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City of Cincinnati
—  City  —


Nickname(s): The Queen City, Cincy
Motto: Juncta Juvant (Lat. Strength in Unity)
Location in Hamilton County, Ohio, USA
Coordinates: 39°8′10″N 84°30′11″W / 39.13611°N 84.50306°W / 39.13611; -84.50306
Country United States
State Ohio
County Hamilton
Settled 1788
Incorporated 1802 (village)
- 1819 (city)
 - Type Council-manager government
 - Mayor Mark L. Mallory (D)
 - City 79.6 sq mi (206.1 km2)
 - Land 78.0 sq mi (202.0 km2)
 - Water 1.6 sq mi (4.1 km2)
Elevation 482 ft (147 m)
Population (2008)[1][2]
 - City 333,336
 Density 4,273.5/sq mi (1,650.2/km2)
 Metro 2,155,137
 - Demonym Cincinnatian
Time zone EST (UTC-5)
 - Summer (DST) EDT (UTC-4)
Area code(s) 513
FIPS code 39-15000[3]
GNIS feature ID 1066650[4]

Cincinnati is a city in the U.S. state of Ohio and the county seat of Hamilton County.[5] The municipality is located north of the Ohio River at the Ohio-Kentucky border. The population within city limits was estimated to be 333,336 in 2008[1], making it the state's third largest city. According to a 2008 Census Bureau estimate, the Cincinnati Metropolitan Area had a population of 2,155,137 making it the largest MSA in Ohio, and the 24th most populous in the United States.[6] Residents of Cincinnati are called Cincinnatians.[7]

Cincinnati is considered to have been the first American boomtown in the heart of the country in the early nineteenth century to rival the larger coastal cities in size and wealth. As the first major inland city in the country, it is sometimes thought of as the first purely American city, lacking the heavy European influence that was present on the east coast. However, by the end of the nineteenth century, Cincinnati's growth had slowed considerably, and the city was surpassed in population by many other inland cities.

Cincinnati is home to major sports teams including the Cincinnati Reds and the Cincinnati Bengals, as well as events like the Cincinnati Masters, the Ohio Valley Jazz Festival and the Thanksgiving Day race. The University of Cincinnati traces its foundation to the Medical College of Ohio, which was founded in 1819.[8]

Cincinnati is also known for having one of the larger collections of nineteenth-century Italianate architecture in the U.S., primarily concentrated just north of Downtown in an area known as Over-the-Rhine. Over-the-Rhine is one of the largest historic districts listed on the National Register of Historic Places.



"With one hand he returns the fasces, symbol of power as appointed dictator of Rome. His other hand holds the plow, as he resumes the life of a citizen and farmer." — Statue of Cincinnatus in Sawyer Point.

Cincinnati was founded in 1788 by John Cleves Symmes and Colonel Robert Patterson.[9] Surveyor John Filson (also the author of The Adventures of Colonel Daniel Boone) named it "Losantiville" from four terms, each of a different language, meaning "the city opposite the mouth of the Licking River." Ville is French for "city," anti is Greek for "opposite", os is Latin for "mouth", and "L" was all that was included of "Licking River".[citation needed]

In 1790, Arthur St. Clair, the governor of the Northwest Territory, changed the name of the settlement to "Cincinnati" in honor of the Society of the Cincinnati, of which he was a member.[9] The society honored General George Washington, who was considered a latter day Cincinnatus, the Roman farmer who was called to serve Rome as dictator, an office which he immediately resigned after completing his task of defeating the Aequians. To this day, Cincinnati in particular, and Ohio in general, is home to a statistically significant number of descendants of Revolutionary War soldiers who were granted lands in the state.[citation needed]

In 1802, Cincinnati was chartered as a village. David Ziegler (1748–1811), a Revolutionary War veteran from Heidelberg, Germany, became the first mayor. Cincinnati was incorporated as a city in 1819. The introduction of steam navigation on the Ohio River in 1811 and the completion of the Miami and Erie Canal helped the city grow to 115,000 citizens by 1850.[9]

Cincinnati in 1841 with the Miami and Erie Canal in the foreground.

Construction on the Miami and Erie Canal began on July 21, 1825, when it was called the Miami Canal, a reference to the Little Miami River, which was its origin, and water was diverted into the canal bed in 1827.[10] The canal began by connecting Cincinnati to nearby Middletown in 1827 and, by 1840, the canal had reached Toledo, changing the Miami Canal to the Miami and Erie Canal and signifying the connection between the Little Miami River and Lake Erie.[citation needed]

During this period of rapid expansion, citizens of Cincinnati began referring to the city as the "Queen" city. The phrase was cemented in the poem "Catawba Wine" by Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, who wrote that the city was "the Queen of the West", giving the city its nickname.[citation needed]

Railroads were the next major form of transportation to come to Cincinnati. In 1836, the Little Miami Railroad was chartered.[11] Construction began soon after, to connect Cincinnati with the Mad River and Lake Erie Railroad, and thus the ports of the Sandusky Bay on Lake Erie.[10]

In regard to Law enforcement: the first Sheriff John Brown appointed September 2, 1788; an Ohio Act of January 1, 1802 provided for Cincinnati to have a Village Marshall {James Smith appointed}; a "Night Watch" was established March 29, 1803; in 1819 when Cincinnati was incorporated as a city the First City Marshal William Ruffin was appointed. In May 1828 a Police force consisted of 1 captain; 1 assistant and 5 patrolmen; On April 22, 1850 a position of Police Chief and 6 Lieutenants were established; in 1853 the First Police Chief Jacob Keifer was appointed/dismissed after 3 weeks.

