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Church of England
The Church of England badge is copyright © The Archbishops' Council, 2000.
The Church of England logo since 1996
Supreme Governor Queen Elizabeth II
Primate Rowan Williams
Headquarters Church House, Great Smith Street, London SW1P 3AZ
Territory England, Isle of Man, Channel Islands, Continental Europe, Gibraltar
Members 13.4 million[1]
Website www.cofe.anglican.org

  Anglicanism Portal
.The Church of England is the officially established Christian church[2] in England, the Mother Church of the worldwide Anglican Communion and the oldest among the communion's thirty-eight independent national and regional churches.^ Some notes on the Church of England and "Establishment" .
  • The Church of England and "Establishment" 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.thuto.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Each national church in the Anglican Communion has its own adaptation of the Prayer Book.
  • Church of the Redeemer - FAQ's 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.redeemerkc.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ History of the Church in England : from the earliest period, to the re-establishment of the hierarchy in 1850 / by the Very Rev. Canon Flanagan.

.The Church also extends to the Isle of Man via the Diocese of Sodor and Man, while the Channel Islands form part of the Diocese of Winchester, and a number of Anglican communities in continental Europe, the former Soviet Union, Turkey and Morocco are formed into the Diocese of Gibraltar in Europe.^ Immigrants from Eastern Europe and Africa have filled the pews of Catholic churches, while attendance at Anglican Sunday services has dipped 20% since 2000, according to a...
  • Church of England – News Stories About Church of England - Page 1 | Newser 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.newser.com [Source type: News]

^ In practice at least, the parish is the basic unit of Anglican church life, to which the diocese is accessory (not vice versa ).
  • The Church of England - Beckwith 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.latimertrust.org [Source type: Original source]

^ After long strife Wilfrid, who was supported by Rome, regained a part of his former diocese.
  • The Church of England - LoveToKnow 1911 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

The Church of England understands itself to be both Catholic and Reformed:[3]
.
  • Catholic in that it views itself as a part of the universal church of Jesus Christ in unbroken continuity with the early apostolic and later medieval church.^ WE DECLARE that we adhere wholly to biblical teaching and to the following principles, and thus shall not accept any action or compromise that would weaken or change the faith and traditions of these principles and beliefs, which we hold to be essential to an unimpaired relationship with Jesus Christ and His one holy catholic and apostolic church.

    ^ I. The existing cathedral of Christ Church, Oxford, was originally the church of St. Frideswide's priory, the history of which will be found in Part II .
    • Christ Church, Oxford • King's Handbook to the Cathedrals of England 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC penelope.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Evangelical faith in the Anglican Church and others is centered upon Christ and His universal family of believers.
    • Is the Church of England finished? Should it be? - Mail Online - Peter Hitchens blog 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC hitchensblog.mailonsunday.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

    .This is expressed in its strong emphasis on the teachings of the early Church Fathers, in particular as formalised in the Apostles', Nicene, and Athanasian creeds.^ Around the same time in the Western church the Apostles Creed was beginning to find its final shape (the Eastern church never used it).
    • A Short History of the Anglican Church 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.allsaintsjakarta.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The original Article given Royal assent in 1571 and reaffirmed in 1662, was entitled "Of the Three Creeds; and began as follows, "The Three Creeds, Nicene Creed, Athanasius's Creed, and that which is commonly called the Apostles' Creed ..."
    • The Thirty-Nine Articles of Religion of the Church of England 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.godonthe.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ After the Council of Constantinople in 381 the text of the Nicene Creed said that the Holy Spirit proceeded from the Father.
    • A Short History of the Anglican Church 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.allsaintsjakarta.org [Source type: Original source]

    [4]
  • .
  • Reformed to the extent that it has been shaped by some of the doctrinal and institutional principles of the 16th century Protestant Reformation.^ Luther and some of the secular leaders of Germany issued a Protestation in 1529 affirming their reforming beliefs.
    • A Short History of the Anglican Church 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.allsaintsjakarta.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ There can be no doubt that the English Reformation is substantially a part of the great Protestant Reformation upheaval of the sixteenth century, and that its doctrine , liturgy, and chief promoters were to a very considerable extent derived from, and influenced by, the Lutheran and Calvinistic movements on the Continent.
    • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Anglicanism 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Evangelicals generally hold to the doctrines of the Reformation, especially those connected with salvation, Holy Communion and the authority of the Bible, but they have also been influenced by the Evangelical Revival in the 18th century.
    • A Short History of the Anglican Church 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.allsaintsjakarta.org [Source type: Original source]

    .The more Reformed character finds expression in the Thirty-Nine Articles of religion, established as part of the settlement of religion under Queen Elizabeth I.^ Eventually they became the nucleus of the Articles of Religion which were authorized under Edward VI and Elizabeth.
    • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Anglicanism 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The new settlement of religion was based, not on the First Prayer Book of 1549, but on the more Protestant one of 1552.
    • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Anglicanism 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ On the accession of Elizabeth they were once more concealed, and did not find their final resting-place for some years afterwards.
    • Christ Church, Oxford • King's Handbook to the Cathedrals of England 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC penelope.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

    .The customs and liturgy of the Church of England, as expressed in the Book of Common Prayer, are based on pre-Reformation traditions but have been influenced by Reformation liturgical and doctrinal principles.^ The Church of England retained many of its pre-Reformation powers.
    • The Church of England and "Establishment" 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.thuto.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ We believe the historic BOOK OF COMMON PRAYER is regarded as a doctrinal standard and our common liturgy.

    ^ The Church of England's Book of Common Prayer is the version agreed in 1662.
    • The Church of England and "Establishment" 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.thuto.org [Source type: Original source]

    [4]

Contents

History

.According to tradition, Christianity arrived in Britain in the first or second century (probably via the tin trade route through Ireland and Iberia), and existed independently of the Church of Rome, as did many other Christian communities of that era.^ By the end of the century many of them did a degree.
  • A History of Christianity in England 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.localhistories.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The church in Rome was already becoming the most influential church in the western world, mainly because it was located in the capital of the Roman Empire; and it was afterwards to help hold Christendom together even when the Empire collapsed; but it had not yet started claiming the right to govern other churches, and for many centuries the Celtic churches had great independence.
  • The Church of England - Beckwith 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.latimertrust.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Our history is traced to the British Isles beginning according to the ancient fathers to the first century, when St. Joseph of Arimathea visited his tin mines at Glastonbury, England bringing the Holy Grail.

.The earliest historical evidence of an organized Christian church in the area that is now called England is found in the writings of such early Christian Fathers as Tertullian and Origen in the first years of the 3rd century, although the first Christian communities probably were established some decades earlier.^ Christianity in 18th Century England .
  • A History of Christianity in England 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.localhistories.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Some notes on the Church of England and "Establishment" .
  • The Church of England and "Establishment" 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.thuto.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Christianity reached Britain during the 3rd century, and perhaps earlier, probably from Gaul .
  • The Church of England - LoveToKnow 1911 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

.Three Romano-British bishops, including Restitutus, are known to have been present at the Council of Arles in 314. Others attended the Council of Sardica in 347 and that of Ariminum in 360, and a number of references to the church in Roman Britain are found in the writings of 4th-century Christian fathers.^ In 314 three British bishops attended a church council in Arles in France, Eborius bishop of York , Restitutus bishop of London and Adelius bishop of Caerleon (Gwent).
  • A History of Christianity in England 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.localhistories.org [Source type: Original source]

^ A fully grown Roman British Church existed in the 4th century: bishops Britain.
  • The Church of England - LoveToKnow 1911 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Origin writes forty years later that in Britain are "Christians to be found."

Britain was the home of Pelagius, who nearly defeated Augustine of Hippo's doctrine of original sin.
The Church of England traces its formal corporate history from the 597 Gregorian mission, stresses its continuity and identity with the primitive universal Western church, and notes the consolidation of its particular independent and national character in the post-Reformation events of Tudor England, and confirmed by the restoration of the monarchy in 1660.
.Christianity arrived in what is now England in the first centuries AD. Over time the indigenous Britons converted to the new faith.^ Christianity in 17th Century England .
  • A History of Christianity in England 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.localhistories.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Christianity in 18th Century England .
  • A History of Christianity in England 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.localhistories.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Christianity in 20th Century England .
  • A History of Christianity in England 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.localhistories.org [Source type: Original source]

.After the Anglo-Saxon invasion, however, Christian Britons made little progress in converting the newcomers from their native paganism.^ The Normans brought with them Norman culture, institutions, and social practices, but did not largely impose these on the native Anglo-Saxon populations.
  • England 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.wsu.edu:8080 [Source type: Original source]

^ In 449, after the withdrawal of the Romans, the invasion of Britain by the pagan Anglo-Saxons began, as a result of which the Christian Celts were driven to the extremities of the land.
  • The Church of England - Beckwith 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.latimertrust.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Norman invasion, however, introduced a long period in which Norman French and Anglo-Saxon existed side-by-side.
  • England 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.wsu.edu:8080 [Source type: Original source]

.In 597 Pope Gregory I sent Saint Augustine of Canterbury from Rome to evangelise the Angles; this event is known as the Gregorian mission.^ The reconversion of the country was partly the work of Celtic missionaries from the north, beginning in 635, and led by Aidan, but partly the work of Roman missionaries from the south, who were sent to Kent from Rome by Pope Gregory the Great as early as 597 under the leadership of Augustine (not to be confused with the great theologian Augustine of Hippo, two centuries before).
  • The Church of England - Beckwith 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.latimertrust.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Because Augustine's mission had been sent directly from Rome , the English church recognised that it owed a special debt to the church in Rome .
  • The Church of England - Beckwith 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.latimertrust.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Kent and East Anglia , which was evangelized by Felix , a Burgundian bishop sent from Canterbury, were settled in the faith.
  • The Church of England - LoveToKnow 1911 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

