows on land, and a board.
    • Medieval Sourcebook: Christopher Columbus: Extracts from Journal 20 September 2009 12:15 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]
    • Medieval Sourcebook: Christopher Columbus: Extracts from Journal 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Steered their course west and sailed above twenty leagues; saw a large fragment of the mast of a vessel, apparently of a hundred and twenty tons, but could not pick it up.
    • Medieval Sourcebook: Christopher Columbus: Extracts from Journal 20 September 2009 12:15 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]
    • Medieval Sourcebook: Christopher Columbus: Extracts from Journal 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ They were all very cheerful, and strove which vessel should outsail the others, and be the first to discover land; they saw many tunnies, and the crew of the Nina killed one.
    • Medieval Sourcebook: Christopher Columbus: Extracts from Journal 20 September 2009 12:15 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]
    • Medieval Sourcebook: Christopher Columbus: Extracts from Journal 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

    .The crew of the Nina saw other signs of land, and a stalk loaded with rose berries.^ They had not sighted land for longer than any other crew of that time.
    • Columbus, Christopher | Article | World Book Student 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC photo.pds.org:5005 [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .These signs encouraged them, and they all grew cheerful.^ These signs encouraged them, and they all grew cheerful.
    • Medieval Sourcebook: Christopher Columbus: Extracts from Journal 20 September 2009 12:15 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]
    • Medieval Sourcebook: Christopher Columbus: Extracts from Journal 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ FRIAR MONTESINOS These people have no idea of what's yours or mine; they give freely of all they have.
    • The Trial of Christopher Columbus 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC red-coral.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ They remained all night repeating these affirmations, and the Admiral ordered their course to be shifted from west to southwest where the land appeared to lie.
    • Medieval Sourcebook: Christopher Columbus: Extracts from Journal 20 September 2009 12:15 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]
    • Medieval Sourcebook: Christopher Columbus: Extracts from Journal 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

    .
    • 11 October 1492
  • At two o'clock in the morning the land was discovered, at two leagues' distance; they took in sail and remained under the square-sail lying to till day, which was Friday, when they found themselves near a small island, one of the Lucayos, called in the Indian language Guanahani.^ They were of opinion that land was near.
    • Medieval Sourcebook: Christopher Columbus: Extracts from Journal 20 September 2009 12:15 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]
    • Medieval Sourcebook: Christopher Columbus: Extracts from Journal 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Sailed this day till sunset, twenty-seven leagues.
    • Medieval Sourcebook: Christopher Columbus: Extracts from Journal 20 September 2009 12:15 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]
    • Medieval Sourcebook: Christopher Columbus: Extracts from Journal 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ They call that island Yamaye.
    • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Christopher Columbus 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Logos (est. 1995): Christopher Columbus (1451-1506) 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC russellmcneil.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

    .Presently they descried people, naked, and the Admiral landed in the boat, which was armed, along with Martin Alonzo Pinzon, and Vincent Yanez his brother, captain of the Nina.^ Presently they descried people, naked, and the Admiral landed in the boat, which was armed, along with Martin Alonzo Pinzon, and Vincent Yanez his brother, captain of the Nina.
    • Medieval Sourcebook: Christopher Columbus: Extracts from Journal 20 September 2009 12:15 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]
    • Medieval Sourcebook: Christopher Columbus: Extracts from Journal 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Two seamen of repute, Martín Alonso Pinzon and his brother Vicente Yanez Pinzon, well-to-do-residents of Palos commanded, the former the Pinta.
    • Logos (est. 1995): Christopher Columbus (1451-1506) 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC russellmcneil.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ They were property of Juan de la Cosa and the Pinzón brothers ( Martin Alonzo and Vicente Yáñez ), but the monarchs forced the Palos inhabitants to contribute to the expedition.
    • What is Christopher Columbus? 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .The Admiral bore the royal standard, and the two captains each a banner of the Green Cross, which all the ships had carried; this contained the initials of the names of the King and Queen each side of the cross, and a crown over each letter Arrived on shore, they saw trees very green many streams of water, and diverse sorts of fruits.^ Columbus raised the royal standard and two captains each carried banners decorated with green crosses and letters representing Ferdinand and Isabel.
    • Christopher Columbus 12 September 2009 0:00 UTC www.millersville.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ He also carried letters of credence from Queen Isabella and King Ferdinand.
    • Was Christopher Columbus a Jew? | Bloggish | Jewish Journal 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.jewishjournal.com [Source type: General]

    ^ The Admiral bore the royal standard, and the two captains each a banner of the Green Cross, which all the ships had carried; this contained the initials of the names of the King and Queen each side of the cross, and a crown over each letter Arrived on shore, they saw trees very green many streams of water, and diverse sorts of fruits.
    • Medieval Sourcebook: Christopher Columbus: Extracts from Journal 20 September 2009 12:15 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]
    • Medieval Sourcebook: Christopher Columbus: Extracts from Journal 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

    .
    • Variant translation: At two hours after midnight appeared the land, at a distance of two leagues.^ But it was not until two hours after midnight, the 12th of October, that land finally did appear.

      ^ After sunset steered their original course west and sailed twelve miles an hour till two hours after midnight, going ninety miles, which are twenty-two leagues and a half; and as the Pinta was the swiftest sailer, and kept ahead of the Admiral, she discovered land and made the signals which had been ordered.
      • Medieval Sourcebook: Christopher Columbus: Extracts from Journal 20 September 2009 12:15 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]
      • Medieval Sourcebook: Christopher Columbus: Extracts from Journal 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

      ^ This day and night sailed sixty leagues, at the rate of ten miles an hour, which are two leagues and a half.
      • Medieval Sourcebook: Christopher Columbus: Extracts from Journal 20 September 2009 12:15 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]
      • Medieval Sourcebook: Christopher Columbus: Extracts from Journal 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

      .They handed all sails and set the treo, which is the mainsail without bonnets, and lay-to waiting for daylight Friday, when they arrived at an island of the Bahamas that was called in the Indians' tongue Guanahani.
  • As I saw that they were very friendly to us, and perceived that they could be much more easily converted to our holy faith by gentle means than by force, I presented them with some red caps, and strings of beads to wear upon the neck, and many other trifles of small value, wherewith they were much delighted, and became wonderfully attached to us.^ They both became more vain than they had been.
    • Christopher Columbus, Complete by Filson Young - Full Text Free Book (Part 7/8) 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ They call that island Yamaye.
    • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Christopher Columbus 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Logos (est. 1995): Christopher Columbus (1451-1506) 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC russellmcneil.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Here follow the precise words of the Admiral: "As I saw that they were very friendly to us, and perceived that they could be much more easily converted to our holy faith by gentle means than by force, I presented them with some red caps, and strings of beads to wear upon the neck, and many other trifles of small value, wherewith they were much delighted, and became wonderfully attached to us.
    • Medieval Sourcebook: Christopher Columbus: Extracts from Journal 20 September 2009 12:15 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]
    • Medieval Sourcebook: Christopher Columbus: Extracts from Journal 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

    .Afterwards they came swimming to the boats, bringing parrots, balls of cotton thread, javelins, and many other things which they exchanged for articles we gave them, such as glass beads, and hawk's bells; which trade was carried on with the utmost good will.^ They came loaded with balls of cotton, parrots, javelins, and other things too numerous to mention; these they exchanged for whatever we chose to give them.
    • Medieval Sourcebook: Christopher Columbus: Extracts from Journal 20 September 2009 12:15 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]
    • Medieval Sourcebook: Christopher Columbus: Extracts from Journal 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Afterwards they came swimming to the boats, bringing parrots, balls of cotton thread, javelins, and many other things which they exchanged for articles we gave them, such as glass beads, and hawk's bells; which trade was carried on with the utmost good will.
    • Medieval Sourcebook: Christopher Columbus: Extracts from Journal 20 September 2009 12:15 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]
    • Medieval Sourcebook: Christopher Columbus: Extracts from Journal 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ He gave his men "rewards" (Woman) along with other bad things, But he did find the Americas .
    • Christopher Columbus 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: General]

    .But they seemed on the whole to me, to be a very poor people.^ But they seemed on the whole to me, to be a very poor people.
    • Medieval Sourcebook: Christopher Columbus: Extracts from Journal 20 September 2009 12:15 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]
    • Medieval Sourcebook: Christopher Columbus: Extracts from Journal 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ In his journal he wrote of them, "It appears to me, that the people are ingenious, and would be good servants and I am of opinion that they would very readily become Christians, as they appear to have no religion."
    • What is Christopher Columbus? 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Week followed week, and they made very poor progress.
    • Christopher Columbus, Complete by Filson Young - Full Text Free Book (Part 5/8) 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

    .They all go completely naked, even the women, though I saw but one girl.^ They all go completely naked, even the women, though I saw but one girl.
    • Medieval Sourcebook: Christopher Columbus: Extracts from Journal 20 September 2009 12:15 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]
    • Medieval Sourcebook: Christopher Columbus: Extracts from Journal 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ What they had in many cases represented the store of years, and in all but one or two favoured districts it was quite impossible for them to keep up the amount of the tribute.
    • Christopher Columbus, Complete by Filson Young - Full Text Free Book (Part 5/8) 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Though he will pay no deference to the Admiral, will not even rise when he enters his presence, there is one person he holds in honour, and that is Ojeda.
    • Christopher Columbus, Complete by Filson Young - Full Text Free Book (Part 5/8) 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

    .All whom I saw were young, not above thirty years of age, well made, with fine shapes and faces; their hair short, and coarse like that of a horse's tail, combed toward the forehead, except a small portion which they suffer to hang down behind, and never cut.^ Their hair was not curly but loose and coarse like horse-hair.
    • Hero-making Christopher Columbus excerpted from the book Lies My Teacher Told Me Everything Your American History Textbook Got Wrong by James W. Loewen 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.thirdworldtraveler.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ All whom I saw were young, not above thirty years of age, well made, with fine shapes and faces; their hair short, and coarse like that of a horse's tail, combed toward the forehead, except a small portion which they suffer to hang down behind, and never cut.
    • Medieval Sourcebook: Christopher Columbus: Extracts from Journal 20 September 2009 12:15 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]
    • Medieval Sourcebook: Christopher Columbus: Extracts from Journal 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ He wrote in his journal on October 13, 1492: "At daybreak great multitudes of men came to the shore, all young and of fine shapes, and very handsome.
    • Hero-making Christopher Columbus excerpted from the book Lies My Teacher Told Me Everything Your American History Textbook Got Wrong by James W. Loewen 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.thirdworldtraveler.com [Source type: Original source]

    .Some paint themselves with black, which makes them appear like those of the Canaries, neither black nor white; others with white, others with red, and others with such colors as they can find.^ They are not black, but the color of the inhabitants of the Canaries."
    • Hero-making Christopher Columbus excerpted from the book Lies My Teacher Told Me Everything Your American History Textbook Got Wrong by James W. Loewen 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.thirdworldtraveler.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Some paint themselves with black, which makes them appear like those of the Canaries, neither black nor white; others with white, others with red, and others with such colors as they can find.
    • Medieval Sourcebook: Christopher Columbus: Extracts from Journal 20 September 2009 12:15 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]
    • Medieval Sourcebook: Christopher Columbus: Extracts from Journal 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ I believe they did not like each other.
    • Christopher Columbus, Complete by Filson Young - Full Text Free Book (Part 1/8) 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

    .Some paint the face, and some the whole body; others only the eyes, and others the nose.^ Some paint the face, and some the whole body; others only the eyes, and others the nose.
    • Medieval Sourcebook: Christopher Columbus: Extracts from Journal 20 September 2009 12:15 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]
    • Medieval Sourcebook: Christopher Columbus: Extracts from Journal 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Maybe someday they'll actually teach history with an eye towards telling the whole story instead of some sanitized version of it.
    • Daily Kos: Christopher Columbus & His Crimes Against Humanity (Edited) 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ But Genoese were not the only Italians arriving in large numbers; also emigrating were Venetians and Florentines, as well as some Greeks and others who were being dispossessed of their fortunes in the east.
    • Christopher Columbus 12 September 2009 0:00 UTC www.millersville.edu [Source type: Original source]

    .Weapons they have none, nor are acquainted with them, for I showed them swords which they grasped by the blades, and cut themselves through ignorance.^ Weapons they have none, nor are acquainted with them, for I showed them swords which they grasped by the blades, and cut themselves through ignorance.
    • Medieval Sourcebook: Christopher Columbus: Extracts from Journal 20 September 2009 12:15 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]
    • Medieval Sourcebook: Christopher Columbus: Extracts from Journal 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ They do not bear arms, and do not know them, for I showed them a sword, they took it by the edge and cut themselves out of ignorance.
    • Christopher Columbus - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ When Columbus first came ashore and was greeted by the Arawak native Americans with gifts and food, he wrote in his log: “They brought us parrots and balls of cotton and spears and many other things … they willingly traded everything they owned … They do not bear arms arms, and do not know them, for I showed them a sword, they took it by the edge and cut themselves out of ignorance.
    • The Truth About Christopher Columbus, page 1 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.abovetopsecret.com [Source type: Original source]

    .They have no iron, their javelins being without it, and nothing more than sticks, though some have fish-bones or other things at the ends.^ No more than the thread .
    • Imagining Christopher Columbus 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC hss.fullerton.edu [Source type: General]

    ^ No more than the pattern .
    • Imagining Christopher Columbus 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC hss.fullerton.edu [Source type: General]

    ^ They have no iron.
    • Christopher Columbus - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • The Truth About Christopher Columbus, page 1 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.abovetopsecret.com [Source type: Original source]

    .They are all of a good size and stature, and handsomely formed.^ They are all of a good size and stature, and handsomely formed.
    • Medieval Sourcebook: Christopher Columbus: Extracts from Journal 20 September 2009 12:15 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]
    • Medieval Sourcebook: Christopher Columbus: Extracts from Journal 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ They made maps of the ocean sea by placing stones of different sizes into a bed of sand, and had all the Indies islands completely mapped.
    • The Trial of Christopher Columbus 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC red-coral.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ They were well-built, with good bodies and handsome features....
    • Christopher Columbus - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .I saw some with scars of wounds upon their bodies, and demanded by signs the of them; they answered me in the same way, that there came people from the other islands in the neighborhood who endeavored to make prisoners of them, and they defended themselves.^ I saw some with scars of wounds upon their bodies, and demanded by signs the of them; they answered me in the same way, that there came people from the other islands in the neighborhood who endeavored to make prisoners of them, and they defended themselves.
    • Medieval Sourcebook: Christopher Columbus: Extracts from Journal 20 September 2009 12:15 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]
    • Medieval Sourcebook: Christopher Columbus: Extracts from Journal 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Seeing some of them with little bits of metal hanging at their noses, I gathered from them by signs that by going southward or steering round the island in that direction, there would be found a king who possessed great cups full of gold."
    • Hero-making Christopher Columbus excerpted from the book Lies My Teacher Told Me Everything Your American History Textbook Got Wrong by James W. Loewen 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.thirdworldtraveler.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Today, there is a revival of the Taino people, and there are stories and some evidence of some mixed-blood survival in mountainous pockets in the Greater Antilles and survivors who fled to South America, but by 1600 the Taino were extinct for practical purposes in the Caribbean.
    • Columbus, The Original American Hero 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.ahealedplanet.net [Source type: Original source]

    .I thought then, and still believe, that these were from the continent.^ I thought then, and still believe, that these were from the continent.
    • Medieval Sourcebook: Christopher Columbus: Extracts from Journal 20 September 2009 12:15 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]
    • Medieval Sourcebook: Christopher Columbus: Extracts from Journal 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ They scoffed at his plan—not because they thought that the world was flat or sea monsters would devour the ships, but because they still believed his estimates were wrong.
    • Columbus, Christopher | Article | World Book Student 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC photo.pds.org:5005 [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .It appears to me, that the people are ingenious, and would be good servants and I am of opinion that they would very readily become Christians, as they appear to have no religion.^ In his journal he wrote of them, "It appears to me, that the people are ingenious, and would be good servants and I am of opinion that they would very readily become Christians, as they appear to have no religion."
    • What is Christopher Columbus? 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ They have no religion, and I believe that they would very readily become Christians, as they have a good understanding.
    • Medieval Sourcebook: Christopher Columbus: Extracts from Journal 20 September 2009 12:15 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]
    • Medieval Sourcebook: Christopher Columbus: Extracts from Journal 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ It appears to me, that the people are ingenious, and would be good servants and I am of opinion that they would very readily become Christians, as they appear to have no religion.
    • Medieval Sourcebook: Christopher Columbus: Extracts from Journal 20 September 2009 12:15 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]
    • Medieval Sourcebook: Christopher Columbus: Extracts from Journal 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

    .They very quickly learn such words as are spoken to them.^ They very quickly learn such words as are spoken to them.
    • Medieval Sourcebook: Christopher Columbus: Extracts from Journal 20 September 2009 12:15 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]
    • Medieval Sourcebook: Christopher Columbus: Extracts from Journal 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Where they learned and how they practiced such a talent is still one of the many mysteries of Columbian Literature.
    • Christopher Columbus'Origin 12 September 2009 0:00 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: Original source]
    • From THE DISCOVERY OF NORTH AMERICA 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.millersville.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ I was very attentive to them, and strove to learn if they had any gold.
    • Medieval Sourcebook: Christopher Columbus: Extracts from Journal 20 September 2009 12:15 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]
    • Medieval Sourcebook: Christopher Columbus: Extracts from Journal 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

    .If it please our Lord, I intend at my return to carry home six of them to your Highnesses, that they may learn our language.^ If it please our Lord, I intend at my return to carry home six of them to your Highnesses, that they may learn our language.
    • Medieval Sourcebook: Christopher Columbus: Extracts from Journal 20 September 2009 12:15 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]
    • Medieval Sourcebook: Christopher Columbus: Extracts from Journal 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ May our Lord have you in His keeping.
    • Christopher Columbus, Complete by Filson Young - Full Text Free Book (Part 7/8) 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ I believe, he added wistfully, that Her Highness must have made provisions to cover them in her will, and that "the King, my Lord, is a sufficient guarantee."
    • Christopher Columbus'Origin 12 September 2009 0:00 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: Original source]
    • From THE DISCOVERY OF NORTH AMERICA 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.millersville.edu [Source type: Original source]

