Ciprofloxacin: Wikis

  
  

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Ciprofloxacin
Systematic (IUPAC) name
1-cyclopropyl- 6-fluoro- 4-oxo- 7-piperazin- 1-yl- quinoline- 3-carboxylic acid
Identifiers
CAS number 85721-33-1
ATC code J01MA02 S01AX13 S02AA15 S03AA07
PubChem 2764
DrugBank APRD00424
ChemSpider 2662
Chemical data
Formula C17H18FN3O3 
Mol. mass 331.346
SMILES eMolecules & PubChem
Pharmacokinetic data
Bioavailability 69%[1]
Metabolism Hepatic, including CYP1A2
Half life 4 hours
Excretion Renal
Therapeutic considerations
Pregnancy cat. B3(AU) C(US)
Legal status Prescription Only (S4) (AU) POM (UK)
Routes Oral, intravenous, topical (ear drops, eye drops)
 Yes check.svgY(what is this?)  (verify)
.Ciprofloxacin (INN) is a synthetic chemotherapeutic antibiotic of the fluoroquinolone drug class [2][3] It is a second generation fluoroquinolone antibacterial.^ Ciprofloxacin 250mg belongs to a class of drugs called quinolone antibiotics.
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^ Ciprofloxacin is a second generation quinolone.
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^ Ciprofloxacin is in a class of antibiotics called fluoroquinolones.
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.It kills bacteria by interfering with the enzymes that cause DNA to rewind after being copied, which stops DNA and protein synthesis.^ It can kill bacteria or stop their growth.
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^ It works by killing bacteria that cause infections.
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^ It works by killing the bacteria that cause infection.
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.Ciprofloxacin is marketed worldwide with over three hundred different brand names.^ Cipro is a brand name for ciprofloxacin , an antibiotic.
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^ The American company that applied to the Food and Drug Administration to market the drug under the brand name Kevodon was Richardson-Merrell.
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^ Canadian Pharmacy, your online Canadian Pharmacy to buy Rx drugs A Canadian Pharmacy providing you with Ciprofloxacin and other low cost generic and brand name products.

.In the United States, Canada and the UK, it is marketed as Baycip, Ciloxan, Ciflox, Cipro, Cipro XR, Cipro XL, Ciproxin and most recently, Proquin.^ The most common side effects with Proquin XR include vaginal yeast infection and headache.
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^ Gonorrhea is the second-most-common sexually transmitted disease in the United States after chlamydia, infecting more than 700,000 Americans each year.
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^ Ciprofloxacin(available on the market under brand names Cipro, Ciproxin and Ciprobay and in generic versions) is antibiotic used to treat various types of bacterial infections.
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.Additionally, ciprofloxacin is available as a generic drug under a variety of different brand names and is also available for limited use in veterinary medicine.^ A generic drug is called by its chemical name; a manufacturer assigns a brand name.
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^ Ciprofloxacin tablets and infusion are also available without a brand name, ie as the generic medicine .
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^ Learn about generic drugs vs brand name .
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.Ciprofloxacin was first patented in 1983 by Bayer A.G. and subsequently approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 1987. Ciprofloxacin has 12 FDA-approved human uses and other veterinary uses, but it is often used for non-approved uses (off-label).^ The FDA approved ciprofloxacin in October 1987.
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^ In 1987 Cipro was approved by the FDA (Food and Drug Administration) in the United States as the first oral broad-spectrum antibiotic of this class.
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^ Brand Names and Other Names This drug is registered for use in humans only.
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.Ciprofloxacin interacts with other drugs, herbal and natural supplements, and thyroid medications.^ What other drugs could interact with ratio-Ciprofloxacin?
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^ What drug(s) may interact with ciprofloxacin?
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^ Polk RE. Drug-drug interactions with ciprofloxacin and other fluoroquinolones.

[4]

Contents

History

.The patent history for ciprofloxacin makes reference to a 1982 European Patent (patent number 0049355), as well a German patent dated Jan 21, 1986. Bayer introduced ciprofloxacin in 1987 and was later approved by the U.S. FDA on October 22, 1987 for use in the United States to treat specific bacterial infections.^ In this study, ciprofloxacin and tetracycline were used to treat B .

^ Common uses Ciprofloxacin Hcl 750mg is a fluoroquinolone antibiotic used for treating bacterial infections.
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^ This medication is used to treat eye infections.
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.In 1991, the intravenous formulation was introduced.^ An intravenous formulation followed in 1991.
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.The current United States patent appears to be held by Bayer, being the assignee.^ Despite the current level of reported human cases in the United States (fewer than 100 per year), murine typhus has been the subject of several studies.
  • COMPARISON OF THE EFFECTIVENESS OF FIVE DIFFERENT ANTIBIOTIC REGIMENS ON INFECTION WITH RICKETTSIA TYPHI: THERAPEUTIC DATA FROM 87 CASES -- GIKAS et al. 70 (5): 576 -- American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.ajtmh.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The District Court granted summary judgment for Bayer on the antitrust counts, and dismissed the state law claims as being barred by preemption.
  • Patent Docs: In re Ciprofloxacin Hydrochloride Antitrust Litigation (Fed. Cir. 2008) 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.patentdocs.org [Source type: Original source]

^ No, there is currently no generic form of ciprofloxacin in the United States.

[5] .The United States patent was applied for in January 1987, but was not approved until 1996 according to the patent history.^ In 1987 Cipro was approved by the FDA (Food and Drug Administration) in the United States as the first oral broad-spectrum antibiotic of this class.
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^ CDC. Outbreak of multidrug-resistant Salmonella Newport—United States, January-April 2002.
  • CIDRAP >> Treatment of Foodborne Gastroenteritis 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.cidrap.umn.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Between January 2007 and January 2008, three cases of infection with ciprofloxacin-resistant N. meningitidis were detected in the United States, one in North Dakota and two in Minnesota.
  • NEJM -- Emergence of Ciprofloxacin-Resistant Neisseria meningitidis in North America 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC content.nejm.org [Source type: Academic]

.In 2004 ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin together commanded 65% ($3.3 billion) of the global sales of the fluoroquinolone class.^ Ciprofloxacin is in a class of antibiotics called fluoroquinolones.
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^ Ciprofloxacin is commonly referred to as a fluoroquinolone (or quinolone) drug and is a member of the fluoroquinolone class of antibacterials.
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^ A 2004 randomized controlled trials unusual problems while taking Ciprofloxacin-Ciprofloxa HCl taking cipro suspension containing antacids or other fluoroquinolones their use.
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[6] .The first nine months of 2008 sales for Ciprofloxacin were $242 million, as compared to $324 million for Bayer aspirin.^ There is no specific information comparing use of ciprofloxacin and dexamethasone combination in children younger than 6 months of age with use in other age groups.
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[7] .Ciprofloxacin has proven to be a blockbuster drug for Bayer A. G., generating billions of dollars in additional revenue.^ So you can either buy generic Cipro online or buy Ciprofloxacin drug through your pharmacy.
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^ Canadian Pharmacy, your online Canadian Pharmacy to buy Rx drugs A Canadian Pharmacy providing you with Ciprofloxacin and other low cost generic and brand name products.

^ Enrofloxacin is related structurally to the human-approved drug ciprofloxacin (enrofloxacin has an additional ethyl group on the piperazinyl ring).

."In 1999, Cipro was the eleventh most prescribed drug in the United States based on new prescriptions, and ranked twentieth in total United States sales.^ In 1987 Cipro was approved by the FDA (Food and Drug Administration) in the United States as the first oral broad-spectrum antibiotic of this class.
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^ The erectile dysfunction drug Viagra may have found a new, potentially life-saving use in hospital pediatric intensive care units, researchers report.
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^ For years, Americans living near Canada and Mexico have taken advantage of the low cost prescription drugs available across the border, allowing them to purchase brand name and generic medicines like Ciprofloxacin (Cipro) at substantial savings compare to prices in the United States.
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.In 1999, Bayer's gross sales of Cipro in the United States were approximately $1.04 billion."^ In 1987 Cipro was approved by the FDA (Food and Drug Administration) in the United States as the first oral broad-spectrum antibiotic of this class.
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^ Resistance to quinolones is increasing in the United States and elsewhere (see References : Chiu 2002, Herikstad 1997, Schwartz 2002, Threlfall 1999).
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^ However, S pneumoniae isolated in the United States from January 1999 through August 2000 showed resistance to ciprofloxacin at 3%, levofloxacin at 0.5%, and gatifloxacin at 0.4%.
  • The Use of Systemic Fluoroquinolones -- Committee on Infectious Diseases 118 (3): 1287 -- Pediatrics 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC pediatrics.aappublications.org [Source type: Academic]

[8] .The sale of ciprofloxacin increased dramatically following the anthrax scare of 2001. On October 24, 2002 the Bush Administration (2001–2009) announced a deal between the government and Bayer Pharmaceuticals to purchase 100 million tablets of ciprofloxacin at a reduced price of $0.95 per pill.^ October 24, 2001.
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^ Ciprofloxacin was obtained from Bayer Pharmaceuticals.
  • Determination of ciprofloxacin in plasma and urine by HPLC with ultraviolet detection -- Kamberi et al. 44 (6): 1251 -- Clinical Chemistry 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.clinchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ White House announces deal with Bayer.
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A full course of ciprofloxacin for postexposure prophylaxis (60 days) resulting from this arrangement costs the government $204 per person treated, compared with $12 per person treated with doxycycline, the drug normally used to treat anthrax, a difference of $192.[9]
  • Generic equivalents:
.On October 24, 2001, The Prescription Access Litigation (PAL), filed suit to dissolve an agreement between Bayer, Barr Laboratories, and two other generic drug companies that it claimed was blocking access to adequate supplies and cheaper, generic versions of ciprofloxacin.^ October 24, 2001.
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^ What other drugs will affect ciprofloxacin?

^ Administration Won't Allow Generic Versions of Drug October 18, 2001.
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.The plaintiffs charged that Bayer Corporation, a unit of Bayer AG, had unlawfully paid three of its competitors—Barr Laboratories, Rugby, and Hoechst-Marion Roussel—a total of $200 million to prevent cheaper, generic versions of ciprofloxacin being brought to the market, as well as manipulating the price and supply of ciprofloxacin.^ Scheduled for publication in December 2001, this CIPROFLOXACIN is being made available now on the paresthesia of fluoroquinolone-resistant Gram-negative bacilli from 100th bayer.
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^ Member since: November 18, 2006 Total points: 337 CIPROFLOXACIN had come onto the market in the peking than CIPROFLOXACIN is 2 hours after a meal.
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^ It is these two directors who will have to explain why Four Moneyweb ANALYSIS-New US antitrust chief making presence felt - ‎Jul 8, 2009‎ In that case, now on appeal, Bayer paid Barr Laboratories to stop it from bringing a generic version of the antibiotic Cipro to market.
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Numerous other consumer advocacy groups joined this lawsuit. .On October 15, 2008, five years after Bayer’s patent had expired, the United States District Court for the Eastern District of New York granted Bayer’s and the generic defendants’ motion for summary judgment, holding that any anti-competitive effects caused by the settlement agreements between Bayer and the generic defendants were within the exclusionary zone of the patent, and thus could not be redressed by federal antitrust law,[10] in effect upholding Bayer’s agreement to pay Barr Laboratories, Rugby, and Hoechst-Marion Roussel a total of $200 million to prevent the marketing a generic equivalent of ciprofloxacin.^ October 15, 2008 .
  • Patent Docs: In re Ciprofloxacin Hydrochloride Antitrust Litigation (Fed. Cir. 2008) 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.patentdocs.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The District Court granted summary judgment for Bayer on the antitrust counts, and dismissed the state law claims as being barred by preemption.
  • Patent Docs: In re Ciprofloxacin Hydrochloride Antitrust Litigation (Fed. Cir. 2008) 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.patentdocs.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Ciprofloxacin may cause side effects.
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Licensed uses

Ciprofloxacin as sold over the counter in Mexico. Ciprofloxacino is the generic name in that country.
The licensed uses for ciprofloxacin in the United States are as follows:
In the adult population, ciprofloxacin is limited to the treatment of proven bacterial infections such as:
  • Urinary tract infections (not recommended as a first line antibiotic)[11]
  • Acute uncomplicated cystitis in females
  • Chronic bacterial prostatitis (not recommended as a first line antibiotic choice)[12][13]
  • Lower respiratory tract infections (not recommended as a first line antibiotic choice)[14][15][16]
  • Acute sinusitis (not recommended as a first line antibiotic choice)[17]
  • Skin and skin structure infections
  • Bone and joint infections
  • Infectious diarrhea
  • Typhoid fever (enteric fever) caused by Salmonella typhi
  • Uncomplicated cervical and urethra gonorrhea (due to N. gonorrhoeae) – however, this indication is no longer effective in some areas (i.e. Asian countries,[18] United States (including Hawaii), Canada ,[19] and Scotland)[20] due to bacterial resistance. .Fluoroquinolones are no longer recommended in the USA for this indication.^ In accordance with this, the initial low dosages (100 mg of ciprofloxacin or 200 mg of ofloxacin) approved for the treatment of acute cystitis in women should no longer be recommended.
    • Pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic modelling of ciprofloxacin 250 mg/12 h versus 500 mg/24 h for urinary infections -- Sánchez Navarro et al. 50 (1): 67 -- Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC jac.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ With fluoroquinolones no longer wrinkled for the duplication of gonococcal infections, only one class of drug, cephalosporins, is still advanced and bordered.
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    ^ [Medline] Update to CDC's sexually transmitted diseases treatment guidelines, 2006: fluoroquinolones no longer recommended for treatment of gonococcal infections.
    • NEJM -- Emergence of Ciprofloxacin-Resistant Neisseria meningitidis in North America 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC content.nejm.org [Source type: Academic]

    [21]
.Ciprofloxacin is not recommended for the treatment of tuberculosis.^ In accordance with this, the initial low dosages (100 mg of ciprofloxacin or 200 mg of ofloxacin) approved for the treatment of acute cystitis in women should no longer be recommended.
  • Pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic modelling of ciprofloxacin 250 mg/12 h versus 500 mg/24 h for urinary infections -- Sánchez Navarro et al. 50 (1): 67 -- Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC jac.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Based on good early bactericidal activity data, ciprofloxacin entered further studies and is now recommended as part of treatment for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis.
  • Pharmacodynamic Evidence that Ciprofloxacin Failure against Tuberculosis Is Not Due to Poor Microbial Kill but to Rapid Emergence of Resistance -- Gumbo et al. 49 (8): 3178 -- Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC aac.asm.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Although there is clinical experience with several fluoroquinolones in the treatment of tuberculosis (e.g., ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, moxifloxacin, ofloxacin), levofloxacin and moxifloxacin are the fluoroquinolones recommended by CDC, ATS, and IDSA and levofloxacin may be preferred on the basis of cumulative experience.
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[22]
As well as in combination with other specific drugs:
  • Complicated intra-abdominal infections (in combination with metronidazole);
  • Empirical therapy for febrile neutropenic patients (in combination with piperacillin)
.Oral and I.V. fluoroquinolones are not licensed by the U.S. FDA for use in children due to the risk of permanent injury to the musculoskeletal system, with two exceptions as outlined below.^ This report provides specific guidelines for the systemic use of fluoroquinolones in children.
  • The Use of Systemic Fluoroquinolones -- Committee on Infectious Diseases 118 (3): 1287 -- Pediatrics 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC pediatrics.aappublications.org [Source type: Academic]

^ What are the risks of using tetracyclines and fluoroquinolones in children; are alternatives available?
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^ This risk may be spread use in children.
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.Within the studies submitted in response to a Pediatric Written Request (Ciprofloxacin, circa 2004) the rate of atrophy was reported to be 9.3% at one month and 13.6% at one year.^ Lack of N. gonorrhoeae isolate response to ciprofloxacin has been reported in Delhi ( 13 ).
  • Ciprofloxacin-Resistant Neisseria meningitidis, India | CDC EID 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.cdc.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Symptoms of CIPROFLOXACIN had arresting 3 weeks after therapy; initial response rates were 60 percent or more.
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^ In the recently reported studies most patients who received the treatment had a beneficial response about half of whom actually went into remission.
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[23] .As such the pediatric use of ciprofloxacin is restricted to proven complicated urinary tract infections and pyelonephritis due to E. coli and inhalation anthrax.^ I was taking Ciprofloxacin to cure a urinary tract infection and I started to ...
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^ Urinary Tract Infection caused by Citrobacter .
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^ Postoperatively, an acute urinary tract infection was treated with ciprofloxacin.
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[24] .Although claimed to be effective, ciprofloxacin is not to be considered a first line agent for inhalation anthrax in the pediatric population.^ Jick S. Ciprofloxacin safety in pediatric population.
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^ Note: Although effective, ciprofloxacin is not the drug of first choice in children.
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[23][25][26][27] .The CDC revoked its recommendation regarding the use of ciprofloxacin as a first line agent in treating anthrax due to the unacceptable risk documented within the Antimicrobial Postexposure Prophylaxis for Anthrax study (aka Cipro 60 day study).^ In this study, ciprofloxacin and tetracycline were used to treat B .