.With the help of Christians already residing in Kent Augustine established his church in Canterbury, the capital of the kingdom of Kent, and became the first in the series of Archbishops of Canterbury in 598. A later archbishop, the Greek Theodore of Tarsus, also contributed to the organisation of Christianity in England.^ Some notes on the Church of England and "Establishment" .
  • The Church of England and "Establishment" 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.thuto.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Mary Tudor (the so-called Mary, Queen of Scots), suppressed the 42 Articles when she returned England to the Roman Catholic faith; however, Cranmer's work became the source of the 39 Articles which Elizabeth I established as the doctrinal foundations of the Church of England.
  • The 39 Articles of the Church of England (1562) 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.ukapologetics.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The Church of England has appointed a fund manager for its £4.4 billion ($7.5 billion) investment portfolio, eight months after first advertising the post, which was established to better guide the church through the financial crisis.
  • Church of England Selects a Portfolio Manager - WSJ.com 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC online.wsj.com [Source type: News]

.The English church was under papal authority for nearly a thousand years, before separating from Rome in 1534 during the reign of King Henry VIII.^ The main reforms during Henrys reign were: .
  • A Short History of the Anglican Church 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.allsaintsjakarta.org [Source type: Original source]

^ During Henrys reign Cranmer said this was not so.
  • A Short History of the Anglican Church 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.allsaintsjakarta.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Henry VIII was crowned king of England.
  • HistoryMole Timeline: King Henry VIII (1491-1547) 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.historymole.com [Source type: General]

.A theological separation had been foreshadowed by various movements within the English church such as Lollardy, but the English Reformation gained political support when Henry VIII wanted an annulment of his marriage to Catherine of Aragon so he could marry Anne Boleyn.^ Henry married Catherine of Aragon, his brother's widow in 1509.
  • A History of Christianity in England 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.localhistories.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Church of England : Henry VIII- 70 m.
  • Lutherans, Anabaptists, Calvinists, Church of England, Presbyterians, Puritans, Congregationalists, Episcopalians, Baptists, Quakers, Shakers, Moravians, Methodists 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC religion-cults.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Elizabeth was the daughter of Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn.
  • A Short History of the Anglican Church 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.allsaintsjakarta.org [Source type: Original source]

.Under pressure from Catherine's nephew, the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V, Pope Clement VII refused the annulment.^ Dated July 13, 1530 and addressed to Pope Clement VII, the letter asks for the annulment of Henry’s marriage to Catherine of Aragon and includes the seals of dozens of peers of England who concurred with the request.
  • Vatican Reveals Letter That Split England From Roman Church - ArtsBeat Blog - NYTimes.com 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC artsbeat.blogs.nytimes.com [Source type: General]

^ Not very long before, one of the popes had permitted the King of Castile to take a second wife because his first was childless; and the main reason why Henry was now refused an annulment was probably that his wife was related to the Emperor Charles V, whom the pope (Clement VII, a man of weak character) was afraid to offend.
  • The Church of England - Beckwith 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.latimertrust.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Gregory VII twice excommunicated the Holy Roman Emperor over who should appoint bishops.
  • A Short History of the Anglican Church 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.allsaintsjakarta.org [Source type: Original source]

.Eventually, Henry, although theologically a doctrinal Catholic, took the position of Supreme Head of the Church of England to ensure the annulment of his marriage.^ Henry VIII was recognized as the supreme head of the Church of England.
  • HistoryMole Timeline: King Henry VIII (1491-1547) 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.historymole.com [Source type: General]

^ Catholic Church in England-History of the church of england .
  • Catholic Church in England-History of the church of england 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.myenglandtravel.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Didier, the Church of England isn't Catholic.
  • Sony says sorry to Church of England 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.joystiq.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

He was excommunicated by Pope Paul III[5].
.Henry maintained a strong preference for traditional Catholic practices and, during his reign, Protestant reformers were unable to make many changes to the practices of the Church of England.^ The main reforms during Henrys reign were: .
  • A Short History of the Anglican Church 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.allsaintsjakarta.org [Source type: Original source]

^ During Henrys reign Cranmer said this was not so.
  • A Short History of the Anglican Church 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.allsaintsjakarta.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Church of England retained many of its pre-Reformation powers.
  • The Church of England and "Establishment" 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.thuto.org [Source type: Original source]

.Indeed, this part of Henry's reign saw the trial for heresy of Protestants as well as Roman Catholics.^ And even the Anglican Communion Service seems to me to be so worded that a Roman Catholic could take part in it without doing violence to his creed.
  • Is the Church of England finished? Should it be? - Mail Online - Peter Hitchens blog 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC hitchensblog.mailonsunday.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ The Roman Catholics in England were upset that there was going to be another Protestant monarch.
  • Catholic Church in England-History of the church of england 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.myenglandtravel.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Indeed, despite the breach with Rome , reform was not able to make much progress during the reign of Henry, who was a rebellious Roman Catholic rather than a Protestant, and it had to wait for the accession of his son Edward VI. Henry patronised Renaissance learning, but was less interested in applying it to religious reformation.
  • The Church of England - Beckwith 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.latimertrust.org [Source type: Original source]

.Under his son, Edward VI, more Protestant-influenced forms of worship were adopted.^ The reigns of Edward VI. and Mary witnessed two forms of reaction, both of them worked by a small party from above, neither of them according with the wishes of the English people.
  • Laud's Position in the History of the Church of England - Wikisource 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Eventually they became the nucleus of the Articles of Religion which were authorized under Edward VI and Elizabeth.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Anglicanism 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ They were two of the outspoken leaders of the reformation under Edward VI. Cranmer was burnt at the stake in March 1556.
  • A Short History of the Anglican Church 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.allsaintsjakarta.org [Source type: Original source]

.Under the leadership of the Archbishop of Canterbury, Thomas Cranmer, a more radical reformation proceeded.^ In 1533 Thomas Cranmer was appointed Archbishop of Canterbury.
  • A Short History of the Anglican Church 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.allsaintsjakarta.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Archbishop Thomas Cranmer, Martyr and English Reformer, who Produced the Book of Common Prayer Born July 2, 1489-Burned at the Stake March 21, 1556 .

^ "But the Church is certainly facing, as the Archbishop of Canterbury recently said, a future that looks more than usually chaotic and un-certain."
  • Ruth Gledhill - Times Online - WBLG: Church of England to lose one in ten clergy: Littlebourne case study 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC timescolumns.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

.A new pattern of worship was set out in the Book of Common Prayer (1549 and 1552).^ The 1662 Book of Common Prayer was a revised version of the 1552 and 1559 Prayer Books.
  • A Short History of the Anglican Church 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.allsaintsjakarta.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1552 a second prayer book was issued.
  • A History of Christianity in England 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.localhistories.org [Source type: Original source]

^ What we believe is clearly set out in the back of any Book of Common Prayer.
  • VirtueOnline - News - Anglicans Swimming The Tiber - LONDON: Church of England bishop says 'Anglican experiment is over' 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.virtueonline.org [Source type: Original source]

.These were based on the older liturgy but influenced by Protestant principles.^ By 1900, however, the Higher Criticism won out and the Free Church's theology became largely based on the rationalizing influence of German Protestant theology.
  • Church of Scotland - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC reid.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The confession of the new reformed church was set out in the Forty-two Articles (later revised to thirty-nine).^ The clergy , before being appointed to a benefice or licensed to preach, subscribe and declare that they "assent to the Thirty-nine Articles, and to the Book of Common Prayer , and of Ordering of Bishops, priests , and deacons , and believe the doctrine of the Church of England as therein set forth to be agreeable to the Word of God ".
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Anglicanism 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Free Church never adopted any new articles of faith, or any new ritual.
  • Church of Scotland - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC reid.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He spoke out for Reform of the church but was excommunicated by one of the three popes.
  • A Short History of the Anglican Church 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.allsaintsjakarta.org [Source type: Original source]

.The reformation however was cut short by the death of the king.^ With the Death, however, landholders found themselves desperately short of villeins to work their lands.
  • England 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.wsu.edu:8080 [Source type: Original source]

.Queen Mary I, who succeeded him, returned England again to the authority of the Pope, thereby ending the first attempt at an independent Church of England.^ These men were independent of the Church of England.
  • A History of Christianity in England 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.localhistories.org [Source type: Original source]

^ After this the church in England was under the authority of Rome.
  • A Short History of the Anglican Church 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.allsaintsjakarta.org [Source type: Original source]

^ If a priest, bishop, or pope were corrupt, parishioners were justified in opposing any authority exercised by that church official—the judgement of such corruption lay with the conscience of the believer.
  • England 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.wsu.edu:8080 [Source type: Original source]

.During Mary's reign, many leaders and common people were burnt for their refusal to recant of their reformed faith.^ The main reforms during Henrys reign were: .
  • A Short History of the Anglican Church 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.allsaintsjakarta.org [Source type: Original source]

^ One of the aims of many theologians now is to make the Christian faith acceptable and understandable to modern people.
  • A Short History of the Anglican Church 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.allsaintsjakarta.org [Source type: Original source]

^ However, they don’t speak for all attenders of this church, since many of them are still faithful to Scripture and are appalled by their ‘leaders’.
  • Church of England apologises to Charles Darwin 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC creation.com [Source type: Original source]

These are known as the Marian martyrs and the persecution has led to her nickname of "Bloody Mary".
.Mary also died childless and so it was left to the new regime of her half-sister Elizabeth to resolve the direction of the church.^ Or of my predecessor John White, buried in the Lady Chapel of our Cathedral, who preached at the Requiem of Mary Tudor a root and branch denunciation of the new regime, never emerged from custody, and died, deposed, in 1560.
  • 090304 Bishop Michael on the future of the Church of England 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.winchester.anglican.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1553 Edward died and he was followed by his sister Mary.
  • A History of Christianity in England 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.localhistories.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Take half of each group and mix them, to make two new groups with equal numbers of church attenders and church non-attenders.
  • Apathy Sketchpad » Church of England 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.apathysketchpad.com [Source type: Original source]

