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Chrysanthemum
Chrysanthemum sp
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Asterids
Order: Asterales
Family: Asteraceae
Tribe: Anthemideae
Genus: Chrysanthemum
Type species
Chrysanthemum indicum L.
Species

Chrysanthemum aphrodite
Chrysanthemum arcticum
Chrysanthemum argyrophyllum
Chrysanthemum arisanense
Chrysanthemum boreale
Chrysanthemum chalchingolicum
Chrysanthemum chanetii
Chrysanthemum cinerariaefolium
Chrysanthemum coronarium
Chrysanthemum crassum
Chrysanthemum glabriusculum
Chrysanthemum hypargyrum
Chrysanthemum indicum
Chrysanthemum japonense
Chrysanthemum japonicum
Chrysanthemum lavandulifolium
Chrysanthemum mawii
Chrysanthemum maximowiczii
Chrysanthemum mongolicum
Chrysanthemum morifolium
Chrysanthemum morii
Chrysanthemum okiense
Chrysanthemum oreastrum
Chrysanthemum ornatum
Chrysanthemum pacificum
Chrysanthemum potentilloides
Chrysanthemum segetum
Chrysanthemum shiwogiku
Chrysanthemum sinuatum
Chrysanthemum vestitum
Chrysanthemum weyrichii
Chrysanthemum yoshinaganthum
Chrysanthemum zawadskii

Chrysanthemums, often called mums or chrysanths, are a genus (Chrysanthemum) of about 30 species of perennial flowering plants in the family Asteraceae, native to Asia and northeastern Europe.

Contents

Taxonomy

IMG 2967.JPG

The genus once included many more species, but was split several decades ago into several genera; the naming of the genera has been contentious, but a ruling of the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature in 1999 resulted in the defining species of the genus being changed to Chrysanthemum indicum, thereby restoring the economically important florist's chrysanthemum to the genus Chrysanthemum. These species had been, during the period between the splitting of the genus and the ICBN ruling, commonly treated under the genus name Dendranthema.

The other species previously treated in the narrow view of the genus Chrysanthemum are now transferred to the genus Glebionis. The other genera split off from Chrysanthemum include Argyranthemum, Leucanthemopsis, Leucanthemum, Rhodanthemum, and Tanacetum.

The species of Chrysanthemum are herbaceous perennial plants growing to 50–150 cm tall, with deeply lobed leaves and large flower heads, white, yellow or pink in the wild species.

Chrysanthemum species are used as food plants by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species — see list of Lepidoptera that feed on chrysanthemums.

Today’s flowers are not as bright or large as ‘show’ varieties.

History

Cultivated chrysanthemums can be yellow, white, or even bright red, such as these.
Historical painting of Chrysanthemums from the New International Encyclopedia 1902.

Chrysanthemums were first cultivated in China as a flowering herb as far back as the 15th century BC.[1] An ancient Chinese city (Xiaolan Town of Zhongshan City) was named Ju-Xian, meaning "chrysanthemum city". The plant is particularly significant during the Double Ninth Festival. The flower was introduced into Japan probably in the 8th century AD, and the Emperor adopted the flower as his official seal. There is a "Festival of Happiness" in Japan that celebrates the flower.

The flower was brought to Europe in the 17th century. Linnaeus named it from the Greek word χρυσός chrysous, "golden" (the colour of the original flowers), and ἄνθεμον -anthemon, meaning flower.

Economic uses

Ornamental uses

Modern chrysanthemums are much more showy than their wild relatives. The flowers occur in various forms, and can be daisy-like, decorative, pompons or buttons. This genus contains many hybrids and thousands of cultivars developed for horticultural purposes. In addition to the traditional yellow, other colors are available, such as white, purple, and red. The most important hybrid is Chrysanthemum × morifolium (syn. C. × grandiflorum), derived primarily from C. indicum but also involving other species.

Chrysanthemums are broken into two basic groups, Garden Hardy and Exhibition. Garden hardy mums are new perennials capable of being wintered over in the ground in most northern latitudes. Exhibition varieties are not usually as sturdy. Garden hardies are defined by their ability to produce an abundance of small blooms with little if any mechanical assistance (i.e., staking) and withstanding wind and rain. Exhibition varieties on the other hand require staking, over-wintering in a relatively dry cool environment, sometimes with the addition of night lights.