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[28] However, the fluoroquinolones are licensed to treat lower respiratory infections in children with cystic fibrosis in the UK.
.Current recommendations by the American Academy of Pediatrics note that the systemic use of ciprofloxacin in children should be restricted to infections caused by multidrug resistant pathogens or when no safe or effective alternatives.^ In children, ciprofloxacin can be used to treat the infections below, when caused by susceptible bacteria.
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[29]
Indications include:
.Ciprofloxacin is not recommended to treat CAP (community acquired pneumonia) as a stand alone first line agent.^ In the treatment of outpatients with pneumonia due to Pneumococcus, ciprofloxacin should not be used as a drug of first choice.

^ No major differences were observed between ciprofloxacin-treated and control PBLs during the first 20 min of culture (not shown).
  • Ciprofloxacin Induces an Immunomodulatory Stress Response in Human T Lymphocytes -- Riesbeck et al. 42 (8): 1923 -- Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC aac.asm.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In the treatment of outpatients with pneumonia due to Pneumococcus ciprofloxacin should not be used as a drug of first choice.
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.The current guidelines (Infectious Diseases Society of America 2007) state that in very limited circumstances ciprofloxacin or levofloxacin should be combined with other drugs such as a b-lactam drug to treat specific CAP infections, but neither drug is recommended to be used separately as a stand alone first line agent.^ Treatment with CIPROFLOXACIN is also used to treat the infections below, when caused by caffeine.
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^ For this reason, ciprofloxacin should be used cautiously in skin infections.
  • </c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://frames.healthinkonline.com/modules/goldstandard/monograph.asp?cpnum=127&name=Ciprofloxacin">frames.healthinkonline.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__116" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="116">Additionally the current guidelines state that: “Data exist suggesting that resistance to macrolides and older fluoroquinolones (ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin) results in clinical failure.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="116"><a href="#citable__116"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Scheduled for publication in December 2001, this CIPROFLOXACIN is being made available now on the paresthesia of fluoroquinolone-resistant Gram-negative bacilli from 100th bayer.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>••• CIPROFLOXACIN • Buy Genuine Cipro (Ciprofloxacin) 250,500mg from $0.38 per pill. • buy ciprofloxacin online</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://saez.2trom.com/ciprofloxacin/buy-ciprofloxacin-online.html">saez.2trom.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="116"><a href="#citable__116"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Currently, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, gatifloxacin, and moxifloxacin are the most widely used fluoroquinolones.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> The Use of Systemic Fluoroquinolones -- Committee on Infectious Diseases 118 (3): 1287 -- Pediatrics</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/cgi/content/full/118/3/1287">pediatrics.aappublications.org</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="116"><a href="#citable__116"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Second, this report highlights the inadequacy of current laboratory methods for the detection of clinically significant resistance of typhoid salmonellae to fluoroquinolones and their failure to adequately predict the in vivo activity of ciprofloxacin against typhoid salmonellae.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> Ciprofloxacin treatment failure in a case of typhoid fever caused by Salmonella enterica serotype Paratyphi A with reduced susceptibility to ciprofloxacin -- Dimitrov et al. 56 (2): 277 -- Journal of Medical Microbiology</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://jmm.sgmjournals.org/cgi/content/full/56/2/277">jmm.sgmjournals.org</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> Other studies have shown that repeated use of fluoroquinolones predicts an increased risk of infection with fluoroquinolone-resistant pneumococci....”<sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_31" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-31"><span>[</span>32<span>]</span></a></sup></div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__93" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="93">As such the general opinion stated in 1994 that ciprofloxacin “is not to be considered a suitable agent for use in general practice for the blind initial treatment of chest infections....”<sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_32" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-32"><span>[</span>33<span>]</span></a></sup><sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_33" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-33"><span>[</span>34<span>]</span></a></sup> does not appear to have changed within these current guidelines.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="93"><a href="#citable__93"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Treatment with CIPROFLOXACIN is also used to treat the infections below, when caused by caffeine.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Cipro (Ciprofloxacin) 750mg x 90 pills ... | CIPROFLOXACIN</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://wolter.2trom.com/ciprofloxacin/ciprofloxacin-and-alcohol.html">wolter.2trom.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="93"><a href="#citable__93"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>We conclude that ciprofloxacin is a useful agent for the treatment of purulent bronchitis.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Ciprofloxacin</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.bionewsonline.com/4/1/ciprofloxacin_c.htm">www.bionewsonline.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="93"><a href="#citable__93"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Its use in treatment of chlamydiosis proved inexpedient while ciprofloxacin was effective in the treatment of the infection.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Ciprofloxacin</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.bionewsonline.com/4/1/ciprofloxacin_c.htm">www.bionewsonline.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> </div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__171" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="171">Antibiotics may not improve the long-term clinical outcome for sinusitis.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="171"><a href="#citable__171"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Gynecologists often prescribe combination of antibiotics of their choice from their clinical experience, which may not cover the microsurgical flora adequately.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Ciprofloxacin-tinidazole combination, fluconazole- azithromicin-secnidazole-kit and doxycycline- metronidazole combination therapy in syndromic management of pelvic inflammatory disease : a prospective randomized controlled trial. M Malhotra, JB Sharma, S Batra, R Arora, S Sharma - Indian J Med Sci</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.indianjmedsci.org/article.asp?issn=0019-5359%3Byear=2003%3Bvolume=57%3Bissue=12%3Bspage=549%3Bepage=555%3Baulast=Malhotra">www.indianjmedsci.org</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="171"><a href="#citable__171"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>This assessment is confirmed by the negative outcome of the long-term carcinogenicity studies in mice and rats.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Inhouse Pharmacy Ciprofloxacin - Ciproxin</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.inhousepharmacy.com/infections/ciproxin-information.html">www.inhousepharmacy.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li><li> <em><c_title>Data Sheet</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.medsafe.govt.nz/profs/Datasheet/c/ciprofloxacinrextab.htm">www.medsafe.govt.nz</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="171"><a href="#citable__171"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Segev S, Yaniv I, Haverstock D, Reinhart H Safety of long-term therapy with ciprofloxacin: data analysis of controlled clinical trials and review.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>ISPUB - 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Ciprofloxacin without prescription - WiseMeds.net</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.wisemeds.net/buy_online/Ciprofloxacin.shtml">www.wisemeds.net</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_35" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-35"><span>[</span>36<span>]</span></a></sup> Nor does antibiotic treatment help sore throats.<sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_36" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-36"><span>[</span>37<span>]</span></a></sup> <a name="citable__164" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="164">The use of antibiotics such as ciprofloxacin to treat bronchitis is to be considered unnecessary and as such exposes the patient to an unacceptable risk of suffering a severe adverse reaction.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="164"><a href="#citable__164"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>CIPROFLOXACIN / is a fluoroquinolone antibiotic used to treat bacterial infections.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Ciprofloxacin buy online - 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[8] , [9] We did not use corticosteroids or other immunosuppressive drugs and still the outcome was favorable.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Toxic epidermal necrolysis and agranulocytosis: Rare adverse effects of ciprofloxacin Upadya GM, Ruxana K - Indian J Med Sci</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.indianjmedsci.org/article.asp?issn=0019-5359;year=2009;volume=63;issue=10;spage=461;epage=463;aulast=Upadya">www.indianjmedsci.org</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> </div> <h2><span class="mw-headline" id="wikipedia_Availability">Availability</span></h2> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block">Ciprofloxacin is available as:</div> <ul> <li>tablets (250 mg, 500 mg or 750 mg)</li> <li>intravenous solutions (5% and 10%, 100 mL)</li> <li>eye and ear drops</li> </ul> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__39" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="39">In most countries, all formulations require a prescription.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="39"><a href="#citable__39"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>PLEASE NOTE: We require a VALID PRESCRIPTION for prescription medications All prices are given in USD. .</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Buy Generic Ciprofloxacin 250mg Tablet Online</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.universaldrugstore.com/medications/Ciprofloxacin/250mg">www.universaldrugstore.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> </div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__128" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="128">See the latest package insert for ciprofloxacin (Cipro) for additional details.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="128"><a href="#citable__128"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>If this medicine ( Cipro - Ciprofloxacin) causes a skin rash, hives, or difficulty breathing, check with your doctor before taking additional doses.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Buy Cipro,Where To Order Cipro,Purchase Cipro Online,Cipro Stories at Storiesofstrength.com</c_title></em> <c_date>11 September 2009 23:53 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.storiesofstrength.com/buy-cipro.html">www.storiesofstrength.com</a> [Source type: General]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="128"><a href="#citable__128"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2003;22 :949 –956 [Web of Science] [Medline] Cipro (ciprofloxacin hydrochloride) [package insert].</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> The Use of Systemic Fluoroquinolones -- Committee on Infectious Diseases 118 (3): 1287 -- Pediatrics</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/cgi/content/full/118/3/1287">pediatrics.aappublications.org</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_accessdata_fda_gov_38_0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-accessdata.fda.gov-38"><span>[</span>39<span>]</span></a></sup></div> <h2><span class="mw-headline" id="wikipedia_Mode_of_action">Mode of action</span></h2> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__88" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="88">Ciprofloxacin is a <a href="/Broad-spectrum_antibiotic" title="Broad-spectrum antibiotic">broad-spectrum antibiotic</a> that is active against both <a href="/Gram-positive" title="Gram-positive" class="mw-redirect">Gram-positive</a> and <a href="/Gram-negative" title="Gram-negative" class="mw-redirect">Gram-negative</a> bacteria.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="88"><a href="#citable__88"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Ciprofloxacin is a 4 Quinolone antibiotic active against a broad range of bacteria.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Toxic epidermal necrolysis and agranulocytosis: Rare adverse effects of ciprofloxacin Upadya GM, Ruxana K - Indian J Med Sci</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.indianjmedsci.org/article.asp?issn=0019-5359;year=2009;volume=63;issue=10;spage=461;epage=463;aulast=Upadya">www.indianjmedsci.org</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="88"><a href="#citable__88"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Pneumonia caused by Gram-Negative Bacteria .</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Buy Ciprofloxacin Online, Ciprofloxacin Side Effects, User Reviews, Information & More.</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://onlinemedsreview.com/ViewMedInfo_8100.html">onlinemedsreview.com</a> [Source type: General]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="88"><a href="#citable__88"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Ciprofloxacin is a broad-spectrum fluoroquinolone antibiotic.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Ciprofloxacin-Induced Mania in an Elderly Male | Annals of Long Term Care</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.annalsoflongtermcare.com/content/ciprofloxacin-induced-mania-elderly-male">www.annalsoflongtermcare.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__14" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="14">It functions by inhibiting <a href="/DNA_gyrase" title="DNA gyrase">DNA gyrase</a>, a type II <a href="/Topoisomerase" title="Topoisomerase">topoisomerase</a>, and topoisomerase IV,<sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_39" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-39"><span>[</span>40<span>]</span></a></sup> enzymes necessary to separate bacterial DNA, thereby inhibiting cell division.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="14"><a href="#citable__14"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>DNA gyrase, topoisomerase IV, and the 4-quinolones.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> Ciprofloxacin Induces an Immunomodulatory Stress Response in Human T Lymphocytes -- Riesbeck et al. 42 (8): 1923 -- Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://aac.asm.org/cgi/content/full/42/8/1923">aac.asm.org</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="14"><a href="#citable__14"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Fluoroquinolones, which perform their bactericidal effect by inhibiting DNA gyrase (a type II topoisomerase) ( 5 ), are known to interfere with certain immune functions.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> Ciprofloxacin Induces an Immunomodulatory Stress Response in Human T Lymphocytes -- Riesbeck et al. 42 (8): 1923 -- Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://aac.asm.org/cgi/content/full/42/8/1923">aac.asm.org</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="14"><a href="#citable__14"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>It acts by inhibiting the enzymes topoisomerase II (DNA gyrase) and topoisomerase IV (both type II topoisomerases) which are required for bacterial DNA replication, transcription, repair and recombination.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Modified Release Ciprofloxacin Compositions - Patent application</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.faqs.org/patents/app/20080206329">www.faqs.org</a> [Source type: Reference]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> </div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block">This mechanism can also affect mammalian cell replication. <a name="citable__160" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="160">In particular, some congeners of this drug family (for example those that contain the C-8 fluorine)<sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_40" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-40"><span>[</span>41<span>]</span></a></sup> display high activity not only against bacterial topoisomerases, but also against eukaryotic topoisomerases and are toxic to cultured mammalian cells and in vivo tumor models.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="160"><a href="#citable__160"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>We also showed how the adverse reactions documented with BAYCOL were largely identical to those of numerous other fluorinated drugs - all of which had been withdrawn from the market in recent years (3).</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Cipro</c_title></em> <c_date>11 September 2009 23:53 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://poisonfluoride.com/pfpc/html/cipro.html">poisonfluoride.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li><li> <em><c_title>CIPRO</c_title></em> <c_date>11 September 2009 23:53 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.rawfoodinfo.com/articles/art_cipro.html">www.rawfoodinfo.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="160"><a href="#citable__160"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Ciprofloxacin at high concentrations (80 µg/ml) has in fact been shown to interfere with topoisomerase II in Raji cells when investigated by a neutral elution technique ( 2 ).</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> Ciprofloxacin Induces an Immunomodulatory Stress Response in Human T Lymphocytes -- Riesbeck et al. 42 (8): 1923 -- Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://aac.asm.org/cgi/content/full/42/8/1923">aac.asm.org</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="160"><a href="#citable__160"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The adverse reactions documented with Baycol were largely identical to those of numerous other fluorinated drugs--all of which had been withdrawn from the market in recent years.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>The True Story of Cipro</c_title></em> <c_date>11 September 2009 23:53 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.westonaprice.org/healthissues/cipro.html">www.westonaprice.org</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_pmid14529452_41_0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-pmid14529452-41"><span>[</span>42<span>]</span></a></sup> <a name="citable__154" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="154">Although quinolones are highly toxic to mammalian cells in culture, its mechanism of cytotoxic action is not known.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="154"><a href="#citable__154"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Differentiation of U-937 promonocytic cells by etoposide and ICRF-193, two antitumour DNA topoisomerase inhibitors with different mechanisms of action.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> Ciprofloxacin Induces an Immunomodulatory Stress Response in Human T Lymphocytes -- Riesbeck et al. 42 (8): 1923 -- Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://aac.asm.org/cgi/content/full/42/8/1923">aac.asm.org</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="154"><a href="#citable__154"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The action of ciprofloxacin as an inhibitor of a mammalian analog for DNA gyrase has been proposed as a possible mechanism ( 37 ).</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> Evaluation of 99mTc-Ciprofloxacin Scintigraphy in a Rabbit Model of Staphylococcus aureus Prosthetic Joint Infection -- Sarda et al. 43 (2): 239 -- The Journal of Nuclear Medicine</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://jnm.snmjournals.org/cgi/content/full/43/2/239">jnm.snmjournals.org</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__170" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="170">Quinolone induced DNA damage was first reported in 1986 (Hussy et al.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="170"><a href="#citable__170"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>J Chemother, 1990 Dec, 2(6), 380 - 3 Failure of ciprofloxacin to eradicate brucellosis in experimental animals ; al-Orainey IO et al.; Ciprofloxacin is a quinolone that penetrates well intracellularly .</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Ciprofloxacin</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.bionewsonline.com/4/1/ciprofloxacin_c.htm">www.bionewsonline.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="170"><a href="#citable__170"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>DNA damage-induced gene expression: signal transduction and relation to growth factor signaling.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> Ciprofloxacin Induces an Immunomodulatory Stress Response in Human T Lymphocytes -- Riesbeck et al. 42 (8): 1923 -- Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://aac.asm.org/cgi/content/full/42/8/1923">aac.asm.org</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="170"><a href="#citable__170"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The orally administered quinolone-containing formulations can be prepared by a wet granulation process as described by Y. Shirai et al., Biol.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Orally administered antimicrobial pharmaceutical formulations of ciprofloxacin - Patent 6262072</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.freepatentsonline.com/6262072.html">www.freepatentsonline.com</a> [Source type: Reference]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> ).<sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_42" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-42"><span>[</span>43<span>]</span></a></sup></div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__138" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="138">Recent studies have demonstrated a correlation between mammalian cell cytotoxicity of the quinolones and the induction of micronuclei.