    .I saw no beasts in the island, nor any sort of animals except parrots.^ I saw no beasts in the island, nor any sort of animals except parrots."
    • Medieval Sourcebook: Christopher Columbus: Extracts from Journal 20 September 2009 12:15 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]
    • Medieval Sourcebook: Christopher Columbus: Extracts from Journal 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ He bore himself with intolerable arrogance and insolence, discharging one of Columbus's personal bodyguard on the ground that no one should hold any office on the island except with his consent.
    • Christopher Columbus, Complete by Filson Young - Full Text Free Book (Part 5/8) 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Beasts, we saw none, nor any creatures on land save parrots and lizards, but a boy told me he saw a large snake.
    • Medieval Sourcebook: Christopher Columbus: Extracts from Journal 20 September 2009 12:15 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]
    • Medieval Sourcebook: Christopher Columbus: Extracts from Journal 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

    .
  • The Admiral says that he never beheld so fair a thing: trees all along the river, beautiful and green, and different from ours, with flowers and fruits each according to their kind, many birds and little birds which sing very sweetly.^ In 1492 october 12, 1492 at 2 a.m .
    • WikiAnswers - Christopher Columbus Questions including "Which of Columbus' ships was the first to land in America" 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: News]

    ^ Log of October 11-12, 1492.
    • Columbus, The Original American Hero 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.ahealedplanet.net [Source type: Original source]
    • Columbus:
      The Original American Hero
      2 February 2010 15:015 UTC globalization.icaap.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ He wrote in his journal on October 13, 1492: "At daybreak great multitudes of men came to the shore, all young and of fine shapes, and very handsome.
    • Hero-making Christopher Columbus excerpted from the book Lies My Teacher Told Me Everything Your American History Textbook Got Wrong by James W. Loewen 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.thirdworldtraveler.com [Source type: Original source]

    .
    • 28 October 1492
  • The two Christians met on the way many people who were going to their towns, women and men, with a firebrand in the hand, herbs to drink the smoke thereof, as they are accustomed.^ He wrote in his journal on October 13, 1492: "At daybreak great multitudes of men came to the shore, all young and of fine shapes, and very handsome.
    • Hero-making Christopher Columbus excerpted from the book Lies My Teacher Told Me Everything Your American History Textbook Got Wrong by James W. Loewen 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.thirdworldtraveler.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Joy and kindness reign in the one place, which is good enough for the best of men; and they will go there who while they have lived on the earth have loved peace and goodness, and who have never robbed or killed or been unkind.
    • Christopher Columbus, Complete by Filson Young - Full Text Free Book (Part 5/8) 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ These personal idiosyncracies surface in his surviving writings as well as in the descriptions and analyses of him reflected in the works of many people who knew him personally.
    • Christopher Columbus'Origin 12 September 2009 0:00 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: Original source]
    • From THE DISCOVERY OF NORTH AMERICA 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.millersville.edu [Source type: Original source]

    .
    • On smoking, 6 November 1492
  • When there are such lands there should be profitable things without number.^ There is still much discussion about which island he reached, but at least it is quite certain that it was one of the Bahamas (landing was on October 12, 1492).
    • Was Christopher Columbus a Jew? | Bloggish | Jewish Journal 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.jewishjournal.com [Source type: General]

    ^ The Privileges tell what it is, and there is also due me the tenth of the profit derived from merchandise and from all other things, of which I have received nothing.
    • Christopher Columbus, Complete by Filson Young - Full Text Free Book (Part 7/8) 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ He had given such a favorable account of us, that all night there were great numbers of canoes coming off to us, who brought us water and other things.
    • Medieval Sourcebook: Christopher Columbus: Extracts from Journal 20 September 2009 12:15 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]
    • Medieval Sourcebook: Christopher Columbus: Extracts from Journal 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

    .
    • 27 November 1492
  • And I say that Your Highnesses ought not to consent that any foreigner does business or sets foot here, except Christian Catholics, since this was the end and the beginning of the enterprise, that it should be for the enhancement and glory of the Christian religion, nor should anyone who is not a good Christian come to these parts.^ What does your cacique say, Hatuey?
    • The Trial of Christopher Columbus 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC red-coral.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Of course, soon corruption spreads everywhere with the help of the church, which has lost its usefulness in Paradise--no guilt, no need for religion--, and of the Spanish who have no market for goods since Columbus declared nudity and communal freedom.
    • Imagining Christopher Columbus 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC hss.fullerton.edu [Source type: General]

    ^ This delay apparently caused the discoverer upon his return to write to Oderico the last letter dated December 27, 1504, expressing his disappointment by reminding them of the saying "Who serves city hall does not serve at all."
    • Christopher Columbus'Origin 12 September 2009 0:00 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: Original source]
    • From THE DISCOVERY OF NORTH AMERICA 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.millersville.edu [Source type: Original source]

    .
    • 27 November 1492
  • ...your Highnesses may believe that this island (Hispaniola), and all the others, are as much yours as Castile.^ Its mission was to return to La Navidad in Hispaniola to relieve the men left behind from the first voyage, settle more colonists on the islands, and conquer other islands to be discovered.
    • Christopher Columbus 12 September 2009 0:00 UTC www.millersville.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ May 1506 ) was an explorer and trade r who crossed the Atlantic Ocean and reached the Americas on October 12 , 1492 under the flag of Castile .
    • Christopher Columbus - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ They told Columbus that the natives of other islands wore gold bands around their arms and legs, and they described countless islands all like theirs.
    • Christopher Columbus 12 September 2009 0:00 UTC www.millersville.edu [Source type: Original source]

    .Here there is only wanting a settlement and the order to the people to do what is required.^ American Indian activist Mike Anderson says, "There was a culture here and there were people and there were governments here prior to the arrival of Columbus."
    • The Crimes of Christopher Columbus 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.freerepublic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ His instructions were, as his office required, general and his faculties, of course, discretionary; there is no need of supposing secret orders inimical to Columbus to explain what afterwards happened.
    • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Christopher Columbus 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Logos (est. 1995): Christopher Columbus (1451-1506) 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC russellmcneil.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

    .For I, with the force I have under me, which is not large, could march over all these islands without opposition.^ The great outpour opposite Trinidad he justly attributed to the emptying of a mighty river coming from the west, a river so large that only a continent could afford its space .
    • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Christopher Columbus 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Under these circumstances the Spaniards forced the natives to leap into the water, where they swam about like rats as well as they could, and then came back to the canoes in order to hold on and rest themselves.
    • Christopher Columbus, Complete by Filson Young - Full Text Free Book (Part 7/8) 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Two shots of a lombarda from the land, the water is so deep that it cannot be sounded; this is the case in all these islands.
    • Medieval Sourcebook: Christopher Columbus: Extracts from Journal 20 September 2009 12:15 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]
    • Medieval Sourcebook: Christopher Columbus: Extracts from Journal 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

    .I have seen only three sailors land, without wishing to do harm, and a multitude of Indians fled before them.^ No sailor dares to penetrate it; they limit themselves to sailing along the coasts without losing sight of land."
    • Geneaology of Christopher Columbus 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.thepirateking.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Towards night two or three land birds came to the ship, singing; they disappeared before sunrise.
    • Medieval Sourcebook: Christopher Columbus: Extracts from Journal 20 September 2009 12:15 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]
    • Medieval Sourcebook: Christopher Columbus: Extracts from Journal 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Long before Columbus, Indian tribes raided each other's land and preyed on the possessions and persons of more vulnerable groups.
    • The Crimes of Christopher Columbus 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.freerepublic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .They have no arms, and are without warlike instincts; they all go naked, and are so timid that a thousand would not stand before three of our men.^ He would go to his grave believing all of it.
    • Geneaology of Christopher Columbus 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.thepirateking.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ FRIAR MONTESINOS These people have no idea of what's yours or mine; they give freely of all they have.
    • The Trial of Christopher Columbus 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC red-coral.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Im no fisherman and have no real idea how they would accomplish this.
    • The Truth About Christopher Columbus, page 1 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.abovetopsecret.com [Source type: Original source]

    .So that they are good to be ordered about, to work and sow, and do all that may be necessary, and to build towns, and they should be taught to go about clothed and to adopt our customs.^ That should be all the "beef " necessary to me.
    • Daily Kos: Christopher Columbus & His Crimes Against Humanity 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ They remained all night repeating these affirmations, and the Admiral ordered their course to be shifted from west to southwest where the land appeared to lie.
    • Medieval Sourcebook: Christopher Columbus: Extracts from Journal 20 September 2009 12:15 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]
    • Medieval Sourcebook: Christopher Columbus: Extracts from Journal 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The work, as we have already seen, was infinitely harder than that to which they were accustomed; and most serious of all, it was done under conditions that took all the heart out of the labour.
    • Christopher Columbus, Complete by Filson Young - Full Text Free Book (Part 7/8) 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

    .
    • 16 December 1492
  • The Admiral ordered the lord to be given some things, and he and all his folk rested in great contentment, believing truly that they had come from the sky, and to see the Christians they held themselves very fortunate.^ Some held positions as "alcaide mor", or military commander of royal military fortifications, others were "comendadors" in the military orders of the Knights of Santiago, the Knights of Aziz, or the Knights of Christ.
    • Christopher Columbus' family and his Perestrello and Moniz in-laws. 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.wolcottfamily.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ They remained all night repeating these affirmations, and the Admiral ordered their course to be shifted from west to southwest where the land appeared to lie.
    • Medieval Sourcebook: Christopher Columbus: Extracts from Journal 20 September 2009 12:15 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]
    • Medieval Sourcebook: Christopher Columbus: Extracts from Journal 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ In the beginning of September they were caught in a severe tempest, which separated the ships for a time, and held the Admiral weather-bound for eight days.
    • Christopher Columbus, Complete by Filson Young - Full Text Free Book (Part 5/8) 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

    .
    • 22 December 1492
  • "Of this voyage, I observe," says the Admiral, "that it has miraculously been shown, as may be understood by this writing, by the many signal miracles that He has shown on the voyage, and for me, who for so great a time was in the court of Your Highnesses with the opposition and against the opinion of so many high personages of your household, who were all against me, alleging this undertaking to be folly, which I hope in Our Lord will be to the greater glory of Christianity, which to some slight extent already has happened."^ May our Lord have you in His keeping.
    • Christopher Columbus, Complete by Filson Young - Full Text Free Book (Part 7/8) 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Many of the smears against Columbus were initiated by the Spanish crown during these lengthy court cases, known as the pleitos colombinos .
    • What is Christopher Columbus? 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Caonabo, Lord of the House of Gold, fiercest and bravest of them all, who first realised that the Spaniards were enemies to the native peace, after languishing in prison in the house of Columbus at Isabella for some time, had died in captivity during the voyage to Spain.
    • Christopher Columbus, Complete by Filson Young - Full Text Free Book (Part 7/8) 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

    • 15 March 1493

Letter to the Sovereigns (1493)

Letter to the Sovereigns , First Voyage (15 February - 4 March 1493)
.
  • It is true that after they have been reassured and have lost this fear, they are so artless and so free with all they possess, that no one would believe it without having seen it.^ CAONABO No one can free me without the key to these chains.
    • The Trial of Christopher Columbus 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC red-coral.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Columbus writes the Indians, “are so naïve and so free with their possessions that no one who has not witnessed them would believe it.
    • The Truth About Christopher Columbus, page 1 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.abovetopsecret.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ He would go to his grave believing all of it.
    • Geneaology of Christopher Columbus 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.thepirateking.com [Source type: Original source]

    Of anything they have, if you ask them for it, they never say no; rather they invite the person to share it, and show as much love as if they were giving their hearts.
  • And they know neither sect nor idolatry, with the exception that all believe that the source of all power and goodness is in the sky, and they believe very firmly that I, with these ships and people, came from the sky, and in this belief they everywhere received me, after they had overcome their fear.

Journal of the Third Voyage (1498)

Journal of the Third Voyage (May - August 1498)
.
  • I have come to believe that this is a mighty continent which was hitherto unknown.^ "I have come to believe that this is a mighty continent which was hitherto unknown.
    • Imagining Christopher Columbus 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC hss.fullerton.edu [Source type: General]

    ^ The great outpour opposite Trinidad he justly attributed to the emptying of a mighty river coming from the west, a river so large that only a continent could afford its space .
    • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Christopher Columbus 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ He wrote in his journal: "I believe that this is a very great continent which until today has been unknown."
    • Columbus, Christopher | Article | World Book Student 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC photo.pds.org:5005 [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    I am greatly supported in this view by reason of this great river, and by this sea which is fresh.

Letter to the Sovereigns (1498)

Letter to the Sovereigns, Third Voyage (18 October 1498)
  • I have always read that the world, both land and water, was spherical, as the authority and researches of Ptolemy and all the others who have written on this subject demonstrate and prove, as do the eclipses of the moon and other experiments that are made from east to west, and the elevation of the North Star from north to south.
  • Your Highnesses have an Other World here, by which our holy faith can be so greatly advanced and from which such great wealth can be drawn.

Letter to the Sovereigns (1503)

Lettera Rarissima to the Sovereigns, Fourth Voyage (7 July 1503)
.
  • The tempest was terrible and separated me from my [other] vessels that night, putting every one of them in desperate straits, with nothing to look forward to but death.^ This island appears to me to be a separate one from that of Saomete, and I even think there may be others between them.
    • Medieval Sourcebook: Christopher Columbus: Extracts from Journal 20 September 2009 12:15 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]
    • Medieval Sourcebook: Christopher Columbus: Extracts from Journal 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The vessels were lifted up as though by magic; two of them dragged their anchors from the bottom, and the other one broke her cable.
    • Christopher Columbus, Complete by Filson Young - Full Text Free Book (Part 5/8) 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Separating the expedition, one part went to aid the settlement at Hispaniola, while Columbus took the other part and sailed further south than ever before.
    • Christopher Columbus 12 September 2009 0:00 UTC www.millersville.edu [Source type: Original source]

    Each was certain the others had been destroyed. .What man ever born, not excepting Job, who would not have died of despair, when in such weather seeking safety for my son, my brother, shipmates, and myself, we were forbidden [access to] the land and the harbors which I, by God's will and sweating blood, had won for Spain?
  • I came to serve you at the age of 28 and now I have not a hair on me that is not white, and my body is infirm and exhausted.^ My sons will yet inherit this land!
    • The Trial of Christopher Columbus 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC red-coral.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Described as well formed with handsome bodies, the natives were tall, not black or white, intelligent, painted, naked, with coarse, straight hair and broad brows.
    • Christopher Columbus 12 September 2009 0:00 UTC www.millersville.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ If you'll only take a note to my brothers...
    • The Trial of Christopher Columbus 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC red-coral.net [Source type: Original source]

    .All that was left to me and my brothers has been taken away and sold, even to the cloak that I wore, without hearing or trial, to my great dishonor.
  • Weep for me, whoever has charity, truth and justice!^ Let them weep for me who have charity, truth and justice.
    • Christopher Columbus, Complete by Filson Young - Full Text Free Book (Part 7/8) 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ I left my brothers in charge in Santo Domingo, and I proceeded to set up a base camp seventy miles inland, at Fort Concepción.
    • The Trial of Christopher Columbus 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC red-coral.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Even thus my body is here, my heart is there at all times.
    • From THE DISCOVERY OF NORTH AMERICA 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.millersville.edu [Source type: Original source]

    .I did not come on this voyage for gain, honor or wealth, that is certain; for then the hope of all such things was dead.^ Donna Isabel, moreover, was never tired of talking about Porto Santo and her dead husband, and of all the voyages and sea adventures that had filled his life.
    • Christopher Columbus, Complete by Filson Young - Full Text Free Book (Part 1/8) 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Many couriers come each day, and the news is of such a nature and so abundant that on hearing it all my hair stands on end; it is so contrary to what my soul desires.
    • Christopher Columbus, Complete by Filson Young - Full Text Free Book (Part 7/8) 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Those of his new relatives, however, who did get to know him soon began to see that Philippa had not made such a bad bargain after all.
    • Christopher Columbus, Complete by Filson Young - Full Text Free Book (Part 1/8) 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

    .I came to Your Highnesses with honest purpose and sincere zeal; and I do not lie.^ I did not undertake this voyage of navigation to gain honour or material things, that is certain, because the hope already was entirely lost; but I did come to serve your Majesties with honest intention and with good charitable zeal, and I do not lie."
    • Christopher Columbus, Complete by Filson Young - Full Text Free Book (Part 7/8) 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

    I humbly beseech You Hignesses that, if it please God to remove me hence, you will help me to go to Rome and on other pilgrimages.

Quotes about Columbus

.
  • What a pity, when Christopher Columbus discovered America, that he ever mentioned it.^ What did Christopher Columbus discover in America?
    • WikiAnswers - Christopher Columbus Questions including "Which of Columbus' ships was the first to land in America" 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: News]

    ^ Did christopher columbus discover oranges?
    • WikiAnswers - Christopher Columbus Questions including "Which of Columbus' ships was the first to land in America" 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: News]

    ^ Where did Christopher Columbus land when he first discovered America?
    • WikiAnswers - Christopher Columbus Questions including "Which of Columbus' ships was the first to land in America" 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: News]

    .
  • We shall be inclined to pronounce the voyage that led to the way to this New World as the most epoch-making event of all that have occurred since the birth of Christ.^ He made four voyages to the New World.