.The settlement under Elizabeth I (from 1558), known as the Elizabethan settlement, developed the via media (middle way) character of the Church of England, a church moderately Reformed in doctrine, as expressed in the Thirty-nine Articles, but also emphasising continuity with the Catholic and Apostolic traditions of the Church Fathers.^ A group developed who wanted to continue to reform the church.
  • A Short History of the Anglican Church 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.allsaintsjakarta.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Catholic Church in England-History of the church of england .
  • Catholic Church in England-History of the church of england 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.myenglandtravel.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Didier, the Church of England isn't Catholic.
  • Sony says sorry to Church of England 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.joystiq.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It was also an established church (constitutionally established by the state with the head of state as its supreme governor).^ The Church of England split from what is now the Roman Catholic church centuries ago and became the established state church in England.
  • THE CHURCH OF ENGLAND AND HOMOSEXULALITY 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.religioustolerance.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It also served as a model for Swedish-American Lutherans, especially members of the Augustana Lutheran Church, in the Midwest, although its influence was diminished by the lack of an established state church in the United States.
  • Church of Scotland - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC reid.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The relations established by the Conqueror between the crown, the church and the pope, its head and supreme judge , worked well as long as the king and the primate were agreed, but were so complex that trouble necessarily arose when they disagreed.
  • The Church of England - LoveToKnow 1911 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

.The exact nature of the relationship between church and state would be a source of continued friction into the next century.^ What we need in what we (with a sense of irony) refer to as our 21st century democracy is to separate church and state, like almost all the civilised nations of the world.
  • Christina Patterson: Thank God for the Church of England - Christina Patterson, Commentators - The Independent 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.independent.co.uk [Source type: General]

^ The Church of England split from what is now the Roman Catholic church centuries ago and became the established state church in England.
  • THE CHURCH OF ENGLAND AND HOMOSEXULALITY 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.religioustolerance.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The criminal would be tried in an ecclesiastical ("church") court using canon law of the Roman church, rather than tried in a manorial or state court using the king's laws.
  • England 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.wsu.edu:8080 [Source type: Original source]

Stained glass window in Rochester Cathedral, Kent.
.For the next century, through the reigns of James I, who ordered the creation of what became known as the King James Bible,[6] and Charles I, and culminating in the English Civil War and the Protectorate of Oliver Cromwell, there were significant swings back and forth between two factions: the Puritans (and other radicals) who sought more far-reaching Protestant reforms, and the more conservative churchmen who aimed to keep closer to traditional beliefs and Catholic practices.^ The English Puritans hoped for change when James became King.
  • A Short History of the Anglican Church 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.allsaintsjakarta.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1642 came civil war between king and parliament.
  • A History of Christianity in England 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.localhistories.org [Source type: Original source]

^ But there was a minority who favoured a more radical change.
  • Laud's Position in the History of the Church of England - Wikisource 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

.The failure of political and ecclesiastical authorities to submit to Puritan demands for more extensive reform was one of the causes of open warfare.^ Again, they rejected the authority of the real successor of Peter, of the Pope, but they became "little Popes", not the successors of Peter, but with more authority, religious and political...
  • Lutherans, Anabaptists, Calvinists, Church of England, Presbyterians, Puritans, Congregationalists, Episcopalians, Baptists, Quakers, Shakers, Moravians, Methodists 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC religion-cults.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Such concessions, while supposedly making it more catholic, would in reality cause it to be no longer reformed.
  • The Church of England - Beckwith 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.latimertrust.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Pope, but he became more than a Pope: The virtual religious and political dictator of Geneva, the capital of the non-Lutheran Reformation in Europe...
  • Lutherans, Anabaptists, Calvinists, Church of England, Presbyterians, Puritans, Congregationalists, Episcopalians, Baptists, Quakers, Shakers, Moravians, Methodists 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC religion-cults.com [Source type: Original source]

.By Continental standards, the level of violence over religion was not high, but the casualties included a king, Charles I, and an Archbishop of Canterbury, William Laud.^ In 1633 William Laud was made Archbishop of Canterbury.
  • A History of Christianity in England 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.localhistories.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Or think of the 17th century the executions of Archbishop Laud and of King Charles I, the substantial suppression of the 16th century Anglican Settlement after 1652 and then its re-instatement and consolidation after 1660.
  • 090304 Bishop Michael on the future of the Church of England 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.winchester.anglican.org [Source type: Original source]

^ William Laud became the king's main adviser.
  • Catholic Church in England-History of the church of england 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.myenglandtravel.com [Source type: Original source]

.Under the Commonwealth and then the Protectorate of England from 1649 to 1660, the bishops were dethroned and former practices were outlawed, and in their place, Presbyterian ecclesiology was introduced in place of the episcopate.^ Innocent laid England under an interdict in 1208; the king confiscated the property of the clergy, banished bishops and kept sees vacant.
  • The Church of England - LoveToKnow 1911 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Some of them, and some of their Episcopal leaders, are saying that the Church of England has already been torn apart by those pressing for the ordination of women as bishops at any cost.
  • 090304 Bishop Michael on the future of the Church of England 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.winchester.anglican.org [Source type: Original source]

^ It is called "Episcopal" ("bishop"), because the church is organized under an Episcopal system, like the Church of England; but presbyters (priests), deacons, and lay persons have an active voice in church affairs.
  • Lutherans, Anabaptists, Calvinists, Church of England, Presbyterians, Puritans, Congregationalists, Episcopalians, Baptists, Quakers, Shakers, Moravians, Methodists 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC religion-cults.com [Source type: Original source]

.In addition, the 39 Articles were replaced with the Westminster Confession, and the Book of Common Prayer was replaced by the Directory of Public Worship.^ These symbols were the Westminster Confession, the "Larger" and "Shorter Catechisms," the "Directory for the Public Worship of God," the "Form of Presbyterian Church Government," and the new version of the Metrical Psalms.
  • Church of Scotland - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC reid.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This was soon after followed by a Book of Common Prayer , with a Communion Service entirely taking the place of the Latin Mass.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Anglicanism 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Act of Six Articles was repealed and in 1549 the first Book of Common Prayer, the first Anglican prayer book was issued.
  • A History of Christianity in England 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.localhistories.org [Source type: Original source]

.Despite this, about one quarter of English clergy refused to conform to this form of State Presbyterianism.^ About one third of the parish clergy were also removed.
  • A History of Christianity in England 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.localhistories.org [Source type: Original source]

^ United States there is one form called Young Earth Creationism.
  • Apathy Sketchpad » Church of England 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.apathysketchpad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ All but one of the English bishops refused to take the Oath of Supremacy (recognising Elizabeth as head of the Church of England) and were removed from their posts.
  • A History of Christianity in England 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.localhistories.org [Source type: Original source]

.With the Restoration of Charles II, Parliament restored the Church of England to a form not far removed from the Elizabethan version.^ Charles II restored the best of bits of the monarchy, and restored the Church of England.
  • Christina Patterson: Thank God for the Church of England - Christina Patterson, Commentators - The Independent 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.independent.co.uk [Source type: General]

^ Parliament debated a new form for the Church of England.
  • A Short History of the Anglican Church 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.allsaintsjakarta.org [Source type: Original source]

^ There was a sufficient number of adherents of the Marian Church to form a party, which intrigued abroad for Elizabeth's downfall and the subjection of England to Spain.
  • Laud's Position in the History of the Church of England - Wikisource 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

.One difference was that the ideal of encompassing all the people of England in one religious organisation, taken for granted by the Tudors, had to be abandoned.^ We were competing with one other, more established youth weekend in the country, so we were pleased to see two dozen young people from other congregations in England (and 2 in Scotland!

^ Not all banks would have failed- only the ones that had taken stupid and greedy decisions- and they would have been quickly replaced by better, smarter institutions.
  • Liberal Conspiracy » God’s work: Goldman Sachs vs Church of England 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC liberalconspiracy.org [Source type: Original source]

^ I maintain that the government should be totally secular: it shouldn’t care at all about the religion of its people or organisations.
  • Apathy Sketchpad » Church of England 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.apathysketchpad.com [Source type: Original source]

.The religious landscape of England assumed its present form, with the Anglican established church occupying the middle ground, and Roman Catholics and those Puritans and Protestants who dissented from the Anglican establishment, too strong to be suppressed altogether, having to continue their existence outside the National Church rather than controlling it.^ Those who are religious cannot do the same.
  • Church of England threatens Sony with lawsuit 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.joystiq.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In general, the Church of England stuck a compromise between Catholics and Protestants.
  • Lutherans, Anabaptists, Calvinists, Church of England, Presbyterians, Puritans, Congregationalists, Episcopalians, Baptists, Quakers, Shakers, Moravians, Methodists 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC religion-cults.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Church of England had moved further into the middle between the Reformed churches and the Roman Catholic Church.
  • A Short History of the Anglican Church 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.allsaintsjakarta.org [Source type: Original source]

Continuing official suspicion and legal restrictions continued well into the nineteenth century.
By the Fifth Article of the Union with Ireland 1800, the Church of England and Church of Ireland were united into "one Protestant Episcopal Church, to be called, The United Church of England and Ireland". Although this union was declared "an essential and fundamental Part of the Union", nevertheless the Irish Church Act 1869 separated the Irish part of the Church again and disestablished it, the Act coming into effect on 1 January 1871.