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="138"><a href="#citable__138"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Study of a large database did not demonstrate a difference in musculoskeletal toxicity between patients receiving ciprofloxacin or ofloxacin and azithromycin.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> The Use of Systemic Fluoroquinolones -- Committee on Infectious Diseases 118 (3): 1287 -- Pediatrics</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/cgi/content/full/118/3/1287">pediatrics.aappublications.org</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="138"><a href="#citable__138"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The present results support earlier binding studies and extend them by demonstrating electrophysiologically a potent quinolone/NSAID drug interaction at the GABAA receptor .</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Ciprofloxacin</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.bionewsonline.com/4/1/ciprofloxacin_c.htm">www.bionewsonline.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="138"><a href="#citable__138"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>During treatment of mammalian cells with, for example, cytotoxic drugs or heavy metals, a stress response is generally triggered, resulting in induction of several different genes ( 10 , 11 ).</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> Ciprofloxacin Induces an Immunomodulatory Stress Response in Human T Lymphocytes -- Riesbeck et al. 42 (8): 1923 -- Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://aac.asm.org/cgi/content/full/42/8/1923">aac.asm.org</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_43" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-43"><span>[</span>44<span>]</span></a></sup><sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_44" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-44"><span>[</span>45<span>]</span></a></sup><sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_45" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-45"><span>[</span>46<span>]</span></a></sup><sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_46" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-46"><span>[</span>47<span>]</span></a></sup> <a name="citable__13" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="13">As such some fluoroquinolones may cause injury to the chromosome of eukaryotic cells.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="13"><a href="#citable__13"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Last, use of other antimicrobial drugs, such as ampicillin, gentamicin, or streptomycin, may also contribute to the spreading of fluoroquinolone-resistant S .</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Ciprofloxacin-Resistant S. Typhimurium, China | CDC EID</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://origin.cdc.gov/eid/content/14/3/493.htm">origin.cdc.gov</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="13"><a href="#citable__13"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Such accumulation could be caused by 99m Tc-ciprofloxacin penetration in inflammatory cells since ciprofloxacin, like other fluoroquinolones, is concentrated in and transported by human macrophages, monocytes, and neutrophils (5- to 10-fold) ( 20–25 ).</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> Evaluation of 99mTc-Ciprofloxacin Scintigraphy in a Rabbit Model of Staphylococcus aureus Prosthetic Joint Infection -- Sarda et al. 43 (2): 239 -- The Journal of Nuclear Medicine</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://jnm.snmjournals.org/cgi/content/full/43/2/239">jnm.snmjournals.org</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="13"><a href="#citable__13"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Ciprofloxacin has been implicated in several cases of acute renal failure and is the most established fluoroquinolone to cause such renal dysfunction (4, 9, 10, 11 -> 96 related refs).</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Cipro</c_title></em> <c_date>11 September 2009 23:53 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://poisonfluoride.com/pfpc/html/cipro.html">poisonfluoride.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_47" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-47"><span>[</span>48<span>]</span></a></sup><sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_48" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-48"><span>[</span>49<span>]</span></a></sup><sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_49" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-49"><span>[</span>50<span>]</span></a></sup><sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_50" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-50"><span>[</span>51<span>]</span></a></sup><sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_51" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-51"><span>[</span>52<span>]</span></a></sup><sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_52" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-52"><span>[</span>53<span>]</span></a></sup></div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__126" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="126">There continues to be debate as to whether or not this DNA damage is to be considered one of the mechanisms of action concerning the severe adverse reactions experienced by some patients following fluoroquinolone therapy.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="126"><a href="#citable__126"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>One of these reactions was considered anaphylactoid .</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Ciprofloxacin</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.bionewsonline.com/4/1/ciprofloxacin_c.htm">www.bionewsonline.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="126"><a href="#citable__126"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Mechanism Of Action: The bactericidal action of ciprofloxacin results from inhibition of the enzymes topoisomerase II (DNA gyrase) and topoisomerase IV, which are required for bacterial DNA replication, transcription, repair, and recombination.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Flexyx: Cipro (Generic name - 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Dosages, Side Effects and Interactions</c_title></em> <c_date>11 September 2009 23:53 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.internationaldrugmart.com/cipro.html">www.internationaldrugmart.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="146"><a href="#citable__146"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>It also treats certain sexually transmitted diseases.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Ciprofloxacin</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://ciprofloxacins.com/">ciprofloxacins.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="146"><a href="#citable__146"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Sexually Transmitted Diseases (10) .</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Ciprofloxacin discussions (experiences, side effects, dosages, etc...)</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.drugtalk.com/ciprofloxacin/index.htm">www.drugtalk.com</a> [Source type: General]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_nycms_org_55_0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-nycms.org-55"><span>[</span>56<span>]</span></a></sup></div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block">There are only four contraindications found within the 2009 package insert:<sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_accessdata_fda_gov_38_1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-accessdata.fda.gov-38"><span>[</span>39<span>]</span></a></sup></div> <a name="citable__9" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="9"><ul> <li>“Coadministration of ciprofloxacin with other drugs primarily metabolized by <a href="/CYP1A2" title="CYP1A2">CYP1A2</a> results in increased plasma concentrations of these drugs and could lead to clinically significant adverse events of the coadministered drug.”</li> </ul> <ul> <li>“Concomitant administration with <a href="/Tizanidine" title="Tizanidine">tizanidine</a> is contraindicated”</li> </ul> <ul> <li>“Ciprofloxacin is contraindicated in persons with a history of hypersensitivity to ciprofloxacin, any member of the quinolone class of antimicrobial agents, or any of the product components.”</li> </ul> <ul> <li>“Local I.V. site reactions are more frequent if the infusion time is 30 minutes or less.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="9"><a href="#citable__9"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Ciprofloxacin 250mg belongs to a class of drugs called quinolone antibiotics.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Buy Generic Ciprofloxacin 250mg Tablet Online</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.universaldrugstore.com/medications/Ciprofloxacin/250mg">www.universaldrugstore.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="9"><a href="#citable__9"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The peak concentration of 5.6 micrograms/ml occurred within 30 minutes after ciprofloxacin administration .</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Ciprofloxacin</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.bionewsonline.com/4/1/ciprofloxacin_c.htm">www.bionewsonline.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="9"><a href="#citable__9"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Ciprofloxacin is a broad-spectrum synthetic antimicrobial agent for oral administration.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Modified Release Ciprofloxacin Compositions - Patent application</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.faqs.org/patents/app/20080206329">www.faqs.org</a> [Source type: Reference]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__113" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="113">These may appear as local skin reactions which resolve rapidly upon completion of the infusion.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="113"><a href="#citable__113"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>These may appear as local skin reactions which resolve rapidly upon completion of the infusion.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Inhouse Pharmacy Ciprofloxacin - Ciproxin</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.inhousepharmacy.com/infections/ciproxin-information.html">www.inhousepharmacy.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="113"><a href="#citable__113"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>These reactions may occur after the first dose.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Ciprofloxacin</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.umm.edu/altmed/drugs/ciprofloxacin-029200.htm">www.umm.edu</a> [Source type: Academic]</li><li> <em><c_title>Ciprofloxacin - Richard's Corporate Office</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.richardswholefoods.com/common/adam/DisplayMonograph.asp?storeID=1FQSSEQX5CS92J2000AKHMCCQ259DGG9&DocID=41_029200">www.richardswholefoods.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="113"><a href="#citable__113"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Rashes that appear suddenly or do not go away after a few days may be signs of an allergic reaction.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> Anthrax Treatment : Homeland Security News</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.nationalterroralert.com/anthraxtreatment/">www.nationalterroralert.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li><li> <em><c_title>Homeland Security: Anthrax Treatment</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.nationalterroralert.com/readyguide/anthraxtreatment.htm">www.nationalterroralert.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> Subsequent intravenous administration is not contraindicated unless the reactions recur or worsen.”'</li> </ul> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__17" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="17">Due to growing prevalence of antibiotic resistance to the fluoroquinolones in southeast Asia, the use of Ciprofloxacin in patients who have been to southeast Asia is increasingly being discouraged.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="17"><a href="#citable__17"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>CIPROFLOXACIN / is a fluoroquinolone antibiotic used to treat bacterial infections.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Ciprofloxacin buy online - Ciprofloxacin without prescription - WiseMeds.net</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.wisemeds.net/buy_online/Ciprofloxacin.shtml">www.wisemeds.net</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="17"><a href="#citable__17"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Ciprofloxacin is a broad-spectrum fluoroquinolone antibiotic.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Ciprofloxacin-Induced Mania in an Elderly Male | Annals of Long Term Care</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.annalsoflongtermcare.com/content/ciprofloxacin-induced-mania-elderly-male">www.annalsoflongtermcare.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="17"><a href="#citable__17"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Ciprofloxacin can be used in combination with another antibiotic.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Data Sheet</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.medsafe.govt.nz/profs/Datasheet/c/ciprofloxacinrextab.htm">www.medsafe.govt.nz</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_56" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-56"><span>[</span>57<span>]</span></a></sup></div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__75" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="75">Ciprofloxacin is also considered to be contraindicated within the pediatric population (except for the indications outlined under licensed use above), <a href="/Pregnancy" title="Pregnancy">pregnancy</a>, nursing mothers, and in patients with <a href="/Epilepsy" title="Epilepsy">epilepsy</a> or other seizure disorders.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="75"><a href="#citable__75"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Jick S. Ciprofloxacin safety in pediatric population.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>ISPUB - Ciprofloxacin After Clinical Failure Of Ceftriaxone For Severe Salmonellosis In Children</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.ispub.com/journal/the_internet_journal_of_infectious_diseases/volume_3_number_1_25/article/ciprofloxacin_after_clinical_failure_of_ceftriaxone_for_severe_salmonellosis_in_children.html">www.ispub.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="75"><a href="#citable__75"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>CIPROBAY is contra-indicated in children under 18 years and in growing adolescents, except where the benefits of treatment exceed the risks.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>CIPROBAY® 250, 500, 750 (Tablets); CIPROBAY® IV (Infusion); CIPROBAY® Suspension 5%</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 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name="citable__36" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="36">The fluoroquinolones rapidly cross the blood-placenta and blood-milk barrier, and are extensively distributed into the fetal tissues.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="36"><a href="#citable__36"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Finally, unlike other antibiotics whose distribution is restricted to the extracellular space fluid of tissue (e.g., ß-lactam antibiotics), fluoroquinolones are known to penetrate from plasma into blood and body tissue cells, attaining concentrations that exceed those in serum and extracellular fluid by severalfold ( 22 , 23 ).</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> Combined PET and Microdialysis for In Vivo Assessment of Intracellular Drug Pharmacokinetics in Humans -- Langer et al. 46 (11): 1835 -- The Journal of Nuclear Medicine</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://jnm.snmjournals.org/cgi/content/full/46/11/1835">jnm.snmjournals.org</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="36"><a href="#citable__36"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The drug can cross the placenta and may be present in breast milk.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Ciprofloxacin-Induced Mania in an Elderly Male | Annals of Long Term Care</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.annalsoflongtermcare.com/content/ciprofloxacin-induced-mania-elderly-male">www.annalsoflongtermcare.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="36"><a href="#citable__36"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Most drugs exert their effects outside the plasma compartment, in defined target tissues, where drug binding sites are located and into which drugs have to distribute from the central compartment.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> Combined PET and Microdialysis for In Vivo Assessment of Intracellular Drug Pharmacokinetics in Humans -- Langer et al. 46 (11): 1835 -- The Journal of Nuclear Medicine</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://jnm.snmjournals.org/cgi/content/full/46/11/1835">jnm.snmjournals.org</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__11" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="11">For this reason the fluoroquinolones are contraindicated during pregnancy due to the risk of spontaneous abortions and birth defects.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="11"><a href="#citable__11"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Although there's reason to believe that Cipro poses little danger during pregnancy, its effects have not been adequately studied.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>MedsMarket :: Antibiotics :: Cipro (Ciprofloxacin) 500mg</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.medsmarket.net/product.php?productid=138&cat=7&bestseller">www.medsmarket.net</a> [Source type: General]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="11"><a href="#citable__11"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Fluoroquinolones are not authorized for use in children due to the risk of side effects, principally problems concerning the joints.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>ISPUB - Ciprofloxacin After Clinical Failure Of Ceftriaxone For Severe Salmonellosis In Children</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.ispub.com/journal/the_internet_journal_of_infectious_diseases/volume_3_number_1_25/article/ciprofloxacin_after_clinical_failure_of_ceftriaxone_for_severe_salmonellosis_in_children.html">www.ispub.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="11"><a href="#citable__11"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Risks of using tetracyclines and fluoroquinolones in children must be weighed carefully against the risk for developing a life-threatening disease due to B. anthracis .</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Homeland Security: Anthrax Treatment</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.nationalterroralert.com/readyguide/anthraxtreatment.htm">www.nationalterroralert.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__20" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="20">The fluoroquinolones have also been reported as being present in the mother’s milk and are passed on to the nursing child, which may increases the risk of the child suffering from this syndrome as well, even though the child had never been prescribed or taken any of the drugs found within this class.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="20"><a href="#citable__20"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The drug can cross the placenta and may be present in breast milk.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Ciprofloxacin-Induced Mania in an Elderly Male | Annals of Long Term Care</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.annalsoflongtermcare.com/content/ciprofloxacin-induced-mania-elderly-male">www.annalsoflongtermcare.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="20"><a href="#citable__20"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Ciprofloxacin is commonly referred to as a fluoroquinolone (or quinolone) drug and is a member of the fluoroquinolone class of antibacterials.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Ciprofloxacin</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://ciprofloxacins.com/">ciprofloxacins.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="20"><a href="#citable__20"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>In the absence of actinomycin D, the various mRNAs were found to be upregulated by ciprofloxacin after both 2 and 4 additional h of culture, indicating that even a short exposure to the drug resulted in increased mRNA concentrations (Fig.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> Ciprofloxacin Induces an Immunomodulatory Stress Response in Human T Lymphocytes -- Riesbeck et al. 42 (8): 1923 -- Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://aac.asm.org/cgi/content/full/42/8/1923">aac.asm.org</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_57" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-57"><span>[</span>58<span>]</span></a></sup><sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_58" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-58"><span>[</span>59<span>]</span></a></sup></div> <ul> <li><strong>Pediatric population</strong></li> </ul> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__82" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="82">Fluoroquinolones are not licensed by the U.S. FDA for use in children due to the risk of fatalities<sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_pmid1592498_59_0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-pmid1592498-59"><span>[</span>60<span>]</span></a></sup> as well as permanent injury to the musculoskeletal system, with two exceptions.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="82"><a href="#citable__82"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>This report provides specific guidelines for the systemic use of fluoroquinolones in children.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> The Use of Systemic Fluoroquinolones -- Committee on Infectious Diseases 118 (3): 1287 -- Pediatrics</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/cgi/content/full/118/3/1287">pediatrics.aappublications.org</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="82"><a href="#citable__82"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>What are the risks of using tetracyclines and fluoroquinolones in children; are alternatives available?</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> Anthrax Treatment : Homeland Security News</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.nationalterroralert.com/anthraxtreatment/">www.nationalterroralert.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li><li> <em><c_title>Homeland Security: Anthrax Treatment</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.nationalterroralert.com/readyguide/anthraxtreatment.htm">www.nationalterroralert.