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Chukar
Conservation status
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Order: Galliformes
Family: Phasianidae
Genus: Alectoris
Species: A. chukar
Binomial name
Alectoris chukar
(Gray, 1830)
Subspecies

Alectoris chukar chukar
Alectoris chukar cypriotes
Alectoris chukar dzungarica
Alectoris chukar falki
Alectoris chukar kleini
Alectoris chukar koroviakovi
Alectoris chukar kurdestanica
Alectoris chukar pallescens
Alectoris chukar pallida
Alectoris chukar potanini
Alectoris chukar pubescens
Alectoris chukar sinaica
Alectoris chukar subpallida
Alectoris chukar werae

The Chukar, Alectoris chukar, is a Eurasian upland gamebird in the pheasant family Phasianidae of the order Galliformes, gallinaceous birds. Other common names of this bird include 'Chukker' (sometimes misspelled as 'Chuker'), 'Indian Chukar', 'Chukar Partridge', 'Red-legged Partridge', 'Rock Partridge', 'Indian Hill Partridge', 'Chukka', 'Chukkar', 'Chukor', 'Chukore', 'Chikone', 'Kabk', 'Kau-Kau', and 'Keklik'.

Contents

Description

The Chukar is a rotund 32–35 cm (13-14 in) long bird, with a light brown back, grey breast, and buff belly. The face is white with a black gorget. It has rufous-streaked flanks and red legs. When disturbed, it prefers to run rather than fly, but if necessary it flies a short distance on rounded wings.

It is very similar to the Rock Partridge, Alectoris graeca, but is browner on the back and has a yellowish tinge to the foreneck. The sharply defined gorget distinguishes this species from the Red-legged Partridge. Their song is a noisy chuck-chuck-chukar-chukar.

Distribution and habitat

This partridge has its native range in Eurasia, from the Kashmir region, Pakistan, Afghanistan and northern Republic of India in the east to southeastern Europe in the west, and is closely related and similar to its western equivalent, the Red-legged Partridge, Alectoris rufa. It has been introduced widely for game hunters, and became established in the United States Rocky Mountains, Canada, New Zealand and Hawaii. In Great Britain, hybrids between this species and the also introduced Red-legged Partridge are common (release of which was outlawed in the early Nineties for conservation reasons).

Chukar prefer rocky, steep, and open hillsides. In the United States, Oregon, Nevada and Idaho lead all other states in terms of feral chukar populations and harvest. However, they can be found in almost all the western states in isolated populations.

Chukars are common in the south of the island of Rhodes in Greece, their habitat coming fairly close to the sea, within a kilometer in fact.

Behavior

The chukar is a resident breeder in dry, open, and often hilly country. In the wild, chukar travel in groups of 5 to 40 birds called coveys. It nests in a scantily lined ground scrape laying 8 to 20 eggs. Chukars will take a wide variety of seeds and some insects as food; however, Downy Brome (Cheatgrass) is this species' strong food preference. When in captivity, they will lay one egg per day throughout the breeding season if the eggs are collected daily.

Many knowledgeable hunters consider chukar the most challenging of all the gamebirds. Its quick flight, steep habitat, and tendency to run make it a challenge suitable for only the most dedicated and physically fit bird hunters.

In culture

The Chukar is the National bird of Pakistan and national food of India, its name is derived from Chakor in Sanskrit. In Pakistani and Indian culture, as well as in Indian mythology, the Chukar sometimes symbolizes intense, and often unrequited, love.[2][3] It is said to be in love with the moon and to gaze at it constantly.[4] Battle Mountain, NV holds an annual "Chukar Tournament & Feed" every November.

The Chukar is a popular pet for some peoples in the Middle-East, particularly among Iranians, and Kurds.

The Idaho Falls Chukars minor league baseball team is named for the bird.

Population and conservation status

Chukar bird in the Antelope Island State Park, Utah, US

This species is relatively unaffected by hunting or loss of habitat due to its remote and physically demanding terrain preferences. Its numbers from year to year are most largely affected by weather patterns during the breeding season.

References

  1. ^ BirdLife International (2008). Alectoris chukar. In: IUCN 2008. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Downloaded on 24 February 2009.
  2. ^ Richard Carnac Temple (1884), The legends of the Panjâb, Education Society's Press, http://books.google.com/books?id=XaEIAAAAQAAJ, "... "Priti chand chakor ... Our love is as the moon's and the partridge's" ... It is commonly said that the chakor, or Indian red-legged partridge, is violently in love with the moon ..." 
  3. ^ Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal v. 55, Asiatic Society of Bengal, 1881, http://books.google.com/books?id=crwIAAAAQAAJ, "... When I beheld thy face mournful, lady, I wandered restlessly o'er the world, Thy face is like the moon, and my heart like the chakor ..." 
  4. ^ Edward Balfour (1871), Cyclopædia of India and of eastern and southern Asia, commercial, industrial and scientific: products of the mineral, vegetable and animal kingdoms, useful arts and manufactures, Scottish & Adelphi Presses, http://books.google.com/books?id=jmoIAAAAQAAJ, "... The birds are said by the natives to be enamoured of the moon and, at full moon, to eat fire ..." 
Illustration from Hume and Marshall's Game birds of India, Burma and Ceylon