    ^ Between 1492 and 1504, Columbus made four voyages to the “New World.” He did not know he had discovered a new continent, but...
    • WikiAnswers - Christopher Columbus Questions including "Which of Columbus' ships was the first to land in America" 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: News]

    ^ After sailing west two thousand leagues Cabot found land in the neighbourhood of Cape Breton, and was thus in all probability the first discoverer, since the Icelanders, of the mainland of the New World.
    • Christopher Columbus, Complete by Filson Young - Full Text Free Book (Part 5/8) 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

    .
  • If Columbus had an advisory committee he would probably still be at the dock.^ Vasco seems to have lived to the age of 80, and was probably still living when Columbus was in Portugal.
    • Christopher Columbus' family and his Perestrello and Moniz in-laws. 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.wolcottfamily.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Because of his encounter with King John's committee of experts, Columbus must have been ready for them, fielding his own arguments in response to their arguments.
    • Christopher Columbus; excerpts from the book,Uncovering the Real Columbus 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC wolcottfamily.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ John thought I would probably know the story because I was the family member most interested in history, so he gave Dorothy my name.
    • Daily Kos: Christopher Columbus & His Crimes Against Humanity 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

    .
  • Columbus had all the spirit of a crusader, and, at the same time, the investigating nature of a modern man of science.^ The things that a man can do in his own person are limited by the laws of time and space; it is only example and influence that are infinite and illimitable, and in which the spirit of any achievement can find true immortality.
    • Christopher Columbus, Complete by Filson Young - Full Text Free Book (Part 5/8) 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The count may not have been the most accurate of all time, but it is the only count performed back then, and modern scholarship and scientific investigation has determined that number is by no means unreasonable, and neither is such a large population's collapse.
    • Columbus:
      The Original American Hero
      2 February 2010 15:015 UTC globalization.icaap.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ In that spirit, this essay will investigate the feat of Christopher Columbus, the original American hero.
    • Columbus, The Original American Hero 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.ahealedplanet.net [Source type: Original source]

    .
  • So Columbus said, somebody show me the sunset and somebody did and he set sail for it,
    And he discovered America and they put him in jail for it,
    And the fetters gave him welts,
    And they named America after somebody else.^ What did Christopher Columbus discover in America?
    • WikiAnswers - Christopher Columbus Questions including "Which of Columbus' ships was the first to land in America" 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: News]

    ^ Did christopher columbus discover oranges?
    • WikiAnswers - Christopher Columbus Questions including "Which of Columbus' ships was the first to land in America" 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: News]

    ^ Where did christopher columbus sail to?
    • WikiAnswers - Christopher Columbus Questions including "Which of Columbus' ships was the first to land in America" 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: News]

  • Columbus' government was characterised by a form of tyranny... .Even those who loved him had to admit the atrocities that had taken place.^ Consuelo Varela, a Spanish historian, states: "Even those who loved him [Columbus] had to admit the atrocities that had taken place."
    • What is Christopher Columbus? 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ As it was, those who remained witnessed with no very cheerful emotions the departure of their companions, and even in some cases fell to tears and lamentations.
    • Christopher Columbus, Complete by Filson Young - Full Text Free Book (Part 7/8) 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ His eye has not yet caught the fire of the sun setting on a western sea; he is still free and happy, and belongs only to those who love him.
    • Christopher Columbus, Complete by Filson Young - Full Text Free Book (Part 1/8) 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

    .Now one can understand why he was sacked and we can see that there were good reasons for doing so.^ I understand it, but I see no reason to believe it.
    • The Truth About Christopher Columbus, page 1 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.abovetopsecret.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Here is my plan: you have a good canoe; why should some one not go over to Espanola in it and send back a ship for us?"
    • Christopher Columbus, Complete by Filson Young - Full Text Free Book (Part 7/8) 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ There is no good reason for believing that the Western Hemispheres population was orders of magnitude less dense than the other continents in 1492.
    • Columbus, The Original American Hero 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.ahealedplanet.net [Source type: Original source]

    The monarchs wanted someone who did not give them problems. .Columbus did not solve problems, he created them.^ Attempt to solve the problem of the first landing place of Columbus in the New World.

    ^ The problem was that the experts did not agree with Columbus’s estimates of the distance to the Indies.
    • Was Christopher Columbus a Jew? | Bloggish | Jewish Journal 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.jewishjournal.com [Source type: General]

    ^ The problem facing Columbus was that most experts did not agree with his estimate of the distance to the Indies.
    • Christopher Columbus - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .
    • Consuelo Varela, on a recently discovered report by Francisco de Bobadilla on the harsh rule of Columbus and his brothers; as quoted in The Guardian (7 August 2006)
  • Hardly a name in profane history is more august than his.^ Consuelo Varela, a Spanish historian, states: "Even those who loved him [Columbus] had to admit the atrocities that had taken place."
    • What is Christopher Columbus? 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The king and queen sent the royal administrator Francisco de Bobadilla in 1500, who upon arrival ( August 23 ) detained Columbus and his brothers and had them shipped home.
    • Christopher Columbus - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ CAONABO looks much younger than when we saw him in prison, and ANACAONA is more mature than when we saw her at COLUMBUS’first landing.
    • The Trial of Christopher Columbus 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC red-coral.net [Source type: Original source]

    .Hardly another character in the world's record has made so little of its opportunities.^ Whatever it was, colonial activity in “another world,” as Columbus called it, took on a life of its own, and there was very little that Columbus could do to alter its course.
    • Christopher Columbus 12 September 2009 0:00 UTC www.millersville.edu [Source type: Original source]

    .His discovery was a blunder; his blunder was a new world; the New World is his monument!^ Story of the discovery of the new world by Columbus.

    ^ Bigelow uses Columbus, His Enterprise as a textbook for his class, and the students then studied history textbooks and critiqued their highly slanted presentations of the New World's "discovery."
    • Columbus, The Original American Hero 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.ahealedplanet.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Columbus is celebrated, but only because his "discovery" changed the relationship between the New World and Europe.
    • Daily Kos: Christopher Columbus & His Crimes Against Humanity (Edited) 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

External links

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1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

.CHRISTOPHER COLUMBUS [in Spanish ] (c. 1446, or perhaps rather 1451, - 1506) was the eldest son of Domenico Colombo and Suzanna Fontanarossa, and was born at Genoa either about 1446 or in 1451, the exact date being uncertain.^ Born in 1451 - Died in 1506 .

^ Where was christopher columbus born?
  • Questions about Christopher Columbus - Ask.com 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.ask.com [Source type: General]

^ Where christopher columbus born?
  • WikiAnswers - Where was Christopher Columbus born 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: General]

.His father was a wool-comber, of some small means, who lived till 1498. According to the life of Columbus by his son Ferdinand (a statement supported by Las Casas), young Christopher was sent to the university of Pavia, where he devoted himself to astronomy, geometry and cosmography.^ Columbus the son of a wool-comber!!
  • The Portuguese Christopher Columbus!! 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.reformation.org [Source type: News]

^ His father was a wool -comber, of some small means, who lived till 1498.
  • Christopher Columbus - LoveToKnow 1911 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Christopher Columbus: Encyclopedia - 1498 1498 - Events.

.Yet, according to the admiral's own statement, he became a sailor at fourteen.^ According to his own account, he became a sailor at 14.

^ Yet, according to the admiral's own statement, he became a sailor at fourteen.
  • Christopher Columbus - LoveToKnow 1911 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ According to Casoni, then, Christopher sailed away to sea more or less at the age of 14, which corresponds with the discoverer's own statement.
  • Christopher Columbus'Origin 12 September 2009 0:00 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: Original source]

.Evidently this statement, however, cannot mean the abandonment of all other employment, for in 1470, 1472, and 1473 we find him engaged in trade at Genoa, following the family business of weaving, and (in 1473) residing at the neighbouring Savona.^ Evidently this statement, however, cannot mean the abandonment of all other employment, for in 1470, 1472, and 1473 we find him engaged in trade at Genoa, following the family business of weaving , and (in 1473) residing at the neighbouring Savona .
  • Christopher Columbus - LoveToKnow 1911 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The entire family moved to Savona, west of Genoa, in 1470.
  • Christopher Columbus 12 September 2009 0:00 UTC www.millersville.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ He said “Let me start by saying that I think I’ve been misunderstood.” [2] He said, “I bet you didn’t know I was the oldest of 5 kids in a wool weaving trading family.
  • Teaching about Christopher Columbus with Lesson Plans and Song Lyrics 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.songsforteaching.com [Source type: General]

.In 1474-1475 he appears to have visited Chios, where he may have resided some time, returning to Genoa perhaps early in 1476. Thence he seems to have again set out on a voyage in the summer of 1476, perhaps bound for England; on the 13th of August 1476, the four Genoese vessels he accompanied were attacked off Cape St Vincent by a privateer, one Guillaume de Casenove, surnamed Coullon or Colombo ("Columbus"); two of the four ships escaped, with Christopher, to Lisbon.^ In 1474-1475 he appears to have visited Chios , where he may have resided some time, returning to Genoa perhaps early in 1476.
  • Christopher Columbus - LoveToKnow 1911 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Christopher Columbus had two brothers.

^ On the return voyage, the two surviving ships became separated, and barely survived.
  • Honoring Christopher Columbus 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.ewtn.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Honoring Christopher Columbus 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.catholiceducation.org [Source type: Original source]

.In December 1476, the latter resumed their voyage to England, probably carrying with them Columbus, who, after a short stay in England, claims to have made a voyage in the northern seas, and even to have visited Iceland about February 1477. This last pretension is gravely disputed, but it is perhaps not to be rejected, and we may also trace the Genoese about this time at Bristol, at Galway, and probably among the islands west and north of Scotland.^ He docked in Bristol, Galway, in Ireland and very likely, in 1477 he was in Iceland.
  • What is Christopher Columbus? 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Christopher Columbus? - Yahoo! Answers 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC answers.yahoo.com [Source type: General]

^ On this voyage, Columbus claimed forty-four new islands for Spain.
  • Chirstopher Columbus 20 September 2009 12:15 UTC www.esd.k12.ca.us [Source type: News]

^ "Columbus stayed and looked around the islands.
  • Christopher Columbus' Journey - TeacherVision.com 12 September 2009 0:00 UTC www.teachervision.fen.com [Source type: General]

.Soon after this he returned to Portugal, where (probably in 1478) he married a lady of some rank, Felipa Mofiiz de Perestrello, daughter of Bartholomew Perestrello, a captain in the service of Prince Henry the Navigator, and one of the early colonists and first governor of Porto Santo.^ Henry the Navigator (Prince Henry of Portugal) founds a navigation school at Sarges in Portugal.
  • Christopher Columbus 20 September 2009 12:15 UTC www.sailtexas.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Dona Felipa Perestrello whom he married in 1478 was not a commoner.

^ Meanwhile he held the rank of captain and had married a Portuguese woman, Felipa de Perestrello.

.Felipa was also a cousin of the archbishop of Lisbon at this time (1478).^ Felipa was also a cousin of the archbishop of Lisbon at this time (1478).
  • Christopher Columbus - LoveToKnow 1911 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ A canon of Lisbon would undoubtedly been appointed by the Archbishop of Lisbon, and at the time Toscanelli wrote his letter, the Archbishop of Lisbon was an interesting character known as George da Costa...
  • Christopher Columbus; excerpts from the book,Uncovering the Real Columbus 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC wolcottfamily.com [Source type: Original source]

^ His wife had many distinguished relatives in the neighbourhood of Lisbon; her cousin was archbishop at this very time; but I can neither find that their marriage was celebrated with the archiepiscopal blessing or that he ever got much help or countenance from the male members of the Moniz family.
  • Christopher Columbus, Complete by Filson Young - Full Text Free Book (Part 1/8) 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

.About 1479 Columbus visited Porto Santo, here as in Portugal probably employing his time in making maps and charts for a livelihood, while he pored over the logs and papers of his deceased father-in-law, and talked with old seamen of their voyages, and of the mystery of the western seas.^ About 1479 Columbus visited Porto Santo, here as in Portugal probably employing his time in making maps and charts for a livelihood, while he pored over the logs and papers of his deceased father-in-law, and talked with old seamen of their voyages, and of the mystery of the western seas.
  • Christopher Columbus - LoveToKnow 1911 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ COLUMBUS What are you talking about?
  • The Trial of Christopher Columbus 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC red-coral.net [Source type: Original source]

^ COLUMBUS' VOYAGE: MAP AND SHIPS Make a map of Columbus' voyage and tiny replicas of his three ships.
  • Columbus Day Crafts and Activities - EnchantedLearning.com 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.enchantedlearning.com [Source type: General]

.About this time, too, if not earlier, he seems to have arrived at the conclusion that much of the world remained undiscovered, and step by step conceived that design of reaching Asia by sailing west which was to result in the discovery of America.^ This novel is about the future discovery of America.
  • Imagining Christopher Columbus 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC hss.fullerton.edu [Source type: General]

^ About this time, too, if not earlier, he seems to have arrived at the conclusion that much of the world remained undiscovered, and step by step conceived that design of reaching Asia by sailing west which was to result in the discovery of America .
  • Christopher Columbus - LoveToKnow 1911 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Columbus was convinced that he could reach Asia by sailing west.
  • Christopher Columbus (1451-1506) | Scholastic.com 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www2.scholastic.com [Source type: News]

.In 1474 he is said to have corresponded with Paolo Toscanelli, the Florentine physician and cosmographer, and to have received from him valuable suggestions, both by map and Asia. letter, for such a Western enterprise.^ His idea was furthered by the suggestions of the Florentine cosmographer Paolo dal Pozzo Toscanelli.
  • Italian American Links - Christopher Columbus 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.italian-american.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1474 he is said to have corresponded with Paolo Toscanelli, the Florentine physician and cosmographer, and to have received from him valuable suggestions, both by map and Asia.
  • Christopher Columbus - LoveToKnow 1911 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ With the letter was a map incorporating Toscanelli's theories.
  • Geneaology of Christopher Columbus 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.thepirateking.com [Source type: Original source]

.(The whole of this incident has been disputed by some recent critics.^ (The whole of this incident has been disputed by some recent critics.
  • Christopher Columbus - LoveToKnow 1911 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

) .He had perhaps already begun his studies in a number of works, especially the Book of Marco Polo and the Imago Mundi of Pierre d'Ailly, by which his cosmographical and geographical conceptions were largely moulded.^ He had perhaps already begun his studies in a number of works, especially the Book of Marco Polo and the Imago Mundi of Pierre d'Ailly , by which his cosmographical and geographical conceptions were largely moulded.
  • Christopher Columbus - LoveToKnow 1911 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ He read a book written by Marco Polo.
  • Christopher Columbus 12 September 2009 0:00 UTC www.mce.k12tn.net [Source type: General]

^ He also gained a wide acquaintance with works on cosmography such as Ptolemy and the "Imago Mundi" of Cardinal d'Ailly, besides entering into communication with the cosmographers of his time.
  • Logos (est. 1995): Christopher Columbus (1451-1506) 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC russellmcneil.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

.His views, as finally developed and presented to the courts of Portugal and Spain, were supported by three principal lines of argument, derived from natural reasons, from the theories of geographers, and from the reports and traditions of mariners.^ Above that line -for Spain, below that line -for Portugal.

^ His views, as finally developed and presented to the courts of Portugal and Spain , were supported by three principal lines of argument, derived from natural reasons, from the theories of geographers, and from the reports and traditions of mariners.
  • Christopher Columbus - LoveToKnow 1911 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ After years of seeking funding support for an expedition which was to find a sea route to Asia, Columbus finally came to an agreement with King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella of Spain.
  • The City of Huelva, Christopher Columbus ,Andalucia, Southern Spain 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.andalucia.com [Source type: General]

.He believed the world to be a sphere; he underestimated its size; he overestimated the size of the Asiatic continent.^ He believed the world to be a sphere; he underestimated its size; he overestimated the size of the Asiatic continent.
  • Christopher Columbus - LoveToKnow 1911 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The story that Columbus thought the world was round while his contemporaries believed in a flat earth was often repeated despite the fact that the real issue was the size of the Earth rather than its roundness.
  • What is Christopher Columbus? 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.And the farther that continent extended towards the east, the nearer it came towards Spain.^ And the farther that continent extended towards the east, the nearer it came towards Spain.
  • Christopher Columbus - LoveToKnow 1911 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ This mistake led him to conclude that Asia extended much farther east than it actually did.
  • Columbus, Christopher | Article | World Book Student 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC photo.pds.org:5005 [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Nor were these theories the only supports of his idea.^ Nor were these theories the only supports of his idea.
  • Christopher Columbus - LoveToKnow 1911 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The story is told that many people opposed the idea, and that only at the last moment Isabella and Ferdinand, queen and king of Spain, changed their minds and supported him.
  • The Round Earth and Christopher Columbus--lesson plan #12 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www-spof.gsfc.nasa.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ To confirm these ideas, his son says, Christopher began to study writers on geography and astronomy, in search of facts which would support this idea....
  • Christopher Columbus; excerpts from the book,Uncovering the Real Columbus 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC wolcottfamily.com [Source type: Original source]

Martin Vicente, a Portuguese pilot, was said to have found, 400 leagues to the westward of Cape St Vincent, and after a westerly gale of many days' duration, a piece of strange wood, wrought, but not with iron; Pedro Correa, Columbus's own brother-in-law, was said to have seen another such waif at Porto Santo, with great canes capable of holding four quarts of wine between joint and joint, and to have heard of two men being washed up at Flores "very broadfaced, and differing in aspect from Christians." West of Europe, now and then, men fancied there hove in sight the mysterious islands of St Brandan, of Brazil, of Antillia or of the Seven Cities. .In his northern journey, too, some vague and formless traditions may have reached the explorer's ear of the voyages of Leif Ericson and Thorfinn Karlsefne, and of the coasts of Markland and Vinland.^ In his northern journey, too, some vague and formless traditions may have reached the explorer's ear of the voyages of Leif Ericson and Thorfinn Karlsefne, and of the coasts of Markland and Vinland .
  • Christopher Columbus - LoveToKnow 1911 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ To that end, there was also Leif Ericson, the Norse explorer who is believed to have led a settlement in what was then known as Vinland (which is now believed to be located at the northern tip of Newfoundland, Canada) around the turn of the eleventh century.
  • Did Christopher Columbus Discover America? - Blurtit 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.blurtit.com [Source type: General]

^ May 1506) was a navigator, colonizer, and explorer whose voyages across the Atlantic Ocean led to general European ...
  • Excite - Search: Christopher Columbus Voyages 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC msxml.excite.com [Source type: General]

.All were hints and rumours to bid the bold mariner sail towards the setting sun, and this he at length determined to do.^ All were hints and rumours to bid the bold mariner sail towards the setting sun, and this he at length determined to do.
  • Christopher Columbus - LoveToKnow 1911 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Christopher Columbus set sail in an era of maritime advances, charting his route with the aid of a mariner's compass, an astrolabe, a cross-staff, and a quadrant.
  • Today in History: August 3 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC memory.loc.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1620, John Carver, William Bradford, Captain Standish and 99 pilgrims set sail on the Mayflower toward America in search of religious freedom.
  • Christopher Columbus : Advantage 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC video.actadvantage.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The concurrence of some state or sovereign, however, was necessary for the success of this design.^ The concurrence of some state or sovereign, however, was necessary for the success of this design.
  • Christopher Columbus - LoveToKnow 1911 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

.Columbus, on the accession of John II.^ Columbus, on the accession of John II .
  • Christopher Columbus - LoveToKnow 1911 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1484, Columbus attempted to convince King John II of Portugal to sponsor his voyage west across the Atlantic.

