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Chukotka Autonomous Okrug (English)
Чуко́тский автоно́мный о́круг (Russian)
Map of Russia - Chukotka Autonomous Okrug (2008-03).svg
Location of Chukotka Autonomous Okrug in Russia
Coat of Arms Flag
Coat of Arms of Chukotka.png
Flag of Chukotka.svg
Flag of Chukotka Autonomous Okrug
Anthem:
Country Russia
Administrative Center Anadyr
Established 1930
Political status
Federal district
Economic region
Autonomous okrug
Far Eastern Federal District
Far Eastern economic region
Code 87
Area
- Rank within Russia
737,700 km²
7th
Population ( 2002)
- Rank within Russia
- Density
- Urban
- Rural
53,824 inhabitants
82nd
0.1 inhab. / km²

Official language Russian
Governor Roman Kopin
Legislative body Okrug Duma
Charter Charter of the CAO
Official website http://www.chukotka.org/en/main/

Chukotka Autonomous Okrug (Russian: Чуко́тский автоно́мный о́круг, tr.: Chukotsky avtonomny okrug; Chukchi: Чукоткакэн автономныкэн округ, tr: Chukotkaken avtonomnyken okrug), or Chukotka (Чуко́тка), is a federal subject of Russia (an autonomous okrug) located in the Far Eastern Federal District.

It is the most northeasterly region of Russia and, since the sale of Alaska to the United States, has been the only part of Russia lying partially in the Western Hemisphere (east of the 180th meridian). It is bordered on the east by the Bering Sea, part of the Pacific Ocean, and to the north by the Chukchi Sea and the East Siberian Sea, which are part of the Arctic Ocean. Chukotka has an area of 737,700 km2 (284,800 sq mi) and a population of 53,824 according to the 2002 Census. The principal town and administrative center is Anadyr.

Lake El'gygytgyn, an important site for scientific research on climate change, is located in Chukotka, as is the village of Uelen, the closest substantial Russian settlement to the United States.

Contents

History

An early (1773) map of Chukotka, showing the route of Dezhnev expedition of 1648

Chukotka was formerly an autonomous okrug subsumed within Magadan Oblast, but it declared its independence in 1991, a move that was confirmed by the Russian Constitutional Court in 1993.

Traditionally the home of the native Chukchi people, Siberian Yupiks, Koryaks, Chuvans, Evens/Lamuts, Yukagirs, and Russian Old Settlers, the region was subject to collectivisation and forced settlement during the times of the Soviet Union.

Economy

Chukotka has large reserves of oil, natural gas, coal, gold, and tungsten, which are slowly being exploited, but much of the rural population survives on subsistence reindeer herding, hunting, and fishing. The urban population is employed in mining, administration, construction, cultural work, education, medicine, and other occupations.

Transportation

Chukotka is roadless and air travel is the main mode of passenger transport. There are local constant roads between some settlements. In the winter on the rivers are laid Winter road which connect region settlements in a uniform network. In 2009 replacement of the emergency bridge through Loren river on constantly operating local road from Lavrentiya to village Lorino became the main event of transport of Chukotka.

The main airport is Ugolny Airport near Anadyr. Coastal shipping also takes place, but the ice situation is too severe for at least half the year.

Administrative divisions

Districts of Chukotka. Chaunsky District and Anadyr town highlighted

Chukotka Autonomous Okrug is administratively divided into the following districts:

Arctic coast: northern Bilibinsky District (northwest), Chaunsky District around Chaunskaya Bay, Shmidtovsky District, northern Iultinsky District, Chukotsky District at the eastern cape.

Pacific coast: Providensky District south of Chukotsky, southern Iultinsky District around Kresta Bay, eastern Anadyrsky District at the Anadyr Estuary, Beringovsky District in the south.

Interior: The western quarter of the Okrug is Bilibinsky District and the rest of the interior is Anadyrsky District.