The Exhibition varieties can be used to create many amazing plant forms; Large disbudded blooms, spray forms, as well as many artistically trained forms, such as: Thousand Bloom, Standard (trees), Fans, Hanging Baskets, Topiary, Bonsai, and Cascades.

Chrysanthemum blooms are divided into 13 different bloom forms by the US National Chrysanthemum Society, Inc., which is in keeping with the international classification system. The bloom forms are defined by the way in which the ray and disk florets are arranged.

Chrysanthemum blooms are composed of many individual flowers (florets), each one capable of producing a seed. The disk florets are in the center of the bloom head, and the ray florets are on the perimeter. The ray florets are considered imperfect flowers, as they only possess the female productive organs, while the disk florets are considered perfect flowers as they possess both male and female reproductive organs.

An Irregular Incurve chrysanthemum, or 大菊 ogiku in Japanese, meaning "big chrysanthemum". The size of this flower is around 20cm (about 8 inches).

Irregular Incurve: These are the giants of the chrysanthemum world. Quite often disbudded to create a single giant bloom (ogiku), the disk florets are completely concealed, while the ray florets curve inwardly to conceal the disk and also hang down to create a 'skirt'.

Reflex: The disk florets are concealed and the ray florets reflex outwards to create a mop like appearance.

Regular Incurve: Similar to the irregular incurves, only usually smaller blooms, with nearly perfect globular form. Disk florets are completely concealed. They used to be called 'Chinese'.

Decorative: Similar to reflex blooms without the mop like appearance. Disk florets are completely concealed, ray florets usually don't radiate at more than a 90 degree angle to the stem.

Intermediate Incurve: These blooms are in-between the Irregular and Regular incurves in both size and form. They usually have broader florets and a more loosely composed bloom. Again, the disk florets are completely concealed.

Pompon: *Note the spelling, it is not pompom. The blooms are fully double, of small size, and almost completely globular in form.

Single/Semi-Double: These blooms have completely exposed disk florets, with between 1 and 7 rows of ray florets, usually radiating at not more than a 90 degree angle to the stem.

Anemone: The disk florets are prominently featured, quite often raised and overshadowing the ray florets.

A red chrysanthemum

Spoon: The disk florets are visible and the long tubular ray florets are spatulate.

Chrysanthemum morifolium - an example of Spoon shaped bloom.

Quill: The disk florets are completely concealed, and the ray florets are tube like.

Spider: The disk florets are completely concealed, and the ray florets are tube like with hooked or barbed ends, hanging loosely around the stem.

Brush & Thistle: The disk florets may be visible. The ray florets are often tube like, and project all around the flower head, or project parallel to the stem.

Exotic: These blooms defy classification as they possess the attributes of more than one of the other twelve bloom types.

Chrysanthemum leaves resemble its close cousin, the mugwort weed — so much so that mugwort is sometimes called wild chrysanthemum — making them not always the first choice for professional gardeners.

Culinary uses

Dried chrysanthemum flowers

Yellow or white chrysanthemum flowers are boiled to make a sweet drink in some parts of Asia. The resulting beverage is known simply as "chrysanthemum tea" (, pinyin: júhuā chá, in Chinese). Chrysanthemum tea has many medicinal uses, including an aid in recovery from influenza. In Korea, a rice wine flavored with chrysanthemum flowers is called gukhwaju (국화주).photo 1photo 2

Chrysanthemum leaves are steamed or boiled and used as greens, especially in Chinese cuisine. Other uses include using the petals of chrysanthemum to mix with a thick snake meat soup (蛇羹) in order to enhance the aroma.