^ Some believe he was a spy for King John II of Portugal, changed his name to Christopher Columbus and faked his Genoese birth.
  • Where Was Christopher Columbus Born 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC wanttoknowit.com [Source type: General]

of .Portugal, seems to have entered the service of this country, to have accompanied Diego d'Azambuja to the Gold Coast, and to have taken part in the construction of the famous fort of St George at El Mina (1481-1482).^ Portugal, seems to have entered the service of this country, to have accompanied Diego d'Azambuja to the Gold Coast , and to have taken part in the construction of the famous fort of St George at El Mina (1481-1482).
  • Christopher Columbus - LoveToKnow 1911 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1481 he entered the service of King John II of Portugal and voyaged to the Gold Coast of Africa.
  • Christopher Columbus 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.thepirateking.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Columbus Day History and Information Activities and Links 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC sunniebunniezz.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But it also transpired that the coast people themselves had taken part in the massacre .
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Christopher Columbus 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

.On his return from this expedition, he submitted to King John the scheme he had now matured for reaching Asia by a western route across the ocean.^ On his return from this expedition, he submitted to King John the scheme he had now matured for reaching Asia by a western route across the ocean.
  • Christopher Columbus - LoveToKnow 1911 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ After years of seeking funding support for an expedition which was to find a sea route to Asia, Columbus finally came to an agreement with King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella of Spain.
  • The City of Huelva, Christopher Columbus ,Andalucia, Southern Spain 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.andalucia.com [Source type: General]

^ Furthermore, it was well known that the reigning monarch, King John II, was personally committed to sailing around Africa and discovering a direct sea route to the Indian Ocean and Asia.

.The king was deeply interested in the rival scheme (of an eastern or south-eastern route round Africa to India) which had so long held the field, which had been initiated by the Genoese in 1291, and which had been revived, for Portugal, by Prince Henry the Navigator; but he listened to the Genoese, and referred him to a committee of council for geographical affairs.^ Henry the Navigator (Prince Henry of Portugal) founds a navigation school at Sarges in Portugal.
  • Christopher Columbus 20 September 2009 12:15 UTC www.sailtexas.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He had found an eastern sea route to India.
  • Columbus Day History and Information Activities and Links 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC sunniebunniezz.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The king was deeply interested in the rival scheme (of an eastern or south-eastern route round Africa to India) which had so long held the field, which had been initiated by the Genoese in 1291, and which had been revived, for Portugal, by Prince Henry the Navigator; but he listened to the Genoese, and referred him to a committee of council for geographical affairs.
  • Christopher Columbus - LoveToKnow 1911 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

.The council's report was adverse; but the king, who was yet inclined to favour the theory of Columbus, assented to the suggestion of the bishop of Ceuta that the plan should be carried out in secret and without its author's knowledge.^ The council's report was adverse; but the king, who was yet inclined to favour the theory of Columbus, assented to the suggestion of the bishop of Ceuta that the plan should be carried out in secret and without its author's knowledge.
  • Christopher Columbus - LoveToKnow 1911 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ However, patrons who plan to publish or otherwise distribute any of the images should be aware that determination regarding the appropriate use of an image ultimately rests with the patron.
  • Images of Christopher Columbus and his Voyages - Guides, Reference Aids, and Finding Aids (Prints andPhotographs ReadingRoom, Library of Congress) 20 September 2009 12:15 UTC www.loc.gov [Source type: General]

^ Florence, a man eminent for his knowledge in cosmography, who suggested several facts in confirmation of the plan, and warmly encouraged Columbus to persevere in an undertaking so laudable, and which must redound so much to the honour of his country and the benefit of Europe.
  • WORDS: BIOG: Columbus, Christopher 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC words.fromoldbooks.org [Source type: Original source]

.A caravel was despatched; but it returned after a brief absence, the sailors having lost heart, and refused to venture farther.^ A caravel was despatched; but it returned after a brief absence, the sailors having lost heart , and refused to venture farther.
  • Christopher Columbus - LoveToKnow 1911 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

.Upon discovering this treachery, Columbus left Lisbon for Spain (1484), taking with him his son Diego, the only issue of his marriage with Felipa Moniz, who was by this time dead.^ Taking his son, Diego, he journeyed to Spain to seek backers.

^ Columbus and Felipa had a son, Diego Coln in 1480.

^ Columbus and Felipa had a son, Diego Coln in 1480 .
  • The Ultimate Christopher Columbus - American History Information Guide and Reference 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.historymania.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.He departed secretly; - according to some writers, to give the slip to King John; according to others, to escape his creditors.^ He departed secretly; - according to some writers, to give the slip to King John; according to others, to escape his creditors.
  • Christopher Columbus - LoveToKnow 1911 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ La Isabela was essentially abandoned, according to historical records, with some settlers returning to Spain and others moving on to more successful towns in the Dominican Republic .
  • FOXNews.com - Desperate New World Settlers Stole Christopher Columbus' Silver - Science News | Science & Technology | Technology News 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.foxnews.com [Source type: News]

^ On July 31st (7th of Av), the last Jew left Spain according to some sources and August 2nd (9th of Av), according to others.
  • Was Christopher Columbus Jewish 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.fortunecity.com [Source type: Original source]

.Columbus next betook himself to the south of Spain, and while meditating an appeal to the king of France, opened his plans to the count (from 1491, duke) of Medina Celi.^ After years of seeking funding support for an expedition which was to find a sea route to Asia, Columbus finally came to an agreement with King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella of Spain.
  • The City of Huelva, Christopher Columbus ,Andalucia, Southern Spain 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.andalucia.com [Source type: General]

^ Columbus conceives of “The Enterprise of the Indies.” Fails to convince King John of Portugal of Spain to back the plan.
  • Christopher Columbus | Quazen 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC quazen.com [Source type: General]

^ So he put together a presentation with charts and maps and shopped it around to the big bosses of the day: the kings of England, France, Portugal, and Spain.
  • KnowledgeNews :: Christopher Columbus: Bad Boss? 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC knowledgenews.net [Source type: General]

.The latter gave him great encouragement, entertained him for two years, and even determined to furnish him with three or four caravels, to carry out his great design.^ The latter gave him great encouragement, entertained him for two years, and even determined to furnish him with three or four caravels, to carry out his great design.
  • Christopher Columbus - LoveToKnow 1911 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ On August 3, 1492, Christopher Columbus set out from Huelva in the Santa Maria, accompanied by two caravels, the Nina and the Pinta.
  • Christopher Columbus 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: General]

^ It wasn't until nearly fifteen years later that Columbus gained support from Spain and set out on the momentous expedition that landed him in the Americas in 1492.
  • Amazon.com: Christopher Columbus: Young Explorer (Childhood of World Figures) (9780689876486): Kathleen Kudlinski: Books 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.amazon.com [Source type: General]

.Finally, however, being deterred by the consideration that the enterprise was too vast for a subject, he turned his guest from the determination he had come to of making application at the court of France, by writing on his behalf to Queen Isabella; and Columbus repaired to the court at Cordova at her bidding (1486).^ Finally, however, being deterred by the consideration that the enterprise was too vast for a subject, he turned his guest from the determination he had come to of making application at the court of France, by writing on his behalf to Queen Isabella; and Columbus repaired to the court at Cordova at her bidding (1486).
  • Christopher Columbus - LoveToKnow 1911 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ If we can make peace with that then we can finally determine what legacy Columbus has left on the planet.
  • Christopher Columbus: Hero or Villain - Associated Content 12 September 2009 0:00 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]

^ Queen Isabella refused Columbus at first.
  • Christopher Columbus 12 September 2009 0:00 UTC www.mce.k12tn.net [Source type: General]

.It was an ill moment for the navigator's fortune.^ It was an ill moment for the navigator's fortune.
  • Christopher Columbus - LoveToKnow 1911 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

.Castile and Leon were in the thick of that struggle which resulted in the final conquest of the Granada Moors; and neither Ferdinand nor Isabella had time as yet to give due consideration to Columbus' proposals.^ Castile and Leon were in the thick of that struggle which resulted in the final conquest of the Granada Moors ; and neither Ferdinand nor Isabella had time as yet to give due consideration to Columbus' proposals.
  • Christopher Columbus - LoveToKnow 1911 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Columbus at the court of Ferdinand and Isabella .
  • Before the Voyage, Christopher Columbus, Social Studies, Glencoe 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.glencoe.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Columbus wrote to Ferdinand and Isabella saying: .
  • NSM KnowledgeBase - #4825 - Christopher Columbus 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.strategicnetwork.org [Source type: Original source]

.The adventurer was indeed kindly received; he was handed over to the care of Alonso de Quintanilla, whom he speedily converted into an enthusiastic supporter of his theory.^ The adventurer was indeed kindly received; he was handed over to the care of Alonso de Quintanilla, whom he speedily converted into an enthusiastic supporter of his theory.
  • Christopher Columbus - LoveToKnow 1911 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ His friends, Alonso Clavijo, Juan de Moguer, and Pedro Y Zquierdo, broke into the prison, helped Torres escape and set sail on Columbus expedition.
  • The Mariners' Museum | EXPLORATION through the AGES 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC ww2.mariner.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On this date, 3.000 maravedis were paid to him by Alonso de Quintanilla on the order of the Bishop of Palencia for unspecified services rendered to their Highnesses of Spain.
  • Christopher Columbus'Origin 12 September 2009 0:00 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: Original source]
  • From THE DISCOVERY OF NORTH AMERICA 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.millersville.edu [Source type: Original source]

.He made many other friends, and among them Beatriz Enriquez, the mother of his second son Fernando.^ He made many other friends, and among them Beatriz Enriquez, the mother of his second son Fernando.
  • Christopher Columbus - LoveToKnow 1911 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ A second son, Fernando, was born to Beatriz in 1488.

^ They made signs for the Spaniards to land; and when they found that the boats kept on their way, many of them went into the sea and swam after them, and others followed in canoes.

.But the committee, presided over by the queen's confessor, Fray Hernando de Talavera, which had been appointed to consider the new project, reported that it was vain and impracticable.^ Antonio de Marchena wrote a letter on is behalf to Hernando de Talavera, the queen's confessor.
  • Geneaology of Christopher Columbus 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.thepirateking.com [Source type: Original source]

^ But the committee, presided over by the queen's confessor , Fray Hernando de Talavera, which had been appointed to consider the new project, reported that it was vain and impracticable.
  • Christopher Columbus - LoveToKnow 1911 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ They met in the Spanish cities of Salamanca and Córdoba during 1486 and 1487 under the leadership of Isabella’s spiritual adviser, Hernando de Talavera.
  • Columbus, Christopher | Article | World Book Student 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC photo.pds.org:5005 [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.From Cordova Columbus followed the court to Salamanca, having already been introduced by Quintanilla to the notice of the grand cardinal, Pedro Gonzalez de Mendoza, "the third king of Spain"; the latter had befriended and supported the Genoese, and apparently arranged the first interview between him and Queen Isabella.^ In 1486 Columbus moved to Spain, and gained the patronage of King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella.
  • Short biography of Christopher Columbus 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.321books.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ But to do so, they needed the permission of Spain's King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella.
  • Columbus, Christopher | Article | World Book Student 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC photo.pds.org:5005 [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Queen Isabella refused Columbus at first.
  • Christopher Columbus 12 September 2009 0:00 UTC www.mce.k12tn.net [Source type: General]

.At Salamanca prolonged discussions took place upon the questions now raised; the Dominicans of San Esteban entertained Columbus during the conferences (1486-1487).^ At Salamanca prolonged discussions took place upon the questions now raised; the Dominicans of San Esteban entertained Columbus during the conferences (1486-1487).
  • Christopher Columbus - LoveToKnow 1911 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ They met in the Spanish cities of Salamanca and Córdoba during 1486 and 1487 under the leadership of Isabella’s spiritual adviser, Hernando de Talavera.
  • Columbus, Christopher | Article | World Book Student 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC photo.pds.org:5005 [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Columbus eventually created a base of operations for his first and second trips on the island the Europeans called Hispaniola , now the Dominican Republic and Haiti .
  • Today in History: August 3 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC memory.loc.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In 1487 Columbus, who had been following the court from place to place (billeted in towns as an officer of the sovereigns, and gratified from time to time with sums of money towards his expenses), was present at the siege of Malaga.^ He undoubtedly knew people who had been at court in Columbus' time.
  • Christopher Columbus; excerpts from the book,Uncovering the Real Columbus 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC wolcottfamily.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Who followed in the wake of Columbus?
  • Browse: Keywords: Christopher Columbus | OER Commons 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.oercommons.org [Source type: General]

^ In 1487 Columbus, who had been following the court from place to place (billeted in towns as an officer of the sovereigns, and gratified from time to time with sums of money towards his expenses), was present at the siege of Malaga .
  • Christopher Columbus - LoveToKnow 1911 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

.In 1488 he was invited by the king of Portugal, his "especial friend," to return to that country, and was assured of protection against arrest or proceedings of any kind (March 20): he had probably made fresh overtures to King John shortly before; and in the autumn of 1488 we find him in Lisbon, conferring with his brother Bartholomew and laying plans for the future.^ King John invited Columbus to return to Portugal.

^ That monarch invited him to Lisbon.

^ In 1488 Columbus appealed to the court of Portugal once again, and once again John invited him to an audience.
  • What is Christopher Columbus? 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.We have no record of the final negotiations of Columbus with the Portuguese government, but they clearly did not issue in anything definite, for Christopher now returned to Spain (though not till he had witnessed the return of Bartholomew Diaz from the discovery of the Cape of Good Hope and his reception by King John), while Bartholomew proceeded to England with a mission to interest King Henry VII.^ Columbus returned to Spain in March of 1493.

^ COLUMBUS But have they issued the charges?
  • The Trial of Christopher Columbus 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC red-coral.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Columbus and Bartholomew arrested, shackled in irons, and returned to Spain.
  • COLUMBUS, Christopher, 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.history.com [Source type: General]

in the Columbian schemes. .If the London enterprise was unsuccessful (as indeed it proved), it was settled that Bartholomew should carry the same invitation to the French court.^ James and Bartholomew were perhaps glad to be rid of them, but their relief was tempered with anxiety as to the result on Christopher's reputation and favour when the malcontents should have made their false representations at Court.
  • Christopher Columbus, Complete by Filson Young - Full Text Free Book (Part 5/8) 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He sent his brother Bartholomew to seek support from the English and French courts, but the attempts were unsuccessful.
  • Columbus, Christopher | Article | World Book Student 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC photo.pds.org:5005 [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.He did so; and here he remained till summoned to Spain in 1493. Meantime Christopher, unable throughout 1490 to get a hearing at the Spanish court, was in 1491 again referred to a junta, presided over by Cardinal Mendoza; but this junta, to Columbus' dismay, once more rejected his proposals; the Spanish sovereigns merely promised him that when the Granada war was over, they would reconsider what he had laid before them.^ Columbus returned to Spain in March of 1493.

^ Read more here: » Christopher Columbus: Encyclopedia II - Christopher Columbus - Voyages .

^ More images of Christopher Columbus » .
  • Christopher Columbus - Ask.com 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.ask.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Columbus was now in despair.^ Columbus was now in despair.
  • Christopher Columbus - LoveToKnow 1911 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

.He at once betook himself to Huelva, a little maritime town in Andalusia, north-west of Cadiz, with the intention of taking ship for France.^ He at once betook himself to Huelva , a little maritime town in Andalusia , north-west of Cadiz , with the intention of taking ship for France.
  • Christopher Columbus - LoveToKnow 1911 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ It is believed that as a young man, Columbus logged maritime experience sailing north to Iceland and south around the west coast of Africa.
  • Teaching about Christopher Columbus with Lesson Plans and Song Lyrics 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.songsforteaching.com [Source type: General]

^ The crew would be pulled from Palos and surrounding towns: Moguer, Huelva, Lepe, Cadiz, Seville, Cordova, Jerez, and Puerto Santa Maria.
  • The Mariners' Museum | EXPLORATION through the AGES 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC ww2.mariner.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.He halted, however, at the monastery of La Rabida, near Huelva, and still nearer Palos, where he seems to have made lasting friendships on his first arrival in Spain in January 1485, where he especially enlisted the support of Juan Perez, the guardian, who invited him to take up his quarters in the monastery, and introduced him to Garcia Fernandez, a physician and student of geography.^ In 1485 they resided at Huelva, in Spain, and in 1493 near Seville.
  • Christopher Columbus' family and his Perestrello and Moniz in-laws. 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.wolcottfamily.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He halted, however, at the monastery of La Rabida, near Huelva, and still nearer Palos, where he seems to have made lasting friendships on his first arrival in Spain in January 1485, where he especially enlisted the support of Juan Perez , the guardian , who invited him to take up his quarters in the monastery, and introduced him to Garcia Fernandez, a physician and student of geography .
  • Christopher Columbus - LoveToKnow 1911 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Up to his arrival in Spain (1485) only one date has been preserved.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Christopher Columbus 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Logos (est. 1995): Christopher Columbus (1451-1506) 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC russellmcneil.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

.Juan Perez had been the queen's confessor; he now wrote to her in urgent terms, and was summoned to her presence; and money was sent to Columbus to bring him once more to court.^ A more enlightened civil officer at Court remonstrated, and the Queen sent for him to return.