Doctrine and practice

Canterbury Cathedral from the southwest. It houses the cathedra or throne of the Archbishop of Canterbury. It is the mother church of the Diocese of Canterbury (east Kent) and the Church of England and also a focus for the Anglican Communion.
Church of England doctrine can be summarised in its canon law as follows:
.Canon A 5 Of the doctrine of the Church of England: "The doctrine of the Church of England is grounded in the Holy Scriptures, and in such teachings of the ancient Fathers and Councils of the Church as are agreeable to the said Scriptures.^ It values bishops, as an ancient and well tried form of ministry, agreeable to Scripture (though not actually required by Scripture).
  • The Church of England - Beckwith 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.latimertrust.org [Source type: Original source]

^ "This poor Church of England," he said in his speech upon the scaffold, "hath flourished, and hath been a shelter to other neighbouring Churches when storms have driven upon them."
  • Laud's Position in the History of the Church of England - Wikisource 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Under the authority of Scripture, these traditional features were in the sixteenth century reformed but retained, so that the Church of England maintained a recognisable continuity with the ancient national church of the land, though reformed by Scripture.
  • The Church of England - Beckwith 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.latimertrust.org [Source type: Original source]

.In particular such doctrine is to be found in the Thirty-nine Articles of Religion, The Book of Common Prayer, and the Ordinal."^ The clergy , before being appointed to a benefice or licensed to preach, subscribe and declare that they "assent to the Thirty-nine Articles, and to the Book of Common Prayer , and of Ordering of Bishops, priests , and deacons , and believe the doctrine of the Church of England as therein set forth to be agreeable to the Word of God ".
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Anglicanism 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ This was soon after followed by a Book of Common Prayer , with a Communion Service entirely taking the place of the Latin Mass.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Anglicanism 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The new settlement of religion was based, not on the First Prayer Book of 1549, but on the more Protestant one of 1552.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Anglicanism 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

[1]
.As the Church of England bases its teachings on the Holy Scriptures, the ancient Catholic teachings of the Church Fathers and some of the doctrinal principles of the Protestant Reformation (as expressed in the 39 Articles, and other documents such as the Book of Homilies), Anglicanism can therefore be described as 'Reformed Catholic' in character rather than Protestant.^ Catholic Church in England-History of the church of england .
  • Catholic Church in England-History of the church of england 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.myenglandtravel.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Didier, the Church of England isn't Catholic.
  • Sony says sorry to Church of England 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.joystiq.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Church of England therefore aims, and claims, to be catholic not sectarian.
  • The Church of England - Beckwith 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.latimertrust.org [Source type: Original source]

.In practice, however, it is more mixed, with Anglicans who emphasise the Catholic tradition and others the Reformed tradition.^ By forming a catena of Anglican High Church divines of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries on one side, and a catena of certain Fathers on the other, it was hoped that a quasi-continuous chain of Catholic tradition could be made to connect the Anglican Church of their day with Catholic antiquity.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Anglicanism 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ However other reformers such as Bullinger (who followed him in Zurich), Calvin and Cranmer expressed their theology differently to Zwingli.
  • A Short History of the Anglican Church 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.allsaintsjakarta.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Traditional Anglo-Catholic Worship for PA, NJ, DE Worship at 8 & 10am 215 Belmont Ave Bala Cynwyd, PA 215-247-1092 Anglican Philadelphia.org .
  • VirtueOnline - News - Anglicans Swimming The Tiber - LONDON: Church of England bishop says 'Anglican experiment is over' 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.virtueonline.org [Source type: Original source]

.There is also a long history of more liberal or latitudinarian views.^ The Latitudinarian school of the 17th century and the Broad Church or Liberal school of the 19th century were more or less moderate expressions, whereas the Deist and Arian schools of the 18th century were extreme expressions.
  • The Church of England - Beckwith 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.latimertrust.org [Source type: Original source]

.These three 'parties' in the C of E are sometimes called high church or (Anglo-Catholic), low church (or Evangelical) and broad church (or Liberal).^ In the Anglican Church this approach has become dominant in many parts of the church that previously were Anglo-Catholic, as well as parts that favoured ritual and were the heirs of Hooker and Andrewes, but did not follow all of the teachings of the Oxford movement (sometimes called High or Broad church).
  • A Short History of the Anglican Church 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.allsaintsjakarta.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Evangelicals embattled : responses of evangelicals in the Church of England to ritualism, Darwinism, and theological liberalism 1890-1930 / Martin Wellings ; foreword by John Walsh.

^ The Oxford movement was wrecked, but its effect survived both in the new high church party and in the church at large.
  • The Church of England - LoveToKnow 1911 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

.In terms of church government, unlike many of the Protestant denominations it has retained episcopal (bishop) leadership.^ Note: This international ecumenical body includes most "mainline" Protestant denominations and Eastern Orthodox churches in the world.
  • Religious leaders 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.rulers.org [Source type: Academic]

^ This disappointed many of the Protestants who believed that there was much more to do to finish the reformation of the church.
  • A Short History of the Anglican Church 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.allsaintsjakarta.org [Source type: Original source]

^ It is called "Episcopal" ("bishop"), because the church is organized under an Episcopal system, like the Church of England; but presbyters (priests), deacons, and lay persons have an active voice in church affairs.
  • Lutherans, Anabaptists, Calvinists, Church of England, Presbyterians, Puritans, Congregationalists, Episcopalians, Baptists, Quakers, Shakers, Moravians, Methodists 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC religion-cults.com [Source type: Original source]

Richard Hooker (1554–1600), one of the most influential figures in shaping Anglican theology and self-identity
.The teachings of Richard Hooker, the 16th century divine, summarised the Anglican position well, affirming bishops as ancient, allowable and for the wellbeing of the church.^ In the Anglican Church this approach has become dominant in many parts of the church that previously were Anglo-Catholic, as well as parts that favoured ritual and were the heirs of Hooker and Andrewes, but did not follow all of the teachings of the Oxford movement (sometimes called High or Broad church).
  • A Short History of the Anglican Church 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.allsaintsjakarta.org [Source type: Original source]

^ It values bishops, as an ancient and well tried form of ministry, agreeable to Scripture (though not actually required by Scripture).
  • The Church of England - Beckwith 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.latimertrust.org [Source type: Original source]

^ By forming a catena of Anglican High Church divines of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries on one side, and a catena of certain Fathers on the other, it was hoped that a quasi-continuous chain of Catholic tradition could be made to connect the Anglican Church of their day with Catholic antiquity.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Anglicanism 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

[7]
.In many people's eyes today the Church of England has, as one of its distinguishing marks, a breadth and "open-mindedness". This range of belief and practice includes those of the Anglo-Catholics, who emphasise liturgy and sacraments, to the far more preaching-centred and less ritual-based services of Evangelicals and gatherings of the Charismatics.^ (They were people who wanted to 'purify' the Church of England of its remaining Catholic elements).
  • A History of Christianity in England 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.localhistories.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Catholic Church in England-History of the church of england .
  • Catholic Church in England-History of the church of england 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.myenglandtravel.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Didier, the Church of England isn't Catholic.
  • Sony says sorry to Church of England 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.joystiq.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

But this "broad church" faces various contentious doctrinal and social questions.

Women's ministry

.Women were appointed as deaconesses from 1861 but they could not function fully as deacons and were not considered ordained clergy.^ "The CoE could consider ordaining gay men to make up the numbers.
  • Ruth Gledhill - Times Online - WBLG: Church of England to lose one in ten clergy: Littlebourne case study 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC timescolumns.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The CoE could consider ordaining gay men to make up the numbers.
  • Ruth Gledhill - Times Online - WBLG: Church of England to lose one in ten clergy: Littlebourne case study 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC timescolumns.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

Women have been lay readers for a long time. During the First World War some women were appointed as lay readers but known as "Bishop's Messengers". However, after that no more lay readers were appointed until 1969.
.Legislation authorising the ordination of women as deacons was passed in 1986 and they were first ordained in 1987. The ordination of women as priests was passed by the General Synod in 1992 and began in 1994. In July 2005 the synod voted to "set in train" the process of allowing the consecration of women as bishops.^ Forward in Faith is a worldwide association of close to 1,000 clergy and thousands of lay Anglicans founded in 1992 in opposition to the ordination of women as priests or as bishops, and most recently, to the ordination of active homosexuals.
  • VirtueOnline - News - Anglicans Swimming The Tiber - LONDON: Church of England bishop says 'Anglican experiment is over' 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.virtueonline.org [Source type: Original source]

^ "The temperature at the pot has become intolerable, but the process of boiling started before the ordination of women...
  • VirtueOnline - News - Anglicans Swimming The Tiber - LONDON: Church of England bishop says 'Anglican experiment is over' 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.virtueonline.org [Source type: Original source]

^ They accepted the legislative measures passed in the English .
  • England, A History of; England Breaks With The Roman Church 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC history-world.org [Source type: Original source]

.In February 2006 the synod voted overwhelmingly for the "further exploration" of possible arrangements for parishes that did not want to be directly under the authority of a woman bishop.^ But they did not want to further stress a distinctness in the person of Christ.
  • A Short History of the Anglican Church 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.allsaintsjakarta.org [Source type: Original source]

^ I didn't predict and wouldn't have predicted that synod would vote as it did."
  • THE CHURCH OF ENGLAND AND HOMOSEXULALITY 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.religioustolerance.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[8] .On 7 July 2008 the church's governing body voted to approve the ordination of women as bishops and rejected moves for alternative episcopal oversight for those who do not accept women bishops[9].^ The government of the church, is placed in the hands of a small body of presbyters, or elders, elected by the congregation, plus pastors and administrative aids called deacons.
  • Lutherans, Anabaptists, Calvinists, Church of England, Presbyterians, Puritans, Congregationalists, Episcopalians, Baptists, Quakers, Shakers, Moravians, Methodists 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC religion-cults.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The report … suggests the Church is discriminated against in competition with private companies who provide welfare, which Bishop Lowe suggested was partly the result of a continuing process of secularisation under the Labour government.
  • Apathy Sketchpad » Church of England 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.apathysketchpad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Even allowing for those who were ill or could not make it for some other reason it meant that half the population did not go to church.
  • A History of Christianity in England 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.localhistories.org [Source type: Original source]

Actual ordinations of women to the episcopate will require further legislation which is anticipated to be considered before 2014.[10]

Worship and liturgy

.The Church of England's official book of liturgy as established in English Law is the Book of Common Prayer (BCP).^ This Prayer Book was now the liturgy of the Church of England: it was in the English language, and was fully conformed to the teaching of the Bible.
  • The Church of England - Beckwith 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.latimertrust.org [Source type: Original source]

^ History of the Church in England : from the earliest period, to the re-establishment of the hierarchy in 1850 / by the Very Rev. Canon Flanagan.