Insecticidal uses

Chrysanthemum coronarium in the Tel Aviv botanical garden

Pyrethrum (Chrysanthemum [or Tanacetum] cinerariaefolium) is economically important as a natural source of insecticide. The flowers are pulverized, and the active components called pyrethrins, contained in the seed cases, are extracted and sold in the form of an oleoresin. This is applied as a suspension in water or oil, or as a powder. Pyrethrins attack the nervous systems of all insects, and inhibit female mosquitoes from biting. When not present in amounts fatal to insects, they still appear to have an insect repellent effect. They are harmful to fish, but are far less toxic to mammals and birds than many synthetic insecticides, except in consumer airborne backyard applications. They are non-persistent, being biodegradable and also breaking down easily on exposure to light. They are considered to be amongst the safest insecticides for use around food. (Pyrethroids are synthetic insecticides based on natural pyrethrum, e.g., permethrin.

Environmental uses

Chrysanthemum plants have been shown to reduce indoor air pollution by the NASA Clean Air Study.[2]

Medicinal uses

Extracts of Chrysanthemum plants (stem and flower) have been shown to have a wide variety of potential medicinal properties, including anti-HIV-1,[3][4] antibacterial[5] and antimycotic.[6]

Cultural significance and symbolism

In some countries of Europe (e.g., France, Italy, Poland, Croatia), white chrysanthemums are symbolic of death and are only used for funerals or on graves - similarly, in China, Japan and Korea, white chrysanthemums are symbolic of lamentation and/or grief. In some other countries, it represents honesty.[7] In the United States, the flower is usually regarded as positive and cheerful.[citation needed]

Chrysanthemum Crest on the Japanese battleship Mikasa
Chrysanthemum Crest
The gate of Yasukuni shrine
A Ming Dynasty Chinese red lacquerware dish with carved design of chrysanthemums and dragons

China

  • The chrysanthemum is one of the "Four Gentlemen" (四君子) of China (the others being the plum blossom, the orchid, and bamboo). The chrysanthemum is said to have been favored by Tao Qian, an influential Chinese poet, and is symbolic of nobleness. It is also one of the 4 symbolic seasonal flowers.
  • A Chrysanthemum Festival is held each year in Tongxiang, near Hangzhou, China.[8]
  • Chrysanthemums are the topic in hundreds of poems of China. [9]
  • The "golden flower" referred to in the 2006 movie Curse of the Golden Flower is a chrysanthemum.

Japan

  • The Chrysanthemum Throne is the name given to the position of Japanese emperor.
  • Chrysanthemum crest (菊花紋章, kikukamonshō or kikkamonshō) is a general term for a mon of chrysanthemum blossom design; there are more than 150 different patterns. The Imperial Seal of Japan is a particularly notable one; it is used by members of the Japanese Imperial family. There are also a number of formerly state-endowed shrines (官国弊社, kankokuheisha) which have adopted a chrysanthemum crest.[10]
  • The Supreme Order of the Chrysanthemum is a Japanese honor awarded by the emperor.
  • In Japan the chrysanthemum is also a metaphor for homosexuality in poems, as the tightly gathered petals are supposed to represent the anus.[11]
  • The city of Nihonmatsu, Japan hosts the "Nihonmatsu Chrysanthemum Dolls Exhibition" every autumn in historical ruin of Kasumigajo castle.[12]

United States

  • The chrysanthemum is the flower of the American musician fraternity Phi Mu Alpha Sinfonia.
  • Chrysanthemums were recognized as the official flower of the city of Chicago in 1961.[13]
  • The Rock band Everclear has a song named after the flower.

Australia

  • Australians traditionally give their mother a bunch of chrysanthemums on Mother's Day.

Others

  • The white chrysanthemum is the flower of Triangle Fraternity, a society of engineers, architects, and scientists.
  • The term "chrysanthemum" is also used to refer to a certain type of firework shell that produces a pattern of trailing sparks similar to a chrysanthemum flower.[citation needed]
  • The chrysanthemum is also the flower of November.[14]
  • Chrysanthemums are common visual hallucinations induced by the psychoactive Dimethyltryptamine.[15]