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="82"><a href="#citable__82"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>This risk may be spread use in children.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Computer Networking Directory Links and Resources</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.homenethelp.com/links/XcDirViewRatings.asp?LinkID=3506&ciprofloxacin">www.homenethelp.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__81" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="81">Ciprofloxacin is being licensed for the treatment of complicated urinary tract infections and pyelonephritis due to Escherichia coli, and inhalational anthrax (post-exposure), and levofloxacin was recently licensed for the treatment of inhalational anthrax (post-exposure).</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="81"><a href="#citable__81"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>I was taking Ciprofloxacin to cure a urinary tract infection and I started to ...</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Ciprofloxacin discussions (experiences, side effects, dosages, etc...)</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.drugtalk.com/ciprofloxacin/index.htm">www.drugtalk.com</a> [Source type: General]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="81"><a href="#citable__81"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Urinary Tract Infection caused by Citrobacter .</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Buy Ciprofloxacin Online, Ciprofloxacin Side Effects, User Reviews, Information & More.</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://onlinemedsreview.com/ViewMedInfo_8100.html">onlinemedsreview.com</a> [Source type: General]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="81"><a href="#citable__81"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>For inhalational anthrax (post-exposure), the duration of treatment is 60 days.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Inhouse Pharmacy Ciprofloxacin - Ciproxin</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.inhousepharmacy.com/infections/ciproxin-information.html">www.inhousepharmacy.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> However, the fluoroquinolones are licensed to treat lower respiratory infections in children with cystic fibrosis in the UK.</div> <ul> <li><strong>Depression and anxiety disorders</strong></li> </ul> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__107" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="107">Ciprofloxacin has highly pronounced side-effects in people suffering from <a href="/Panic_disorder" title="Panic disorder">panic disorder</a> or/and <a href="/Major_depressive_disorder" title="Major depressive disorder">depression</a>.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="107"><a href="#citable__107"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Ciprofloxacin may cause side effects.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Ciprofloxacin: MedlinePlus Drug Information</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/druginfo/meds/a688016.html">www.nlm.nih.gov</a> [Source type: General]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="107"><a href="#citable__107"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Many people using Ciprofloxacin 250mg do not have serious side effects.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Buy Generic 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ciprofloxacin treatment.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="99"><a href="#citable__99"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>In accordance with this, the initial low dosages (100 mg of ciprofloxacin or 200 mg of ofloxacin) approved for the treatment of acute cystitis in women should no longer be recommended.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> Pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic modelling of ciprofloxacin 250 mg/12 h versus 500 mg/24 h for urinary infections -- Sánchez Navarro et al. 50 (1): 67 -- Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://jac.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/full/50/1/67">jac.oxfordjournals.org</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="99"><a href="#citable__99"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Ann Pharmacother, 1992 Jul-Aug, 26(7-8), 930 - 1 Ciprofloxacin -induced psychosis ; Reeves RR; OBJECTIVE: To report a case of ciprofloxacin -induced psychosis and to discuss occurrence rates, risk factors, possible etiologies, preventive measures, and treatment courses for this adverse reaction .</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Ciprofloxacin</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.bionewsonline.com/4/1/ciprofloxacin_c.htm">www.bionewsonline.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="99"><a href="#citable__99"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Prior case reports of behavioral changes related to initiation of ciprofloxacin makes ciprofloxacin the most likely culprit.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Ciprofloxacin-Induced Mania in an Elderly Male | Annals of Long Term Care</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.annalsoflongtermcare.com/content/ciprofloxacin-induced-mania-elderly-male">www.annalsoflongtermcare.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__96" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="96">Patients with previous or current psychiatric conditions, are prone to experiencing this type of side-effect.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="96"><a href="#citable__96"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>None of the patient treated with ciprofloxacin had experienced side effect.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>ISPUB - Ciprofloxacin After Clinical Failure Of Ceftriaxone For Severe Salmonellosis In Children</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.ispub.com/journal/the_internet_journal_of_infectious_diseases/volume_3_number_1_25/article/ciprofloxacin_after_clinical_failure_of_ceftriaxone_for_severe_salmonellosis_in_children.html">www.ispub.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="96"><a href="#citable__96"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>All patients were asked to keep a record of any side effects of the drugs during the treatment.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Ciprofloxacin-tinidazole combination, fluconazole- azithromicin-secnidazole-kit and doxycycline- metronidazole combination therapy in syndromic management of pelvic inflammatory disease : a prospective randomized controlled trial. M Malhotra, JB Sharma, S Batra, R Arora, S Sharma - Indian J Med Sci</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.indianjmedsci.org/article.asp?issn=0019-5359%3Byear=2003%3Bvolume=57%3Bissue=12%3Bspage=549%3Bepage=555%3Baulast=Malhotra">www.indianjmedsci.org</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="96"><a href="#citable__96"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Adverse side effects from loperamide were not detected; however, the number of patients studied was small.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Ciprofloxacin and Loperamide in the Treatment of Bacillary Dysentery — Ann Intern Med </c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.annals.org/content/118/8/582.full">www.annals.org</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> Caution is highly advised.</div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__63" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="63">Within the studies submitted in response to a Pediatric Written Request (Ciprofloxacin, circa 2004) the rate of atrophy was reported to be 9.3%.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="63"><a href="#citable__63"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Ciprofloxacin in pediatrics: worldwide clinical experience based on compassionate use-safety report.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>ISPUB - Ciprofloxacin After Clinical Failure Of Ceftriaxone For Severe Salmonellosis In Children</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.ispub.com/journal/the_internet_journal_of_infectious_diseases/volume_3_number_1_25/article/ciprofloxacin_after_clinical_failure_of_ceftriaxone_for_severe_salmonellosis_in_children.html">www.ispub.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="63"><a href="#citable__63"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>We found 11 studies or case reports from 7 countries where ciprofloxacin therapy was used in a total of 98 pediatric patients and the efficacy of ciprofloxacin was reported.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Arch Surg -- Ciprofloxacin as a Therapeutic Modality in Pediatric Burn Wound Infections: Efficacious or Contraindicated?, November 1998, Heggers et al. 133 (11): 1247</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://archsurg.ama-assn.org/cgi/content/full/133/11/1247">archsurg.ama-assn.org</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="63"><a href="#citable__63"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The rates of musculoskeletal adverse events occurring within 6 weeks of treatment were 9.3% (31 of 335) in patients receiving ciprofloxacin compared with 6.0% (21 of 349) in control patients.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> The Use of Systemic Fluoroquinolones -- Committee on Infectious Diseases 118 (3): 1287 -- Pediatrics</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/cgi/content/full/118/3/1287">pediatrics.aappublications.org</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_dospaidos_60_0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-dospaidos-60"><span>[</span>61<span>]</span></a></sup> <a name="citable__119" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="119">Within the BPCA Pediatric Studies Summary for ciprofloxacin<sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_dospaidos_60_1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-dospaidos-60"><span>[</span>61<span>]</span></a></sup>, it was stated that the overall incidence of adverse events at six weeks was 41%.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="119"><a href="#citable__119"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>However, this had no clinical impact on IFI, because the incidence of overall IFI as well as IFI as the primary cause of death were equally distributed in the two study arms.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Fungal colonization and invasive fungal infections following allogeneic BMT using metronidazole, ciprofloxacin and fluconazole or ciprofloxacin and fluconazole as intestinal decontamination</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.nature.com/bmt/journal/v26/n9/full/1702655a.html">www.nature.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="119"><a href="#citable__119"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>In summary, this study indicates that oral bioavailability of ciprofloxacin is reduced for patients undergoing surgery for peritonitis on the first postoperative day.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Arch Surg -- Bioavailability of Oral Ciprofloxacin in Early Postsurgical Patients, November 1998, Hackam et al. 133 (11): 1221</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://archsurg.ama-assn.org/cgi/content/full/133/11/1221">archsurg.ama-assn.org</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="119"><a href="#citable__119"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>These studies have shown the potential benefits of such therapy and have reported few drug-related adverse events.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> The Use of Systemic Fluoroquinolones -- Committee on Infectious Diseases 118 (3): 1287 -- Pediatrics</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/cgi/content/full/118/3/1287">pediatrics.aappublications.org</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__19" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="19">This would be consistent with the safety profile found with the other fluoroquinolones studied in the pediatric population.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="19"><a href="#citable__19"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Jick S. Ciprofloxacin safety in pediatric population.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>ISPUB - Ciprofloxacin After Clinical Failure Of Ceftriaxone For Severe Salmonellosis In Children</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.ispub.com/journal/the_internet_journal_of_infectious_diseases/volume_3_number_1_25/article/ciprofloxacin_after_clinical_failure_of_ceftriaxone_for_severe_salmonellosis_in_children.html">www.ispub.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="19"><a href="#citable__19"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Consequently, the therapeutic application of ciprofloxacin in the pediatric population other than for cystic fibrosis was considered contraindicated; experts advised against performing efficacy and safety studies of these promising new agents in children because of toxic effects on cartilage in weight-bearing joints.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Arch Surg -- Ciprofloxacin as a Therapeutic Modality in Pediatric Burn Wound Infections: Efficacious or Contraindicated?, November 1998, Heggers et al. 133 (11): 1247</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://archsurg.ama-assn.org/cgi/content/full/133/11/1247">archsurg.ama-assn.org</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="19"><a href="#citable__19"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>We found 11 studies or case reports from 7 countries where ciprofloxacin therapy was used in a total of 98 pediatric patients and the efficacy of ciprofloxacin was reported.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Arch Surg -- Ciprofloxacin as a Therapeutic Modality in Pediatric Burn Wound Infections: Efficacious or Contraindicated?, November 1998, Heggers et al. 133 (11): 1247</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://archsurg.ama-assn.org/cgi/content/full/133/11/1247">archsurg.ama-assn.org</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__114" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="114">As such, the current ban on the use of the fluoroquinolones in the pediatric population is both reasonable and supported by various clinical studies.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="114"><a href="#citable__114"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>For this reason, such therapy is contraindicated in the pediatric population.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Arch Surg -- Ciprofloxacin as a Therapeutic Modality in Pediatric Burn Wound Infections: Efficacious or Contraindicated?, November 1998, Heggers et al. 133 (11): 1247</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://archsurg.ama-assn.org/cgi/content/full/133/11/1247">archsurg.ama-assn.org</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="114"><a href="#citable__114"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Use of fluoroquinolones in pediatrics : consensus.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>ISPUB - Ciprofloxacin After Clinical Failure Of Ceftriaxone For Severe Salmonellosis In Children</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.ispub.com/journal/the_internet_journal_of_infectious_diseases/volume_3_number_1_25/article/ciprofloxacin_after_clinical_failure_of_ceftriaxone_for_severe_salmonellosis_in_children.html">www.ispub.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="114"><a href="#citable__114"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Currently, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, gatifloxacin, and moxifloxacin are the most widely used fluoroquinolones.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> The Use of Systemic Fluoroquinolones -- Committee on Infectious Diseases 118 (3): 1287 -- Pediatrics</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/cgi/content/full/118/3/1287">pediatrics.aappublications.org</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__40" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="40">The most recent long term study, <em>BAY 0 9867 Cipro Pediatric Use Study (QUIP)</em> which followed pediatric patients from 1999–2008,<sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_61" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-61"><span>[</span>62<span>]</span></a></sup> supports the current expert opinion that the risk of permanent injury continues to outweigh the potential benefits of ciprofloxacin therapy in the pediatric population.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="40"><a href="#citable__40"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>In this study, ciprofloxacin and tetracycline were used to treat B .</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Ciprofloxacin</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.bionewsonline.com/4/1/ciprofloxacin_c.htm">www.bionewsonline.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="40"><a href="#citable__40"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Jick S. Ciprofloxacin safety in pediatric population.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>ISPUB - Ciprofloxacin After Clinical Failure Of Ceftriaxone For Severe Salmonellosis In Children</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.ispub.com/journal/the_internet_journal_of_infectious_diseases/volume_3_number_1_25/article/ciprofloxacin_after_clinical_failure_of_ceftriaxone_for_severe_salmonellosis_in_children.html">www.ispub.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="40"><a href="#citable__40"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Ciprofloxacin(available on the market under brand names Cipro, Ciproxin and Ciprobay and in generic versions) is antibiotic used to treat various types of bacterial infections.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Buy Ciprofloxacin(Cipro) online with no prescription. Order generic Cipro 250/500/750/1000 mg.</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://buyciprofloxacin.com/">buyciprofloxacin.com</a> [Source type: General]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> </div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__50" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="50">Within the United States, the FDA has stated that it is their intention to pursue the licensing of the fluoroquinolones for pediatric use in spite of the evidence presented at that 62 Meeting of the Anti-Infective Drugs Advisory Committee that the fluoroquinolones cause irreversible joint damage in the pediatric population.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="50"><a href="#citable__50"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Committee on drugs the use of this medication.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Computer Networking Directory Links and Resources</c_title></em> <c_date>19 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pathology inhalational disease”, FDA Antiinfective Advisory Committee Meeting, July, 2000.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Method for optimizing ciprofloxacin treatment of anthrax-exposed patients according to the patient's characteristics - Patent 6503906</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.freepatentsonline.com/6503906.html">www.freepatentsonline.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_62" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-62"><span>[</span>63<span>]</span></a></sup></div> <h2><span class="mw-headline" id="wikipedia_Special_precautions">Special precautions</span></h2> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__2" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="2">The status of the patient’s renal function and hepatic function must also be taken into consideration to avoid an accumulation that may lead to an overdose and the development of toxicity.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="2"><a href="#citable__2"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The pharmacodynamic marker is highly variable among patients, influenced by the patient characteristics, such as body weight, renal function, age, and gender.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Method for optimizing ciprofloxacin treatment of anthrax-exposed patients according to the patient's characteristics - Patent 6503906</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.freepatentsonline.com/6503906.html">www.freepatentsonline.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="2"><a href="#citable__2"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Renal toxicities have been reported in less than one percent of the patients receiving ciprofloxacin therapy .</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Ciprofloxacin</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.bionewsonline.com/4/1/ciprofloxacin_c.htm">www.bionewsonline.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="2"><a href="#citable__2"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>CIPROBAY IV Dosage and Duration of Treatment: The dosage of CIPROBAY IV is determined by the severity and type of infection, the sensitivity of the causative organism(s) and the age, mass and renal function of the patient.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>CIPROBAY® 250, 500, 750 (Tablets); CIPROBAY® IV (Infusion); CIPROBAY® Suspension 5%</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://home.intekom.com/pharm/bayer/ciprobay.html">home.intekom.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__74" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="74">Ciprofloxacin is eliminated primarily by renal excretion.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="74"><a href="#citable__74"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>In addition, the renal excretion of the metabolites desmethyldiazepam, 3-hydroxydiazepam (temazepam), and 3-hydroxydesmethyldiazepam (oxazepam) were not altered by ciprofloxacin co-medication .</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Ciprofloxacin</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.bionewsonline.com/4/1/ciprofloxacin_c.htm">www.bionewsonline.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="74"><a href="#citable__74"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>These results suggest a possible reduction of ciprofloxacin clearance owing to inhibition of renal excretion by fenbufen.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Ciprofloxacin</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.bionewsonline.com/4/1/ciprofloxacin_c.htm">www.bionewsonline.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="74"><a href="#citable__74"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Renal clearance of ciprofloxacin decreases in old age, but because of substantial nonrenal elimination the total clearance is affected less .</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Ciprofloxacin</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.bionewsonline.com/4/1/ciprofloxacin_c.htm">www.bionewsonline.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__62" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="62">However, the drug is also metabolized and partially cleared through the liver and the intestine.