On April 1, 1853, Cincinnati's Fire Department became a paid department, the first full-time paid fire department in the United States. It was the first in the world to use steam fire engines.[12]

Six years later, in 1859, Cincinnati laid out six streetcar lines, making it easier for people to get around the city.[11] By 1872, Cincinnatians could travel on the streetcar line within the city and then be transported by rail car to the hill communities. The Cincinnati Inclined Plane Company began transporting people to the top of Mount Auburn in that year.[10]

Cincinnati in 1862, a lithograph in Harper's Weekly.

The Cincinnati Red Stockings, whose name and heritage inspired today's Cincinnati Reds, began their career in the 1800s as well. In 1868, meetings were held at the law offices of Tilden, Sherman, and Moulton to make Cincinnati’s baseball team a professional one; it became the first regular professional team in the country, being organized formally in 1869.[11]

During the American Civil War, Cincinnati played a key role as a major source of supplies and troops for the Union Army. It also served as the headquarters for much of the war for the Department of the Ohio, which was charged with the defense of the region, as well as directing the army's offensives into Kentucky and Tennessee. Due to Cincinnati's proximity to and commerce with slave states across the Ohio River, there was significant "Southern sympathy" in the Cincinnati area. This is evidenced by the history of the Copperhead movement in Ohio.[13] In July 1863, Cincinnati was placed under martial law due to the imminent danger posed by the Confederate Morgan's Raiders. They came close to Cincinnati but never actually attacked the city proper, although several outlying villages such as Cheviot and Montgomery were attacked. [1] [2] [3]

The Tyler Davidson Fountain was dedicated in 1871 to Cincinnati by Henry Probasco and is a symbol for the city and the region.

In 1879, Procter & Gamble, one of Cincinnati's major soap manufacturers, began marketing Ivory Soap. It was marketed as light enough to float. After a fire at the first factory, Procter & Gamble moved to a new factory on the Mill Creek and began soap production again. The area became known as Ivorydale.[14]

In 1884, one of the most severe riots in American history took place in Cincinnati. The incident that sparked the riots happened on Christmas Eve 1883 when two men, Joe Palmer and William Berner, robbed and murdered their employer, a stable owner named William Kirk, by hammering in his skull and strangling him to death. The duo dumped his body near Mill Creek before they were captured. One of the men, William Berner, was spared the gallows but this decision would nearly destroy the city.[citation needed]

Beginning on March 28, thousands of citizens stormed the county jail and burned the Hamilton County Courthouse seeking Berner. A small group of Hamilton County Deputies, led by Sheriff Morton Lytle Hawkins, fought to save the jail from a complete takeover. Eventually, after losing ground, and nearly losing high profile prisoner Joe Palmer along with the entire jail – they succeeded in protecting the inmates at cost of the lives of two deputies - including Captain John Desmond whose statue graces the Courthouse lobby today. In total, 45 Cincinnatians were killed and 125 injured.[citation needed]

Cincinnati weathered the Great Depression better than most American cities of its size, largely because of a resurgence of inexpensive river trade. The rejuvenation of downtown began in the 1920s and continued into the next decade with the construction of Union Terminal, the post office, and a large Bell Telephone building.[citation needed]

The flood of 1937 was one of the worst in the nation's history, resulting in the building of protective flood walls. After World War II, Cincinnati unveiled a master plan for urban renewal that resulted in modernization of the inner city. Like other older industrial cities, Cincinnati suffered from economic restructuring and loss of jobs following deindustrialization in the mid-century.[citation needed]

In the 1970s, the city completed Riverfront Stadium and Riverfront Coliseum, as the Cincinnati Reds baseball team emerged as one of the dominant teams of the decade. In 1989, the 200th anniversary of the city's founding, much attention was focused on the city's Year 2000 plan, which involved further revitalization.[citation needed]

The completion of several major new development projects enhance the city as it enters the early years of the new millennium. Cincinnati's beloved Bengals and Reds teams both have new, state-of-the-art homes: Paul Brown Stadium, opened in 2000; and the Great American Ball Park, opened in 2003, respectively. Two new museums have opened: the Rosenthal Center for Contemporary Art in 2003, and the National Underground Railroad Freedom Center in 2004.[citation needed]

The City of Cincinnati and Hamilton County are currently planning the Banks--a 24-hour urban neighborhood of restaurants, clubs, offices, and homes with sweeping skyline views, along the city's riverfront. Cincinnati has received such accolades as "Most Liveable City" (1993), Partners for Livable Communities, April 2004; number five U.S. arts destination, American Style Magazine, Summer 2004; was the highest rated city in Ohio for "Best Cities For Young Professionals" and 18th overall, Forbes Magazine, June 2007;[15] and inclusion in the top ten "Cities that Rock," Esquire Magazine, April 2004.


Cincinnati is in the bluegrass region of Ohio.