See also

References

  1. ^ History of the Chrysanthemum. National Chrysanthemum Society USA
  2. ^ B. C. Wolverton, Rebecca C. McDonald, and E. A. Watkins, Jr. "Foliage Plants for Removing Indoor Air Pollutants from Energy-efficient Homes" (PDF). http://ntrs.nasa.gov/archive/nasa/ssctrs.ssc.nasa.gov/foliage_air/foliage_air.pdf. Retrieved 2007-05-03. 
  3. ^ Collins RA, Ng TB, Fong WP, Wan CC, Yeung HW (1997). "A comparison of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 inhibition by partially purified aqueous extracts of Chinese medicinal herbs". Life Sciences 60 (23): PL345–51. doi:10.1016/S0024-3205(97)00227-0. PMID 9180371. 
  4. ^ Hu CQ, Chen K, Shi Q, Kilkuskie RE, Cheng YC, Lee KH (January 1994). "Anti-AIDS agents, 10. Acacetin-7-O-beta-D-galactopyranoside, an anti-HIV principle from Chrysanthemum morifolium and a structure-activity correlation with some related flavonoids". Journal of Natural Products 57 (1): 42–51. doi:10.1021/np50103a006. PMID 8158164. 
  5. ^ Sassi AB, Harzallah-Skhiri F, Bourgougnon N, Aouni M (February 2008). "Antimicrobial activities of four Tunisian Chrysanthemum species". The Indian Journal of Medical Research 127 (2): 183–92. PMID 18403798. http://www.icmr.nic.in/ijmr/2008/february/0213.pdf. 
  6. ^ Marongiu B, Piras A, Porcedda S, et al. (2009). "Chemical and biological comparisons on supercritical extracts of Tanacetum cinerariifolium (Trevir) Sch. Bip. with three related species of chrysanthemums of Sardinia (Italy)". Natural Product Research 23 (2): 190–9. doi:10.1080/14786410801946221. PMID 19173127. 
  7. ^ Flower Meaning. Retrieved 22 September 2007.
  8. ^ "Remarkable Investment Attraction Result of Tongxiang City". Zhejiang Foreign Frade and Economic Cooperation Bureau. Archived from the original on 16 December 2003. http://web.archive.org/web/20031216082741/http://www.zftec.gov.cn/english/open/govern/detail.jsp?m_id=561. Retrieved 17 July 2009. 
  9. ^ http://www.guoxue.com/365/index.php?kid=006
  10. ^ Inoue, Nobutaka (2 June 2005). "Shinmon". Encyclopedia of Shinto. http://eos.kokugakuin.ac.jp/modules/xwords/entry.php?entryID=271. Retrieved 2008-11-17. 
  11. ^ Faure, Bernard (1998). The red thread: Buddhist approaches to sexuality. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press. p. 218. ISBN 978-0-691-05997-6. OCLC 38856169. 
  12. ^ http://www.city.nihonmatsu.lg.jp/kanko/kiku/kiku.html
  13. ^ http://www.chipublib.org/004chicago/chiflower.html
  14. ^ http://www.1stinflowers.com/fom_november.html
  15. ^ bluedolphin (20 October 2005). "I Got It Figured Out: DMT & Cannabis". Erowid Experience Vault. http://www.erowid.org/experiences/exp.php?ID=46856. Retrieved 17 July 2009. 

Further reading

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Source material

Up to date as of January 22, 2010
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The Chrysanthemum
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The Chrysanthemum may refer to:


1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

CHRYSANTHEMUM' (Chrysanthemum sinense; nat. ord. Compositae), one of the most popular of autumn flowers. It is a native of China, whence it was introduced to Europe. The first chrysanthemum in England was grown at Kew in 1790, whither it had been sent by Mr Cels, a French gardener. It was not, however, till 1825 that the first chrysanthemum exhibition took place in England. The small-flowered pompons, and the grotesque-flowered Japanese sorts, are of comparatively recent date, the former having originated from the Chusan daisy, a variety introduced by Mr Fortune in 1846, and the latter having also been introduced by the same traveller about 1862. The Japanese kinds are unquestionably the most popular for decorative purposes as well as for exhibition. They afford a wide choice in colour, form, habit and times of flowering. The incurved Chinese kinds are severely neat-looking flowers in many shades of colour. The anemone-flowered kinds have long outer or ray petals, the interior or disk petals being short and tubular. These are to be had in many pleasing colours. The pompon kinds are small flowered, the petals being short. The plants are mostly dwarf in habit. In the single varieties the outer or ray florets alone are large and attractively coloured.