^ Juan Perez had been the queen's confessor; he now wrote to her in urgent terms, and was summoned to her presence; and money was sent to Columbus to bring him once more to court.
  • Christopher Columbus - LoveToKnow 1911 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ So poor was he by this time that the queen sent him money to get clothes suitable to appear at Court.
  • The Baldwin Project: The Discovery of New Worlds by M. B. Synge 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.mainlesson.com [Source type: Original source]

.He reached Granada in time to witness the surrender of the city (January 2, 1492), and negotiations were resumed.^ Before leaving, however, he witnessed the fall of Granada , 2 January, 1492.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Christopher Columbus 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Before leaving, however, he witnessed the fall of Granada, 2 January, 1492.
  • Logos (est. 1995): Christopher Columbus (1451-1506) 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC russellmcneil.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He reached Granada in time to witness the surrender of the city (January 2, 1492), and negotiations were resumed.
  • Christopher Columbus - LoveToKnow 1911 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

.Columbus believed in his mission, and stood out for high terms; he asked for the rank of admiral at once ("Admiral of the Ocean" in all those islands, seas, and continents that he might discover), the vice-royalty of all he should discover, and a tenth of the precious metals discovered within his admiralty.^ They promised to make Columbus admiral of the Ocean Sea and viceroy of all islands and continents if he should succeed.

^ For centuries it was believed that Columbus "discovered" America.

^ Morison, Admiral of the Ocean Sea , pp.
  • Honoring Christopher Columbus 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.ewtn.com [Source type: Original source]

.These conditions were rejected, and the negotiations were again interrupted.^ These conditions were rejected, and the negotiations were again interrupted.
  • Christopher Columbus - LoveToKnow 1911 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

.An interview with Mendoza appears to have followed; but nothing came of it, and before the close of January 1492, Columbus actually set out for France.^ An interview with Mendoza appears to have followed; but nothing came of it, and before the close of January 1492, Columbus actually set out for France.
  • Christopher Columbus - LoveToKnow 1911 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Here at St Jorge, Columbus and the crew prayed before setting sail and the water needed for their long voyage was drawn from the old well in Palos.
  • The City of Huelva, Christopher Columbus ,Andalucia, Southern Spain 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.andalucia.com [Source type: General]

^ Americas The book makes him and his dog drift through imagination to historical occurrences of different nations which lived in America before it was discovered by Columbus in 1492.
  • Christopher Columbus - Powerset 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.At length, however, on the entreaty of the Queen's confidante, the Marquesa de Moya, of Luis de Santangel, receiver of the ecclesiastical revenues of the crown of Aragon, and of other courtiers, Isabella was induced to determine on the expedition.^ Luis de Santangel began his career as a tax farmer and courtier.
  • Christopher Columbus' Voyage of Discovery 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.saudades.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At length, however, on the entreaty of the Queen's confidante, the Marquesa de Moya, of Luis de Santangel, receiver of the ecclesiastical revenues of the crown of Aragon , and of other courtiers, Isabella was induced to determine on the expedition.
  • Christopher Columbus - LoveToKnow 1911 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Luis de Santangel .
  • Christopher Columbus - Ask.com 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.ask.com [Source type: General]

.A messenger was sent after Columbus, and overtook him near a bridge called "Pinos," 6 m.^ He was two leagues away when the messenger overtook him at the bridge of Pinos.

^ A messenger was sent after Columbus, and overtook him near a bridge called "Pinos," 6 m.
  • Christopher Columbus - LoveToKnow 1911 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ His father was a weaver, but like most young men living near a seaport, Columbus looked to the sea to find his calling.
  • Amazon.com: Christopher Columbus: Young Explorer (Childhood of World Figures) (9780689876486): Kathleen Kudlinski: Books 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.amazon.com [Source type: General]

from Granada. .He returned to the camp at Santa Fe; and on the 17th of April 1492, the agreement between him and their Catholic majesties was signed and sealed.^ He returned to the camp at Santa Fe ; and on the 17th of April 1492, the agreement between him and their Catholic majesties was signed and sealed.
  • Christopher Columbus - LoveToKnow 1911 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The contract was signed by the sovereigns, at Santa Fe, on the 17th of April, 1492.

^ An agreement was signed by their Majesties and Columbus at Santa Fe, April 17, 1492, by which he and his heirs should forever have the office of admiral over all lands he might discover, with honors equal to those of Grand Admiral of Castile; that he should be viceroy and governor-general over the same; that he should receive one-tenth of all mineral and other products that might be obtained; that he and his lieutenants should be the sole judges in all disputes that might arise between his jurisdiction and Spain, and that he might advance one-eighth in any venture, and receive a corresponding share of the profits.

.As his aims included not only the discovery of Cipangu or Japan, but also the opening up of intercourse with the grand khan of Cathay, he received a royal letter of introduction to the latter.^ As his aims included not only the discovery of Cipangu or Japan , but also the opening up of intercourse with the grand khan of Cathay , he received a royal letter of introduction to the latter.
  • Christopher Columbus - LoveToKnow 1911 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Cuba, he claimed, was actually Japan, and Columbus dutifully reported that he had sent an emissary to negotiate with a local chief optimistically identified as the "grand khan".
  • European Voyages of Exploration: Christopher Columbus 20 September 2009 12:15 UTC www.ucalgary.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ But so certain was Columbus that he was going to arrive in Asia that he carried a letter to present to the grand khan and he brought along an Arabic interpreter.
  • European Voyages of Exploration: Christopher Columbus 20 September 2009 12:15 UTC www.ucalgary.ca [Source type: Original source]

.The town of Palos was ordered to find him two ships, and these were soon placed at his disposal.^ The town of Palos was ordered to find him two ships, and these were soon placed at his disposal.
  • Christopher Columbus - LoveToKnow 1911 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Two seamen of repute — Martín Alonso Pinzon and his brother Vicente Yanez Pinzon, well-to-do-residents of Palos — commanded, the former the Pinta, the latter the Niña, and experienced pilots were placed on both ships.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Christopher Columbus 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Numerous cities, towns, and streets were named for him, including the capital cities of two U.S. states ( Columbus, Ohio and Columbia, South Carolina ).
  • Christopher Columbus - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.But no crews could be got together, in spite of the indemnity offered to criminals and "broken men" who would serve on the expedition; and had not Juan Perez succeeded in interesting in the cause the Palos "magnates" Martin Alonso Pinzon and Vicente Yanez Pinzon, Columbus' departure had been long delayed.^ But no crews could be got together, in spite of the indemnity offered to criminals and "broken men" who would serve on the expedition; and had not Juan Perez succeeded in interesting in the cause the Palos "magnates" Martin Alonso Pinzon and Vicente Yanez Pinzon, Columbus' departure had been long delayed.
  • Christopher Columbus - LoveToKnow 1911 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Martin Alonso Pinzon [captain of the Pinta] and Vicente Yanez, his brother, who was captain of the Nina.
  • Christopher Columbus' Flags, 1492 (Spain) 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.crwflags.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Columbus was again doomed to long delay.

.At last, however, men, ships and stores were ready.^ At last, however, men, ships and stores were ready.
  • Christopher Columbus - LoveToKnow 1911 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The ship carried forty men at one time, but moved slower than his other ships and stored the majority of his cargo.
  • Christopher Columbus's Famous Ships | Page & Moy 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.pageandmoy.com [Source type: General]

^ Rather than gold, however, Columbus only found slaves when he arrived on his second visit with seventeen ships and over 1,200 men.
  • Christopher Columbus - American Indian Genocide 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.danielnpaul.com [Source type: Original source]

.The expedition consisted of the "Santa Maria," a decked ship of loo tons with a crew of 52 men, commanded by the admiral in person; and of two caravels; the "Pinta" of 50 tons, with 18 men, under Martin Pinzon; and the "Nina," of 40 tons, with 18 men, under his brother Vicente Yanez, afterwards (1499) the first to cross the line in the American Atlantic.^ The city of Palos gave Columbus three ships: the Nina, the Pinta, and the Santa Maria.
  • Christopher Columbus Facts (Reference) - TeacherVision.com 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.teachervision.fen.com [Source type: General]

^ Christopher Columbus took the large Santa Maria on his expedition, and the two smaller ships, the Nina and the Pinta.
  • Christopher Columbus | Quazen 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC quazen.com [Source type: General]

^ A ship replica of the Santa Maria.

.The adventurers numbered 88 souls; and on Friday, the 3rd of August 1492, at eight in the morning, the little fleet weighed anchor, and stood for the Canary Islands.^ Friday, 3 August 1492.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Christopher Columbus: Extracts from Journal 20 September 2009 12:15 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Christopher Columbus: Extracts from Journal 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The adventurers numbered 88 souls; and on Friday, the 3rd of August 1492, at eight in the morning, the little fleet weighed anchor , and stood for the Canary Islands .
  • Christopher Columbus - LoveToKnow 1911 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The little fleet left on August 3, 1492.

.An abstract of the admiral's diary made by Las Casas is yet voyage.^ An abstract of the admiral's diary made by Las Casas is yet voyage.
  • Christopher Columbus - LoveToKnow 1911 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Columbus' actual journals have been lost, but two of his companions, his son Ferdinand and Bartolome Las Casas, recorded abstracts of the original journal.
  • Columbus' Christian Character and Divine Mission 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.shalomjerusalem.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It was crowned with three hill-tops, from which circumstance, and in fulfilment of a vow made at starting (to name the first land discovered on this voyage in honour of the Trinity), the admiral named it Trinidad , which name it yet bears.
  • Christopher Columbus - LoveToKnow 1911 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

extant; and from it many particulars may be gleaned concerning this first voyage. .Three days after the ships had set sail the "Pinta" lost her rudder; the admiral was in some alarm, but comforted himself with the reflection that Martin Pinzon was energetic and ready-witted; they had, however, to put in at Teneriffe, to refit the caravel.^ With proper setting of sail and rudder they were carried due west.

^ They set sail on Aug.
  • Christopher Columbus: Explorer - EnchantedLearning.com 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.enchantedlearning.com [Source type: General]

^ Three days after the ships had set sail the "Pinta" lost her rudder ; the admiral was in some alarm, but comforted himself with the reflection that Martin Pinzon was energetic and ready-witted; they had, however, to put in at Teneriffe , to refit the caravel.
  • Christopher Columbus - LoveToKnow 1911 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

.On the 6th of September they weighed anchor once more with all haste, Columbus having been informed that three Portuguese caravels were on the look-out to intercept him.^ COLUMBUS goes to the widow and looks out.
  • The Trial of Christopher Columbus 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC red-coral.net [Source type: Original source]

^ On September 6 the three vessels again weighed anchor and sailed due west.
  • COLUMBUS, Christopher, 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.history.com [Source type: General]

^ (COLUMBUS just looks at him.
  • The Trial of Christopher Columbus 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC red-coral.net [Source type: Original source]

.On the 13th of September the westerly variations of the magnetic needle were for the first time observed; on the 15th a meteor fell into the sea at four or five leagues distance; soon after they arrived at those vast plains of seaweed called the Sargasso Sea; while all the time, writes the admiral, they had most temperate breezes, the sweetness of the mornings being especially delightful, the weather like an Andalusian April, and only the song of the nightingale wanting.^ On the 13th of September the westerly variations of the magnetic needle were for the first time observed; on the 15th a meteor fell into the sea at four or five leagues distance; soon after they arrived at those vast plains of seaweed called the Sargasso Sea ; while all the time, writes the admiral, they had most temperate breezes, the sweetness of the mornings being especially delightful, the weather like an Andalusian April, and only the song of the nightingale wanting.
  • Christopher Columbus - LoveToKnow 1911 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ This is what all natives everywhere were called at that time.
  • The Crimes of Christopher Columbus 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.freerepublic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They also agreed that Columbus would be called "Admiral of the Ocean Seas."
  • ProQuest K-12 - Explorations | Student Activities: Oct. 2009 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.proquestk12.com [Source type: News]

.On the 17th the men began to murmur; they were frightened by the strange phenomena of the variation of the compass, but the explanation Columbus gave restored their tranquillity.^ On the 17th the men began to murmur; they were frightened by the strange phenomena of the variation of the compass , but the explanation Columbus gave restored their tranquillity.
  • Christopher Columbus - LoveToKnow 1911 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Columbus and his men gave presents to the Arawaks, too.
  • Christopher Columbus Facts (Reference) - TeacherVision.com 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.teachervision.fen.com [Source type: General]

^ They were met by the local Taino Indians, many of whom were captured by Columbus' men and later sold into slavery.
  • Christopher Columbus: Explorer - EnchantedLearning.com 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.enchantedlearning.com [Source type: General]

.On the 18th they saw many birds, and a great ridge of low-lying cloud; and they expected to see land.^ At last, they saw some birds.
  • Christopher Columbus Facts (Reference) - TeacherVision.com 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.teachervision.fen.com [Source type: General]

^ Just then they saw a flock of birds!
  • Christopher Columbus' Journey - TeacherVision.com 12 September 2009 0:00 UTC www.teachervision.fen.com [Source type: General]

^ On the 18th they saw many birds, and a great ridge of low-lying cloud ; and they expected to see land.
  • Christopher Columbus - LoveToKnow 1911 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

.On the 10th they saw boobies and other birds, and were sure the land must be near.^ They were of opinion that land was near.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Christopher Columbus: Extracts from Journal 20 September 2009 12:15 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Christopher Columbus: Extracts from Journal 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ From these signs I am sure land is near.

^ At last, they saw some birds.
  • Christopher Columbus Facts (Reference) - TeacherVision.com 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.teachervision.fen.com [Source type: General]

.In this, however, they were disappointed; and thenceforth Columbus, who was keeping all the while a double reckoning, one for the crew and one for himself, had great difficulty in restraining the evil-disposed from the excesses they meditated.^ In this, however, they were disappointed; and thenceforth Columbus, who was keeping all the while a double reckoning, one for the crew and one for himself, had great difficulty in restraining the evil-disposed from the excesses they meditated.
  • Christopher Columbus - LoveToKnow 1911 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ They have also imagined a Columbus who cannot imagine himself.
  • Imagining Christopher Columbus 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC hss.fullerton.edu [Source type: General]

^ When the Spaniards abandoned the island of Hispaniola to the French in 1795, they exhumed what they thought to be Columbus' remains to keep them safe.
  • The mysteries inside Columbus' casket | GlobalPost 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.globalpost.com [Source type: News]

.On the 25th Martin Alonso Pinzon raised the cry of land, but it proved false, as did the rumour to the same effect on the 7th of October, from the "Nina."^ On the 25th Martin Alonso Pinzon raised the cry of land, but it proved false, as did the rumour to the same effect on the 7th of October, from the "Nina."
  • Christopher Columbus - LoveToKnow 1911 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ A few hours after midnight on October 12, 1492, Juan Rodriguez Bermeo, a lookout on the Pinta, cried out -- in the bright moonlight, he had spied land ahead.
  • Debunking the Myths: Christopher Columbus 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC ishgooda.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Admiral [Columbus] went on shore in the armed boat, and Martin Alonso Pinzon, and Vicente Yañez, his brother, who was captain of the Niña.
  • European Voyages of Exploration: Christopher Columbus 20 September 2009 12:15 UTC www.ucalgary.ca [Source type: Original source]

But on the 11th the "Pinta" fished up a cane, a pole, a stick which appeared to have been wrought with iron, and a board, while the "Nina" sighted a branch covered with berries; "and with these signs all of them breathed and were glad." At ten o'clock on that night Columbus himself perceived and pointed out America a li ht ahead, and at two in the morning of Friday, g g ?'?
.discovered the 12th of October 1492, Rodrigo de Triana, a sailor aboard the "Nina," announced the appearance of what proved to be the New World.^ Discovering the new world.
  • The Four Voyages of Christopher Columbus: Being His Own Log-book, Letters and Dispatches with Connecting Narrative Drawn from the "Life of the ... and Other Contemporary Historians Classics: Amazon.co.uk: Christopher Columbus: Books 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.amazon.co.uk [Source type: General]

^ October 12, 1492, by a sailor named Rodrigo de Triana, Columbus claimed they discovered a new land, he named it San Salvador.
  • Genocide of Christopher Columbus | Socyberty 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC socyberty.com [Source type: Original source]

^ At 2:00 A.M. on October 12, Rodrigo de Triana, a seaman aboard the Pinta, cried loudly the first sight of the New World.

.The land sighted was an island, called by the Indians Guanahani, and named by Columbus San Salvador.^ Columbus named the island San Salvador (Spanish for Holy Savior ).
  • Columbus, Christopher | Article | World Book Student 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC photo.pds.org:5005 [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The discoverers named the island San Salvador.
  • Logos (est. 1995): Christopher Columbus (1451-1506) 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC russellmcneil.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Results for " Christopher Columbus named island " .
  • Christopher Columbus - Powerset 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It is generally identified with Watling Island.^ It is generally identified with Watling Island.
  • Christopher Columbus - LoveToKnow 1911 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

.The same morning Columbus landed, richly clad, and bearing the royal banner of Spain.^ The same morning Columbus landed, richly clad, and bearing the royal banner of Spain.
  • Christopher Columbus - LoveToKnow 1911 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ It wasn't until nearly fifteen years later that Columbus gained support from Spain and set out on the momentous expedition that landed him in the Americas in 1492.
  • Amazon.com: Christopher Columbus: Young Explorer (Childhood of World Figures) (9780689876486): Kathleen Kudlinski: Books 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.amazon.com [Source type: General]

^ Captain Christopher Columbus' ensign (banner) pictured a cross and the crown-topped initials F (for King Ferdinand of Spain) and Y (for Queen Isabella of Spain).
  • Christopher Columbus: Explorer - EnchantedLearning.com 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.enchantedlearning.com [Source type: General]

.He was accompanied by the brothers Pinzon, bearing banners of the Green Cross (a device of the admiral's), and by great part of the crew.^ He was accompanied by the brothers Pinzon, bearing banners of the Green Cross (a device of the admiral's), and by great part of the crew.
  • Christopher Columbus - LoveToKnow 1911 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Admiral [Columbus] went on shore in the armed boat, and Martin Alonso Pinzon, and Vicente Yañez, his brother, who was captain of the Niña.
  • European Voyages of Exploration: Christopher Columbus 20 September 2009 12:15 UTC www.ucalgary.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ The admiral brought out the royal standard, and the captains went with two banners of the Green Cross, which the admiral flew on all the ships as a flag, with an F and a Y, and over each letter their crown, one being on one side of the [maltese cross] and the other on the other.
  • Christopher Columbus' Flags, 1492 (Spain) 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.crwflags.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.When they all had "given thanks to God, kneeling upon the shore, and kissed the ground with tears of joy, for the great mercy received," the admiral named the island, and took solemn possession of it for their Catholic majesties of Castile and Leon.^ Columbus took possession of the land in time name of the crown of Castile.