Cincinnati's core metro area spans parts of Southern Ohio and Northern Kentucky. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 79.6 square miles (206.1 km²), of which, 78.0 square miles (201.9 km²) of it is land and 1.6 square miles (4.1 km²) of it (2.01%) is water. The city spreads over a number of hills, bluffs, and low ridges overlooking the Ohio River in the Bluegrass region of the country.[4] Cincinnati is geographically located within the Midwest and is on the far northern periphery of the Upland South. With two-thirds of the American population living within 600 miles of Cincinnati, it is an ideal meeting place. [5] [6] [7]


Cincinnati is located within a climatic transition zone [8][9] at the northern limit of the humid subtropical climate and the southern limit of the humid continental climate zone, with average temperatures by U.S. standards. [10] [11] Summers are hot, humid and wet. July is the warmest month, with an average high of 86°F (30°C) and an average low of 66°F (18.9°C). Winters are generally cool to cold, with occasional snowfall. January is the coldest month, with an average high of 37°F (2.8°C) and an average low of 21°F (-6.1°C). Precipitation is fairly evenly distributed each month, averaging 42.61 inches of rainfall and 22.5 inches of snowfall annually. The highest recorded temperature was 109 °F (43 °C) on July 21, 1934, and the lowest recorded temperature was -25°F (-32 °C) on January 18, 1977.[16]

Climate data for Cincinnati
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °F (°C) 77
Average high °F (°C) 37
Average low °F (°C) 21
Record low °F (°C) -25
Rainfall inches (mm) 2.92
Snowfall inches (mm) 7.7
Source: National Weather Service[16][17] March 2010


Cincinnati Museum Center

Downtown Cincinnati is focused around Fountain Square, a popular public square and event location.[citation needed]

Cincinnati is home to numerous structures that are noteworthy due to their architectural characteristics or historic associations including the Carew Tower, the Scripps Center, the Ingalls Building, Cincinnati Museum Center at Union Terminal, and the Isaac M. Wise Temple.[citation needed]

The city is undergoing significant changes due to an influx of new development and private investment as well as the construction of the long stalled Banks project. Currently, there has been nearly $3.5 billion invested in urban core of Cincinnati (including Northern Kentucky), and it is anticipated that even more investment will take place.[citation needed]

Construction has begun on a new building that will dominate the Cincinnati skyline. Queen City Square is scheduled to be open in 2011. The building will be the tallest in Cincinnati and the third tallest in Ohio, reaching a height of 660 feet.[18]

In 2008 Cincinnati was ranked the 10th most walkable city in the United States, and the most walkable in Ohio.[19]


The city is governed by a nine-member city council, whose members are elected at large. Prior to 1924, city council was elected through a system of wards. The ward system lent itself to corruption and Cincinnati was run by the Republican political machine of "Boss" Cox from the 1880s through the 1920s with a few brief interludes. A reform movement arose in 1923, led by another Republican, Murray Seasongood. Seasongood eventually founded the Charter Committee, which used ballot initiatives in 1924 to eliminate the ward system and replace it with the current at-large system and also to introduce a city manager form of government. From 1924 to 1957, the council was selected by proportional representation. Beginning in 1957, all candidates ran in a single race and the top nine vote-getters were elected (the "9-X system"). The mayor was selected by the council. In 1977, Jerry Springer, later a controversial television talk show host, was chosen to serve one year as mayor.[20] Starting in 1987, the top vote-getter in the city council election automatically became mayor. Starting in 1999, the mayor was chosen in a separate election and the city manager received a lesser role in government; these reforms were referred to as the "strong mayor" reforms. Cincinnati politics include the participation of the Charter Party, the party with the third-longest history of winning in local elections. The current mayor of Cincinnati is Mark Mallory and the current City Manager is Milton Dohoney. The nine-member city council is composed of Vice-Mayor Roxanne Qualls and Councilmembers Y. Laketa Cole (President Pro-Tem), Jeff Berding, Chris Bortz, Leslie Ghiz, Chris Monzel, Laure Quinlivan, Cecil Thomas, and Charlie Winburn.[21]

Race relations

The National Underground Railroad Freedom Center has exhibits on the National Underground Railroad

Because of its location on the Ohio River, before the Civil War, Cincinnati was a border town between the states that allowed slavery, such as Kentucky, and those that did not, such as Ohio. Residents of Cincinnati and surrounding areas played a major role in abolitionism, but there were also opponents to this movement.

Social tensions, the press of new immigrants and competition over jobs sometimes erupted into violence. In 1829 a riot broke out as anti-abolitionists attacked blacks in the city. Some 1,200 blacks left the city as a result of rioting and resettled in Canada.[22] The riot was a national topic of discussion in black communities. Representatives at the first Negro Convention in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania in 1830 discussed how to help the refugees.

As the anti-slavery movement grew, other riots occurred in 1836 and 1841.[22] In 1836 anti-abolitionists attacked a press run by James Birney, who published the anti-slavery weekly The Philanthropist. The mob grew to 700 and also attacked black neighborhoods.[23]

Tensions increased after passage in 1850 of the Fugitive Slave Act. Abolitionists maintained stations of the Underground Railroad in the area, as slaves frequently escaped across the river. Harriet Beecher Stowe lived here for a while and used the area as the setting for her novel Uncle Tom's Cabin. She had met escaped slaves and heard their stories. Levi Coffin made the Cincinnati area the center of his anti-slavery efforts in 1847.[24] Today, the National Underground Railroad Freedom Center commemorates the era at its center located at 50 East Freedom Way.

The 20th and 21st centuries had different issues in race relations, aggravated by late 20th century economic problems. In 2001 a series of racially charged riots occurred after the shooting death of a black man, Timothy Thomas, by police during a foot pursuit.


Crime increased after the 2001 riots, but has been decreasing ever since.