Plants for the Border.-As a border plant out of doors the chrysanthemum is of the easiest culture. It is an exceptionally good town plant. By a judicious selection of varieties, flowers may be produced in abundance and in considerable variety from August to the end of November, and in favourable seasons well on towards Christmas. Since 1890 when the English market was flooded with French raised varieties of exceptional merit, the border chrysanthemum has taken first place among hardy autumn flowering plants. Most of the varieties then introduced have been superseded by many excellent kinds raised in Britain.

Propagation.-The old English method of dividing the plants in March or early April may be followed where better means of propagation are not practicable. Many of the best border varieties are shy in producing new growths (suckers) from the rootstock, and are in consequence not amenable to this method. It is better to raise the plants from cuttings. This may be begun in January for the early flowering sorts, the late kinds being propagated during February and March. They will root quite well in a cold frame, if protected during frosty weather by litter or other similar material. If the frame can be heated at will so as to maintain a fairly even temperature of from 40° to 50° Fah., roots will be made more quickly and with more certainty. A still better method is to improvise a frame near the glass in a greenhouse, where the temperature is not raised above 50° by artificial heat. This has the advantage of being accessible in all weathers. The bottom of the frame is covered with sifted coal ashes or coco-nut fibre, on which the shallow boxes or pots used in propagating are placed. These are well drained with broken crocks, the bottoms of the boxes being drilled to allow water to pass out quickly. The soil should consist of about equal parts of fibrous loam and leaf-mould, half a part of coarse silver-sand, and about a quart of vegetable ash from the garden refuse heap to each bushel of the compost. The whole should be passed through a quarter inch sieve and thoroughly mixed. The coarse leaf-mould, &c., from the sieve should be spread thinly over the drainage, and the boxes or pots filled almost to the rims with the compost, and 1 The Gr. xpvQavOq,uov (xpuvos, gold, and hvOeµov, flower) was the herbalists' name for C. segetum, the "corn marigold," with its yellow bloom, and was transferred by Linnaeus to the genus, being commonly restricted now to the species C. sinense. covered, if possible, with a thin layer of silver-sand. It should be pressed firmly, watered with a fine rose, and allowed to drain for an hour. The cuttings should then be dibbled into the boxes in rows, just clear, the soil being gently pressed around each. Short stout shoots which arise directly from the rootstock make the best cuttings. In their absence cuttings from the stems are used. The ideal length for a cutting is about 22 in. Cut the stem squarely with a sharp knife just below a joint, and remove the lower leaves. Insert as soon as possible and water with a fine rose to settle the soil around them. The soil is not allowed to become dry. The cuttings should be looked over daily, decayed leaves removed, and surplus moisture, condensed on the glass, wiped away. Ventilate gradually as rooting takes place, and, when well rooted, transfer singly into pots about 3 in. in diameter, using as compost a mixture of two parts loam, one part leaf-mould, half a part coarse silver-sand, and a gallon of vegetable ash to every bushel of the compost. Return to the frames and keep close for a few days to allow the little plants to recover from the check occasioned by the potting. Ventilation should be gradually increased until the plants are able to bear full exposure during favourable weather, without showing signs of distress by flagging. They should be carefully protected at all times from cold cutting winds. In April, should the weather be favourable, the plants may be transferred to the borders, especially should the positions happen to be sheltered. If this is not practicable, another shift will be necessary, this time into pots about 5 in. in diameter. The soil should be similar to that advised for the previous potting, enriched with half a part of horse manure that has been thoroughly sweetened by exposure. Plant out during May. All borders intended for chrysanthemums should be well dug and manured. The strong growing kinds should be planted about 3 ft. apart, the smaller kinds being allowed a little less room.

In the summer, water in dry weather, syringe in the evenings whenever practicable, and keep the borders free from weeds by surface hoeings; stake and tie the plants as required, and pinch out the tips of the shoots until they have become sufficiently bushy by frequent branching. Pinching should not be practised later than the end of June.