^ Whenever he made any great discovery, he celebrated it by solemn thanks to God.
  • Columbus' Christian Character and Divine Mission 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.shalomjerusalem.com [Source type: Original source]

^ When they all had "given thanks to God, kneeling upon the shore, and kissed the ground with tears of joy, for the great mercy received," the admiral named the island, and took solemn possession of it for their Catholic majesties of Castile and Leon.
  • Christopher Columbus - LoveToKnow 1911 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

.At the same time such of the crews as had shown themselves doubtful and mutinous sought his pardon weeping, and prostrated themselves at his feet.^ At the same time such of the crews as had shown themselves doubtful and mutinous sought his pardon weeping, and prostrated themselves at his feet.
  • Christopher Columbus - LoveToKnow 1911 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ This visitador was invested with full power, and was to have the same authority as the monarchs themselves for the time being, superseding Columbus himself, though the latter was the Viceroy of the Indies.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Christopher Columbus 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Logos (est. 1995): Christopher Columbus (1451-1506) 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC russellmcneil.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

.Into the remaining detail of this voyage, of highest interest as it is, it is impossible to go further.^ Into the remaining detail of this voyage, of highest interest as it is, it is impossible to go further.
  • Christopher Columbus - LoveToKnow 1911 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Indeed, details of the map’s whereabouts and how it came into the possession of the Swiss dealer after WWII remain a mystery.
  • Christopher Columbus // Current 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC current.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The remaining 400, whom Columbus had no use for, were let go, and fled into the hills, making, according to Columbus, prospects for their future capture dim.

.It will be enough to say that it resulted in the discovery of the islands of Santa Maria de la Concepcion (Rum Cay), Fernandina (Long Island), Isabella (Crooked Island), Cuba or Juana (named by Columbus in honour of the young prince of Spain), and Hispaniola, Haiti, or San Domingo.^ Results for " Christopher Columbus named Honduras " .
  • Christopher Columbus - Powerset 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Results for " Christopher Columbus named Punta de Caxinas " .
  • Christopher Columbus - Powerset 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It will be enough to say that it resulted in the discovery of the islands of Santa Maria de la Concepcion (Rum Cay), Fernandina (Long Island), Isabella (Crooked Island), Cuba or Juana (named by Columbus in honour of the young prince of Spain), and Hispaniola, Haiti , or San Domingo.
  • Christopher Columbus - LoveToKnow 1911 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

.Off the last of these the "Santa Maria" went aground, owing to the carelessness of the steersman.^ Off the last of these the "Santa Maria" went aground, owing to the carelessness of the steersman.
  • Christopher Columbus - LoveToKnow 1911 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Early Christmas morning the Santa Maria went aground off Cap Haitien.

^ On December 25, the Santa Maria ran aground and they were forced to abandon her.

.No lives were lost, but the ship had to be unloaded and abandoned; and Columbus, who was anxious to return to Europe with the news of his achievement, resolved to plant a colony on the island, to build a fort out of the material of the stranded hulk, and to leave the crew.^ Columbus had to abandon her, and leave most of her crew behind in a fort made from her timbers.
  • Honoring Christopher Columbus 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.ewtn.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Honoring Christopher Columbus 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.catholiceducation.org [Source type: Original source]

^ No lives were lost, but the ship had to be unloaded and abandoned; and Columbus, who was anxious to return to Europe with the news of his achievement, resolved to plant a colony on the island, to build a fort out of the material of the stranded hulk, and to leave the crew.
  • Christopher Columbus - LoveToKnow 1911 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ None of it matters to the people who lost their lives for no reason.
  • What We Can Learn From Christopher Columbus | Suburban Dollar 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.suburbandollar.com [Source type: General]

.The fort was called La Navidad; 44 Europeans were placed in charge.^ The fort was called La Navidad; 44 Europeans were placed in charge.
  • Christopher Columbus - LoveToKnow 1911 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ La Navidad, a makeshift fort, was built of materials salvaged from the vessel, and garrisoned with fewer than 40 men - not everyone could be carried home.
  • Christopher Columbus by Matthew Pearson 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC home.fuse.net [Source type: Original source]

^ December 24: The Santa Maria grounded on a reef and Columbus was forced to build a fort on the shore there, where he named the shelter La Navidad .
  • What are some Christopher Columbus Facts? | Smart QandA: Answers and facts you can trust, verified with Encyclopedia.com 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC qanda.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.On the 4th of January 1493 Columbus, who had lost sight of Martin Pinzon, set sail alone in the "Nina" for the east; and two days afterwards the "Pinta" joined her sister-ship.^ He explored the east coast of Central America but lost two ships.

^ On 15 January 1493 , he set sail for home by way of the Azores .
  • Christopher Columbus - Free net encyclopedia 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.netipedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Christopher Columbus - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On January 16, 1493, Columbus left with his remaining two ships for Spain.

.A storm, however, separated the vessels, and it was not until the 18th of February that Columbus reached the island of Santa Maria in the Azores.^ But the Nina was not shipwrecked, and on the eighteenth of February Columbus reached the Azores.
  • The True Story of Christopher Columbus - How a Boy Brought the Admiral to Grief - Chapter 7 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.apples4theteacher.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Results for " Christopher Columbus reached island " .
  • Christopher Columbus - Powerset 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A storm , however, separated the vessels, and it was not until the 18th of February that Columbus reached the island of Santa Maria in the Azores .
  • Christopher Columbus - LoveToKnow 1911 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

.Here he was threatened with capture by the Portuguese governor, who could not for some time be brought to recognize his commission.^ Here he was threatened with capture by the Portuguese governor, who could not for some time be brought to recognize his commission.
  • Christopher Columbus - LoveToKnow 1911 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ He then sailed to Madeira and spent some time there with the Portuguese captain João Gonçalves da Camara before sailing to the Canary Islands and Cape Verde .
  • Christopher Columbus - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • What is Christopher Columbus? 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Christopher Columbus 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.pustakalaya.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Christopher Columbus 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For those who remained, we let it be known (to the Spaniards who manned the island's fort) in the vicinity that anyone who wanted to take some of them could do so, to the amount desired, which was done."
  • Christopher Columbus - American Indian Genocide 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.danielnpaul.com [Source type: Original source]

.On the 24th of February, however, he was allowed to proceed, and on the 4th of March the "Nina" dropped anchor off Lisbon.^ On the 24th of February, however, he was allowed to proceed, and on the 4th of March the "Nina" dropped anchor off Lisbon.
  • Christopher Columbus - LoveToKnow 1911 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ At last, on the 29th of September, the little fleet dropped anchor off Isabella, and in his new city the admiral lay sick for five months.
  • Christopher Columbus - LoveToKnow 1911 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ At midday of March 15, 1493, the Nina dropped anchor in Palos harbor.

.The king of Portugal received the admiral with the highest honours.^ The king of Portugal received the admiral with the highest honours.
  • Christopher Columbus - LoveToKnow 1911 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ On the voyage he encountered a fearful tempest, but he arrived safely in the Tagus early in March, where the King of Portugal kindly received him.

^ The king and queen welcomed Columbus as a hero and made him an admiral, while the Tainos were received ceremoniously, clothed, baptized, and given Christian names.
  • AmericanHeritage.com / Christopher Columbus, Hero and Villain 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.americanheritage.com [Source type: Original source]

.On the 13th of March the "Nina" put out from the Tagus, and two days afterwards, Friday, the 15th of March, she reached Palos.^ On the 13th of March the "Nina" put out from the Tagus , and two days afterwards, Friday, the 15th of March, she reached Palos.
  • Christopher Columbus - LoveToKnow 1911 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ On August 3, 1492, Christopher Columbus set out from Huelva in the Santa Maria, accompanied by two caravels, the Nina and the Pinta.
  • Christopher Columbus 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: General]

^ On the 15th he reached Palos, and hastened to the Court at Barcelona, with his natives, specimens of precious metals, beautiful birds, and other products of the newly found regions.

.The court was at Barcelona; and thither, after despatching a letter announcing his arrival, Columbus proceeded in person.^ The court was at Barcelona ; and thither, after despatching a letter announcing his arrival, Columbus proceeded in person.
  • Christopher Columbus - LoveToKnow 1911 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ At the time of Columbus's triumphant entry into the city of Barcelona in 1493 after his first voyage, young Fernandez de Oviedo y Valdes or Oviedo was a page for the Spanish court.
  • Looks Are Deceiving: the Portraits of Christopher Columbus 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC commfaculty.fullerton.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A heart-broken and indignant letter from Columbus to Dona, Juana de Torres, formerly nurse of the infante Don Juan , arrived at court before the despatch of Bobadilla.
  • Christopher Columbus - LoveToKnow 1911 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

.He entered the city in a sort of triumphal procession, was received by their majesties in full court, and, seated in their presence, related the story of his wanderings, exhibiting the "rich and strange" spoils of the new-found lands, - the gold, the cotton, the parrots, the curious arms, the mysterious plants, the unknown birds and beasts, and the Indians he had brought with him for baptism.^ He entered the city in a sort of triumphal procession , was received by their majesties in full court, and, seated in their presence, related the story of his wanderings, exhibiting the "rich and strange" spoils of the new-found lands, - the gold , the cotton , the parrots, the curious arms, the mysterious plants, the unknown birds and beasts, and the Indians he had brought with him for baptism .
  • Christopher Columbus - LoveToKnow 1911 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ America by this he brought people to settle on this new found land.
  • WikiAnswers - Christopher Columbus Questions including "Which of Columbus' ships was the first to land in America" 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: News]

^ The mission into the island's interior proved disappointing to Columbus, for the group found nothing resembling an imperial city, or gold.
  • Christopher Columbus' Voyage of Discovery 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.saudades.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.All his honours and privileges were confirmed to him; the title of Don was conferred on himself and his brothers; he rode at the king's bridle; he was served and saluted as a grandee of Spain.^ All his honours and privileges were confirmed to him; the title of Don was conferred on himself and his brothers; he rode at the king's bridle; he was served and saluted as a grandee of Spain.
  • Christopher Columbus - LoveToKnow 1911 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ All honors and titles promised him were confirmed.

^ Columbus next betook himself to the south of Spain, and while meditating an appeal to the king of France , opened his plans to the count (from 1491, duke) of Medina Celi.
  • Christopher Columbus - LoveToKnow 1911 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

.A new and magnificent scutcheon was also blazoned for him (4th May 1493), whereon the royal castle and lion of Castile and Leon were combined with the five anchors of his own coat of arms.^ A new and magnificent scutcheon was also blazoned for him (4th May 1493), whereon the royal castle and lion of Castile and Leon were combined with the five anchors of his own coat of arms.
  • Christopher Columbus - LoveToKnow 1911 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Thus the motto associated with the coat of arms granted to Columbus: "A Castilla y a Leon, Nuevo Mundo dio Colon."
  • The Crimes of Christopher Columbus 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.freerepublic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ According to the blazon specified in letters patent dated May 20, 1493, Columbus was to bear in the first and the second quarters the royal charges of Castile and Leon -- the castle and the lion -- but with different tinctures or colors.

.Nor were their Catholic highnesses less busy on their own account than on that of their servant.^ Nor were their Catholic highnesses less busy on their own account than on that of their servant .
  • Christopher Columbus - LoveToKnow 1911 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ His own voyage ought to have taken far longer than theirs; they had now been nine weeks at sea, and there was nothing to account for their long delay.
  • Christopher Columbus, Complete by Filson Young - Full Text Free Book (Part 5/8) 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It is said that he killed two men there with medicines in revenge for something of less account than three beans.
  • Christopher Columbus, Complete by Filson Young - Full Text Free Book (Part 8/8) 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

.On the 3rd and 4th of May Alexander VI.^ On the 3rd and 4th of May Alexander VI .
  • Christopher Columbus - LoveToKnow 1911 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

granted bulls confirming to the crowns of .Castile and Leon all the lands discovered, or to be discovered, west of a line of demarcation drawn Ioo leagues west of the Azores, on the same terms as those on which the Portuguese held their colonies along the African coast.^ Castile and Leon all the lands discovered, or to be discovered, west of a line of demarcation drawn Ioo leagues west of the Azores, on the same terms as those on which the Portuguese held their colonies along the African coast.
  • Christopher Columbus - LoveToKnow 1911 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ His reception was all he could wish; according to his contract with the Spanish sovereigns he was made “admiral of the ocean sea” and governor-general of all new lands he had discovered or should discover.
  • What was the impact of Christopher Columbus's discovery? - Yahoo! Answers 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC answers.yahoo.com [Source type: General]

^ I focus on the Cape Verde Islands, and utilize Portuguese archival records from this colony, to reconstruct African History.
  • Christopher Columbus Table of Contents 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.colombo.bz [Source type: Original source]

.A new expedition was got in readiness with all possible despatch, to secure and extend the discoveries already made.^ A new expedition was got in readiness with all possible despatch, to secure and extend the discoveries already made.
  • Christopher Columbus - LoveToKnow 1911 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ His reception was all he could wish; according to his contract with the Spanish sovereigns he was made “admiral of the ocean sea” and governor-general of all new lands he had discovered or should discover.
  • What was the impact of Christopher Columbus's discovery? - Yahoo! Answers 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC answers.yahoo.com [Source type: General]

^ As gold was needed the discovery of a new source of that precious metal made a strong impression on the people of Spain , and a rush to the new regions was inevitable.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Christopher Columbus 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

.After several delays the fleet weighed anchor on the 24th of September 1493 and steered westwards.^ After several delays the fleet weighed anchor on the 24th of September 1493 and steered westwards.
  • Christopher Columbus - LoveToKnow 1911 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ On September 6 the three vessels again weighed anchor and sailed due west.
  • COLUMBUS, Christopher, 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.history.com [Source type: General]

^ In the harbour, preparing to weigh anchor, was a fleet of three little caravels, commanded by Pedro Nino, about to set out for Espanola with supplies and despatches.
  • Christopher Columbus, Complete by Filson Young - Full Text Free Book (Part 5/8) 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

.It consisted of three great carracks (galleons) and fourteen caravels (light frigates),havin on board over 1 00 men, besides the second having 5 ?^ It consisted of three great carracks (galleons) and fourteen caravels (light frigates),havin on board over 1 00 men, besides the second having 5 ?
  • Christopher Columbus - LoveToKnow 1911 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Having established the nucleus of the first permanent Spanish settlement in the Indies, he left about three score men to hold it.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Christopher Columbus 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ As the water was growing shoaler and shoaler he had sent a caravel of light draft some way further to the westward, and she reported that there lay ahead of her a great inner bay or gulf consisting of almost entirely fresh water.
  • Christopher Columbus, Complete by Filson Young - Full Text Free Book (Part 5/8) 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

voyage.
animals and materials necessary for colonization.
.Twelve missionaries accompanied the expedition, under the orders of Bernardo Buil or Boil, a Benedictine; Columbus had been already directed (29th May 1493) to endeavour by all means in his power to Christianize the inhabitants of the islands, to make them presents, and to "honour them much", while all under him were commanded to treat them "well and lovingly," under pain of severe punishment.^ Twelve missionaries accompanied the expedition, under the orders of Bernardo Buil or Boil , a Benedictine ; Columbus had been already directed (29th May 1493) to endeavour by all means in his power to Christianize the inhabitants of the islands, to make them presents, and to "honour them much", while all under him were commanded to treat them "well and lovingly," under pain of severe punishment.
  • Christopher Columbus - LoveToKnow 1911 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ COLUMBUS I always treated you well.
  • The Trial of Christopher Columbus 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC red-coral.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Columbus made four trips in all, amid storms, threatened mutinies, and, on the third trip, envious palace hangers-on had him put in chains.
  • The Crimes of Christopher Columbus 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.freerepublic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.On the 13th of October the ships, which had put in at the Canaries, left Ferro; and on Sunday, the 3rd of November, after a single storm, "by the goodness of God and the wise management of the admiral" an island was sighted to the west, which was named Dominica.^ On the 13th of October the ships, which had put in at the Canaries, left Ferro; and on Sunday, the 3rd of November, after a single storm, "by the goodness of God and the wise management of the admiral" an island was sighted to the west, which was named Dominica .
  • Christopher Columbus - LoveToKnow 1911 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ On November 3, 1493, Columbus sighted a rugged island which he named Dominica.
  • Christopher Columbus 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.famouspeople.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On November 3 1493 , Columbus sighted a rugged island that he named Dominica .
  • Christopher Columbus - Free net encyclopedia 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.netipedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Christopher Columbus - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Northwards from this the isles of Marigalante and Guadalupe were next discovered and named; while on the north-western course to La Navidad those of Montserrat, Antigua, San Martin, Santa Cruz and the Virgin Islands were sighted, and the island now called Porto Rico was touched at, hurriedly explored, and named San Juan Bautista.^ He also sighted the island chain of the Virgin Islands, which he named Santa Ursula y las Once Mil Virgines, and named the islands of Virgin Gorda, Tortola, and Peter Island (San Pedro).

^ The discoverers named the island San Salvador.
  • Logos (est. 1995): Christopher Columbus (1451-1506) 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC russellmcneil.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He names it San Juan Bautista (later renamed Puerto Rico).

.On the 22nd of November Columbus came in sight of Hispaniola, and sailing westward to La Navidad, found the fort burned and the colony dispersed.^ Columbus found the Hispaniola colony seething with discontent.
  • Columbus, Christopher | Article | World Book Student 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC photo.pds.org:5005 [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On the 22nd of November Columbus came in sight of Hispaniola, and sailing westward to La Navidad, found the fort burned and the colony dispersed.
  • Christopher Columbus - LoveToKnow 1911 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ At Hispaniola Columbus found La Navidad had been burned and the 39 seamen slain.