Before the riot of 2001, Cincinnati's overall crime rate was dropping dramatically and had reached its lowest point since 1992.[25] After the riot violent crime increased, and in 2005 Cincinnati was ranked as the 20th most dangerous city in America.[26] The police force "work slowdown" correlates with this increase. An article published in the Cincinnati Enquirer on May 30, 2007 affirmed that incidents of violent crime, including homicides, were 15.3 percent lower than they had been in the first four months of 2006. Children's Hospital saw a 78 percent decrease in gunshot wounds, and University Hospital had a 17 percent drop.[27] In 2009, the CQ Press ranked Cincinnati the 19th most dangerous city in the United States[28]

In May and June 2006, together with the Hamilton County Sheriff, the Cincinnati Police Department created a task force to crack down on crime. This consisted of an extra twenty deputies assigned to Over-the-Rhine and helped reduce the crime rate of downtown Cincinnati by 29%[citation needed]. This marks a dramatic decrease in crime but has not reduced the crime levels to pre-riot levels.

In the general elections on November 7, 2006, Hamilton County voters rejected a quarter-cent sales tax increase which would have been used to build a new jail system.

The city has attempted to reduce gun violence in Cincinnati by using the Out of the Crossfire program at University Hospital, which is a rehabilitation program for patients with gunshot wounds. The program attempts to prevent them from falling back into the cycle of violence which many gunshot victims return to after leaving the hospital.[29] Mayor Mark Mallory is a member of the Mayors Against Illegal Guns Coalition,[30] a bi-partisan group with a stated goal of "making the public safer by getting illegal guns off the streets." 2007 saw 68 homicides, nearly a 25% drop from 2006 in which there were 89. However, this is still not lower than 2000 count of 15 homicides.[31] As of May 2008, violent crime is down by almost 12% compared to the crime rate at that point last year. At year end 2008, 75 homicides were recorded, an increase from 68 the previous year.[32] As of December 12, 2009 there had been 60 homicides in the city of Cincinnati.[33]


Historical populations
Census Pop.  %±
1810 2,540
1820 9,642 279.6%
1830 24,831 157.5%
1840 46,338 86.6%
1850 115,435 149.1%
1860 161,044 39.5%
1870 216,239 34.3%
1880 255,139 18.0%
1890 296,908 16.4%
1900 325,902 9.8%
1910 363,591 11.6%
1920 401,247 10.4%
1930 451,160 12.4%
1940 455,610 1.0%
1950 503,998 10.6%
1960 502,550 −0.3%
1970 452,524 −10.0%
1980 385,457 −14.8%
1990 364,040 −5.6%
2000 331,285 −9.0%
Est. 2008 333,336 0.6%
Population 1810-1970.[34]
Population 1980-2000.[35]

As of 2007, the city's population was 52.0% White (49.3% non-Hispanic-White alone), 46.5% Black or African American, 0.9% American Indian and Alaska Native, 2.0% Asian, 1.0% from some other race and 2.4% from two or more races. 1.7% of the total population were Hispanic or Latino (of any race).[36]

As of the census of 2000,[3] there were 331,285 people, 148,095 households, and 72,566 families residing in the city. The population density was 3,879.8.0 people per square mile (1,498.0/km²) with a housing density of 2,129.2/sq mi (822.1/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 52.97% White, 42.92% Black or African American, 0.21% Native American, 1.55% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 0.63% from other races, and 1.68% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.28% of the population. The top 5 largest ancestries include German (19.8%), Irish (10.4%), English (5.4%), Italian (3.3%).

There were 148,095 households out of which 25.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 26.6% were married couples living together, 18.6% had a female householder with no husband present, and 51.0% were non-families. 42.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.1% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.15 and the average family size was 3.02.

The age distribution was 24.5% under the age of 18, 12.9% from 18 to 24, 31.6% from 25 to 44, 18.7% from 45 to 64, and 12.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 32 years. For every 100 females there were 89.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 85.6 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $29,493, and the median income for a family was $37,543. Males had a median income of $33,063 versus $26,946 for females. The per capita income for the city was $19,962. About 18.2% of families and 21.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 32.0% of those under age 18 and 14.8% of those age 65 or over.

For several decades the Census Bureau had been reporting a steady decline in the city's population. But according to the Census Bureau's 2006 estimates, the population was 332,252, representing an increase from 331,310 in 2005.[37] Despite the fact that this change was due to an official challenge by the city however, Mayor Mark Mallory has repeatedly argued that the city's population is actually at 378,259 after a drill-drown study was performed by an independent, non-profit group based in Washington, D.C.[38]

The Cincinnati-Middletown-Wilmington Metropolitan Statistical Area has a population of 2,155,137 people, making it the largest metropolitan area in Ohio and the 24th largest in the country. It includes the Ohio counties of Hamilton, Butler, Warren, Clermont, and Brown, as well as the Kentucky counties of Boone, Bracken, Campbell, Gallatin, Grant, Kenton, and Pendleton, and the Indiana counties of Dearborn, Franklin, and Ohio.


Procter & Gamble is one of many corporations based in Cincinnati.
Scripps Center in downtown Cincinnati.