^ They follow directly from the history and ecclesiastical law of the Church of England.
  • The Church of England - Beckwith 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.latimertrust.org [Source type: Original source]

The BCP remains the touchstone of all Anglican liturgy..January 2009" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] In addition to this book the General Synod has also legislated for a modern liturgical book, Common Worship, dating from 2000, which can be used as an alternative to the BCP. Like its predecessor, the 1980 Alternative Service Book, it differs from the Book of Common Prayer in providing a range of alternative services, mostly in modern language, although it does include some BCP-based forms as well, for example Order Two for Holy Communion.^ For worship, the standard liturgy remains the Book of Common Prayer, according to its 1662 revision: the widely used services of Common Worship are in fact only a permitted alternative to the Book of Common Prayer, and they are not among the formularies of faith.
  • The Church of England - Beckwith 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.latimertrust.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In it the order of the parts of the Communion Service was considerably altered, and the passages used by Gardiner as apparently favouring the Catholic doctrine were studiously eliminated, or so changed as to preclude in future any such interpretation, and all allusion to Altar or Sacrifice was carefully omitted (Gasquet and Bishop, Edward VI and the Book of Common Prayer , 289).
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Anglicanism 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The general message, of the chin, and the flipped hymn book, and the slightly over-loud Amen to the prayer that followed the hymn, was "that will teach you".
  • Christina Patterson: Thank God for the Church of England - Christina Patterson, Commentators - The Independent 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.independent.co.uk [Source type: General]

.(This is a revision of the BCP service, altering some words and allowing the insertion of some other liturgical texts such as the Agnus Dei before communion.^ And even the Anglican Communion Service seems to me to be so worded that a Roman Catholic could take part in it without doing violence to his creed.
  • Is the Church of England finished? Should it be? - Mail Online - Peter Hitchens blog 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC hitchensblog.mailonsunday.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ Some Anglo-Saxon practices still hung on, such as the writing of alliterative poetry, that is, poetry whose meter is marked by alliteration or the use of identical consonants to begin words.
  • England 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.wsu.edu:8080 [Source type: Original source]

^ Some practices introduced by clergy desirous of bringing the services of the church to a higher level came before the judicial committee in the case of Westerton v.
  • The Church of England - LoveToKnow 1911 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

) The Order One rite follows the pattern of more modern liturgical scholarship.
.See also:Anglican liturgy resources and, on the history of Anglo-Catholic liturgy, English or Roman Use.^ His view is understandable from the Anglo-Catholic position, though like Newman, it would be more honest as Roman Catholic.
  • Is the Church of England finished? Should it be? - Mail Online - Peter Hitchens blog 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC hitchensblog.mailonsunday.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ And even the Anglican Communion Service seems to me to be so worded that a Roman Catholic could take part in it without doing violence to his creed.
  • Is the Church of England finished? Should it be? - Mail Online - Peter Hitchens blog 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC hitchensblog.mailonsunday.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ By 1600, 3 major Christian churches had left the Roman Catholic Church: Lutherans, Calvinists, and Anglicans.
  • Lutherans, Anabaptists, Calvinists, Church of England, Presbyterians, Puritans, Congregationalists, Episcopalians, Baptists, Quakers, Shakers, Moravians, Methodists 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC religion-cults.com [Source type: Original source]

Membership

.Membership in the Church of England is by baptism although, due to its status as the established church, in general anyone may be married, have their children baptised or their funeral in their local parish church, regardless of whether they are baptised or regular church goers.^ The Church of England may own the property, but they don't own the appearance of the property.
  • DailyTech - Church of England vs. Sony 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.dailytech.com [Source type: General]

^ History of the Church in England : from the earliest period, to the re-establishment of the hierarchy in 1850 / by the Very Rev. Canon Flanagan.

^ They follow directly from the history and ecclesiastical law of the Church of England.
  • The Church of England - Beckwith 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.latimertrust.org [Source type: Original source]

[11]
.Churchgoing in the United Kingdom, including the Church of England, has been declining steadily since around 1890.[12] In the years 1968 to 1999, Anglican church attendances almost halved, from 3.5 per cent of the population to just 1.9 per cent.^ The official website of the world-wide Anglican Communion, comprising over 80 million members in 44 regional and national member churches around the globe in over 160 countries .
  • External Links - Diocese of Blackburn | Church of England | Church Lancashire | North West Church | Church of England Lancashire | Rev Nicholas Reade | Bishop of Blackburn. 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.blackburn.anglican.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Since the 1950s the charismatic movement (an adaptation of Pentecostalism) has had a big impact on the Anglican Church, especially the Anglo-Catholic and evangelical parts.
  • A Short History of the Anglican Church 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.allsaintsjakarta.org [Source type: Original source]

^ O n Monday, February 6th, the Anglican Church of England voted to end financial investments in companies supporting Israel's occupation of the Palestinian territories.
  • Will Youmans: Church of England Votes to Divest from Israel 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.counterpunch.org [Source type: General]

[13] One study published in 2008 suggested that if current trends continue, Sunday attendances could fall to 350,000 in 2030 and just 87,800 in 2050.[14] The Church of England responded by stating that the figures on which this were based overlooked the level of midweek attendance and that 1.7 million people attend Church of England parish and cathedral services each month, and argued that this figure has remained stable since 2000.[15]

Structure

.
Dioceses of the Church of England, showing the Province of Canterbury (yellow) and the Province of York (pink).
^ Good show Church of England, good show.
  • Church of England threatens Sony with lawsuit 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.joystiq.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I am a protestant and this outrageous acts done by the catholic church of england come to show the lack of integrity of those that pose as christians.
  • Sony says sorry to Church of England 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.joystiq.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ William accepted that the Archbishop of Canterbury was the leader of the Christian Church in England, but was determined that this post should come under his control.
  • Catholic Church in England-History of the church of england 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.myenglandtravel.com [Source type: Original source]

The grey areas are Wales (on the left), and part of Scotland (top).
Article XIX (Of the Church) of the 39 Articles defines the church as follows:
."The visible Church of Christ is a congregation of faithful men, in which the pure Word of God is preached, and the sacraments be duly ministered according to Christ's ordinance in all those things that of necessity are requisite to the same."^ Evangelical faith in the Anglican Church and others is centered upon Christ and His universal family of believers.
  • Is the Church of England finished? Should it be? - Mail Online - Peter Hitchens blog 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC hitchensblog.mailonsunday.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ Their cardinal doctrine was that the Church of England was a part of the visible Holy Catholic Church and had unbroken connexion with the primitive church ; they inculcated high views of the sacraments, and emphasized points of agreement with those branches of the Catholic Church which claim apostolic succession.
  • The Church of England - LoveToKnow 1911 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The actual ministry of preaching and of the sacraments was left to the clergy , but all the powers of ecclesiastical jurisdiction were claimed by the sovereign.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Anglicanism 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

[16]
.Despite the complexities of the structure, the Church of England at its heart views the local parish church as the basic unit.^ In practice at least, the parish is the basic unit of Anglican church life, to which the diocese is accessory (not vice versa ).
  • The Church of England - Beckwith 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.latimertrust.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Laud was determined to suppress the Puritans and he sent commissioners into almost every parish to make sure the local churches came into line.
  • A History of Christianity in England 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.localhistories.org [Source type: Original source]

^ This Prayer Book was authorised for use in every church, so that throughout England every parish had the same services.
  • A Short History of the Anglican Church 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.allsaintsjakarta.org [Source type: Original source]

.The British monarch, at present Queen Elizabeth II, has the constitutional title of Supreme Governor of the Church of England.^ Later, in 1563, Queen Elizabeth was declared the head of the Church, its "Supreme Governor".
  • Lutherans, Anabaptists, Calvinists, Church of England, Presbyterians, Puritans, Congregationalists, Episcopalians, Baptists, Quakers, Shakers, Moravians, Methodists 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC religion-cults.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The monarch remains the supreme governor, though now as a constitutional, not an absolute, monarch: and in 1688 it was made explicit (after the attempt of James II to do so) that the monarch could never renounce that supremacy, by again submitting himself and his church to the Bishop of Rome.
  • The Church of England - Beckwith 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.latimertrust.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Check copyright status Cite this Title Church and state in Australia, 1788-1872 : a constitutional study of the Church of England in Australia /​ by Ross Border ; With a foreword by J.W.C. Wand.
  • Trove - Church and state in Australia, 1788-1872: a constitutional study of the Church of England in Australia 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC nla.gov.au [Source type: Academic]

.The canon law of the Church of England states, "We acknowledge that the Queen’s most excellent Majesty, acting according to the laws of the realm, is the highest power under God in this kingdom, and has supreme authority over all persons in all causes, as well ecclesiastical as civil."^ They follow directly from the history and ecclesiastical law of the Church of England.
  • The Church of England - Beckwith 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.latimertrust.org [Source type: Original source]

^ After this the church in England was under the authority of Rome.
  • A Short History of the Anglican Church 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.allsaintsjakarta.org [Source type: Original source]

^ "I could speak (Laud goes on) with no conscientious person almost that were wavering in religion, but the great motive which wrought upon them to disaffect, or think meanly of the Church of England, was that the external worship of God was so lost, and the churches themselves suffered to lie in such a base and slovenly fashion in most places of the kingdom."
  • Laud's Position in the History of the Church of England - Wikisource 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

.In practice this power is often exercised through Parliament and the Prime Minister.^ Our prime focus is making Christ known through the proclamation and teaching of Gods Word in the power of the Holy Spirit .
  • External Links - Diocese of Blackburn | Church of England | Church Lancashire | North West Church | Church of England Lancashire | Rev Nicholas Reade | Bishop of Blackburn. 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.blackburn.anglican.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Eventually, however, after the reign of Edward, the Parliament would develop as a powerful check on the monarch's power—this was not Edward's intention or practice.
  • England 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.wsu.edu:8080 [Source type: Original source]

^ By 1400, England had developed its own unique system of government through checks on the monarch's power and the further development of judiciary practices.
  • England 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.wsu.edu:8080 [Source type: Original source]

.In addition to England proper, the current jurisdiction of the Church of England extends to the Isle of Man, the Channel Islands and a few parishes in Flintshire, Monmouthshire and Radnorshire in Wales (the present Church in Wales was an integral part of the Church of England until 1920).^ Duncan : I do want to separate from people who call themselves members of the Church of England who persistently will not adhere to the moral teaching that is part of its foundation.
  • Apathy Sketchpad » Church of England 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.apathysketchpad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The territorial character of the English parish, and the geographical coverage of the whole country by the parochial system, is made possible by the fact that the Church of England is a national, established church.
  • The Church of England - Beckwith 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.latimertrust.org [Source type: Original source]