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="62"><a href="#citable__62"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Yes, the volume of distribution is altered, they may have increased production of proteins that may bind free drug and serum, they may clear it differently, they may metabolize it faster.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Arch Surg -- Bioavailability of Oral Ciprofloxacin in Early Postsurgical Patients, November 1998, Hackam et al. 133 (11): 1221</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://archsurg.ama-assn.org/cgi/content/full/133/11/1221">archsurg.ama-assn.org</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="62"><a href="#citable__62"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Ciprofloxacin is partially metabolized in the liver and degrades into four metabolites with limited activity.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Ciprofloxacin-Induced Mania in an Elderly Male | Annals of Long Term Care</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.annalsoflongtermcare.com/content/ciprofloxacin-induced-mania-elderly-male">www.annalsoflongtermcare.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__103" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="103">Modification of the dosage is <em>recommended</em> using the table found within the package insert for those with impaired liver or kidney function.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="103"><a href="#citable__103"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Impaired Liver Function: No dosage adjustment is required.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Buy Cipro - Ciprobay (brand) Ciprofloxacin online Free ExpressShipping at YasminPharmacy</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a 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10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Method for optimizing ciprofloxacin treatment of anthrax-exposed patients according to the patient's characteristics - Patent 6503906</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.freepatentsonline.com/6503906.html">www.freepatentsonline.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__28" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="28">However, since the drug is known to be substantially excreted by the kidneys, the risk of toxic reactions to this drug may be greater in patients with impaired renal function.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="28"><a href="#citable__28"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Impaired renal function .</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Inhouse Pharmacy Ciprofloxacin - Ciproxin</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.inhousepharmacy.com/infections/ciproxin-information.html">www.inhousepharmacy.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="28"><a href="#citable__28"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Target site drug levels may substantially differ from corresponding plasma levels and drug distribution processes may be characterized by a high intertissue variability, leading to suboptimal target site concentrations and the potential risk of therapeutic failures ( 1 ).</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> Combined PET and Microdialysis for In Vivo Assessment of Intracellular Drug Pharmacokinetics in Humans -- Langer et al. 46 (11): 1835 -- The Journal of Nuclear Medicine</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://jnm.snmjournals.org/cgi/content/full/46/11/1835">jnm.snmjournals.org</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="28"><a href="#citable__28"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Since Ciprobay is excreted not only renally but also to a considerable extent via the intestine, only severely impaired kidney function results in prolonged serum half-lives of up to 12 hrs.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Buy Cipro - Ciprobay (brand) Ciprofloxacin online Free ExpressShipping at YasminPharmacy</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.yasminpharmacy.com/cipro-ciprobay.php">www.yasminpharmacy.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__144" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="144">The duration of treatment depends upon the <em>severity</em> of infection and the usual duration is 7 to 14 days.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="144"><a href="#citable__144"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Treatment usually lasts 3 days.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>MedsMarket :: Antibiotics :: Cipro (Ciprofloxacin) 500mg</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.medsmarket.net/product.php?productid=138&cat=7&bestseller">www.medsmarket.net</a> [Source type: General]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="144"><a href="#citable__144"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The duration of treatment depends on the severity of the illness and on the clinical and bacteriological course.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Inhouse Pharmacy Ciprofloxacin - Ciproxin</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.inhousepharmacy.com/infections/ciproxin-information.html">www.inhousepharmacy.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li><li> <em><c_title>Data Sheet</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a 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effects of fluoroquinolones">Adverse effects of fluoroquinolones</a></div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__86" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="86">Serious adverse events occur more commonly with fluoroquinolones than with any other antibiotic drug classes.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="86"><a href="#citable__86"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Ciprofloxacin 250mg belongs to a class of drugs called quinolone antibiotics.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Buy Generic Ciprofloxacin 250mg Tablet Online</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.universaldrugstore.com/medications/Ciprofloxacin/250mg">www.universaldrugstore.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="86"><a href="#citable__86"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Ciprofloxacin is effective against a large number of bacteria, some of which tend to be resistant to other commonly used antibiotics.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Ciproxin (ciprofloxacin)</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.netdoctor.co.uk/medicines/100000521.html">www.netdoctor.co.uk</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="86"><a href="#citable__86"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Regimen of choice is streptomycin (or gentamicin) with or without doxycycline; alternatives are doxycycline, chloramphenicol (drug of choice for plague meningitis), fluoroquinolones, or co-trimoxazole (may be less effective than other alternatives).</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> ciprofloxacin : Complexes, Storage & Clinical Research on Healthline.com</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.healthline.com/ahfscontent/ciprofloxacin">www.healthline.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__132" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="132">In most, adverse reactions are mild to moderate; however, occasionally serious adverse effects occur.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="132"><a href="#citable__132"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The most common adverse effects are nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, dizziness, nervousness, and rash .</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Ciprofloxacin</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.bionewsonline.com/4/1/ciprofloxacin_c.htm">www.bionewsonline.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="132"><a href="#citable__132"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Adverse Reactions The following side effects have been observed: Gastrointestinal Tract: Nausea, diarrhoea, vomiting, digestive disorders, abdominal pain, flatulence and anorexia.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Buy Cipro - Ciprobay (brand) Ciprofloxacin online Free ExpressShipping at YasminPharmacy</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.yasminpharmacy.com/cipro-ciprobay.php">www.yasminpharmacy.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="132"><a href="#citable__132"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>This case report describes a serum sickness-like reaction temporally related to ciprofloxacin , a previously unreported adverse effect of this drug or any of the other quinolones.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Ciprofloxacin</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.bionewsonline.com/4/1/ciprofloxacin_c.htm">www.bionewsonline.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_63" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-63"><span>[</span>64<span>]</span></a></sup><sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_pmid11172695_64_0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-pmid11172695-64"><span>[</span>65<span>]</span></a></sup> <a name="citable__172" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="172">There have been a number of regulatory actions taken as a result of such adverse reactions, which included published warnings,<sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_65" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-65"><span>[</span>66<span>]</span></a></sup><sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_66" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-66"><span>[</span>67<span>]</span></a></sup> additional warnings and safety information added to the package inserts<sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_67" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-67"><span>[</span>68<span>]</span></a></sup> together with the issuance of "Dear Doctor Letters"<sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_68" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-68"><span>[</span>69<span>]</span></a></sup> concerning the recent addition of Black Box Warnings.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="172"><a href="#citable__172"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Effects on the Ability to Drive or Operate Machinery: Even when Ciprobay is taken exactly as prescribed, it can affect the speed of reaction to such an extent that the ability to drive or to operate machinery is impaired.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Buy Cipro - Ciprobay (brand) Ciprofloxacin online Free ExpressShipping at YasminPharmacy</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.yasminpharmacy.com/cipro-ciprobay.php">www.yasminpharmacy.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="172"><a href="#citable__172"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Please inform your doctor or pharmacist if you have previously experienced such an allergy.If you feel you have experienced an allergic reaction, stop using this medicine and inform your doctor or pharmacist immediately.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Ciproxin (ciprofloxacin)</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.netdoctor.co.uk/medicines/100000521.html">www.netdoctor.co.uk</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="172"><a href="#citable__172"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The initial number of people placed on prophylaxis may reflect conservative estimates with wide safety margins based on limited preliminary information.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> Anthrax Treatment : Homeland Security News</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.nationalterroralert.com/anthraxtreatment/">www.nationalterroralert.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li><li> <em><c_title>Homeland Security: Anthrax Treatment</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.nationalterroralert.com/readyguide/anthraxtreatment.htm">www.nationalterroralert.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__38" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="38">In 2004, the U.S. FDA requested new warning labels to be added to all of the fluoroquinolones, including ciprofloxacin, regarding <a href="/Peripheral_neuropathy" title="Peripheral neuropathy">peripheral neuropathy</a> (irreversible nerve damage), tendon damage, heart problems (prolonged QT Interval / <a href="/Torsades_de_pointes" title="Torsades de pointes">torsades de pointes</a>), <a href="/Pseudomembranous_colitis" title="Pseudomembranous colitis">pseudomembranous colitis</a>, <a href="/Rhabdomyolysis" title="Rhabdomyolysis">rhabdomyolysis</a> (muscle wasting), <a href="/Stevens-Johnson_syndrome" title="Stevens-Johnson syndrome" class="mw-redirect">Stevens-Johnson syndrome</a>, as well as concurrent usage of <a href="/NSAIDs" title="NSAIDs" class="mw-redirect">NSAIDs</a> contributing to the severity of these reactions.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="38"><a href="#citable__38"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>[Posted 07/08/2008] FDA notified healthcare professionals that a BOXED WARNING and Medication Guide are to be added to the prescribing information to strengthen existing warnings about the increased risk of developing tendinitis and tendon rupture in patients taking fluoroquinolones for systemic use.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> ciprofloxacin : Complexes, Storage & Clinical Research on Healthline.com</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.healthline.com/ahfscontent/ciprofloxacin">www.healthline.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="38"><a href="#citable__38"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Tell you doctor about all of your medical conditions, including if you have or ever had seizures (epilepsy), asthma, or liver or kidney problems.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Flexyx: Cipro (Generic name - Ciprofloxacin) OnLine Information</c_title></em> <c_date>11 September 2009 23:53 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.flexyx.com/C/Cipro.html">www.flexyx.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="38"><a href="#citable__38"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Other adverse events associated with fluoroquinolones include central nervous system disorders, photosensitivity, disorders of glucose homeostasis, prolongation of QT interval with rare cases of torsade de pointes (often lethal ventricular arrhythmia in patients with long QT syndrome), hepatic dysfunction, and rashes.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> The Use of Systemic Fluoroquinolones -- Committee on Infectious Diseases 118 (3): 1287 -- Pediatrics</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/cgi/content/full/118/3/1287">pediatrics.aappublications.org</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> </div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__115" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="115">Subsequent to this, on June 25, 2007, the U.S. FDA required the manufacturer to add an additional warning to the package inserts that stated that “Other serious and sometimes fatal events, some due to hypersensitivity, and some due to uncertain etiology, have been reported in patients receiving therapy with quinolones, including ciprofloxacin.”<sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_69" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-69"><span>[</span>70<span>]</span></a></sup> It was not until 2008, (four years later) that the label revisions for ciprofloxacin included any warnings concerning heart problems (prolonged QT Interval / torsades de pointes).</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="115"><a href="#citable__115"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Severe hypersensitivity reactions, including anaphylaxis, have occurred with quinolone therapy.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Ciprofloxacin</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.umm.edu/altmed/drugs/ciprofloxacin-029200.htm">www.umm.edu</a> [Source type: Academic]</li><li> <em><c_title>Ciprofloxacin - Richard's Corporate Office</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.richardswholefoods.com/common/adam/DisplayMonograph.asp?storeID=1FQSSEQX5CS92J2000AKHMCCQ259DGG9&DocID=41_029200">www.richardswholefoods.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="115"><a href="#citable__115"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Patients received ciprofloxacin 200 mg i.v .</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Ciprofloxacin</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.bionewsonline.com/4/1/ciprofloxacin_c.htm">www.bionewsonline.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="115"><a href="#citable__115"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Some quinolones, including ciprofloxacin, have also been shown to interfere with the metabolism of caffeine.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Flexyx: Cipro (Generic name - Ciprofloxacin) OnLine Information</c_title></em> <c_date>11 September 2009 23:53 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.flexyx.com/C/Cipro.html">www.flexyx.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> Warnings concerning rhabdomyolysis and Stevens-Johnson syndrome are still conspicuously absent from the package inserts as of September 2009.</div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__134" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="134">The serious adverse effects that may occur as a result of ciprofloxacin therapy include irreversible peripheral neuropathy,<sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_70" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-70"><span>[</span>71<span>]</span></a></sup><sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_71" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-71"><span>[</span>72<span>]</span></a></sup> spontaneous <a href="/Tendon_rupture" title="Tendon rupture" class="mw-redirect">tendon rupture</a> and <a href="/Tendonitis" title="Tendonitis" class="mw-redirect">tendonitis</a>,<sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_FDA1996_72_0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FDA1996-72"><span>[</span>73<span>]</span></a></sup><sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_73" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-73"><span>[</span>74<span>]</span></a></sup><sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_74" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-74"><span>[</span>75<span>]</span></a></sup><sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_75" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-75"><span>[</span>76<span>]</span></a></sup> acute <a href="/Liver_failure" title="Liver failure">liver failure</a> or serious liver injury (<a href="/Hepatitis" title="Hepatitis">hepatitis</a>),<sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_76" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-76"><span>[</span>77<span>]</span></a></sup><sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_77" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-77"><span>[</span>78<span>]</span></a></sup> QTc prolongation/torsades de pointes,<sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_ctcos_23_2" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-ctcos-23"><span>[</span>24<span>]</span></a></sup> <a href="/Toxic_epidermal_necrolysis" title="Toxic epidermal necrolysis">toxic epidermal necrolysis</a> (TEN),<sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_78" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-78"><span>[</span>79<span>]</span></a></sup><sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_79" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-79"><span>[</span>80<span>]</span></a></sup><sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_80" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-80"><span>[</span>81<span>]</span></a></sup> and Stevens-Johnson syndrome, severe central nervous system disorders (CNS)<sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_cipro2004_29_1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-cipro2004-29"><span>[</span>30<span>]</span></a></sup> and <a href="/Clostridium_difficile" title="Clostridium difficile">Clostridium difficile</a> associated disease (CDAD: <a href="/Pseudomembranous_colitis" title="Pseudomembranous colitis">pseudomembranous colitis</a>),<sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_81" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-81"><span>[</span>82<span>]</span></a></sup><sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_82" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-82"><span>[</span>83<span>]</span></a></sup> as well as photosensitivity/<a href="/Phototoxicity" title="Phototoxicity">phototoxicity</a> reactions.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="134"><a href="#citable__134"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Occasionally, disease may result in systemic symptoms and dissemination .</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Ciprofloxacin</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.bionewsonline.com/4/1/ciprofloxacin_c.htm">www.bionewsonline.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="134"><a href="#citable__134"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Severe hypersensitivity reactions, including anaphylaxis, have occurred with quinolone therapy.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Ciprofloxacin</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.umm.edu/altmed/drugs/ciprofloxacin-029200.htm">www.umm.edu</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="134"><a href="#citable__134"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Rare cases of peripheral neuropathy may occur.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Ciprofloxacin</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.umm.edu/altmed/drugs/ciprofloxacin-029200.htm">www.umm.edu</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> </div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__31" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="31">Psychotic reactions and confusional states, <a href="/Acute_pancreatitis" title="Acute pancreatitis">acute pancreatitis</a>,<sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_83" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-83"><span>[</span>84<span>]</span></a></sup> <a href="/Bone_marrow_depression" title="Bone marrow depression" class="mw-redirect">bone marrow depression</a>, <a href="/Interstitial_nephritis" title="Interstitial nephritis">interstitial nephritis</a> and <a href="/Hemolytic_anemia" title="Hemolytic anemia">hemolytic anemia</a> may also occur during ciprofloxacin therapy.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="31"><a href="#citable__31"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>We report a case of acute interstitial nephritis confirmed by renal biopsy that developed in a patient within days of starting ciprofloxacin therapy .</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Ciprofloxacin</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.bionewsonline.com/4/1/ciprofloxacin_c.htm">www.bionewsonline.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="31"><a href="#citable__31"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>This condition may occur during treatment or weeks to months after treatment has stopped.