Cincinnati is home to major corporations such as Procter & Gamble, The Kroger Company, Sunny Delight Beverages Co., GE Aviation (suburb of Evendale), Macy's, Inc. (owner of Macy's and Bloomingdale's), Convergys, Chiquita Brands International, Great American Insurance Company, Western & Southern Financial Group, The E. W. Scripps Company, the United States Playing Card Company (enclave of Norwood), and Fifth Third Bank. Kao Corporation's United States headquarters are in Cincinnati as well. Altogether, ten Fortune 500 companies and eighteen Fortune 1000 companies are headquartered in the Cincinnati area. Statistically, Greater Cincinnati ranks sixth in the U.S. with 4.98 Fortune 500 companies per million residents and fourth in the U.S. with 8.96 Fortune 1000 companies per million residents.[39] Cincinnati has three Fortune Global 500 companies; the only Global 500 companies in the state of Ohio.[40]

The largest employer in Cincinnati is the University of Cincinnati, with 15,862 employees. Kroger is the second largest, with 15,600 employees.[41]


University of Cincinnati's McMicken Hall

The Cincinnati Public School district includes 16 high schools, each accepting students on a city-wide basis. The district includes many public Montessori schools, one of which, Clark Montessori, was the first public Montessori high school established in the United States.[42] Cincinnati Public Schools (CPS) also boasts Walnut Hills High School, Newsweek's 36 best public school, which offers 28 Advanced Placement courses and top athletic teams. In recent years, Walnut's wind ensemble has performed in Carnegie Hall and the marching band has performed in the London New Year's Day Parade.

The city and region is also home to a variety of other schools, both public and private. In August 2007, Cincinnati Magazine published an article rating 36 private high schools in greater Cincinnati.[43] According to the 2000 census, the Cincinnati area has some of the highest private school attendance rates in the United States, with Hamilton County ranking second only to St. Louis County, Missouri among the country's 100 largest counties.[44]

The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Cincinnati accounts for several high schools in metro Cincinnati; ten of which are single-sex: four all-male,[45] and six all-female.[46] Cincinnati is also home to the all-girl RITSS (Regional Institute for Torah and Secular Studies) high school, a small Orthodox Jewish institution and the Hebrew Union College- Jewish Institute of Religion (HUC-JIR) founded by Isaac Mayer Wise.[47]

Northern Kentucky University's Dorothy Westerman Hermann Natural Science Center and plaza [48]. Immediately at the building entrace, on the right, within its glass wall, visible from the outside, is housed a large spherical pendulum tracing a shifting line in the sand. It functions as an official stratum 1 Network Time Protocol reference clock. Tampering with it is illegal by state law, per posted sign.

Cincinnati is home to the University of Cincinnati and Xavier University, among other colleges and universities. The University of Cincinnati, often referred to informally as "UC," is one of the United States' major graduate research institutions (with prominence in engineering, music, architecture, and psychology). The University of Cincinnati Medical Center is very highly regarded, as well as the College_Conservatory_of_Music, which has many notable alumni, including Kathleen Battle, Al Hirt and Faith Prince. Xavier, a Jesuit university, was at one time affiliated with The Athenaeum of Ohio, the seminary of the Cincinnati Archdiocese.

The extended Greater Cincinnati area has Miami University (one of the original "Public Ivies"), and the 17-thousand-student-strong Northern Kentucky University campus in Highland Heights, Kentucky, 8 miles SSE of downtown, among others. Specifically, NKU is connected with downtown Cincinnati directly via the radiating-spoke interstate system: Daniel Carter Beard Bridge and I-471 which puts this newest, eighth public university of Commonwealth of Kentucky within immediate reach of the Cincinnati city population, and makes travel to and from NKU to downtown and points beyond easier than across town. Among other schools, Cincinnati State is a vocational school which boasts the Midwest Culinary School, one of the best culinary institutes in the United States.

In 2009 Cincinnati was listed fourth on CNN's Top 10 cities for new grads.[49]


Approximately 500,000 attend Taste of Cincinnati annually, making Taste one of the nation's largest street festivals.[50]

Cincinnati's culture is influenced by its history of German immigration as well as the city's geographical position on the border of the Southern United States and Midwestern United States. The History of the Jews in Cincinnati was developed by immigrants from England and Germany who made the city a center of Reform Judaism. It is home to Isaac M. Wise's Plum Street Temple.



Cincinnati is home to numerous festivals and events throughout the year, including:

  • The Cincinnati Flower Show, organized by the Cincinnati Horticultural Society in late April. This floral event, endorsed by the Royal Horticultural Society, is staged at Symmes Township Park and claims to be the biggest outdoor flower show in the United States.
  • Oktoberfest, celebrating Cincinnati's German heritage, is the largest Oktoberfest in the US.[51]
  • Thanksgiving Day Race, the sixth-oldest race in the country.[52]
  • The Taste of Cincinnati and since 1962 the Jazz Festival(now Macy's Music Fest), held annually during July.
  • The Tall Stacks Festival, held every three or four years to celebrate Cincinnati's riverboat history.
  • The Festival of Lights, hosted by the Cincinnati Zoo and Botanical Garden during the year-end holiday season.
  • The Cincinnati Bell/WEBN Riverfest fireworks display on Labor Day weekend, attracting annual crowds of over 500,000.
  • The Cincinnati Fringe Festival 12 Days of Theatre, Film, Visual Art, and Music in the heart of Over-the-Rhine. Ohio's Largest Performing Arts Festival. Begins the day after Memorial Day each year.

The city plays host to numerous musical and theater operations, operates a park system currently ranked 4th in the country boasting that any city resident is within a mile of a park, and has a diverse dining culture. Cincinnati's Fountain Square serves as one of the cultural cornerstones of the region.

