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Chuvash people: Wikis

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Chuvashes
Чăвашсем
Căvašsem
Famous Chuvash 0.pngFamous Chuvash 1.pngFamous Chuvash 2.png
Famous Chuvash 3.pngFamous Chuvash 4.pngFamous Chuvash 5.png
Famous Chuvash 6.pngFamous Chuvash 7.pngFamous Chuvash 8.png
Row 1: P. Yegorov  • N. Bichurin  • I. Yakovlev

Row 2: N. Nikolsky  • K. Ivanov  • Şeşpĕl Mišši
Row 3: A. Nikolayev  • G. Aygi  • N. Pavlova

Total population
up to 2 million
Regions with significant populations
 Russia 1,637,094 [1]
 Kazakhstan 22,305 [2]
 Ukraine 10,593 [3]
 Uzbekistan 10,074 [4]
 Turkmenistan 2,281 [5]
 Belarus 2,242 [6]
 Latvia 1,509 [7]
 Moldova 1,204 [8]
 Kyrgyzstan 848 [9]
 Georgia 542 [10]
 Estonia 495 [11]
 Azerbaijan 489 [12]
 Chuvashia (Russian republic) 889,268
Languages

Chuvash
Russian (as second language)
Tatar (as second or third language)

Religion

Orthodox Christianity

Related ethnic groups

Suvars
Volga Bulgars

The Chuvash people (Chuvash: чăвашсем, Căvašsem; Russian: чуваши; Turkish: Çuvaş ) are a Turkic ethnic group native to the Volga Region of Russian Federation. Most of them live in Republic of Chuvashia and surrounding areas, although distant Chuvash communities may be found as far east as Siberia.

Contents

Etymology

Up to this day, there is no universally accepted etymology of the word Chuvash. However, there are two main theories that try to explain it.

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Suvar

According to one theory, "Chuvash" is a Shaz-Turkic adaptation of Lir-Turkic "Suvar", an ethnonym of people that are widely considered to be the ancestors of modern Chuvashes. Compare Lir-Turkic Chuvash: huran to Shaz-Turkic Tatar: qazan (cauldron).

Jăvaš

Another theory suggests that the word "Chuvash" may be derived from Common Turkic jăvaš ("friendly", "peaceful") as opposed to "şarmăs" ("warlike").

Origin

There are rival schools of thought on the origin of Chuvash people. One is that they originated from a mixing between the Suvar and Savir tribes of Volga Bulgaria with local Mari tribes. Another is that Chuvashes are remainders of pre-Volga Bulgar (Hunnic) population of Volga region, partly merged with Scythians, Volga Bolgars and Maris.

Subgroups

Chuvash people are divided into two main groups: Virjal or Turi (Chuvash: вирьял, тури; upper) and Anatri (Chuvash: анатри; lower). The latter also have their own subgroups: Anat jenci (Chuvash: анат енчи; mid-lower) and Hirti (Chuvash: хирти; steppe).

History

Turkic-speaking ancestors of Chuvash people are believed to have come from Central Asia, where they lived in the basin of Irtysh (between Tian Shan and Altay) from at least the end of third millennia BC[13]. In the beginning of first century AD they started moving west through Zhetysu and steppes of modern-day Kazakhstan, and reached North Caucasus in 2nd-3rd centuries AD. There they established several states (Old Bulgaria on the Black Sea coast and Suvar Duchy in modern-day Daghestan) and came into contact with various Iranic peoples.

Old Bulgaria broke up in the second half of 7th century after a series of successful Khazar invasions; most of its population fled north, to the Volga-Kama region. Shortly after that, Suvar Duchy was also forced to become a vassal state of Khazaria. About half a century later, Suvars took part in Khazar-Arab Wars of 732-737.

Population

Culture

They speak the Chuvash language have some pre-Christian traditions. In addition to the Chuvash language, many Chuvash people also use the Russian and Tatar languages.

Religion

Chuvash people are predominatly Orthodox Christianity who belong to the Russian Orthodox Church. They re-tain pre Christian traditions in the cultural activities much like all the Orthodox Christians in the world.

See also

References


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