^ UK Parliament Ecclesiastical Committee examines draft Measures presented to it by the Legislative Committee of the General Synod of the Church of England.
  • External Links - Diocese of Blackburn | Church of England | Church Lancashire | North West Church | Church of England Lancashire | Rev Nicholas Reade | Bishop of Blackburn. 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.blackburn.anglican.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[17] Expatriate congregations on the continent of Europe have become the Diocese of Gibraltar in Europe.
The church is structured as follows (from the lowest level upwards):
.
  • Parish, this is the most local level, often consisting of one church building and community, although nowadays many parishes are joining forces in a variety of ways for financial reasons.^ Laud was determined to suppress the Puritans and he sent commissioners into almost every parish to make sure the local churches came into line.
    • A History of Christianity in England 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.localhistories.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The CCF gives grants to community projects run by parish churches, deaneries, dioceses and other bodies connected to or working in partnership with the Church of England .
    • External Links - Diocese of Blackburn | Church of England | Church Lancashire | North West Church | Church of England Lancashire | Rev Nicholas Reade | Bishop of Blackburn. 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.blackburn.anglican.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ In the early period, several different practices and theologies vied with one another, the most significant being the conflict between the Celtic and the continental churches.
    • England 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.wsu.edu:8080 [Source type: Original source]

    .The parish will be looked after by a parish priest who for various historical or legal reasons may also be called by one of the following offices: vicar, rector, priest in charge, team rector, team vicar.^ Yet Chaucer's ideal parish priest must have represented a familiar type, so that we may believe that much good work was here and there unobtrusively done by the clergy.
    • The Church of England - LoveToKnow 1911 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The effect of this influence may be traced in what has been called the historic High Church party.
    • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Anglicanism 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Importantly, when they were over a reasonable compromise was available for those who wanted one.
    • Is the Church of England finished? Should it be? - Mail Online - Peter Hitchens blog 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC hitchensblog.mailonsunday.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

    .The first, second, and fourth of these may also be known as the 'incumbent'. The running of the parish is the joint responsibility of the incumbent and the Parochial Church Council (PCC), which consists of the parish clergy and elected representatives from the congregation.^ The Church of England is parochial in that it consists wholly of parishes.
    • The Church of England - Beckwith 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.latimertrust.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The DAC is required to give advice to Parochial Church Councils, particularly in respect of proposals which will require a Faculty, as they develop their thinking about any projects they may have, or repairs or remedial works they may need to undertake.
    • Diocese of Leicester - The Church of England in Leicester and Leicestershire 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.leicester.anglican.org [Source type: News]

    ^ The government of the church, is placed in the hands of a small body of presbyters, or elders, elected by the congregation, plus pastors and administrative aids called deacons.
    • Lutherans, Anabaptists, Calvinists, Church of England, Presbyterians, Puritans, Congregationalists, Episcopalians, Baptists, Quakers, Shakers, Moravians, Methodists 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC religion-cults.com [Source type: Original source]

    .The Diocese of Gibraltar in Europe is not formally divided into parishes.
  • There are also a number of local churches which do not have a parish.^ The doctrinal position of the Anglican Church, in like manner, can only be adequately studied in its history, which divides itself into a number of stages or periods.
    • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Anglicanism 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ In practice at least, the parish is the basic unit of Anglican church life, to which the diocese is accessory (not vice versa ).
    • The Church of England - Beckwith 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.latimertrust.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Laud was determined to suppress the Puritans and he sent commissioners into almost every parish to make sure the local churches came into line.
    • A History of Christianity in England 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.localhistories.org [Source type: Original source]

    In urban areas there are a number of proprietary chapels (mostly built in the 19th century to cope with urbanisation and growth in population). Also in more recent years there are increasingly church plants and Fresh expressions of church, whereby new congregations are planted in a variety of locations (such as schools or pubs) in order to spread the Gospel of Christ in fresh and non-traditional ways.
A map showing the diocese of Gibraltar in Europe. The seven archdeaconries are colour-coded.
  • Deanery, e.g., Lewisham, or Runnymede. This is the area for which a rural dean is responsible. It will consist of a number of parishes in a particular district. The rural dean will usually be the incumbent of one of the constituent parishes. .The parishes each elect lay (that is non-ordained) representatives to the deanery synod.^ The idea is to use Non-Stipendiary, Ordained Local Ministers and even Lay Readers to fill the gaps - sadly, it will not be enough in the longer term.
    • Ruth Gledhill - Times Online - WBLG: Church of England to lose one in ten clergy: Littlebourne case study 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC timescolumns.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

    Deanery synod members each have a vote in the election of representatives to the diocesan synod.
  • Archdeaconry, e.g., the seven in the Diocese of Gibraltar in Europe. This is the area under the jurisdiction of an archdeacon. It will consist of a number of deaneries.
  • Diocese, e.g., Diocese of Durham, Diocese of Guildford, Diocese of St Albans. This is the area under the jurisdiction of a diocesan bishop, e.g., the Bishops of Durham, Guildford and St Albans, and will have a cathedral. .There may also be one or more assisting bishops, usually called suffragan bishops, within the diocese who assist the diocesan bishop in his ministry, e.g., in Guildford diocese, the Bishop of Dorking.^ Since 1876 the home episcopate has been increased by the creation of the dioceses of Truro , St Albans, Liverpool , Newcastle , Southwell , Wakefield , Bristol, Southwark and Birmingham , so that there are now (1910) thirty-seven diocesan bishops, aided by twenty-eight suffragan and eight assistant bishops, and a further subdivision of dioceses is contemplated.
    • The Church of England - LoveToKnow 1911 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ But there was a minority who favoured a more radical change.
    • Laud's Position in the History of the Church of England - Wikisource 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ From a Christian perspective, some scriptures may be fulfilled through more than one event (e.g.
    • Church of England: UK will be "Islamic nation" in 2038 - Jihad Watch 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.jihadwatch.org [Source type: Original source]

    .In some very large dioceses a legal measure has been enacted to create "episcopal areas", in which case the diocesan bishop will run one such area himself and will appoint an "area bishop" to run each of the other areas as mini-dioceses; in such cases, the diocesan bishop legally delegates many of his powers to the area bishops.^ Since 1876 the home episcopate has been increased by the creation of the dioceses of Truro , St Albans, Liverpool , Newcastle , Southwell , Wakefield , Bristol, Southwark and Birmingham , so that there are now (1910) thirty-seven diocesan bishops, aided by twenty-eight suffragan and eight assistant bishops, and a further subdivision of dioceses is contemplated.
    • The Church of England - LoveToKnow 1911 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ I've lost some good friends in the States, and I miss so many people so very much, but God has been good to me.

    ^ Seven bishops were deprived in 1554, four of them as married, and about a fifth of the beneficed clergy, though some received other benefices after putting away their wives.
    • The Church of England - LoveToKnow 1911 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

    Dioceses with episcopal areas include London, Southwark, Chichester and Lichfield. .The bishops will work with an elected body of lay and ordained representatives, known as the diocesan synod, to run the diocese.^ The window in the north aisle, representing St. Peter's release from prison, is dated 1700, and is the work of Isaac Oliver, nephew of the better known miniature painters, Peter and Isaac Oliver.
    • Christ Church, Oxford • King's Handbook to the Cathedrals of England 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC penelope.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

    .A diocese is subdivided into a number of archdeaconries.
  • Province, i.e., York or Canterbury (these are the only two in the Church of England).^ These men were independent of the Church of England.
    • A History of Christianity in England 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.localhistories.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The Church of England went into this for a payday .
    • Sony says sorry to Church of England 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.joystiq.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Yet it still marries about a third of the couples married in England and baptizes a quarter of the infants born there, so regular church attendance is not the only indication of membership.
    • The Church of England - Beckwith 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.latimertrust.org [Source type: Original source]

    .This is the area under the jurisdiction of an archbishop, i.e. the Archbishops of Canterbury and York.^ There were to be two archbishops, at London and York; London, however, was not fully Christianized for some years, and the primatial see remained at Canterbury.
    • The Church of England - LoveToKnow 1911 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

    .Decision making within the province is the responsibility of the General Synod (see also above).^ The General Synod, a policy-making assembly, overwhelmingly backed the call by the Episcopal Church in Jerusalem to divest from "companies profiting from the illegal occupation ...
    • Will Youmans: Church of England Votes to Divest from Israel 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.counterpunch.org [Source type: General]

    .A province is subdivided into dioceses.
  • Primacy, i.e., Church of England.^ They believe that the Church of England is a true and reformed part, or branch, or pair of provinces of the Catholic Church of Christ .
    • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Anglicanism 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The CCF gives grants to community projects run by parish churches, deaneries, dioceses and other bodies connected to or working in partnership with the Church of England .
    • External Links - Diocese of Blackburn | Church of England | Church Lancashire | North West Church | Church of England Lancashire | Rev Nicholas Reade | Bishop of Blackburn. 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.blackburn.anglican.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Minimise Church in the colonies [Published, Book : 1845-1852] Parish records of the Diocese of Canberra and Goulburn Church of England in Australia.
    • Trove - Church and state in Australia, 1788-1872: a constitutional study of the Church of England in Australia 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC nla.gov.au [Source type: Academic]