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Buy Generic Ciprofloxacin 250mg Tablet Online</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.universaldrugstore.com/medications/Ciprofloxacin/250mg">www.universaldrugstore.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="31"><a href="#citable__31"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Ciprofloxacin 250mg should not be used with the following medications because very serious interactions may occur: strontium, tizanidine.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Buy Generic Ciprofloxacin 250mg Tablet Online</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.universaldrugstore.com/medications/Ciprofloxacin/250mg">www.universaldrugstore.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_84" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-84"><span>[</span>85<span>]</span></a></sup><sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_85" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-85"><span>[</span>86<span>]</span></a></sup> <a name="citable__52" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="52">Additional serious adverse reactions include temporary, as well as permanent, <a href="/Loss_of_vision" title="Loss of vision" class="mw-redirect">loss of vision</a>,<sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_86" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-86"><span>[</span>87<span>]</span></a></sup><sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_87" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-87"><span>[</span>88<span>]</span></a></sup> irreversible <a href="/Double_vision" title="Double vision">double vision</a>,<sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_pmid19643481_88_0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-pmid19643481-88"><span>[</span>89<span>]</span></a></sup> drug induced psychosis<sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_89" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-89"><span>[</span>90<span>]</span></a></sup><sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_90" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-90"><span>[</span>91<span>]</span></a></sup> and <a href="/Chorea" title="Chorea" class="mw-redirect">chorea</a> (involuntary muscle movements),<sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_91" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-91"><span>[</span>92<span>]</span></a></sup> impaired <a href="/Color_vision" title="Color vision">color vision</a>, <a href="/Exanthema" title="Exanthema" class="mw-redirect">exanthema</a>, abdominal pain, <a href="/Malaise" title="Malaise">malaise</a>, <a href="/Drug_fever" title="Drug fever" class="mw-redirect">drug fever</a>, <a href="/Dysaesthesia" title="Dysaesthesia" class="mw-redirect">dysaesthesia</a> and <a href="/Eosinophilia" title="Eosinophilia">eosinophilia</a>.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="52"><a href="#citable__52"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Patients who develop pseudomembranous colitis as a result of antibiotic treatment can experience diarrhea, abdominal pain, fever, and sometimes even shock.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Ciprofloxacin</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://home.caregroup.org/clinical/altmed/interactions/Drugs/Ciprofloxacin.htm">home.caregroup.org</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="52"><a href="#citable__52"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>DICP, 1990 Apr, 24(4), 379 - 80 Suspected ciprofloxacin -induced interstitial nephritis ; Murray KM et al.; Interstitial nephritis is a rare but serious adverse effect of many drugs and usually is diagnosed by clinical signs and symptoms of hematuria, proteinuria, eosinophilia, fever, azotemia, and rash .</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Ciprofloxacin</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.bionewsonline.com/4/1/ciprofloxacin_c.htm">www.bionewsonline.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="52"><a href="#citable__52"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Side effects may include: Abdominal pain/discomfort, diarrhea, headache, nausea, rash, restlessness, vomiting .</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>MedsMarket :: Antibiotics :: Cipro (Ciprofloxacin) 500mg</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.medsmarket.net/product.php?productid=138&cat=7&bestseller">www.medsmarket.net</a> [Source type: General]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_92" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-92"><span>[</span>93<span>]</span></a></sup><sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_93" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-93"><span>[</span>94<span>]</span></a></sup> <a name="citable__34" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="34"><a href="/Pseudotumor_cerebri" title="Pseudotumor cerebri" class="mw-redirect">Pseudotumor cerebri</a>, commonly known as idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH), (also referred to as increased intracranial pressure), has been reported to occur as a serious adverse reaction to ciprofloxacin.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="34"><a href="#citable__34"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Altered serum levels of phenytoin (increased and decreased) have been reported in patients receiving concomitant ciprofloxacin.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Flexyx: Cipro (Generic name - Ciprofloxacin) OnLine Information</c_title></em> <c_date>11 September 2009 23:53 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.flexyx.com/C/Cipro.html">www.flexyx.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="34"><a href="#citable__34"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>In some instances, these reactions occurred already after the first administration of ciprofloxacin.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>CIPROBAY® 250, 500, 750 (Tablets); CIPROBAY® IV (Infusion); CIPROBAY® Suspension 5%</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://home.intekom.com/pharm/bayer/ciprobay.html">home.intekom.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="34"><a href="#citable__34"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>If the biomarkers fall outside the upper bound of the normal a range, adverse events associated with ciprofloxacin may occur more than normal.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Method for optimizing ciprofloxacin treatment of anthrax-exposed patients according to the patient's characteristics - Patent 6503906</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.freepatentsonline.com/6503906.html">www.freepatentsonline.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_94" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-94"><span>[</span>95<span>]</span></a></sup></div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__85" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="85">Children and the elderly are at a much greater risk of experiencing such adverse reactions.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="85"><a href="#citable__85"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Please inform your doctor or pharmacist if you have previously experienced such an allergy.If you feel you have experienced an allergic reaction, stop using this medicine and inform your doctor or pharmacist immediately.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Ciproxin (ciprofloxacin)</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.netdoctor.co.uk/medicines/100000521.html">www.netdoctor.co.uk</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="85"><a href="#citable__85"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Both agents can have adverse health reactions in children.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> Anthrax Treatment : Homeland Security News</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.nationalterroralert.com/anthraxtreatment/">www.nationalterroralert.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="85"><a href="#citable__85"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>This may result in increased risk of theophylline-related adverse reactions.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Flexyx: Cipro (Generic name - Ciprofloxacin) OnLine Information</c_title></em> <c_date>11 September 2009 23:53 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.flexyx.com/C/Cipro.html">www.flexyx.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li><li> <em><c_title>CIPROBAY® 250, 500, 750 (Tablets); CIPROBAY® IV (Infusion); CIPROBAY® Suspension 5%</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://home.intekom.com/pharm/bayer/ciprobay.html">home.intekom.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_autogenerated1403_95_0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-autogenerated1403-95"><span>[</span>96<span>]</span></a></sup><sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_96" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-96"><span>[</span>97<span>]</span></a></sup> <a name="citable__43" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="43">Such reactions may manifest during fluoroquinolone therapy, and long after it had been discontinued.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="43"><a href="#citable__43"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>If adverse reactions are suspected, therapy may be changed to amoxicillin or penicillin.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> Anthrax Treatment : Homeland Security News</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.nationalterroralert.com/anthraxtreatment/">www.nationalterroralert.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li><li> <em><c_title>Homeland Security: Anthrax Treatment</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.nationalterroralert.com/readyguide/anthraxtreatment.htm">www.nationalterroralert.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="43"><a href="#citable__43"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>In such cases ciprofloxacin must be discontinued and appropriate therapy initiated (e.g.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>CIPROBAY® 250, 500, 750 (Tablets); CIPROBAY® IV (Infusion); CIPROBAY® Suspension 5%</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://home.intekom.com/pharm/bayer/ciprobay.html">home.intekom.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="43"><a href="#citable__43"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>In such cases Ciprofloxacin must be discontinued and appropriate therapy initiated (e.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Inhouse Pharmacy Ciprofloxacin - Ciproxin</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.inhousepharmacy.com/infections/ciproxin-information.html">www.inhousepharmacy.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li><li> <em><c_title>Data Sheet</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.medsafe.govt.nz/profs/Datasheet/c/ciprofloxacinrextab.htm">www.medsafe.govt.nz</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_97" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-97"><span>[</span>98<span>]</span></a></sup></div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__23" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="23">Serious visual complications have also been reported to occur with <a href="/Ophthalmic" title="Ophthalmic">ophthalmic</a> fluoroquinolone therapy, which may also occur with ciprofloxacin eye drops, especially <a href="/Corneal_perforation" title="Corneal perforation">corneal perforation</a>, but also <a href="/Evisceration" title="Evisceration">evisceration</a> and <a href="/Enucleation" title="Enucleation">enucleation</a>.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="23"><a href="#citable__23"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Ciprofloxacin Hydrochloride Ophthalmic drops, solution .</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> Ciprofloxacin</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.psychiatry.uams.edu/HealthLibrary/Default.aspx?ContentTypeId=26&ContentID=127">www.psychiatry.uams.edu</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="23"><a href="#citable__23"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Ciprofloxacin 250mg may rarely cause serious changes in blood sugar levels, especially if you have diabetes.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Buy Generic Ciprofloxacin 250mg Tablet Online</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.universaldrugstore.com/medications/Ciprofloxacin/250mg">www.universaldrugstore.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="23"><a href="#citable__23"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Ciprofloxacin 250mg should not be used with the following medications because very serious interactions may occur: strontium, tizanidine.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Buy Generic Ciprofloxacin 250mg Tablet Online</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.universaldrugstore.com/medications/Ciprofloxacin/250mg">www.universaldrugstore.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__157" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="157">This increased incidents of corneal perforation may be due to fluoroquinolones causing alterations in <a href="/Stromal" title="Stromal" class="mw-redirect">stromal</a> <a href="/Collagen" title="Collagen">collagen</a>, leading to a reduction in <a href="/Tectonic" title="Tectonic" class="mw-redirect">tectonic</a> strength.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="157"><a href="#citable__157"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Theophylline: Serum levels may be increased by ciprofloxacin; in addition, CNS stimulation/seizures may occur at lower theophylline serum levels due to additive CNS effects.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Ciprofloxacin</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.umm.edu/altmed/drugs/ciprofloxacin-029200.htm">www.umm.edu</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="157"><a href="#citable__157"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Theophylline bioavailability is unchanged when the drug is given together with antacids, although its rate of absorption may be altered, leading to a reduction or an increase in the time of the occurrence of peak plasma drug concentrations.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Ciprofloxacin</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://home.caregroup.org/clinical/altmed/interactions/Drugs/Ciprofloxacin.htm">home.caregroup.org</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="157"><a href="#citable__157"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The first is the increasing incidence of treatment failures due to infection with typhoid salmonellae with reduced susceptibility or resistance to the fluoroquinolones.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> Ciprofloxacin treatment failure in a case of typhoid fever caused by Salmonella enterica serotype Paratyphi A with reduced susceptibility to ciprofloxacin -- Dimitrov et al. 56 (2): 277 -- Journal of Medical Microbiology</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://jmm.sgmjournals.org/cgi/content/full/56/2/277">jmm.sgmjournals.org</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_98" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-98"><span>[</span>99<span>]</span></a></sup><sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_99" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-99"><span>[</span>100<span>]</span></a></sup> As noted previously permanent double vision (diplopia) has also been reported.<sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_pmid19643481_88_1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-pmid19643481-88"><span>[</span>89<span>]</span></a></sup> <a name="citable__143" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="143">An unusual case of seizures has also been reported with ciprofloxacin ear drops in an elderly patient.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="143"><a href="#citable__143"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Cases of partial or complete rupture of the achilles tendon have been reported predominantly in the elderly on prior systemic treatment with glucocorticoids.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>CIPROBAY® 250, 500, 750 (Tablets); CIPROBAY® IV (Infusion); CIPROBAY® Suspension 5%</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://home.intekom.com/pharm/bayer/ciprobay.html">home.intekom.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="143"><a href="#citable__143"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Altered serum levels of phenytoin (increased and decreased) have been reported in patients receiving concomitant ciprofloxacin.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Flexyx: Cipro (Generic name - Ciprofloxacin) OnLine Information</c_title></em> <c_date>11 September 2009 23:53 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.flexyx.com/C/Cipro.html">www.flexyx.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="143"><a href="#citable__143"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Case reports describe renal failure associated with concomitant administration of cyclosporine and ciprofloxacin, although controlled trials have not demonstrated an interaction.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Ciprofloxacin</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://home.caregroup.org/clinical/altmed/interactions/Drugs/Ciprofloxacin.htm">home.caregroup.org</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_100" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-100"><span>[</span>101<span>]</span></a></sup></div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__61" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="61">Some groups refer to these adverse events as "<a href="/Fluoroquinolone_toxicity" title="Fluoroquinolone toxicity" class="mw-redirect">fluoroquinolone toxicity</a>". These groups of people claim to have suffered serious long term harm to their health from using fluoroquinolones.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="61"><a href="#citable__61"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>These newer compounds are often used for indications not successfully treated by the original quinolones, or in some cases, not optimally treated with any previously available oral antibiotic .</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Ciprofloxacin</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.bionewsonline.com/4/1/ciprofloxacin_c.htm">www.bionewsonline.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="61"><a href="#citable__61"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>These findings are potentially useful in designing fluoroquinolones less prone to drug interactions.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Ciprofloxacin</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://home.caregroup.org/clinical/altmed/interactions/Drugs/Ciprofloxacin.htm">home.caregroup.org</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="61"><a href="#citable__61"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Cetyl-pyridinium chloride is useful for isolation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from sputa subjected to long-term storage.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> [Ciprofloxacin in the treatment of dysentery caused by type 1 Shigella dysenteriae during an epidemic in Rwandan refugees in Goma in 1994] — Epicentre </c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.epicentre.msf.org/research/publication-research/LaureillardEtAl1998/view?set_language=en">www.epicentre.msf.org</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__108" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="108">This has led to a class action lawsuit by people harmed by the use of fluoroquinolones, as well as legal action by the consumer advocate group <a href="/Public_Citizen" title="Public Citizen">Public Citizen</a>.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="108"><a href="#citable__108"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Therefore, use of fluoroquinolones, one of the most commonly prescribed classes of broad-spectrum antibiotics, 28 probably facilitated the emergence of fluoroquinolone-resistant strains.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>NEJM -- Emergence of Ciprofloxacin-Resistant Neisseria meningitidis in North America</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://content.nejm.org/cgi/content/full/360/9/886">content.nejm.org</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="108"><a href="#citable__108"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The increased use of fluoroquinolones in all age groups is resulting in a corresponding increase in bacterial resistance to fluoroquinolones.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> The Use of Systemic Fluoroquinolones -- Committee on Infectious Diseases 118 (3): 1287 -- Pediatrics</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/cgi/content/full/118/3/1287">pediatrics.aappublications.org</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="108"><a href="#citable__108"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Reports on use of fluoroquinolones in children include retrospective studies, studies without control groups, and studies that include small numbers of children in selected populations.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> The Use of Systemic Fluoroquinolones -- Committee on Infectious Diseases 118 (3): 1287 -- Pediatrics</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/cgi/content/full/118/3/1287">pediatrics.aappublications.org</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_101" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-101"><span>[</span>102<span>]</span></a></sup> <a name="citable__90" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="90">Partly as a result of the efforts of the State of Illinois and Public Citizen, the FDA ordered black box warnings on all fluoroquinolones advising consumers of the possible toxic effects of fluoroquinolones on tendons.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="90"><a href="#citable__90"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>[Posted 07/08/2008] FDA notified healthcare professionals that a BOXED WARNING and Medication Guide are to be added to the prescribing information to strengthen existing warnings about the increased risk of developing tendinitis and tendon rupture in patients taking fluoroquinolones for systemic use.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> ciprofloxacin : Complexes, Storage & Clinical Research on Healthline.com</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.healthline.com/ahfscontent/ciprofloxacin">www.healthline.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="90"><a href="#citable__90"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Thus, increased use of fluoroquinolones can be anticipated to result in an increase in strains of S pneumoniae that are resistant to all fluoroquinolones.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> The Use of Systemic Fluoroquinolones -- Committee on Infectious Diseases 118 (3): 1287 -- Pediatrics</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/cgi/content/full/118/3/1287">pediatrics.aappublications.org</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="90"><a href="#citable__90"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>This list may not describe all possible side effects.