.He decided on building a second fort, and coasting on 30 m.^ He decided on building a second fort, and coasting on 30 m.
  • Christopher Columbus - LoveToKnow 1911 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ It was finally ascertained that another tribe, living farther inland and hostile to those on the coast, had fallen upon the fort, killed most of the inmates, and burnt most of the buildings.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Christopher Columbus 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Logos (est. 1995): Christopher Columbus (1451-1506) 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC russellmcneil.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

east of .Monte Cristi, he pitched on a spot where he founded the city of Isabella.^ Monte Cristi, he pitched on a spot where he founded the city of Isabella.
  • Christopher Columbus - LoveToKnow 1911 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

.The climate proved unhealthy; the colonists were greedy of gold, impatient of control, proud, ignorant and mutinous; and Columbus, whose inclination drew him westward, was doubtless glad to escape the worry and anxiety of his post, and to avail himself of the instructions of his sovereigns as to further discoveries.^ The climate proved unhealthy; the colonists were greedy of gold, impatient of control, proud, ignorant and mutinous; and Columbus, whose inclination drew him westward, was doubtless glad to escape the worry and anxiety of his post, and to avail himself of the instructions of his sovereigns as to further discoveries.
  • Christopher Columbus - LoveToKnow 1911 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Columbus asked the King of Portugal to entrust him with a fleet to search for a sea route to India by sailing westward since the earth was round.
  • Close To Torah » Was Christopher Columbus Jewish? 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.closetotorah.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As a reward for his successful voyage of discovery, the Spanish sovereigns granted Columbus the right to bear arms.

.On the 2nd of February 1494 he sent home, by Antonio de Torres, that despatch to their Catholic highnesses by which he may be said to have founded the West Indian slave trade.^ On the 2nd of February 1494 he sent home, by Antonio de Torres, that despatch to their Catholic highnesses by which he may be said to have founded the West Indian slave trade.
  • Christopher Columbus - LoveToKnow 1911 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ While Torres headed for Spain, two of Columbus's subordinates, Alonso de Ojeda and Pedro Margarit, took revenge for the massacre at Navidad and captured slaves.

^ In February 1494 , 12 ships returned to Spain from La Isabela, commanded by an associate of Chris's, Antonio de Torres.
  • Christopher Columbus@Everything2.com 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.He established the mining camp of San Tomaso in the gold country of Central Hispaniola; and on the 24th of April 1 494, having nominated a council of regency under his brother Diego, and appointed Pedro Margarit his captain-general, he again put to sea.^ He established the mining camp of San Tomaso in the gold country of Central Hispaniola; and on the 24th of April 1 494, having nominated a council of regency under his brother Diego, and appointed Pedro Margarit his captain-general, he again put to sea.
  • Christopher Columbus - LoveToKnow 1911 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Margarit and Boil had deserted the settlement and fled to Spain, but ere his departure the former, in his capacity of captain-general, had done much to outrage and alienate the Indians.
  • Christopher Columbus - LoveToKnow 1911 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Having been her brother's "tutor", and therefore possibly Philippa's as well, he may well have been the person for whom her child, Diego Columbus was named....
  • Christopher Columbus; excerpts from the book,Uncovering the Real Columbus 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC wolcottfamily.com [Source type: Original source]

.After following the southern shore of Cuba for some days, he steered southwards, and discovered (May 14th) the island of Jamaica, which he named Santiago.^ After following the southern shore of Cuba for some days, he steered southwards, and discovered (May 14th) the island of Jamaica , which he named Santiago .
  • Christopher Columbus - LoveToKnow 1911 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Seeing some of them with little bits of metal hanging at their noses, I gathered from them by signs that by going southward or steering round the island in that direction, there would be found a king who possessed great cups full of gold."
  • Hero-making Christopher Columbus excerpted from the book Lies My Teacher Told Me Everything Your American History Textbook Got Wrong by James W. Loewen 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.thirdworldtraveler.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Therefore he gave the name of Hispaniola to the island he had just discovered; and believing that he was in Asia, he called the inhabitants Indians.
  • Chapter II - Christopher Columbus - Foire d'Opinions Haitiennes 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.haitiwebs.com [Source type: General]

.He then resumed his exploration of the Cuban coast, threaded his way through a labyrinth of islets which he named the Garden of the Queen (Jardin de la Reyna), and, after coasting westwards for many days, became convinced that he had discovered continental land.^ He then resumed his exploration of the Cuban coast, threaded his way through a labyrinth of islets which he named the Garden of the Queen (Jardin de la Reyna), and, after coasting westwards for many days, became convinced that he had discovered continental land.
  • Christopher Columbus - LoveToKnow 1911 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ For several days the ships wandered painfully among the keys and shoals he had named the Garden of the Queen, and only an opportune easterly wind prevented the crews from open mutiny .
  • Christopher Columbus - LoveToKnow 1911 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ After a long conference with Columbus, in which he was convinced that Columbus was right, he borrowed a mule and getting on his back rode for many miles across the open country to the palace in which the Queen was then staying.
  • The Baldwin Project: In Story-land by Elizabeth Harrison 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.mainlesson.com [Source type: Original source]

He therefore caused Perez de Luna, the notary, to draw up a document to this effect (12th of June 1494), which was afterwards taken round and signed (the admiral's steward witnessing) by the officers, men and boys of his three caravels, the "Nina," the "Cordera," and the "San Juan." He then stood to the south-east, and sighted the island of Evangelista (now Isla de los Pinos), revisited Jamaica, coasted the south of Hispaniola, and on the 24th of September touched at and named the island of La Mona, in the channel between Hispaniola and Porto Rico. .Thence he had intended to sail eastwards and complete the survey of the Caribbean Archipelago; but he was exhausted by the terrible tear and wear of mind and body he had undergone (he says himself that on this expedition he was three-and-thirty days almost without sleep), and on the day following his departure from La Mona he fell into a lethargy, that deprived him of sense and memory, and had well-nigh proved fatal to life.^ Thence he had intended to sail eastwards and complete the survey of the Caribbean Archipelago ; but he was exhausted by the terrible tear and wear of mind and body he had undergone (he says himself that on this expedition he was three-and-thirty days almost without sleep ), and on the day following his departure from La Mona he fell into a lethargy , that deprived him of sense and memory, and had well-nigh proved fatal to life.
  • Christopher Columbus - LoveToKnow 1911 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Three days after the ships had set sail the "Pinta" lost her rudder ; the admiral was in some alarm, but comforted himself with the reflection that Martin Pinzon was energetic and ready-witted; they had, however, to put in at Teneriffe , to refit the caravel.
  • Christopher Columbus - LoveToKnow 1911 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Autumn would hardly be complete in U.S. elementary schools without construction-paper replicas of the three ships that Columbus sailed to America, or without drawings of Queen Isabella pawning her jewels to finance Columbus' trip.
  • Christopher Columbus - American Indian Genocide 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.danielnpaul.com [Source type: Original source]

.At last, on the 29th of September, the little fleet dropped anchor off Isabella, and in his new city the admiral lay sick for five months.^ At last, on the 29th of September, the little fleet dropped anchor off Isabella, and in his new city the admiral lay sick for five months.
  • Christopher Columbus - LoveToKnow 1911 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ January 2 - Boabdil, the last Moorish King of Granada, surrenders his city to the army of Ferdinand and Isabella after a lengthy siege.

^ By 1502, he had added several new elements, such as an emerging continent next to islands and five golden anchors to represent the office of the Admiral of the Ocean Sea.
  • Christopher Columbus and Spain - Cultural Diversity | Diversity News | Diversity Articles - MinorityJobs.net 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.minorityjobs.net [Source type: News]

.The colony was in a sad plight.^ The colony was in a sad plight .
  • Christopher Columbus - LoveToKnow 1911 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

.Every one was discontented, and many were sick, for the climate was unhealthy and there was nothing to eat.^ On every island there are many canoes...
  • Athena Review 1,3: First Voyage of Columbus 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.athenapub.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Every one was discontented, and many were sick, for the climate was unhealthy and there was nothing to eat.
  • Christopher Columbus - LoveToKnow 1911 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ While there were so many suggestions made that it would be possible to cross the Atlantic, there was one man who determined to do this.
  • The Life of Christopher Columbus by Edward Everett Hale: Chapter I. Early Life of Columbus. 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.online-literature.com [Source type: Original source]

.Margarit and Boil had deserted the settlement and fled to Spain, but ere his departure the former, in his capacity of captain-general, had done much to outrage and alienate the Indians.^ Margarit and Boil had deserted the settlement and fled to Spain, but ere his departure the former, in his capacity of captain-general, had done much to outrage and alienate the Indians.
  • Christopher Columbus - LoveToKnow 1911 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

.The strongest measures were necessary to undo this mischief, and, backed by his brother Bartholomew, Columbus proceeded to reduce the natives under Spanish sway.^ The strongest measures were necessary to undo this mischief , and, backed by his brother Bartholomew, Columbus proceeded to reduce the natives under Spanish sway.
  • Christopher Columbus - LoveToKnow 1911 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The day commemorates the native population’s resistance to the Spanish settlement, and during the 2004 commemoration, a statue of Columbus was destroyed and defaced .
  • What is the real legacy of Christopher Columbus? (part 7) 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.examiner.com [Source type: News]

^ By the vigour and activity of the adelantado, the whole island had been reduced under Spanish sway; but under the leadership of Francisco Roldan the malcontent settlers had risen in revolt, and Columbus had to compromise matters in order to restore peace.
  • Christopher Columbus - LoveToKnow 1911 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

.Alonso de Ojeda succeeded by a brilliant in capturing the cacique Caonabo, and the rest submitted.^ Alonso de Ojeda succeeded by a brilliant in capturing the cacique Caonabo, and the rest submitted.
  • Christopher Columbus - LoveToKnow 1911 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ While Torres headed for Spain, two of Columbus's subordinates, Alonso de Ojeda and Pedro Margarit, took revenge for the massacre at Navidad and captured slaves.

^ While Torres headed for Spain, two of Columbus’s subordinates, Alonso de Ojeda and Pedro Margarit, took revenge for the massacre at Navidad and captured slaves.
  • Christopher Columbus (Italian explorer) :: The second and third voyages -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Five ship-loads of Indians were sent off to Seville (24th June 1495) to be sold as slaves; and a tribute was imposed upon their fellows, which must be looked upon as the origin of that system of repartimientos or encomiendas which was afterwards to work such mischief among the conquered.^ Five ship-loads of Indians were sent off to Seville (24th June 1495) to be sold as slaves; and a tribute was imposed upon their fellows, which must be looked upon as the origin of that system of repartimientos or encomiendas which was afterwards to work such mischief among the conquered.
  • Christopher Columbus - LoveToKnow 1911 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ They can be sold in the slave market in Seville.
  • The Trial of Christopher Columbus 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC red-coral.net [Source type: Original source]

^ This was the origin of the repartimiento or encomienda system, formalized into law on Hispaniola in 1503, which Bartholomew de Las Casas, the apostle to the Indians, spent his life fighting, and which Isabels grandson, Holy Roman Emperor Charles V, was to struggle desperately and with only limited success to eliminate.

.In October 1495 Juan Aguado arrived at Isabella, with a royal commission to report on the state of the colony; here he took up the position of a judge of Columbus's government; and much recrimination followed.^ It arrived at Lisbon, where Columbus went ashore and took up his abode.
  • Christopher Columbus, Complete by Filson Young - Full Text Free Book (Part 1/8) 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ A royal investigating commission arrived at Isabella in October 1495.
  • COLUMBUS, Christopher, 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.history.com [Source type: General]

^ Aguado arrived at Isabella in October, 1495, while Columbus was absent on a journey of exploration across the island.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Christopher Columbus 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Logos (est. 1995): Christopher Columbus (1451-1506) 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC russellmcneil.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

.Columbus decided to return home; he appointed his brother Bartholomew adelantado of the island; and on the 10th of March 1496 he quitted Hispaniola in the "Nina."^ Columbus immediately appointed Bartholomew provincial governor of Hispaniola.
  • Columbus, Christopher | Article | World Book Student 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC photo.pds.org:5005 [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When Christopher Columbus returned to Spain, he left his brother Bartholomew in charge of the island.
  • Hero-making Christopher Columbus excerpted from the book Lies My Teacher Told Me Everything Your American History Textbook Got Wrong by James W. Loewen 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.thirdworldtraveler.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Columbus decided to return home; he appointed his brother Bartholomew adelantado of the island; and on the 10th of March 1496 he quitted Hispaniola in the "Nina."
  • Christopher Columbus - LoveToKnow 1911 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

.The vessel, after a protracted and perilous voyage, reached Cadiz on the 11th of June 1496, where the admiral landed, wearing the habit of a Franciscan.^ Columbus reached Cadiz 11 June, 1496.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Christopher Columbus 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Logos (est. 1995): Christopher Columbus (1451-1506) 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC russellmcneil.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The vessel, after a protracted and perilous voyage, reached Cadiz on the 11th of June 1496, where the admiral landed, wearing the habit of a Franciscan.
  • Christopher Columbus - LoveToKnow 1911 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ He came to Castile in the month of June, 1496, and because of his devotion he was dressed in robes of the colour of the ancient habits of the brothers of St. Francis, made almost like a habit, and wearing a cord of St. Francis."
  • Looks Are Deceiving: the Portraits of Christopher Columbus 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC commfaculty.fullerton.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.He was cordially received by his sovereigns, and a new fleet of eight vessels was put at his disposal.^ He was cordially received by his sovereigns, and a new fleet of eight vessels was put at his disposal.
  • Christopher Columbus - LoveToKnow 1911 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The sovereigns promised to subsidize a new fleet, but since enthusiasm for the unproductive enterprise had waned, nearly two years elapsed before eight vessels were sent out.
  • COLUMBUS, Christopher, 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.history.com [Source type: General]

.By royal patent, moreover, a tract of land in Hispaniola, of 50 leagues by 20, was offered to him, with the title of duke or marquis (which he declined); for three years he was to receive an eighth of the gross and a tenth of the net profits on each voyage; the right of creating a mayorazgo or perpetual entail of titles and estates was granted him; and his two sons were received into Isabella's service as pages.^ By royal patent, moreover, a tract of land in Hispaniola, of 50 leagues by 20, was offered to him, with the title of duke or marquis (which he declined); for three years he was to receive an eighth of the gross and a tenth of the net profits on each voyage; the right of creating a mayorazgo or perpetual entail of titles and estates was granted him; and his two sons were received into Isabella's service as pages.
  • Christopher Columbus - LoveToKnow 1911 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Isabella immediately received them with respect and honor and appointed them as pages in her retinue.
  • Fr. Hardon Archives - Christopher Columbus, The Catholic - #2 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.therealpresence.org [Source type: Original source]

^ He was two leagues away when the messenger overtook him at the bridge of Pinos.

.Meanwhile, however, the preparing of the fleet proceeded slowly, and it was not till the 30th of May 1498 that he set sail with his main fleet of six ships - two caravels had Third already been sent on ahead.^ Meanwhile, however, the preparing of the fleet proceeded slowly, and it was not till the 30th of May 1498 that he set sail with his main fleet of six ships - two caravels had Third already been sent on ahead.
  • Christopher Columbus - LoveToKnow 1911 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Three days after the ships had set sail the "Pinta" lost her rudder ; the admiral was in some alarm, but comforted himself with the reflection that Martin Pinzon was energetic and ready-witted; they had, however, to put in at Teneriffe , to refit the caravel.
  • Christopher Columbus - LoveToKnow 1911 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Third Trip: On a third expedition (May 30, 1498-October 1500), Columbus sailed farther south, to Trinidad and Venezuela (including the mouth of the Orinoco River).
  • Christopher Columbus: Explorer - EnchantedLearning.com 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.enchantedlearning.com [Source type: General]

.From San Lucar he voyage. steered for Porto Santo, Madeira, and Gomera, despatching three vessels direct from the Canaries to Hispaniola.^ Porto Santo, Madeira , and Gomera , despatching three vessels direct from the Canaries to Hispaniola.
  • Christopher Columbus - LoveToKnow 1911 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The vessels touched at the Canaries, and then proceeded on the voyage.
  • Logos (est. 1995): Christopher Columbus (1451-1506) 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC russellmcneil.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The vessels touched at the Canaries , and then proceeded on the voyage.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Christopher Columbus 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

.He next proceeded to the Cape Verde Islands, which he quitted on the 5th of July.^ He next proceeded to the Cape Verde Islands , which he quitted on the 5th of July.
  • Christopher Columbus - LoveToKnow 1911 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ He then sailed to Madeira and spent some time there with the Portuguese captain João Gonçalves da Camara before sailing to the Canary Islands and Cape Verde .
  • Christopher Columbus - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • What is Christopher Columbus? 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Christopher Columbus 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.pustakalaya.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Christopher Columbus 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I focus on the Cape Verde Islands, and utilize Portuguese archival records from this colony, to reconstruct African History.
  • Christopher Columbus Table of Contents 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.colombo.bz [Source type: Original source]

.On the 31st of the same month, being greatly in need of water, and fearing that no land lay westwards as he had hoped, Columbus had turned his ship's head north, when Alonzo Perez of Huelva saw land about 15 leagues to the south-west.^ Which of Columbus' ships was the first to land in America?
  • WikiAnswers - Christopher Columbus Questions including "Which of Columbus' ships was the first to land in America" 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: News]

^ On the 31st of the same month, being greatly in need of water, and fearing that no land lay westwards as he had hoped, Columbus had turned his ship's head north, when Alonzo Perez of Huelva saw land about 15 leagues to the south-west.
  • Christopher Columbus - LoveToKnow 1911 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In the same year, Columbus was on a Genoese ship hired in the service of René I of Anjou to support his attempt to conquer the Kingdom of Naples .
  • What is Christopher Columbus? 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It was crowned with three hill-tops, from which circumstance, and in fulfilment of a vow made at starting (to name the first land discovered on this voyage in honour of the Trinity), the admiral named it Trinidad, which name it yet bears.^ It was crowned with three hill-tops, from which circumstance, and in fulfilment of a vow made at starting (to name the first land discovered on this voyage in honour of the Trinity), the admiral named it Trinidad , which name it yet bears.
  • Christopher Columbus - LoveToKnow 1911 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ On the next voyage he first sighted Trinidad.