    .In addition to his specific authority in his own province, each archbishop is "Primate of All England" (Canterbury) or "Primate of England" (York) and has certain powers that extend over the whole country—for example his license to marry without the banns (marriage licence).
  • Royal Peculiar, a small number of churches are more closely associated with the Crown, and a very few with the law and are outside the usual church hierarchy though conforming to the rite.^ After this the church in England was under the authority of Rome.
    • A Short History of the Anglican Church 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.allsaintsjakarta.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The current situation is regarded by essentially all Orthodox as somewhat irregular; normally, there would be only one Orthodox province per country or region.
    • VirtueOnline - News - Anglicans Swimming The Tiber - LONDON: Church of England bishop says 'Anglican experiment is over' 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.virtueonline.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ In a column in The Church of England Newspaper, Andrew Carey, the son of the former Archbishop, wrote: " God always has plenty more work to do, even in the lives of distinguished churchmen.
    • THE CHURCH OF ENGLAND AND HOMOSEXULALITY 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.religioustolerance.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    These are outside episcopal jurisdiction.
.All rectors and vicars are appointed by patrons, who may be private individuals, corporate bodies such as cathedrals, colleges or trusts, or by the bishop or even appointed directly by the Crown.^ WC or kitchen), or an extension - Anyone else who is contemplating making an application for a private faculty - The Diocesan Chancellor (who is responsible for granting all Faculties) Who We Are .
  • Diocese of Leicester - The Church of England in Leicester and Leicestershire 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.leicester.anglican.org [Source type: News]

^ From then on the Pope appointed bishops and gradually took authority to appoint all the clergy.
  • A Short History of the Anglican Church 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.allsaintsjakarta.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Even those who do not agree with it may at least admit its nobility, and confess that it was a worthy object to absorb the energies of an ecclesiastical statesman.
  • Laud's Position in the History of the Church of England - Wikisource 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

.No clergy can be instituted and inducted into a parish without swearing the Oath of Allegiance to Her Majesty, and taking the Oath of Canonical Obedience "in all things lawful and honest" to the bishop.^ Many Bishops see themselves as the only real clergy and have no respect for parish priests and deacons whom they under-resource and seek to manage as an inferior species of unreliable functionaries.
  • Is the Church of England finished? Should it be? - Mail Online - Peter Hitchens blog 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC hitchensblog.mailonsunday.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ All the Marian bishops save two refused the oath of supremacy'and were deprived, and eight were imprisoned.
  • The Church of England - LoveToKnow 1911 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1640 Charles , after dissolving parliament, prolonged the session of convocation, which issued canons magnifying the royal authority and imposing the so-called" et cetera oath "against innovations on all clergy, graduates IX. 15 and others.
  • The Church of England - LoveToKnow 1911 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

.Usually they are instituted to the benefice by the bishop and then inducted by the archdeacon into the actual possession of the benefice property—church and parsonage.^ Parochial organization was strengthened by the institution of vicars in benefices held by religious bodies, which was regulated and enforced by the bishops.
  • The Church of England - LoveToKnow 1911 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Church of England may own the property, but they don't own the appearance of the property.
  • DailyTech - Church of England vs. Sony 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.dailytech.com [Source type: General]

^ It believes that they originated before the end of the apostolic age, when the presbyter-bishop of the New Testament developed out of one office into two.
  • The Church of England - Beckwith 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.latimertrust.org [Source type: Original source]

.Curates are appointed by rectors and vicars, but if priests-in-charge then by the bishop after consultations with the patron.^ The independence of parishes and their clergy is also endangered by the frequency of suspensions of presentation, whereby the parish is put in the care of a temporary priest-in-charge, appointed by the bishop and not by the normal patrons.
  • The Church of England - Beckwith 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.latimertrust.org [Source type: Original source]

.Cathedral clergy (normally a dean and a varying number of residentiary canons who constitute the cathedral chapter) are appointed either by the Crown, the bishop, or by the dean and chapter themselves.^ From then on the Pope appointed bishops and gradually took authority to appoint all the clergy.
  • A Short History of the Anglican Church 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.allsaintsjakarta.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Gregory VII twice excommunicated the Holy Roman Emperor over who should appoint bishops.
  • A Short History of the Anglican Church 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.allsaintsjakarta.org [Source type: Original source]

^ He might also like to reflect on the large number of serving and actively gay clergy in the C of E who passed (apparently unnoticed) through his care when he was principal of Staggers.....
  • Ruth Gledhill - Times Online - WBLG: Church of England to lose one in ten clergy: Littlebourne case study 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC timescolumns.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

.Clergy officiate in a diocese either because they hold office as beneficed clergy or are licensed by the bishop when appointed (e.g.^ From then on the Pope appointed bishops and gradually took authority to appoint all the clergy.
  • A Short History of the Anglican Church 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.allsaintsjakarta.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Either because they lack the philosophic awareness, or perhaps, more likely, they’ve already made up their minds.
  • Apathy Sketchpad » Church of England 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.apathysketchpad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ They are suspicious of the world and the fact that the secular world does not support them merely proves that they are right....Everyone knows there are gay clergy and gay bishops.
  • THE CHURCH OF ENGLAND AND HOMOSEXULALITY 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.religioustolerance.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

curates), or simply with permission.

Primates

The Archbishop of Canterbury, Rowan Williams.
.The most senior bishop of the Church of England is the Archbishop of Canterbury, who is the archbishop of the southern province of England, the Province of Canterbury.^ The Archbishop of Canterbury at the time (Whitgift) said that bishops were appropriate for England but were not the only way a church could be led.
  • A Short History of the Anglican Church 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.allsaintsjakarta.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Henry Burgess (1808-1886) - no relation of Thomas Burgess - was a Nonconformist minister who joined the Church of England and was ordained in 1850.
  • ROWELL: 'Making Church of England Poetical': Ephraim and the Oxford Movement 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC syrcom.cua.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Hind, the most senior traditionalist in the Church of England, told "The Telegraph" that he is willing to sacrifice his salary and palace residence to join the Catholic Church.
  • VirtueOnline - News - Anglicans Swimming The Tiber - LONDON: Church of England bishop says 'Anglican experiment is over' 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.virtueonline.org [Source type: Original source]

.He also has the status of Primate of All England and Metropolitan.^ Metropolitans of Hungaro-Walachia and Primates of All Romania 29 Jan 1865 - 17 May 1875 Nifon (s.a.
  • Religious leaders 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.rulers.org [Source type: Academic]

.He is also the focus of unity for the worldwide Anglican Communion of independent national or regional churches.^ The official website of the world-wide Anglican Communion, comprising over 80 million members in 44 regional and national member churches around the globe in over 160 countries .
  • External Links - Diocese of Blackburn | Church of England | Church Lancashire | North West Church | Church of England Lancashire | Rev Nicholas Reade | Bishop of Blackburn. 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.blackburn.anglican.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Since the national and regional churches of the Anglican Communion are self-governing, central bodies such as the Lambeth Conference can offer them nothing stronger than advice.
  • The Church of England - Beckwith 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.latimertrust.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Then he explained: We've never claimed that Anglicanism is the Church of Jesus Christ, and we've always claimed and believed that there needs to be catholic unity.
  • Church of England bishop says 'Anglican experiment is over' :: Catholic News Agency (CNA) 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.catholicnewsagency.com [Source type: General]

The Most Reverend and Right Honourable Rowan Williams has served as Archbishop of Canterbury since 2002.
.The second most senior bishop is the Archbishop of York, who is the archbishop of the northern province of England, the Province of York.^ Hind, the most senior traditionalist in the Church of England, told "The Telegraph" that he is willing to sacrifice his salary and palace residence to join the Catholic Church.
  • VirtueOnline - News - Anglicans Swimming The Tiber - LONDON: Church of England bishop says 'Anglican experiment is over' 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.virtueonline.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Archbishop Sancroft and six bishops who remonstrated against it were brought to trial, and were acquitted to the extreme delight of the nation.
  • The Church of England - LoveToKnow 1911 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In 627 Edwin, king of Northumbria , who had married a daughter of lEthelberht, was converted and baptized with his nobles by Paulinus , who became the first bishop of York.
  • The Church of England - LoveToKnow 1911 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

For historical reasons (relating to the time of York's control by the Danes) he is referred to as the Primate of England. .The Most Reverend and Right Honourable John Sentamu has served as the Archbishop of York since 2005. The Bishop of London, the Bishop of Durham and the Bishop of Winchester are ranked in the next three positions.^ June 21st, 2008 John Sentamu is Archbishop of York.
  • Apathy Sketchpad » Church of England 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.apathysketchpad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In 314 three British bishops attended a church council in Arles in France, Eborius bishop of York , Restitutus bishop of London and Adelius bishop of Caerleon (Gwent).
  • A History of Christianity in England 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.localhistories.org [Source type: Original source]

^ During the conference, the Right Reverend John Broadhurst, who is the Anglican Bishop of Fulham and the Primate of Forward in Faith, affirmed that "the Anglican experiment is over."
  • VirtueOnline - News - Anglicans Swimming The Tiber - LONDON: Church of England bishop says 'Anglican experiment is over' 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.virtueonline.org [Source type: Original source]

Diocesan bishops

.The process of appointing diocesan bishops is complex and is handled by a body called the Crown Nominations Committee which submits names to the Prime Minister (acting on behalf of the Crown) for consideration.^ The crown appointment of dignitaries is also frequently criticised, because of the participation of the prime minister, who could be of any religion or none; but, now that the initiative lies with a church committee (the Crown Nominations Commission), it is difficult to fault it in principle, however much it might be improved in practice.
  • The Church of England - Beckwith 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.latimertrust.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Parliament ordered that bishops should be appointed by letters patent and hold their courts in the king's name.
  • The Church of England - LoveToKnow 1911 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ John Wesley was the "head of his Church" in England, and in the colonies he appointed subordinate agents called superintendents, later designated as bishops.
  • Lutherans, Anabaptists, Calvinists, Church of England, Presbyterians, Puritans, Congregationalists, Episcopalians, Baptists, Quakers, Shakers, Moravians, Methodists 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC religion-cults.com [Source type: Original source]

Representative bodies

.The Church of England has a legislative body, the General Synod.^ In 1643 Parliament called a synod to reform the Church of England.
  • A Short History of the Anglican Church 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.allsaintsjakarta.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The role of Parliament in church legislation is sometimes resented in synodical circles, but experience shows that the General Synod needs a second chamber, to provide a second opinion, as much as the House of Commons does; and this is a need which Parliament supplies.
  • The Church of England - Beckwith 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.latimertrust.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In general, the Church of England stuck a compromise between Catholics and Protestants.
  • Lutherans, Anabaptists, Calvinists, Church of England, Presbyterians, Puritans, Congregationalists, Episcopalians, Baptists, Quakers, Shakers, Moravians, Methodists 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC religion-cults.com [Source type: Original source]