Findlay Market, Ohio's oldest still-functioning market

Cincinnati is identified with several unique foods. "Cincinnati chili" is commonly served by several independent chains, including Skyline Chili, Gold Star Chili, Price Hill Chili, Empress Chili, Camp Washington Chili, and Dixie Chili and Deli. Cincinnati has been called the "Chili Capital of America" and "the World" because it has more chili restaurants per capita than any other city in the nation or world.[53][54] Goetta is a meat product popular in Cincinnati consisting of sausage and pinhead oatmeal, usually fried and eaten as a breakfast food. Cincinnati also has many gourmet restaurants. Until 2005, when the restaurant closed, The Maisonette carried the distinction of being Mobil Travel Guide's longest running five-star restaurant in the country. Jean-Robert de Cavel has opened four new restaurants in the area since 2001, including Jean-Robert's at Pigall's which closed in March 2009. Cincinnati's German heritage is evidenced by the many restaurants that specialize in schnitzels and Bavarian cooking. Another element of German culture remains audible in the local vernacular; some residents use the word please when asking a speaker to repeat a statement. This usage is taken from the German word for please, bitte (a shortening of the very formal, "Wie bitte ist es?" or "How, please is that?" in the literal), which is used in this sense.[55]

Findlay Market is Ohio's oldest continuously-operated public market and one of Cincinnati's most famous institutions. The market is the last remaining market among the many that once served Cincinnati.

In August, 2008 Forbes magazine ranked Cincinnati as tenth in a list of "America's Hard-Drinking Cities".[56]

Media and music

Cincinnati's Tall Stacks Festival

Cincinnati is served by The Cincinnati Enquirer, a daily newspaper. The city is home to several alternative, weekly, and monthly publications, as well as twelve television stations and many radio stations.

Soapbox Cincinnati was launched in February, 2008, as a free weekly online e-zine to "tell the new Cincinnati narrative" by focusing on the creative talent shaping the physical and economic transformation of the Cincinnati region. Free print magazine publications include CityBeat[57], Metromix, and DERF[58]. CityBeat is a weekly free magazine with an entertainment focus but also a prominent editorial slant. Metromix is a general interest weekly publication with a broad focus on light entertainment such as music, nightlife, dining, fashion, and art. DERF Magazine is monthly humor-based publication (similar in style to The Onion) featuring satirical and fake news in addition to local event listings and extensive nightlife photo galleries.

Movies that were filmed in part in Cincinnati include Fresh Horses, The Asphalt Jungle (open shot from the Public Landing, takes place in Cincinnati but only Boone County, KY is mentioned),Airborne ,Rain Man, Shawshank Redemption,Airborne, Grimm Reality, Little Man Tate, City of Hope (director: John Sayles), Milk Money, Batman Forever, Traffic, The Pride of Jesse Hallam, In Too Deep, Public Eye, The Last Late Night,[59] and The Mighty.[60] In addition, Wild Hogs is set, though not filmed, in Cincinnati.[61]

The Cincinnati skyline was prominently featured in the opening and closing sequences of the daytime drama The Edge of Night from its start in 1956 until 1980, when it was superseded by the Los Angeles skyline; the cityscape was the stand-in for the show's setting, Monticello. Procter & Gamble, the show's producer, is based in Cincinnati. The sitcom WKRP in Cincinnati, and its sequel/spin-off The New WKRP in Cincinnati featured the city's skyline and other exterior shots in its credits, as well as obviously being set, though not shot in, Cincinnati. The city's skyline has also appeared in an April Fool's episode of The Drew Carey Show, which was set in Carey's hometown of Cleveland.

Cincinnati gave rise to many popular bands and musicians, including Funk Legend Bootsy Collins, The Isley Brothers, Soul music pioneer James Brown, Mood, Midnight Star, The Afghan Whigs, Over the Rhine (which is named after Cincinnati's Over-the-Rhine district), Blessid Union of Souls, 98 Degrees, The Greenhornes, The National, The Deele, Enduser and Heartless Bastards. In addition, many other bands and musicians call the Greater Cincinnati region their home, including Adrian Belew, Peter Frampton and alternative Hip Hop producer Hi-Tek, Neo Soul singer/songwriter Ja'Meze, and Traxxstarr.

3 Doors Down's music video "It's Not My Time" was filmed in Cincinnati showing parts of the skyline as well as Fountain Square.

Cincinnati is the broadcasting home of WOXY, The Future of Rock & Roll (Historically 97.7 or 97X): online and available on Cincinnati Public Radio Inc. HD Radio station 91.7-2.

WCET channel 48, now known as CET, is the nation's oldest licensed public television station (License #1, issued in 1951).[62]

The Cincinnati May Festival Chorus is a prestigious amateur choir that has been in existence since 1880. Music Director James Conlon and Chorus Director Robert Porco lead the Chorus through an extensive repertoire of classical music. The May Festival Chorus is the mainstay of the oldest continuous choral festival in the Western Hemisphere. Cincinnati's Music Hall was built specifically to house the May Festival.

Cincinnati is home to the Cincinnati Symphony Orchestra, Cincinnati Opera, Cincinnati Boychoir and Cincinnati Ballet. The Greater Cincinnati area is also home to several regional orchestras and youth orchestras, including the Starling Chamber Orchestra.


A Cincinnati Reds baseball game at Great American Ball Park.

Cincinnati has seven major sports venues, two major league teams, six minor league teams, and five college institutions with their own sports teams. It is home to baseball's Reds, who were named for America's first professional baseball team, the Cincinnati Red Stockings[63][64][65]; the Bengals of the National Football League; and the historic international men's and women's tennis tournament, The A.T.P. Masters Series Cincinnati Masters. It is also home to three professional soccer teams, two outdoor teams, the Cincinnati Kings (men's) and Cincinnati LadyHawks (women's), and one indoor team, the Cincinnati Excite (men's). On Opening Day, Cincinnati has the distinction of holding the "traditional opener" in baseball each year, due to its history.