Demographics

  • Population (2002): 53,824
  • Ethnic groups: Indigenous peoples make up less than one third of the total population. According to the 2002 Census the ‘national composition’ was • Russian 51.86% • Chukchi 23.45% • Ukrainian 9.22% • Eskimo 2.85% • Even 2.61% • Chuvan 1.778% • Tatar 0.99% • Belarusians 0.96% • Yukaghir 0.34% • Chuvash 0.30% • Moldovan 0.24% • Buriat 0.22% • German 0.22% • Bashkir 0.22% • Azeri 0.20% • and a few other groups of less than one hundred persons each. In addition, 2.23% of the inhabitants chose not to specify their ethnic background on the census questionnaire.[1] Historical figures are given below:
census 1939 census 1959 census 1970 census 1979 census 1989 census 2002
Chukchis 12,111 (56.2%) 9,975 (21.4%) 11,001 (10.9%) 11,292 (8.1%) 11,914 (7.3%) 12,622 (23.5%)
Chuvans 944 (0.6%) 951 (1.8%)
Eskimos 800 (3.7%) 1,064 (2.3%) 1,149 (1.1%) 1,278 (0.9%) 1,452 (0.9%) 1,534 (2.9%)
Evens 817 (3.8%) 820 (1.8%) 1,061 (1.0%) 969 (0.7%) 1,336 (0.8%) 1,407 (2.6%)
Russians 5,183 (24.1%) 28,318 (60.7%) 70,531 (69.7%) 96,424 (68.9%) 108,297 (66.1%) 27,918 (51.9%)
Ukrainians 571 (2.7%) 3,543 (7.6%) 10,393 (10.3%) 20,122 (14.4%) 27,600 (16.8%) 4,960 (9.2%)
Others 2,055 (9.5%) 2,969 (6.4%) 7,049 (7.0%) 9,859 (7.0%) 12,391 (7.6%) 4,432 (8.2%)
All 21,537 46,689 101,194 139,944 163,934 53,824

Ethnographic maps shows the Yupik Eskimos as the indigenous population of some villages near Provideniya, Chuvans in the Chuvanskoye village some 100 km west of Markovo, the Evens in some inland areas, and the Chukchi throughout the rest of the region.[2]

  • Vital statistics
Source: Russian Federal State Statistics Service
Desolate wilderness of far northern Chukotka
Births Deaths Birth rate Death rate
1970 1,751 599 17.0 5.8
1975 2,113 627 17.0 5.1
1980 2,208 653 15.4 4.6
1985 2,659 627 17.3 4.1
1990 2,208 598 13.8 3.7
1991 1,912 631 12.5 4.1
1992 1,565 763 11.5 5.6
1993 1,191 907 10.1 7.7
1994 1,153 884 11.1 8.5
1995 935 816 10.4 9.1
1996 935 816 11.5 10.1
1997 818 598 10.9 8.0
1998 855 612 12.3 8.8
1999 672 530 10.4 8.2
2000 686 570 11.5 9.6
2001 719 701 12.7 12.4
2002 653 611 12.0 11.3
2003 679 562 13.0 10.8
2004 787 623 15.4 12.2
2005 795 597 15.7 11.8
2006 771 585 15.3 11.6
2007 801 595 15.9 11.8
2008 751 620 15.1 12.4

Governor

The governor of Chukotka until July 3, 2008, business oligarch Roman Abramovich, also the owner of Chelsea F.C. has spent over US$1 billion in the region (partly as normal tax payments) on developing infrastructure and providing direct aid to the inhabitants[3] since becoming governor in 2000. In 2004 there were also reports, however, that Chukotka gave Abramovich's company Sibneft tax breaks in excess of US$450 million[4].

Religion

The Russian Orthodox Church in Chukotka is represented by the Eparchy (Diocese) of Anadyr and Chukotka (Russian: Анадырская и Чукотская епархия). The controversial conservative Bishop of Anadyr and Chukotka, Diomid, who had occupied the Anadyr see since 2000 and had been instrumental in the development of the church in the peninsula, was sacked by the Holy Synod in the summer of 2008. The diocese has been since run by the archbishop of Khabarovsk and the River, Mark (Tuzhikov) (ru).

See also

References

Josh Newell, 'The Russian Far East, A Reference Guide for Conservation and Development',2004

External links

Coordinates: 66°15′10.06″N 172°00′03.63″E / 66.2527944°N 172.0010083°E / 66.2527944; 172.0010083

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