External links

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Chukar
Conservation status
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Order: Galliformes
Family: Phasianidae
Genus: Alectoris
Species: A. chukar
Binomial name
Alectoris chukar
(Gray, 1830)
Subspecies

Alectoris chukar chukar
Alectoris chukar cypriotes
Alectoris chukar dzungarica
Alectoris chukar falki
Alectoris chukar kleini
Alectoris chukar koroviakovi
Alectoris chukar kurdestanica
Alectoris chukar pallescens
Alectoris chukar pallida
Alectoris chukar potanini
Alectoris chukar pubescens
Alectoris chukar sinaica
Alectoris chukar subpallida
Alectoris chukar werae

The Chukar, Alectoris chukar is a Eurasian upland gamebird in the pheasant family Phasianidae of the order Galliformes, gallinaceous birds. Other common names of this bird include 'Chukker' (sometimes misspelled as 'Chuker'), 'Chukar Partridge', 'Red-legged Partridge', 'Rock Partridge', 'Indian Hill Partridge', 'Chukka', 'Chukkar', 'Chukor', 'Chukore', 'Chikone', 'Kabk', 'Kau-Kau', and 'Keklik'.

Contents

Distribution

This partridge has its native range in Asia from Pakistan and Kashmir, into the Republic of India (Himachal Pradesh and Punjab states). And Afghanistan in the east to southeastern Europe in the west, and is closely related and similar to its western equivalent, the Red-legged Partridge, Alectoris rufa. It has been introduced widely for game hunters, and became established in the United States Rocky Mountains, Canada, New Zealand and Hawaii. In Great Britain, hybrids between this species and the also introduced Red-legged Partridge are common.

Chukar prefer rocky, steep, and open hillsides. In the United States, Oregon, Nevada and Idaho lead all other states in terms of feral chukar populations and harvest. However, they can be found in almost all the western states in isolated populations.

Biology and behavior

The chukar is a resident breeder in dry, open, and often hilly country. In the wild, chukar travel in groups of 5 to 40 birds called coveys. It nests in a scantily lined ground scrape laying 8 to 20 eggs. Chukars will take a wide variety of seeds and some insects as food; however, Downy Brome (Cheatgrass) is this species' strong food preference. When in captivity, they will lay one egg per day throughout the breeding season if the eggs are collected daily.

Many knowlegable hunters consider chukar the most challenging of all the gamebirds. Its quick flight, steep habitat, and tendency to run make it a challenge suitable for only the most dedicated and physically fit bird hunters.

Appearance

The Chukar is a rotund 32-35 cm long bird, with a light brown back, grey breast, and buff belly. The face is white with a black gorget. It has rufous-streaked flanks and red legs. When disturbed, it prefers to run rather than fly, but if necessary it flies a short distance on rounded wings.

It is very similar to Rock Partridge, Alectoris graeca, but is browner on the back and has a yellowish tinge to the foreneck. The sharply defined gorget distinguishes this species from Red-legged Partridge. The song is a noisy chuck-chuck-chukar-chukar.

In culture

The Chukar is the National bird of Pakistan and the name is derived from Chakor in Sanskrit. In Indian mythology, the bird is said to be in love with the moon and to look at it constantly. Battle Mountain, NV holds an annual "Chukar Tournament & Feed" every November.

The Chukar is a popular pet for some peoples in the Middle-East, particularly among Iranians, Turks, and Kurds.

Population and conservation status

This species is relatively unaffected by hunting or loss of habitat due to its remote and physically demanding terrain preferences. Its numbers from year to year are most largely affected by weather patterns during the breeding season.

References

  1. ^ BirdLife International (2008). Alectoris chukar. 2008 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN 2008. Retrieved on 24 February 2009.
and Marshall's Game birds of India, Burma and Ceylon]]

External links


Simple English

Chukar
Conservation status
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Order: Galliformes
Family: Phasianidae
Genus: Alectoris
Species: A. chukar
Binomial name
Alectoris chukar
(Gray, 1830)

The Chukar (Alectoris chukar) is a Eurasian upland gamebird in the pheasant family Phasianidae of the order Galliformes, gallinaceous birds. Other common names of this bird include 'Chukker' (sometimes misspelled as 'Chuker'), 'Chukar Partridge', 'Red-legged Partridge', 'Rock Partridge', 'Indian Hill Partridge', 'Chukka', 'Chukkar', 'Chukor', 'Chukore', 'Chikone', 'Kabk', 'Kau-Kau', and 'Keklik'. The Chukar is the National Bird of Pakistan.

Distribution

This partridge has its native range in Asia from Pakistan and Kashmir, and Afghanistan in the east to southeastern Europe in the west, and is closely related and similar to its western equivalent, the Red-legged Partridge, Alectoris rufa. It has been introduced widely, and became established in the United States, Canada, New Zealand and Hawaii. In Great Britain, hybrids between this species and the also introduced Red-legged Partridge are common.

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