Fans often refer to the city and its teams as "Cincy" for short. Even the Reds' official website uses that name frequently.[66]

Club Sport Founded League Venue
Cincinnati Reds Baseball 1882 MLB, National League Great American Ball Park
Cincinnati Bengals Football 1968 National Football League Paul Brown Stadium
Cincinnati Cyclones Ice hockey 1990 East Coast Hockey League U.S. Bank Arena
Cincinnati Kings Soccer 2005 USL Premier Development League Town and Country Sports Club
1790 Cincinnati Indoor Soccer 2008 Professional Arena Soccer League Game Time Training Center


The highways of Cincinnati. The purple portion is Cincinnati proper, the light green portion is Ohio, and the light yellow portion is Kentucky.

Cincinnati-Northern Kentucky International Airport (CVG) is the major airport serving the metropolitan area and is located across the river in Kentucky. The airport is the fifth largest hub for Delta and the largest for its subsidiary, Comair. The city has four other airports; Lunken Airport, a municipal airfield used for smaller business jets and private planes; the Butler County Regional Airport, located between Fairfield and Hamilton, which ranks just behind Lunken in business jets and has the largest private aircraft capacity of the Cincinnati area; Cincinnati West Airport, a smaller airport located in Harrison, Ohio; and the Blue Ash Airport, in Blue Ash.[67]

Government Square is Cincinnati's main Metro station.
The Daniel Carter Beard Bridge is more commonly called the "Big Mac" bridge because of its resemblance to McDonald's iconic arches.

Cincinnati is served by the Metro city passenger bus system, operated by the Southwest Ohio Regional Transit Authority (SORTA). The Transit Authority of Northern Kentucky (TANK) serves Northern Kentucky and operates bus links in Cincinnati at Metro's main Government Square hub. There is also rail service by Amtrak with ticket offices and boarding stations at Cincinnati Union Terminal. Several freight railroads service Cincinnati, the largest being CSX Transportation which operates a railroad yard west of Interstate 75. Other railroads include Norfolk Southern, which operates a large intermodal yard in the west end neighborhood of Queensgate and the Indiana & Ohio Railroad which operates several small predecessor yards throughout the city. The city has a river ferry and many bridges. The Anderson Ferry has been in continuous operation since 1817.[68] Cincinnati’s major bridges include:

High rise condos overlooking the Ohio River

Cincinnati is served by three major interstate highways. Interstate 75 is a north-south route through the Mill Creek valley. Interstate 71 runs northeast towards Mount Adams and Walnut Hills. Interstate 74 begins at Interstate 75 west of downtown and connects to Indiana.

The city has an outer-belt, Interstate 275 (which is the longest circle highway in the country), and a spur to Kentucky, Interstate 471. It is also served by numerous U.S. highways: US 22, US 25, US 27, US 42, US 50, US 52, and US 127.

Cincinnati has an incomplete subway system. Construction stopped in 1924 when unexpected post-World War I inflation had doubled the cost of construction.[69] As a result, the funds that were originally set aside were not enough to complete the subway system. There have been several attempts by SORTA to utilize the subways for a modern light rail system within Hamilton County. All of these initiatives have thus far failed when placed on the ballot, with the most recent (a $2.7 billion plan) failing 2 to 1 in 2002.[70] Today the subway is used as a conduit for fiber optic and water lines.

There have been numerous attempts over the past decade[71] to build commuter rail from Milford (in nearby Clermont County) to the Downtown Transit Center in Cincinnati. The most recent of these began gaining support in early July 2007. The $411 million plan currently calls for using and upgrading existing rail lines and new diesel cars called DMUs (diesel multiple units).[72]

Cincinnati is also currently planning a streetcar line to connect Downtown, Over-the-Rhine and the area around the University of Cincinnati.[73] An initial study conducted by Omaha-based HDR Engineers was completed on May 31, 2007 and estimated the cost to be around $100 million. Additions made later, of a connection from Over-the-Rhine to Uptown and a loop through Uptown, have raised the overall estimated cost to $185 million. It is predicted that the system could generate more than $1.4 billion in new private investment over the next 15 years through property redevelopment and attracting new residents.[74] However, the plans have faced opposition from some groups arguing that there are more urgent needs on which to spend public funds.[75] Opening of the first streetcar line would not take place before 2011 or 2012.[74]

According to Forbes Magazine, Cincinnatians spend 20% of their income on transit, which makes the city the sixth most expensive city for commuting in the United States.[76] As of 2003, the port of Cincinnati is ranked 5th by trip ton-miles for an inland port.[77]

Sister cities

Cincinnati has seven sister cities:[78]

A sister city relationship with Harare (Zimbabwe) was suspended in protest of irregularities in the 2008 Zimbabwean presidential election.[79]