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> Ciprofloxacin</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.psychiatry.uams.edu/HealthLibrary/Default.aspx?ContentTypeId=26&ContentID=127">www.psychiatry.uams.edu</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_102" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-102"><span>[</span>103<span>]</span></a></sup></div> <h2><span class="mw-headline" id="wikipedia_Interactions">Interactions</span></h2> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__104" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="104">The toxicity of drugs that are metabolised by the <a href="/Cytochrome_P450" title="Cytochrome P450">cytochrome P450</a> system is enhanced by concomitant use of some quinolones.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="104"><a href="#citable__104"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The toxicity of drugs that are metabolised by the cytochrome P450 system is enhanced by concomitant use of some quinolones.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Ciprofloxacin</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://home.caregroup.org/clinical/altmed/interactions/Drugs/Ciprofloxacin.htm">home.caregroup.org</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="104"><a href="#citable__104"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Some of the newer quinolones inhibit the cytochrome P450 system, e.g.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Ciprofloxacin</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://home.caregroup.org/clinical/altmed/interactions/Drugs/Ciprofloxacin.htm">home.caregroup.org</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="104"><a href="#citable__104"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>These newer compounds are often used for indications not successfully treated by the original quinolones, or in some cases, not optimally treated with any previously available oral antibiotic .</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Ciprofloxacin</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.bionewsonline.com/4/1/ciprofloxacin_c.htm">www.bionewsonline.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__68" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="68">Coadministration may dangerously increase coumadin (<a href="/Warfarin" title="Warfarin">warfarin</a>) activity; INR should be monitored closely.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="68"><a href="#citable__68"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Warfarin: The hypoprothrombinemic effect of warfarin may be enhanced by ciprofloxacin; monitor INR. .</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Ciprofloxacin</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.umm.edu/altmed/drugs/ciprofloxacin-029200.htm">www.umm.edu</a> [Source type: Academic]</li><li> <em><c_title>Ciprofloxacin - Richard's Corporate Office</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.richardswholefoods.com/common/adam/DisplayMonograph.asp?storeID=1FQSSEQX5CS92J2000AKHMCCQ259DGG9&DocID=41_029200">www.richardswholefoods.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="68"><a href="#citable__68"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Certain medicines should be closely monitored.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>PointThailand.com by Ecartstudio Co., LTD: Directory Search Engine</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.pointthailand.com/scripts/memberforumdetailTopic.asp?nMEMID=22933&nTopicID=548">www.pointthailand.com</a> [Source type: General]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="68"><a href="#citable__68"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Patients should be monitored closely when potential interacting agents are used; it is probable that not all interactions have been identified.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Ciprofloxacin</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://home.caregroup.org/clinical/altmed/interactions/Drugs/Ciprofloxacin.htm">home.caregroup.org</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__10" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="10">They may also interact with the <a href="/GABA_A_receptor" title="GABA A receptor" class="mw-redirect">GABA A receptor</a> and cause neurological symptoms; this effect is augmented by certain <a href="/Non-steroidal_anti-inflammatory_drug" title="Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug">non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs</a>.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="10"><a href="#citable__10"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (but not aspirin) .</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Flexyx: Cipro (Generic name - Ciprofloxacin) OnLine Information</c_title></em> <c_date>11 September 2009 23:53 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.flexyx.com/C/Cipro.html">www.flexyx.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="10"><a href="#citable__10"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The affinity of quinolones for the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor may induce CNS adverse effects; these effects are enhanced by some nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs).</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Ciprofloxacin</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://home.caregroup.org/clinical/altmed/interactions/Drugs/Ciprofloxacin.htm">home.caregroup.org</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="10"><a href="#citable__10"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>J Antimicrob Chemother, 1991 Feb, 27(2), 209 - 18 The effects of quinolones and NSAIDs upon GABA-evoked currents recorded from rat dorsal root ganglion neurones ; Halliwell RF et al.; Recent animal studies have demonstrated a proconvulsant effect of certain quinolone and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug combinations .</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Ciprofloxacin</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.bionewsonline.com/4/1/ciprofloxacin_c.htm">www.bionewsonline.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_103" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-103"><span>[</span>104<span>]</span></a></sup> <a name="citable__0" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="0"><a href="/Quercetin" title="Quercetin">Quercetin</a>, a flavonol, occasionally used as a <a href="/Dietary_supplement" title="Dietary supplement">dietary supplement</a>, may interact with fluoroquinolones, as quercetin competitively binds to bacterial DNA gyrase.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="0"><a href="#citable__0"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>It acts by inhibiting the enzymes topoisomerase II (DNA gyrase) and topoisomerase IV (both type II topoisomerases) which are required for bacterial DNA replication, transcription, repair and recombination.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Modified Release Ciprofloxacin Compositions - Patent application</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.faqs.org/patents/app/20080206329">www.faqs.org</a> [Source type: Reference]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="0"><a href="#citable__0"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Ciprofloxacin 250mg should not be used with the following medications because very serious interactions may occur: strontium, tizanidine.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Buy Generic Ciprofloxacin 250mg Tablet Online</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.universaldrugstore.com/medications/Ciprofloxacin/250mg">www.universaldrugstore.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="0"><a href="#citable__0"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>These findings are potentially useful in designing fluoroquinolones less prone to drug interactions.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Ciprofloxacin</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://home.caregroup.org/clinical/altmed/interactions/Drugs/Ciprofloxacin.htm">home.caregroup.org</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__158" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="158">Some foods, such as <a href="/Garlic" title="Garlic">garlic</a> and <a href="/Apple" title="Apple">apples</a>, contain high levels of quercetin; whether this inhibits or enhances the effect of fluoroquinolones is not entirely clear.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="158"><a href="#citable__158"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The absorption of all fluoroquinolones is almost entirely inhibited by concomitant administration of di- and trivalent cations, such as aluminum and magnesium contained in antacids .</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Ciprofloxacin</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.bionewsonline.com/4/1/ciprofloxacin_c.htm">www.bionewsonline.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="158"><a href="#citable__158"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Fluoroquinolones, which perform their bactericidal effect by inhibiting DNA gyrase (a type II topoisomerase) ( 5 ), are known to interfere with certain immune functions.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> Ciprofloxacin Induces an Immunomodulatory Stress Response in Human T Lymphocytes -- Riesbeck et al. 42 (8): 1923 -- Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://aac.asm.org/cgi/content/full/42/8/1923">aac.asm.org</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="158"><a href="#citable__158"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Certain isozymes of the cytochrome P-450 system are selectively inhibited by some fluoroquinolones .</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Ciprofloxacin</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.bionewsonline.com/4/1/ciprofloxacin_c.htm">www.bionewsonline.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_104" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-104"><span>[</span>105<span>]</span></a></sup> <a name="citable__118" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="118">Ciprofloxacin can reduce <a href="/Phenytoin" title="Phenytoin">phenytoin</a> plasma levels, which may, in some cases, result in seizures.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="118"><a href="#citable__118"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Phenytoin: Ciprofloxacin may decrease phenytoin levels; monitor.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Ciprofloxacin</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.umm.edu/altmed/drugs/ciprofloxacin-029200.htm">www.umm.edu</a> [Source type: Academic]</li><li> <em><c_title>Ciprofloxacin - Richard's Corporate Office</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.richardswholefoods.com/common/adam/DisplayMonograph.asp?storeID=1FQSSEQX5CS92J2000AKHMCCQ259DGG9&DocID=41_029200">www.richardswholefoods.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="118"><a href="#citable__118"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Altered serum levels of phenytoin (increased and decreased) have been reported in patients receiving concomitant ciprofloxacin.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Flexyx: Cipro (Generic name - Ciprofloxacin) OnLine Information</c_title></em> <c_date>11 September 2009 23:53 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.flexyx.com/C/Cipro.html">www.flexyx.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="118"><a href="#citable__118"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Enteral feedings may decrease plasma concentrations of ciprofloxacin probably by > 30% inhibition of absorption.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Ciprofloxacin</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.umm.edu/altmed/drugs/ciprofloxacin-029200.htm">www.umm.edu</a> [Source type: Academic]</li><li> <em><c_title>Ciprofloxacin - Richard's Corporate Office</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.richardswholefoods.com/common/adam/DisplayMonograph.asp?storeID=1FQSSEQX5CS92J2000AKHMCCQ259DGG9&DocID=41_029200">www.richardswholefoods.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_105" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-105"><span>[</span>106<span>]</span></a></sup> <a name="citable__155" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="155">Ciprofloxacin may interfere with the levels of thyroid medications resulting in <a href="/Hypothyroidism" title="Hypothyroidism">hypothyroidism</a>.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="155"><a href="#citable__155"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Theophylline: Serum levels may be increased by ciprofloxacin; in addition, CNS stimulation/seizures may occur at lower theophylline serum levels due to additive CNS effects.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Ciprofloxacin</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.umm.edu/altmed/drugs/ciprofloxacin-029200.htm">www.umm.edu</a> [Source type: Academic]</li><li> <em><c_title>Ciprofloxacin - Richard's Corporate Office</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.richardswholefoods.com/common/adam/DisplayMonograph.asp?storeID=1FQSSEQX5CS92J2000AKHMCCQ259DGG9&DocID=41_029200">www.richardswholefoods.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="155"><a href="#citable__155"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Phenytoin: Ciprofloxacin may decrease phenytoin levels; monitor.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Ciprofloxacin</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.umm.edu/altmed/drugs/ciprofloxacin-029200.htm">www.umm.edu</a> [Source type: Academic]</li><li> <em><c_title>Ciprofloxacin - Richard's Corporate Office</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.richardswholefoods.com/common/adam/DisplayMonograph.asp?storeID=1FQSSEQX5CS92J2000AKHMCCQ259DGG9&DocID=41_029200">www.richardswholefoods.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="155"><a href="#citable__155"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The results reported may not necessarily occur in all individuals and different individuals with the same medical conditions with the same symptoms will often require differing treatments.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Ciprofloxacin</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://home.caregroup.org/clinical/altmed/interactions/Drugs/Ciprofloxacin.htm">home.caregroup.org</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_106" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-106"><span>[</span>107<span>]</span></a></sup></div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__49" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="49">On 9 November 2005, the U.S. FDA required the manufacturers to provide additional warnings within the package inserts concerning ciprofloxacin being an inhibitor of human cytochrome P450 1A2 (CYP1A2) mediated metabolism.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="49"><a href="#citable__49"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The results of this study suggest that ciprofloxacin is a potent inhibitor of hepatic drug metabolism.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Ciprofloxacin</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.bionewsonline.com/4/1/ciprofloxacin_c.htm">www.bionewsonline.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="49"><a href="#citable__49"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>These methylxanthine alkaloids are metabolized by similar pathways involving demethylation and hydroxylation that are predominantly cytochrome P-450 mediated .</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Ciprofloxacin</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.bionewsonline.com/4/1/ciprofloxacin_c.htm">www.bionewsonline.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="49"><a href="#citable__49"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Inhibits CYP1A2 (strong), 3A4 (weak) Caffeine: Ciprofloxacin may decrease the metabolism of caffeine .</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Ciprofloxacin</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.umm.edu/altmed/drugs/ciprofloxacin-029200.htm">www.umm.edu</a> [Source type: Academic]</li><li> <em><c_title>Ciprofloxacin - Richard's Corporate Office</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.richardswholefoods.com/common/adam/DisplayMonograph.asp?storeID=1FQSSEQX5CS92J2000AKHMCCQ259DGG9&DocID=41_029200">www.richardswholefoods.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> The new warning stated:</div> <blockquote> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__91" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="91">"Coadministration of ciprofloxacin with other drugs primarily metabolized by CYP1A2 results in increased plasma concentrations of these drugs and could lead to clinically significant adverse events of the coadministered drug."</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="91"><a href="#citable__91"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Quinolones, including ciprofloxacin, have been rarely associated with other central nervous system events including confusion, tremors, hallucinations, and depression.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Flexyx: Cipro (Generic name - Ciprofloxacin) OnLine Information</c_title></em> <c_date>11 September 2009 23:53 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.flexyx.com/C/Cipro.html">www.flexyx.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="91"><a href="#citable__91"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Target site drug levels may substantially differ from corresponding plasma levels and drug distribution processes may be characterized by a high intertissue variability, leading to suboptimal target site concentrations and the potential risk of therapeutic failures ( 1 ).</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> Combined PET and Microdialysis for In Vivo Assessment of Intracellular Drug Pharmacokinetics in Humans -- Langer et al. 46 (11): 1835 -- The Journal of Nuclear Medicine</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://jnm.snmjournals.org/cgi/content/full/46/11/1835">jnm.snmjournals.org</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="91"><a href="#citable__91"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Because of the known interaction of cationic-containing medications (eg, antacids, sucralfate, iron, or calcium) with ciprofloxacin, patients receiving these medications were enrolled only if these drugs could be withheld for a minimum of 6 hours before and 4 hours after the ciprofloxacin dose was administered.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Arch Surg -- Bioavailability of Oral Ciprofloxacin in Early Postsurgical Patients, November 1998, Hackam et al. 133 (11): 1221</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://archsurg.ama-assn.org/cgi/content/full/133/11/1221">archsurg.ama-assn.org</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_107" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-107"><span>[</span>108<span>]</span></a></sup></div> </blockquote> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__94" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="94">Concurrent administration of ciprofloxacin, with magnesium or aluminum antacids, sucralfate or products containing calcium, iron, or zinc (including multivitamins or other dietary supplements) may substantially decrease the absorption of ciprofloxacin, resulting in serum and urine levels considerably lower than desired.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="94"><a href="#citable__94"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The simultaneous administration of ciprofloxacin (oral) and iron, sucralfate or antacids and highly buffered drugs (e.g.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Inhouse Pharmacy Ciprofloxacin - Ciproxin</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.inhousepharmacy.com/infections/ciproxin-information.html">www.inhousepharmacy.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li><li> <em><c_title>Data Sheet</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.medsafe.govt.nz/profs/Datasheet/c/ciprofloxacinrextab.htm">www.medsafe.govt.nz</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="94"><a href="#citable__94"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Concurrent administration of a quinolone, including ciprofloxacin, with multivalent cation-containing products such as magnesium or aluminum antacids, sucralfate, VIDEX chewable/buffered tablets or pediatric powder, or products containing calcium, iron, or zinc may substantially decrease the absorption of ciprofloxacin, resulting in serum and urine levels considerably lower than desired.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Flexyx: Cipro (Generic name - Ciprofloxacin) OnLine Information</c_title></em> <c_date>11 September 2009 23:53 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.flexyx.com/C/Cipro.html">www.flexyx.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="94"><a href="#citable__94"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Administer at least 2 hours before or 6 hours after antacids or other products containing calcium, iron, or zinc (including dairy products or calcium-fortified juices).</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Ciprofloxacin</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.umm.edu/altmed/drugs/ciprofloxacin-029200.htm">www.umm.edu</a> [Source type: Academic]</li><li> <em><c_title>Ciprofloxacin - Richard's Corporate Office</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.richardswholefoods.com/common/adam/DisplayMonograph.asp?storeID=1FQSSEQX5CS92J2000AKHMCCQ259DGG9&DocID=41_029200">www.richardswholefoods.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_FDA_81532304_2C_R_1_108_0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FDA_81532304.2C_R.1-108"><span>[</span>109<span>]</span></a></sup></div> <div style="display:table-cell;clear:both;"></div><h3><span class="mw-headline" id="wikipedia_Significant_drug_interactions">Significant drug interactions</span></h3> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__21" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="21">Ciprofloxacin can alter and be altered by the metabolism and effects of other drugs, resulting in some significant drug-drug interactions that may affect the <a href="/Musculoskeletal" title="Musculoskeletal" class="mw-redirect">musculoskeletal</a>, <a href="/Central_nervous_system" title="Central nervous system">central nervous</a>, <a href="/Renal" title="Renal" class="mw-redirect">renal</a>, and other systems.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="21"><a href="#citable__21"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Polk RE. Drug-drug interactions with ciprofloxacin and other fluoroquinolones.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Ciprofloxacin</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://home.caregroup.org/clinical/altmed/interactions/Drugs/Ciprofloxacin.htm">home.caregroup.org</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="21"><a href="#citable__21"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Effects on the nervous system: .