^ An abstract of the admiral's diary made by Las Casas is yet voyage.
  • Christopher Columbus - LoveToKnow 1911 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

.On Wednesday, the 1st of August, he beheld for the first time the mainland of South America, the continent he had sought so long.^ On Wednesday, the 1st of August, he beheld for the first time the mainland of South America , the continent he had sought so long.
  • Christopher Columbus - LoveToKnow 1911 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ By the time Columbus died in 1506, others had already started exploring the new continent, especially Amerigo Vespucci, who sailed down the eastern coast of South America in 1502, and after whom the continent was later named.
  • Did Christopher Columbus Discover America? - Blurtit 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.blurtit.com [Source type: General]

^ Amerigo Vespucci had just returned from his long voyage in the West, when he had navigated along an immense stretch of the coast of America, both north and south, and had laid the foundations of a fame which was, for a time at least, to eclipse that of Columbus.
  • Christopher Columbus, Complete by Filson Young - Full Text Free Book (Part 8/8) 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

.It seemed to him but an insignificant island, and he called it Isla Santa.^ It seemed to him but an insignificant island, and he called it Isla Santa.
  • Christopher Columbus - LoveToKnow 1911 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Adverse winds carried the fleet to an island called Ayti (Haiti) by its Taino inhabitants; on December 6 Columbus renamed it La Isla Española, or Hispaniola.

^ Leaving the island of Santa Maria in the Azores, Columbus headed for Spain, but another storm forced him into Lisbon.
  • Christopher Columbus - Free net encyclopedia 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.netipedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Christopher Columbus - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Sailing westwards, next day he saw the Gulf of Paria (named by him the Golfo de la Ballena), into which he was borne at immense risk on the ridge of waters formed by the meeting of the sea and the Orinoco estuaries.^ Results for " Christopher Columbus named Golfo de la Ballena " .
  • Christopher Columbus - Powerset 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sailing westwards, next day he saw the Gulf of Paria (named by him the Golfo de la Ballena), into which he was borne at immense risk on the ridge of waters formed by the meeting of the sea and the Orinoco estuaries.
  • Christopher Columbus - LoveToKnow 1911 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ After cruising along the coast he sailed into the Gulf of Paria.
  • COLUMBUS, Christopher, 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.history.com [Source type: General]

.For several days he coasted the continent, esteeming as islands the various projections he saw, and naming them accordingly, nor was it until he had realized the volume poured out by the Orinoco that he began to perceive the truly continental character of his last discovery.^ For several days he coasted the continent, esteeming as islands the various projections he saw, and naming them accordingly, nor was it until he had realized the volume poured out by the Orinoco that he began to perceive the truly continental character of his last discovery.
  • Christopher Columbus - LoveToKnow 1911 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ For several days the ships wandered painfully among the keys and shoals he had named the Garden of the Queen, and only an opportune easterly wind prevented the crews from open mutiny .
  • Christopher Columbus - LoveToKnow 1911 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ He then resumed his exploration of the Cuban coast, threaded his way through a labyrinth of islets which he named the Garden of the Queen (Jardin de la Reyna), and, after coasting westwards for many days, became convinced that he had discovered continental land.
  • Christopher Columbus - LoveToKnow 1911 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

.He was now anxious to revisit the colony in Hispaniola; and after sighting Tobago, Grenada, and Margarita, made for San Domingo, the new capital of the settlement, where he arrived on the 31st of August.^ He was now anxious to revisit the colony in Hispaniola; and after sighting Tobago , Grenada , and Margarita , made for San Domingo, the new capital of the settlement, where he arrived on the 31st of August.
  • Christopher Columbus - LoveToKnow 1911 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Columbus returned to Hispaniola on August 19 to find that many of the Spanish settlers of the new colony were discontent, having been misled by Columbus about the supposedly bountiful riches of the new world.
  • Christopher Columbus - Free net encyclopedia 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.netipedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Christopher Columbus 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.humanitiesweb.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Christopher Columbus - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • The Ultimate Christopher Columbus - American History Information Guide and Reference 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.historymania.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Christopher Columbus 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.famouspeople.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Christopher Columbus 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.pustakalaya.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Christopher Columbus 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The fleet made landfall the next day, in what is now San Salvador in the Caribbean Sea.
  • Christopher Columbus@Everything2.com 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.He found that affairs had not prospered well in his absence.^ He found that affairs had not prospered well in his absence.
  • Christopher Columbus - LoveToKnow 1911 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

.By the vigour and activity of the adelantado, the whole island had been reduced under Spanish sway; but under the leadership of Francisco Roldan the malcontent settlers had risen in revolt, and Columbus had to compromise matters in order to restore peace.^ By the vigour and activity of the adelantado, the whole island had been reduced under Spanish sway; but under the leadership of Francisco Roldan the malcontent settlers had risen in revolt, and Columbus had to compromise matters in order to restore peace.
  • Christopher Columbus - LoveToKnow 1911 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ A rebellion by the alcalde (mayor) of La Isabela, Francisco Roldn, had led to appeals to the Spanish court, and, even as Columbus attempted to restore order (partly, it must be said, by hangings), the Spanish chief justice, Francisco de Bobadilla, was on his way out to the colony with a commission from the sovereigns to investigate all the complaints.
  • Christopher Columbus: Extracts from Journal 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC history-world.org [Source type: Original source]

^ They met in the Spanish cities of Salamanca and Córdoba during 1486 and 1487 under the leadership of Isabella’s spiritual adviser, Hernando de Talavera.
  • Columbus, Christopher | Article | World Book Student 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC photo.pds.org:5005 [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Roldan retained his office of chief justice; and such of his followers as chose to remain in the island were gratified with repartimientos of land and labour.^ Roldan retained his office of chief justice ; and such of his followers as chose to remain in the island were gratified with repartimientos of land and labour.
  • Christopher Columbus - LoveToKnow 1911 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Roldan proposed that he should be allowed to give a number of his friends a free passage to Spain; that to all who should remain free grants of land should be given; and (a free pardon and certificate of good conduct contenting him no longer) that a proclamation should be made throughout the island admitting that all the charges of disloyalty and mutiny which had been brought against him and his followers were without foundation; and, finally, that he should be restored to his office of Alcalde Mayor or chief magistrate.
  • Christopher Columbus, Complete by Filson Young - Full Text Free Book (Part 5/8) 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ A hundred men led by the colony’s chief justice, Francisco Roldan, were rebelling against those still loyal to Bartholomew.
  • AmericanHeritage.com / Christopher Columbus, Failure 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.americanheritage.com [Source type: Original source]

.At home, however, court favour had turned against Columbus.^ At home, however, court favour had turned against Columbus.
  • Christopher Columbus - LoveToKnow 1911 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Finally, however, being deterred by the consideration that the enterprise was too vast for a subject, he turned his guest from the determination he had come to of making application at the court of France, by writing on his behalf to Queen Isabella; and Columbus repaired to the court at Cordova at her bidding (1486).
  • Christopher Columbus - LoveToKnow 1911 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Court appointed Francisco de Bobadilla, a member of the Order of Calatrava; however, his authority stretched far beyond what Columbus had requested.
  • Genocide of Christopher Columbus | Socyberty 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC socyberty.com [Source type: Original source]

.For one thing, the ex-colonists were often bitterly hostile to the admiral and his brothers.^ For one thing, the ex-colonists were often bitterly hostile to the admiral and his brothers.
  • Christopher Columbus - LoveToKnow 1911 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The inheritance passed on to his brother, Don Cristoval Colón y Toledo, the Fourth Admiral, who had one son, Diego, and one daughter, Francisca.
  • Christopher Columbus'Origin 12 September 2009 0:00 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: Original source]
  • From THE DISCOVERY OF NORTH AMERICA 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.millersville.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Some of these were extensively annotated, often by the admiral and sometimes by his brother Bartholomew.
  • Christopher Columbus: Extracts from Journal 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC history-world.org [Source type: Original source]

.They were wont to parade their grievances in the very court-yards of the Alhambra, to surround the king when he came forth with complaints and reclamations, to insult the discoverer's young sons with shouts and jeers.^ They were wont to parade their grievances in the very court-yards of the Alhambra, to surround the king when he came forth with complaints and reclamations, to insult the discoverer's young sons with shouts and jeers.
  • Christopher Columbus - LoveToKnow 1911 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The King had his own affairs to attend to; he was already meditating a second marriage, and thinking of the young bride he was to bring home to the vacant place of Isabella; and the very iteration of Columbus's complaints and demands had made them lose all significance for the King.
  • Christopher Columbus, Complete by Filson Young - Full Text Free Book (Part 8/8) 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Nuno's only child, Beatrice, married King John's illegitimate son, Alfonso, and the Constable gave the young couple many of his lands and titles.
  • Christopher Columbus' family and his Perestrello and Moniz in-laws. 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.wolcottfamily.com [Source type: Original source]

.Again, the queen began to criticize severely the shipment of Indians from the new-found lands to Spain.^ Again, the queen began to criticize severely the shipment of Indians from the new-found lands to Spain.
  • Christopher Columbus - LoveToKnow 1911 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ While syphilis was introduced into Europe after 1492, probably by the Indians Columbus brought back to Spain or by the sailors who had contact with them in the new world, Columbus was not infected by it.
  • Christopher Columbus is a great guy « Jim Blazsik 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC jimblazsik.com [Source type: General]

^ At dawn, Columbus and his armed Spaniards went ashore, unfurled their flags, planted a cross, and claimed the land in the name of the king and queen of Spain.
  • Columbus, The Original American Hero 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.ahealedplanet.net [Source type: Original source]

.And once more, there was no doubt that the colony itself, whatever the cause, had not prospered so well as might have been desired.^ "There will be no more death," he pronounced.
  • Imagining Christopher Columbus 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC hss.fullerton.edu [Source type: General]

^ And once more, there was no doubt that the colony itself, whatever the cause, had not prospered so well as might have been desired.
  • Christopher Columbus - LoveToKnow 1911 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ It has happened more than once in the history of nations that a great general, who can conquer armies and can obtain peace, has not succeeded in establishing a colony or in governing a city.
  • The Life of Christopher Columbus by Edward Everett Hale: Chapter XIII. 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.online-literature.com [Source type: Original source]

.Fer dinand's support of Columbus had never been very hearty, and his inclination to supersede the Genoese now prevailed over the queen's friendliness.^ Fer dinand's support of Columbus had never been very hearty, and his inclination to supersede the Genoese now prevailed over the queen's friendliness.
  • Christopher Columbus - LoveToKnow 1911 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In the same year, Columbus was on a Genoese ship hired in the service of René I of Anjou to support his attempt to conquer the Kingdom of Naples .
  • What is Christopher Columbus? 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Columbus continued to seek support, however, and in April 1492 his persistence was rewarded: Ferdinand V, king of Castile, and Queen Isabella agreed to sponsor the expedition.
  • COLUMBUS, Christopher, 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.history.com [Source type: General]

.Accordingly, on the 21st of May 1499, Francisco Bobadilla was appointed governor and judge of Hispaniola during royal pleasure, with authority to examine into all complaints.^ Accordingly, on the 21st of May 1499, Francisco Bobadilla was appointed governor and judge of Hispaniola during royal pleasure, with authority to examine into all complaints.
  • Christopher Columbus - LoveToKnow 1911 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1499 he was replaced by Francisco de Bobadilla.

^ A rescue party finally arrived, sent by the royal governor of Hispaniola in July and Columbus and his men were taken back to Spain in November of 1504.
  • Biography: Christopher Columbus | Seferm Post 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.sefermpost.com [Source type: General]

.Columbus was ordered to deliver up his charge to Bobadilla, and to accept whatever the latter should deliver him from the sovereigns.^ Columbus was ordered to deliver up his charge to Bobadilla, and to accept whatever the latter should deliver him from the sovereigns.
  • Christopher Columbus - LoveToKnow 1911 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Court appointed Francisco de Bobadilla, a member of the Order of Calatrava; however, his authority stretched far beyond what Columbus had requested.
  • Genocide of Christopher Columbus | Socyberty 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC socyberty.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Francisco de Bobadilla, a member of the Order of Calatrava, and Columbus' successor as Governor from 1500-1502, was charged with investigating Columbus' rule in the name of the Spanish Crown.

.Bobadilla left Spain in June 150o, and landed in Hispaniola on the 23rd of August.^ Bobadilla left Spain in June 150o, and landed in Hispaniola on the 23rd of August.
  • Christopher Columbus - LoveToKnow 1911 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ They left Spain on August 3, 1492.

^ On August 23, 1500, Christopher Columbus and his brothers were sent back to Spain in chains by Spanish Governor Francesco de Bobadilla for mistreating Natives in the section of Hispaniola now known as Haiti.
  • Christopher Columbus - American Indian Genocide 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.danielnpaul.com [Source type: Original source]

.Columbus, meanwhile, had restored such tranquillity as was possible in his government.^ In our group, we talked about the possibility of the government trying to protect young students from such violence.
  • Columbus, The Original American Hero 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.ahealedplanet.net [Source type: Original source]
  • Columbus:
    The Original American Hero
    2 February 2010 15:015 UTC globalization.icaap.org [Source type: Original source]

.With Roldan's help he had beaten off an attempt on the island of the adventurer Ojeda, his old lieutenant; the Indians were being collected into villages and Christianized.^ With Roldan's help he had beaten off an attempt on the island of the adventurer Ojeda, his old lieutenant; the Indians were being collected into villages and Christianized.
  • Christopher Columbus - LoveToKnow 1911 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Instead of searching for provisions while Columbus was off exploring other islands, the men left behind raided native villages in search of riches.
  • Christopher Columbus 12 September 2009 0:00 UTC www.millersville.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Some gleam of Christopher's old cleverness in handling men was--now shown by his instructing Roldan to sally forth and bring Ojeda to order.
  • Christopher Columbus, Complete by Filson Young - Full Text Free Book (Part 5/8) 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

.Gold-mining was profitably pursued; in three years, he calculated, the royal revenues might be raised to an average of 60,000,000 reals.^ Gold-mining was profitably pursued; in three years, he calculated, the royal revenues might be raised to an average of 60,000,000 reals.
  • Christopher Columbus - LoveToKnow 1911 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ BOBADILLA Gold mining is a royal monopoly.
  • The Trial of Christopher Columbus 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC red-coral.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Every Taino over 14 years of age was to give a hawk’s bell (about the size of a thimble) of gold to the rulers (Columbus and his men) every three months.
  • Columbus:
    The Original American Hero
    2 February 2010 15:015 UTC globalization.icaap.org [Source type: Original source]

.The arrival of Bobadilla, however, speedily changed this state of affairs.^ The arrival of Bobadilla, however, speedily changed this state of affairs.
  • Christopher Columbus - LoveToKnow 1911 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The brothers were powerless to do anything in that matter, however, and the state of affairs in Espanola demanded their close attention.
  • Christopher Columbus, Complete by Filson Young - Full Text Free Book (Part 5/8) 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

.On landing, he took possession of the admiral's house and summoned him and his brothers before him.^ On landing, he took possession of the admiral's house and summoned him and his brothers before him.
  • Christopher Columbus - LoveToKnow 1911 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ On the 10th of August 1498 a party landed on this coast and formally took possession of it in the name of the Sovereigns of Spain.
  • Christopher Columbus, Complete by Filson Young - Full Text Free Book (Part 5/8) 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ When they are well beyond reach of the natives they pause and tie Caonabo securely into his place; and by this treachery bring him into Isabella, where he is imprisoned in the Admiral's house.
  • Christopher Columbus, Complete by Filson Young - Full Text Free Book (Part 5/8) 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

.Accusations of severity, of injustice, of venality even, were poured down on their heads, and Columbus anticipated nothing less than a shameful death.^ Accusations of severity, of injustice, of venality even, were poured down on their heads, and Columbus anticipated nothing less than a shameful death.
  • Christopher Columbus - LoveToKnow 1911 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Moreover, Columbus believed that one degree actually covered less space on the earth's surface than commonly believed.
  • Christopher Columbus - Christopher Columbus Biography, History, Explorers. 20 September 2009 12:15 UTC www.famouspeople.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • The Ultimate Christopher Columbus - American History Information Guide and Reference 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.historymania.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Christopher Columbus 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.famouspeople.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Moreover, Columbus believed that one degree represented less distance on the earth's surface than was commonly believed.

.Bobadilla put all three in irons, and shipped them off to Spain.^ Bobadilla put all three in irons, and shipped them off to Spain.
  • Christopher Columbus - LoveToKnow 1911 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Arriving in Santo Domingo while Columbus was away, Bobadilla was immediately peppered with complaints about all three Columbus brothers: Christopher, Bartolomé, and Diego.
  • Genocide of Christopher Columbus | Socyberty 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC socyberty.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Early in October, 1500, the three brothers, still in fetters, were placed on board ship, and sent to Spain, arriving at Cadiz at the end of the month.
  • Logos (est. 1995): Christopher Columbus (1451-1506) 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC russellmcneil.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

.Alonso Vallejo, captain of the caravel in which the illustrious prisoners sailed, still retained a proper sense of the honour and respect due to Columbus, and would have removed the fetters; but to this Columbus would not consent.^ Alonso Vallejo , captain of the caravel in which the illustrious prisoners sailed, still retained a proper sense of the honour and respect due to Columbus, and would have removed the fetters ; but to this Columbus would not consent.
  • Christopher Columbus - LoveToKnow 1911 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Martín Alonso Pinzón, an experienced seafarer, captained the Pinta , a caravel with square-rigged sails that could carry about 53 long tons.
  • Columbus, Christopher | Article | World Book Student 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC photo.pds.org:5005 [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As every pupil knows (or should know) Columbus sailed west thinking he would land in Asia.
  • The Crimes of Christopher Columbus 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.freerepublic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

He would wear them, he said, until their highnesses, by whose order they had been affixed, should order their removal; and he would keep them afterwards "as relics and as memorials of the reward of his service." He did so. His son Fernando "saw them always hanging in his cabinet, and he requested that when he died they might be buried with him." Whether this last wish was complied with is not known.
.A heart-broken and indignant letter from Columbus to Dona, Juana de Torres, formerly nurse of the infante Don Juan, arrived at court before the despatch of Bobadilla.^ Columbus to Juana de Torres, October 1500, in Morison, ed.
  • Honoring Christopher Columbus 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.ewtn.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Honoring Christopher Columbus 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.catholiceducation.org [Source type: Original source]

^ A heart-broken and indignant letter from Columbus to Dona, Juana de Torres, formerly nurse of the infante Don Juan , arrived at court before the despatch of Bobadilla.
  • Christopher Columbus - LoveToKnow 1911 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ He dispatched this letter to the court at Granada before the reports of Bobadilla were sent.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Christopher Columbus 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Logos (est. 1995): Christopher Columbus (1451-1506) 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC russellmcneil.blogspot.com [Source type: Original sou