.Synod can create two types of legislation, measures and canons.^ UK Parliament Ecclesiastical Committee examines draft Measures presented to it by the Legislative Committee of the General Synod of the Church of England.
  • External Links - Diocese of Blackburn | Church of England | Church Lancashire | North West Church | Church of England Lancashire | Rev Nicholas Reade | Bishop of Blackburn. 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.blackburn.anglican.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Measures have to be approved but cannot be amended by the UK Parliament before receiving the Royal Assent and becoming part of the law of England.^ Whether it ever received the assent of Convocation has been questioned, but it was approved by Parliament in 1549.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Anglicanism 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ "The temperature at the pot has become intolerable, but the process of boiling started before the ordination of women The truth is, the tragedy for us is the Church of England has presumed.
  • Church of England bishop says 'Anglican experiment is over' :: Catholic News Agency (CNA) 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.catholicnewsagency.com [Source type: General]

^ UK Parliament Ecclesiastical Committee examines draft Measures presented to it by the Legislative Committee of the General Synod of the Church of England.
  • External Links - Diocese of Blackburn | Church of England | Church Lancashire | North West Church | Church of England Lancashire | Rev Nicholas Reade | Bishop of Blackburn. 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.blackburn.anglican.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[18] .Canons require Royal Licence and Royal Assent, but form the law of the church, rather than the law of the land.^ We do not want a top-heavy church, or a proliferation of bureaucracy, but we do want real rather than nominal episcopacy.
  • The Church of England - Beckwith 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.latimertrust.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Hence the Occasional Conformity Act, to prevent evasion of the Test Act, and a tyrannical Schism Act, both repealed in 1718, belong rather to the history of parties than to that of the church.
  • The Church of England - LoveToKnow 1911 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ If there really has to be an Established church (which there clearly doesn’t) then I’d rather it be them than most of the others.
  • Apathy Sketchpad » Church of England 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.apathysketchpad.com [Source type: Original source]

[19]
.Another assembly is the Convocation of the English Clergy (older than the General Synod and its predecessor the Church Assembly).^ Later, when the dissenters found friends among the party in parliament opposed to the crown, the church supported the king, and the doctrine of passive obedience was generally accepted by the clergy.
  • The Church of England - LoveToKnow 1911 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Church House Publishing is one of the leading religious publishers in the UK and the official publisher to the Archbishops' Council and the General Synod of the Church of England .
  • External Links - Diocese of Blackburn | Church of England | Church Lancashire | North West Church | Church of England Lancashire | Rev Nicholas Reade | Bishop of Blackburn. 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.blackburn.anglican.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Crockfords Clerical Directory , contains biographies of over 25,000 Anglican clergy in the UK, details of English, Welsh and Irish benefices and churches and much more .
  • External Links - Diocese of Blackburn | Church of England | Church Lancashire | North West Church | Church of England Lancashire | Rev Nicholas Reade | Bishop of Blackburn. 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.blackburn.anglican.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

There are also diocesan synods and deanery synods.

House of Lords

.Of the forty-four diocesan archbishops and bishops in the Church of England, only twenty-six are permitted to sit in the House of Lords.^ Yet it still marries about a third of the couples married in England and baptizes a quarter of the infants born there, so regular church attendance is not the only indication of membership.
  • The Church of England - Beckwith 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.latimertrust.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The constitution of the Church of England has never been changed since, but only modified in detail.
  • The Church of England - Beckwith 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.latimertrust.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Archbishop Sancroft and six bishops who remonstrated against it were brought to trial, and were acquitted to the extreme delight of the nation.
  • The Church of England - LoveToKnow 1911 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

.The Archbishops of Canterbury and York automatically have seats, as do the Bishops of London, Durham and Winchester.^ London , York and Lincoln attended the council of Arles in 314; the church assented to the council of Nicaea in 325, and some of its bishops were present at the council of Rimini in 359.
  • The Church of England - LoveToKnow 1911 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Bishops for the vacant sees were nominated by the crown and elected by their chapters as in Henry's reign; Matthew Parker was canonically consecrated archbishop of Canterbury.
  • The Church of England - LoveToKnow 1911 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Stephens and Hunt (London); J. Raine, Archbishops of York (ends at 1373) (London, 1863); F. A. Gasquet, Henry III. and the Church (London, 1905).
  • The Church of England - LoveToKnow 1911 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

The remaining twenty-one seats are filled in order of seniority by consecration. .It may take a diocesan bishop a number of years to reach the House of Lords, at which point he becomes a Lord Spiritual.^ During the last forty years diocesan conferences, in which the laity are represented, have become universal, while ruridecanal and other meetings of a like kind are general.
  • The Church of England - LoveToKnow 1911 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ With the growth of the church this past couple of years, we are rapidly reaching saturation point with our present building.

The Bishop of Sodor and Man and the Bishop of Gibraltar in Europe are not eligible to sit in the House of Lords as their Dioceses lie outside of the United Kingdom.[20]

Financial situation

Hereford is one of the church's forty-three cathedrals, many with histories stretching back centuries.
.The Church of England, although an established church, does not receive any direct government support.^ What does the Church of England stand for?
  • The Church of England - Beckwith 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.latimertrust.org [Source type: Original source]

^ O n Monday, February 6th, the Anglican Church of England voted to end financial investments in companies supporting Israel's occupation of the Palestinian territories.
  • Will Youmans: Church of England Votes to Divest from Israel 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.counterpunch.org [Source type: General]

^ The report, commissioned for the Church of England and to be published on Monday, accuses the Government of discriminating against the Christian Churches in favour of other faiths, including Islam….
  • Michelle Malkin » More stirrings of life in the Church of England? 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC michellemalkin.com [Source type: Original source]

.Donations comprise its largest source of income, though it also relies heavily on the income from its various historic endowments.^ His donation, though not the origin of tithes in England, illustrates the idea of the sacredness of the tenth of income on which laws enforcing the Anglo- payment of tithes were founded.
  • The Church of England - LoveToKnow 1911 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

As of 2005, the Church of England had estimated total outgoings of around £900 million.[21]

See also

References

  1. ^ Factfile: Anglican Church around the world BBC Factfile. Accessed 2006-06-22.
  2. ^ "The History of the Church of England". The Archbishops' Council of the Church of England. http://www.cofe.anglican.org/about/history/. Retrieved 2006-05-24. 
  3. ^ http://www.cofe.anglican.org/faith/anglican/
  4. ^ a b http://www.cofe.anglican.org/about/churchlawlegis/canons/church.pdf
  5. ^ HistoryMole: King Henry VIII (1491-1547)
  6. ^ The Diary Of Samuel Ward: A Translator Of The 1611 King James Bible, edited by John Wilson Cowart and M.M. Knappen
  7. ^ Hooker's ecclesiastical polity: http://www.churchsociety.org/issues_new/history/hooker/iss_history_hooker_carter-position.asp
  8. ^ Church votes overwhelmingly for compromise on women bishops - news from ekklesia | Ekklesia
  9. ^ "Church will ordain women bishops". BBC News. July 7, 2008. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/7494517.stm. Retrieved 2008-07-07. 
  10. ^ Synod struggles on women bishops
  11. ^ See the pages linked from the Life Events page on the Church of England website
  12. ^ Peter J. Bowler, Reconciling science and religion: the debate in early-twentieth-century Britain (University of Chicago Press, 2001), page 194.
  13. ^ Robin Gill, The Empty Church Revisited, (Ashgate Publishing, 2003) page 161.
  14. ^ Christian Research, Religious Trends (2008), cited in Ruth Gledhill, "Churchgoing on its knees as Christianity falls out of favour", The Times, 8 May 2008.
  15. ^ Ruth Gledhill, "Churchgoing on its knees as Christianity falls out of favour", The Times, 8 May 2008.
  16. ^ http://www.churchsociety.org/issues_new/doctrine/39a/iss_doctrine_39A_Arts19-22.asp
  17. ^ Cross, F. L. (ed.) (1957) Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church; p. 1436
  18. ^ "Summary of Church Assembly and General Synod Measures". Church of England website. Archbishops' council of the Church of England. November 2007. http://www.cofe.anglican.org/about/churchlawlegis/measures/. 
  19. ^ "General Synod". Church of England website. Archbishops' council of the Church of England. http://www.cofe.anglican.org/about/gensynod/. 
  20. ^ House of Lords: alphabetical list of Members. Retrieved on 12 December 2008.
  21. ^ outgoings

External links


Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

English

Proper noun

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Wikipedia has an article on:
Singular
Church of England
Plural
-
.
  1. The established Christian Church in England, and the mother church of the Anglican Community.^ Church of England Website The Church of England: a Christian presence in every community .

    ^ Some notes on the Church of England and "Establishment" .
    • The Church of England and "Establishment" 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.thuto.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Anglican Church of England listed on this page .

    Abbreviated as C of E.

See also


Simple English

The Church of England is the leading Christian church in England. It is the church established by law, with its formal head being the English monarch (Elizabeth II). It is the mother church of the Anglican Communion.

The Church of England understands itself to be both Catholic and Reformed:

  • Catholic in that it views itself as a part of the universal church of Jesus Christ in unbroken continuity with the early apostolic church. This is expressed in its emphasis on the teachings of the early Church Fathers, as formalised in the Apostles', Nicene, and Athanasian creeds.
  • Reformed in that it has been shaped by the doctrinal principles of the 16th century Protestant Reformation, in particular in the Thirty-Nine Articles and the Book of Common Prayer.

There are other protestant churches in England which are not part of the Anglican Communion.

History

The Church of England was created by King Henry VIII in 1534. Henry VIII was married to Catherine of Aragon, but asked the Pope to annul the marriage (say that there was a mistake and that Henry and Catherine were never really married). He had wanted to annul the marriage because he wanted a male heir to his throne and Catherine could not produce one. When the annulment was refused, Henry VIII used his position as King to break away from the Roman Catholic Church, and establish the Church of England, sometimes called the Anglican (English) Church.


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 28, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Church of England, which are similar to those in the above article.








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