Pot Plants for Decoration

A list of a few of the thousands of varieties suitable for this purpose would be out of place here; new varieties are being constantly introduced, for these the reader is referred to trade catalogues.

The most important considerations for the beginner are (a) the choice of colours; (b) the types of flowers; (c) the height and habits of the varieties. Generally speaking, very tall varieties and those of weak growth and delicate constitutions should be avoided. The majority of the varieties listed for exhibition purposes are also suitable for decoration, especially the Japanese kinds. Propagation and early culture are substantially as for border plants.

As soon as the 5-in. pots are filled with roots, no time should be lost in giving them the final shift. Eight-in. pots are large enough for the general stock, but very strong growers may be given a larger size. The soil, prepared a fortnight in advance, should consist of four parts fibrous loam, one part leaf-mould, one part horse manure prepared as advised above, half a part coarse silver-sand, half a part of vegetable ash, and a quart of bone-meal or a sprinkling of basic slag to every bushel of the mixture. Mix thoroughly and turn over at intervals of three or four days. Pot firmly, working the soil well around the roots with a lath. The main stake for the support of the plant should now be given; other and smaller stakes may later be necessary when the plants are grown in a bushy form, but their number should not be overdone. The stakes should be as few as possible consistent with the safety of the shoots, which should be looped up loosely and neatly. The plants should be placed in their summer quarters directly after potting. Stand them in rows in a sunny situation, the pots clear of one another, sufficient room being allowed between the rows for the cultivator to move freely among them. The main stakes are tied to rough trellis made by straining wire in two rows about 2 ft. apart between upright poles driven into the ground. Coarse coal ashes or coke breeze are the best materials to stand the pots on, there being little risk of worms working through into the pots. The plants, which are required to produce as many flowers as possible, should have their tips pinched out at frequent intervals, from the end of March or beginning of April to the last week in June, for the main season kinds; and about the middle of July for the later kinds.

Towards the end of July the plants will need feeding at the roots with weak liquid manure, varied occasionally by a very slight dusting of soluble chemical manure such as guano. The soil should be moderately moist when manure is given. In order that the flowers may be of good form, all lateral flower buds should be removed as soon as they are large enough to handle, leaving only the bud terminating each shoot. Towards the end of September - earlier should the weather prove wet and cold - remove the plants to wellventilated greenhouses where they are intended to flower. Feeding should be continued until the flowers are nearly half open, when it may be gradually reduced. The large mop-headed blooms seen at exhibitions in November are grown in the way described, but only one or two shoots are allowed to develop on a plant, each shoot eventually having only one bloom.

The chrysanthemum is subject to the attack of black aphis and green-fly. These pests may be destroyed, out of doors, by syringing with quassia and soft soap solutions, by dusting the affected parts with tobacco-powder, and indoors also by fumigating. Mildew generally appears after the plants are housed. It may be destroyed by dusting the leaves attacked with sublimed sulphur. Rust is a fungoid disease of recent years. It is best checked by syringing the plants with liver of sulphur (1 oz. to 3 gallons of water) occasionally, a few weeks before taking the plants into the greenhouse. Earwigs and slugs must be trapped and destroyed.

Flowers for Exhibition

Flowers of exhibition standard must be as broad and as deep as the various varieties are capable of producing; they must be irreproachable in colour. They must also exhibit the form peculiar to the variety when at its best, very few kinds being precisely alike in this respect. New varieties are introduced in large numbers annually, some of which supplant the older kinds. The cultivator must therefore study the peculiarities of several new kinds each year if he would be a successful exhibitor.

For lists of varieties, &c. see the catalogues of chrysanthemum growers, the gardening Press, and the excellent cultural pamphlets which are published from time to time.