See also


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  2. ^ "2006 US Census Estimates by MSA". 2007-04-06. 
  3. ^ a b "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2008-01-31. 
  4. ^ "US Board on Geographic Names". United States Geological Survey. 2007-10-25. Retrieved 2008-01-31. 
  5. ^ "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Retrieved 2008-01-31. 
  6. ^ Population Estimates for the 25 Largest Metropolitan Statistical Areas in 2008. Accessed on 2009-08-12.
  7. ^ "Cincinnati". Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary. Springfield, Massachusetts, United States: Merriam-Webster. 2008. Retrieved 2008-09-18. 
  9. ^ a b c "How Cincinnati Became A City". 
  10. ^ a b c Condit, Carl W.. The Railroad and the City: A Technological and Urbanistic History of Cincinnati. 
  11. ^ a b c Vexler, Robert. Cincinnati: A Chronological & Documentary History. 
  12. ^ "City of Cincinnati Fire Department". 
  13. ^ "Copperheads". Ohio History Central. Columbus, Ohio: Ohio Historical Society. 2005-07-01. Retrieved 2009-05-02. 
  14. ^ Writers' Program, Cincinnati: A Guide to the Queen City and its Neighbors, Washington, DC: Works Project Administration
  15. ^ Best Cities For Young Professionals -
  16. ^ a b "Records for Cincinnati". National Weather Service. Retrieved 2008-11-16. 
  17. ^ NowData - NOAA Online Weather Data. National Weather Service. Retrieved on 2010-03-07.
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  20. ^ "Jerry Springer". Retrieved 2009-08-18. 
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  23. ^ "The Pro-Slavery Riot in Cincinnati", Abolitionism 1830-1850, Uncle Tom's Cabin and American Culture, University of Virginia, 1998-2007, accessed 14 Jan 2009
  24. ^ Levi Coffin, Reminiscences of Levi Coffin, the reputed president of the underground railroad: being a brief history of the labors of a lifetime in behalf of the slave, with the stories of numerous fugitives, who gained their freedom through his instrumentality, and many other incidents, Cincinnati: Western tract society, University of Michigan Library
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  36. ^ Cincinnati city, Ohio - ACS Demographic and Housing Estimates: 2005-2007
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  38. ^ Korte, Gregory (2007-06-27). "Mayor: Census count low again". The Cincinnati Enquirer (The Gannett Co.). 
  39. ^ "Cincinnati USA Successes". 
  40. ^ "FORTUNE Global 500". 
  41. ^ "Facts & Figures." Cincinnati USA. Retrieved on November 2, 2009.
  42. ^ Clark Montessori (2007-01-15). "About Clark". Retrieved 2007-08-10. 
  43. ^ "Best Private High Schools", Cincinnati Magazine
  44. ^ Alltucker, Ken (2002-10-20). "Tristaters put stock in private schools". The Cincinnati Enquirer (Gannett Company): p. A1. Retrieved 2007-10-21. 
  45. ^ "No Girls Allowed: Boys' Schools", Cincinnati Magazine
  46. ^ "A League of Their Own: Girls' Schools", Cincinnati Magazine
  47. ^ Jewish Federation of Cincinnati, Community Directory
  48. ^ (center of the plaza could mark a publicly accessible, easily visible from space (Google Earth) reference point for the campus and a gathering space)
  49. ^ Top 10 cities for new grads
  50. ^ Taste of Cincinnati, About Taste. Accessed on 2009-12-27.
  51. ^ OKTOBERFEST ZINCINNATI is Cincinnati Octoberfest the largest Octoberfest in North America
  52. ^ Accessed February 1, 2010.
  53. ^ MSN, Food Capitals of America. Accessed on 2009-07-23.
  54. ^ Cliff Lowe, The history of Cincinnati Chili. Accessed on 2009-07-23.
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  57. ^ City Beat
  58. ^ DERF Magazine: Welcome!
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  60. ^ The Mighty at the Internet Movie Database
  61. ^ "Wild About Moves". Retrieved 2007-10-21. 
  62. ^ Watson-Rouslin, Virginia (February 1978). "Channel 48: A Muttering Voice in the T.V. Wilderness". Cincinnati Magazine (Greater Cincinnati Chamber of Commerce): 53. Retrieved 2009-11-17. 
  63. ^ 1866 to 1875
  64. ^ 1876 to 1881
  65. ^ 1882 to 1889
  66. ^ Search Results | Search
  67. ^ "Blue Ash Airport,". 
  68. ^ Anderson Ferry - Cincinnati Ohio, Northern Kentucky
  69. ^ Pilcher, James (July 29, 2002). "Abandoned subway could save light rail plan". Cincinnati Enquirer. Retrieved 2008-07-05. 
  70. ^ Pilcher, James (November 6, 2002). "Metro plan hits wall of resistance". Cincinnati Enquirer. Retrieved 2008-07-05. 
  71. ^ Recent Cincinnati Commuter Rail and Light Rail Planning
  72. ^ "All aboard? Rail proposed". 
  73. ^ McGurk, Margaret A. (April 24, 2008). "Streetcar plan approved". Cincinnati Enquirer. Retrieved 2009-03-27. 
  74. ^ a b "Streetcar Q & A". Cincinnati Enquirer. April 24, 2008. Retrieved 2009-03-27. 
  75. ^ Prendergast, Jane (December 23, 2008). "NAACP: No Streetcars". Cincinnati Enquirer.
  76. ^ Forbes Magazine. America's Most Expensive Commutes: 6. Cincinnati, Ohio. Accessed on 4/12/2009.
  77. ^ "Top 20 Inland U.S. Ports for 2003" (PDF). Waterborne Commerce Statistics Center. The U.S. Army Engineer Institute for Water Resources. 2003. pp. 1. Retrieved 2008-11-21. 
  78. ^ "OKI Sister City Coalition". 
  79. ^ Mallory cuts off Zimbabwe sister city | Cincinnati Enquirer | Cincinnati.Com

External links


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