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Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

See also chrysanthemum

Contents

Translingual

Etymology

From Ancient Greek χρυσός (khrusos), gold) + ἄνθος (anthos), flower)

Proper noun

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Wikipedia

Chrysanthemum

  1. a taxonomic genus, within tribe Anthemideae - the chrysanthemums
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Wikispecies

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  • See Wikispecies for the many species

Wikispecies

Up to date as of January 23, 2010

From Wikispecies

Taxonavigation

Classification System: APG II (down to family level)

Main Page
Cladus: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiospermae
Cladus: Eudicots
Cladus: core eudicots
Cladus: Asterids
Cladus: Euasterids II
Ordo: Asterales
Familia: Asteraceae
Subfamilia: Asteroideae
Tribus: Anthemideae
Subtribus: Unassigned
Genus: Chrysanthemum
Species: C. achilleaefolium - C. argyrophyllum - C. alpinum - C. anethifolium - C. anomalum - C. aphrodite - C. arcticum - C. argyrophyllum - C. arisanense - C. arrasanicum - C. artratum - C. asiaticum - C. atkinsonii - C. balsamita - C. bellum - C. bipinnatum - C. boreale - C. brachyglossum - C. carinatum - C. carnosulum - C. carolinianum - C. chalchingolicum - C. chanetii - C. coccineum - C. coronarium - C. corymbosum - C. crassum - C. cuneifolium - C. decurrens - C. dolichophyllum - C. erubescens - C. falcatolobatum - C. flosculosum - C. frutescens - C. fruticulosum - C. gaetulum - C. glabratum - C. glabriusculum - C. gmelinii - C. grandiflorum - C. griffithii - C. hirtum - C. horaimontanum - C. hortorum - C. hwangshanense - C. hypargyrum - C. incanum - C. indicum - C. integrifolium - C. japonense - C. japonicum - C. jucundum - C. jugorum - C. kelleri - C. komarovii - C. konoanum - C. kuwashimae - C. lacustre - C. lasiopodum - C. latifolium - C. lavandulifolium - C. leptophyllum - C. leucanthemum - C. leucanthum - C. licentianum - C. lineare - C. linearifolium - C. lucidum - C. lushanense - C. macrophyllum - C. marschallii - C. mawii - C. maximoviczianum - C. maximowiczii - C. maximum - C. merzabacheri - C. mexicanum - C. millefolium - C. minimum - C. mongolicum - C. morifolium - C. morii - C. multicaule - C. multicore - C. myconis - C. okiense - C. oreastrum - C. ornatum - C. pacificum - C. potentilloides - C. shiwogiku - C. sinuatum - C. vestitum - C. weyrichii - C. yoshinaganthum - C. zawadskii
Hybrid: C. x grandiflorum

Name

Chrysanthemum L.

Vernacular name

Català: Crisantem
Türkçe: Kasımpatı, Krizantem

References

Species Plantarum 2: 887. 1753.

Wikimedia Commons For more multimedia, look at Chrysanthemum on Wikimedia Commons.

Simple English

Chrysanthemum
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Order: Asterales
Family: Asteraceae
Genus: Chrysanthemum
Species

Chrysanthemum aphrodite
Chrysanthemum arcticum
Chrysanthemum argyrophyllum
Chrysanthemum arisanense
Chrysanthemum boreale
Chrysanthemum chalchingolicum
Chrysanthemum chanetii
Chrysanthemum cinerariaefolium
Chrysanthemum coronarium, Crown daisy
Chrysanthemum crassum
Chrysanthemum glabriusculum
Chrysanthemum hypargyrum
Chrysanthemum indicum
Chrysanthemum japonense
Chrysanthemum japonicum
Chrysanthemum lavandulifolium
Chrysanthemum mawii
Chrysanthemum maximowiczii
Chrysanthemum mongolicum
Chrysanthemum morifolium
Chrysanthemum morii
Chrysanthemum okiense
Chrysanthemum oreastrum
Chrysanthemum ornatum
Chrysanthemum pacificum
Chrysanthemum potentilloides
Chrysanthemum segetum
Chrysanthemum shiwogiku
Chrysanthemum sinuatum
Chrysanthemum vestitum
Chrysanthemum weyrichii
Chrysanthemum yoshinaganthum
Chrysanthemum zawadskii

Chrysanthemums are a genus (Chrysanthemum) of about 30 species of perennial flowering plants in the family Asteraceae, from Asia and northeast Europe.

References and other websites

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Wikimedia Commons has images, video, and/or sound related to:
Look up Chrysanthemum in Wikispecies, a directory of species
pcd:Sinte-catrine








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