</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>CIPROBAY® 250, 500, 750 (Tablets); CIPROBAY® IV (Infusion); CIPROBAY® Suspension 5%</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://home.intekom.com/pharm/bayer/ciprobay.html">home.intekom.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="21"><a href="#citable__21"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Ropivacaine: Ciprofloxacin may decrease the metabolism of ropivacaine.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Ciprofloxacin</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.umm.edu/altmed/drugs/ciprofloxacin-029200.htm">www.umm.edu</a> [Source type: Academic]</li><li> <em><c_title>Ciprofloxacin - Richard's Corporate Office</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.richardswholefoods.com/common/adam/DisplayMonograph.asp?storeID=1FQSSEQX5CS92J2000AKHMCCQ259DGG9&DocID=41_029200">www.richardswholefoods.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> </div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__139" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="139">Current or past treatment with oral <a href="/Corticosteroids" title="Corticosteroids" class="mw-redirect">corticosteroids</a> is associated with an increased risk of <a href="/Achilles_tendon" title="Achilles tendon">achilles tendon</a> rupture, especially in elderly patients who are also taking the <a href="/Fluoroquinolones" title="Fluoroquinolones" class="mw-redirect">fluoroquinolones</a>.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="139"><a href="#citable__139"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Fluoroquinolones are associated with an increased risk of tendinitis and tendon rupture.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> ciprofloxacin : Complexes, Storage & Clinical Research on Healthline.com</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.healthline.com/ahfscontent/ciprofloxacin">www.healthline.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="139"><a href="#citable__139"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Tendon rupture (predominantly Achilles tendon) has been reported predominantly in the elderly on prior systemic treatment with glucocorticoids.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Data Sheet</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.medsafe.govt.nz/profs/Datasheet/c/ciprofloxacinrextab.htm">www.medsafe.govt.nz</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="139"><a href="#citable__139"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Risk may be increased with concurrent corticosteroids, particularly in the elderly.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Ciprofloxacin</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.umm.edu/altmed/drugs/ciprofloxacin-029200.htm">www.umm.edu</a> [Source type: Academic]</li><li> <em><c_title>Ciprofloxacin - Richard's Corporate Office</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.richardswholefoods.com/common/adam/DisplayMonograph.asp?storeID=1FQSSEQX5CS92J2000AKHMCCQ259DGG9&DocID=41_029200">www.richardswholefoods.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_109" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-109"><span>[</span>110<span>]</span></a></sup> This is the subject of <a href="/Black_box_warning" title="Black box warning">Black box warnings</a> in FDA and <a href="/BNF" title="BNF">BNF</a> labeling for quinolones.</div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__77" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="77">The <a href="/Committee_on_the_Safety_of_Medicines" title="Committee on the Safety of Medicines" class="mw-redirect">Committee on the Safety of Medicines</a> and the FDA warn that <a href="/Central_nervous_system" title="Central nervous system">central nervous system</a> adverse effects, including seizure risk, may be increased when NSAIDs are combined with quinolones.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="77"><a href="#citable__77"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Effects on the nervous system: .</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>CIPROBAY® 250, 500, 750 (Tablets); CIPROBAY® IV (Infusion); CIPROBAY® Suspension 5%</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://home.intekom.com/pharm/bayer/ciprobay.html">home.intekom.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="77"><a href="#citable__77"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Glyburide: Quinolones may increase the effect of glyburide.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Ciprofloxacin</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.umm.edu/altmed/drugs/ciprofloxacin-029200.htm">www.umm.edu</a> [Source type: Academic]</li><li> <em><c_title>Ciprofloxacin - Richard's Corporate Office</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.richardswholefoods.com/common/adam/DisplayMonograph.asp?storeID=1FQSSEQX5CS92J2000AKHMCCQ259DGG9&DocID=41_029200">www.richardswholefoods.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="77"><a href="#citable__77"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>This may result in increased risk of theophylline-related adverse reactions.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Flexyx: Cipro (Generic name - Ciprofloxacin) OnLine Information</c_title></em> <c_date>11 September 2009 23:53 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.flexyx.com/C/Cipro.html">www.flexyx.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li><li> <em><c_title>CIPROBAY® 250, 500, 750 (Tablets); CIPROBAY® IV (Infusion); CIPROBAY® Suspension 5%</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://home.intekom.com/pharm/bayer/ciprobay.html">home.intekom.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_110" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-110"><span>[</span>111<span>]</span></a></sup><sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_ctcos_23_3" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-ctcos-23"><span>[</span>24<span>]</span></a></sup> <a name="citable__133" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="133">The interaction between quinolones and NSAIDs is important, because it has the potential for considerable CNS toxicity.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="133"><a href="#citable__133"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Because of the arthropathogenic potential of quinolones in juvenile animals special emphasis was placed on the evaluation of musculoskeletal adverse events .</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Ciprofloxacin</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.bionewsonline.com/4/1/ciprofloxacin_c.htm">www.bionewsonline.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="133"><a href="#citable__133"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The present results support earlier binding studies and extend them by demonstrating electrophysiologically a potent quinolone/NSAID drug interaction at the GABAA receptor .</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Ciprofloxacin</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.bionewsonline.com/4/1/ciprofloxacin_c.htm">www.bionewsonline.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="133"><a href="#citable__133"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>A review of the literature on quinolone-cation interactions, in vivo and in vitro significance, and recommendations to avoid potential problems are provided.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Ciprofloxacin</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.bionewsonline.com/4/1/ciprofloxacin_c.htm">www.bionewsonline.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__79" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="79">The mechanism for this interaction is believed to be due to a <a href="/Synergistic" title="Synergistic" class="mw-redirect">synergistic</a> increased antagonism of GABA neurotransmission.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="79"><a href="#citable__79"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Increased plasma concentrations associated with drug specific side effects may be observed due to inhibition of their metabolic clearance by ciprofloxacin (see Interactions).</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Data Sheet</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.medsafe.govt.nz/profs/Datasheet/c/ciprofloxacinrextab.htm">www.medsafe.govt.nz</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_pmid11172695_64_1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-pmid11172695-64"><span>[</span>65<span>]</span></a></sup></div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__100" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="100">Ciprofloxacin's renal clearance may affect other drugs subject to renal clearance or otherwise affecting the kidney.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="100"><a href="#citable__100"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>These results suggest a possible reduction of ciprofloxacin clearance owing to inhibition of renal excretion by fenbufen.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Ciprofloxacin</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.bionewsonline.com/4/1/ciprofloxacin_c.htm">www.bionewsonline.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="100"><a href="#citable__100"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>At a dose of 1000 mg daily, ciprofloxacin may induce drug interactions whereas, at a dose of 250 mg daily, the likelihood of drug interactions is improbable .</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Ciprofloxacin</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.bionewsonline.com/4/1/ciprofloxacin_c.htm">www.bionewsonline.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="100"><a href="#citable__100"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>In younger patients, a higher renal clearance is responsible for a higher concentration of the drug in urine (higher C max values) and more rapid elimination leading to lower values of C min .</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> Pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic modelling of ciprofloxacin 250 mg/12 h versus 500 mg/24 h for urinary infections -- Sánchez Navarro et al. 50 (1): 67 -- Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://jac.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/full/50/1/67">jac.oxfordjournals.org</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__58" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="58">The use of ciprofloxacin concomitantly with <a href="/Cyclosporine" title="Cyclosporine" class="mw-redirect">cyclosporine</a> has also been associated with transient elevations in serum <a href="/Creatinine" title="Creatinine">creatinine</a>.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="58"><a href="#citable__58"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>A transient rise in the concentration of serum creatinine was observed when ciprofloxacin and cyclosporin were administered simultaneously.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Data Sheet</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.medsafe.govt.nz/profs/Datasheet/c/ciprofloxacinrextab.htm">www.medsafe.govt.nz</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="58"><a href="#citable__58"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Case reports describe renal failure associated with concomitant administration of cyclosporine and ciprofloxacin, although controlled trials have not demonstrated an interaction.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Ciprofloxacin</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://home.caregroup.org/clinical/altmed/interactions/Drugs/Ciprofloxacin.htm">home.caregroup.org</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="58"><a href="#citable__58"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Reversible leukopenia can be associated with the use of oral ciprofloxacin , as shown by our case .</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Ciprofloxacin</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.bionewsonline.com/4/1/ciprofloxacin_c.htm">www.bionewsonline.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__169" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="169">Renal tubular transport of <a href="/Methotrexate" title="Methotrexate">methotrexate</a> may be inhibited by concomitant administration of ciprofloxacin, potentially leading to increased plasma levels of methotrexate and risk of methotrexate toxicity.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="169"><a href="#citable__169"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Foscarnet: Concomitant use with ciprofloxacin has been associated with an increased risk of seizures.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Ciprofloxacin</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.umm.edu/altmed/drugs/ciprofloxacin-029200.htm">www.umm.edu</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="169"><a href="#citable__169"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Methotrexate: Ciprofloxacin may decrease renal secretion of methotrexate; monitor.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Ciprofloxacin</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.umm.edu/altmed/drugs/ciprofloxacin-029200.htm">www.umm.edu</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="169"><a href="#citable__169"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>This might increase the risk of methotrexate associated toxic reactions.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Inhouse Pharmacy Ciprofloxacin - Ciproxin</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.inhousepharmacy.com/infections/ciproxin-information.html">www.inhousepharmacy.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li><li> <em><c_title>Data Sheet</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.medsafe.govt.nz/profs/Datasheet/c/ciprofloxacinrextab.htm">www.medsafe.govt.nz</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__167" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="167"><a href="/Probenecid" title="Probenecid">Probenecid</a> interferes with renal tubular secretion of ciprofloxacin and produces an increase in the level of ciprofloxacin in serum.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="167"><a href="#citable__167"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Co-administration of probenecid and ciprofloxacin increases the ciprofloxacin serum concentrations.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Data Sheet</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.medsafe.govt.nz/profs/Datasheet/c/ciprofloxacinrextab.htm">www.medsafe.govt.nz</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="167"><a href="#citable__167"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Probenecid interferes with renal secretion of ciprofloxacin.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Data Sheet</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.medsafe.govt.nz/profs/Datasheet/c/ciprofloxacinrextab.htm">www.medsafe.govt.nz</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="167"><a href="#citable__167"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Probenecid interferes with renal secretion of CIPROBAY .</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>CIPROBAY® 250, 500, 750 (Tablets); CIPROBAY® IV (Infusion); CIPROBAY® Suspension 5%</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://home.intekom.com/pharm/bayer/ciprobay.html">home.intekom.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_ctcos_23_4" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-ctcos-23"><span>[</span>24<span>]</span></a></sup></div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__44" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="44">Some quinolones, including ciprofloxacin, exert an inhibitory effect on the cytochrome P-450 enzyme CYP1A2, thereby reducing clearance, and thus increasing blood levels of <a href="/Tizanidine" title="Tizanidine">tizanidine</a> and <a href="/Methylxanthines" title="Methylxanthines" class="mw-redirect">methylxanthines</a> (e.g., <a href="/Theophylline" title="Theophylline">theophylline</a> and <a href="/Caffeine" title="Caffeine">caffeine</a>).</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="44"><a href="#citable__44"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>CYP1A2 substrates: Ciprofloxacin may increase the levels/effects of CYP1A2 substrates.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Ciprofloxacin</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.umm.edu/altmed/drugs/ciprofloxacin-029200.htm">www.umm.edu</a> [Source type: Academic]</li><li> <em><c_title>Ciprofloxacin - Richard's Corporate Office</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.richardswholefoods.com/common/adam/DisplayMonograph.asp?storeID=1FQSSEQX5CS92J2000AKHMCCQ259DGG9&DocID=41_029200">www.richardswholefoods.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="44"><a href="#citable__44"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Ciprofloxacin administered together with theophylline can lead to elevated blood levels of theophylline.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Ciprofloxacin</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://home.caregroup.org/clinical/altmed/interactions/Drugs/Ciprofloxacin.htm">home.caregroup.org</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="44"><a href="#citable__44"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Ciprofloxacin may increase theophylline levels resulting in relevant cardiovascular side effects, including tachycardia.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Ciprofloxacin</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.umm.edu/altmed/drugs/ciprofloxacin-029200.htm">www.umm.edu</a> [Source type: Academic]</li><li> <em><c_title>Ciprofloxacin - Richard's Corporate Office</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.richardswholefoods.com/common/adam/DisplayMonograph.asp?storeID=1FQSSEQX5CS92J2000AKHMCCQ259DGG9&DocID=41_029200">www.richardswholefoods.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_111" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-111"><span>[</span>112<span>]</span></a></sup><sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_112" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-112"><span>[</span>113<span>]</span></a></sup> <a name="citable__8" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="8">The quinolones have also been reported to enhance the effects of <a href="/Warfarin" title="Warfarin">warfarin</a> or its derivatives.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="8"><a href="#citable__8"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Adverse effects on developing cartilage and ligaments were reported, leading to the contraindication of quinolones in children and pregnant women ( 33–35 ).</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> Evaluation of 99mTc-Ciprofloxacin Scintigraphy in a Rabbit Model of Staphylococcus aureus Prosthetic Joint Infection -- Sarda et al. 43 (2): 239 -- The Journal of Nuclear Medicine</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://jnm.snmjournals.org/cgi/content/full/43/2/239">jnm.snmjournals.org</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="8"><a href="#citable__8"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Warfarin: The hypoprothrombinemic effect of warfarin may be enhanced by ciprofloxacin; monitor INR. .</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Ciprofloxacin</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.umm.edu/altmed/drugs/ciprofloxacin-029200.htm">www.umm.edu</a> [Source type: Academic]</li><li> <em><c_title>Ciprofloxacin - Richard's Corporate Office</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.richardswholefoods.com/common/adam/DisplayMonograph.asp?storeID=1FQSSEQX5CS92J2000AKHMCCQ259DGG9&DocID=41_029200">www.richardswholefoods.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="8"><a href="#citable__8"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The effects of a chronic treatment with several quinolone derivatives on on the aminophylline-induced convulsions in the genetically epilepsy-prone rat have been investigated .</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Ciprofloxacin</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.bionewsonline.com/4/1/ciprofloxacin_c.htm">www.bionewsonline.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_ctcos_23_5" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-ctcos-23"><span>[</span>24<span>]</span></a></sup> <a name="citable__121" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="121">Such interactions can augment the effects of the co-administered drug, including adverse effects.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="121"><a href="#citable__121"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Such drug interactions your healthcare provider should be instilled.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>.:: Faculdade de Medicina da UFRJ ::.</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.medicina.ufrj.br/organograma.asp?idOrg=896841483">www.medicina.ufrj.br</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="121"><a href="#citable__121"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>These studies have shown the potential benefits of such therapy and have reported few drug-related adverse events.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> The Use of Systemic Fluoroquinolones -- Committee on Infectious Diseases 118 (3): 1287 -- Pediatrics</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/cgi/content/full/118/3/1287">pediatrics.aappublications.org</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="121"><a href="#citable__121"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Evidence regarding the effect of fluoroquinolones on the disposition of other drugs known to be metabolized, such as warfarin and cyclosporine, is inconclusive .</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Ciprofloxacin</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.bionewsonline.com/4/1/ciprofloxacin_c.htm">www.bionewsonline.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__161" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="161">Ciprofloxacin can reduce effects of other drugs; for example, it has been shown to interact with thyroid medications (<a href="/Levothyroxine" title="Levothyroxine">levothyroxine</a>), resulting in unexplained <a href="/Hypothyroidism" title="Hypothyroidism">hypothyroidism</a>.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="161"><a href="#citable__161"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Polk RE. Drug-drug interactions with ciprofloxacin and other fluoroquinolones.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Ciprofloxacin</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://home.caregroup.org/clinical/altmed/interactions/Drugs/Ciprofloxacin.htm">home.caregroup.org</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="161"><a href="#citable__161"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Moreover, since pharmacodynamic effects such as microbial kill and emergence of resistance depend almost exclusively on interaction of the microbial species and the non-protein-bound drug ( 6 ), a ciprofloxacin AUC 0-24 /MIC ratio of 80.4 in human patients is also expected to result in an impressive EBA as well as the accompanying emergence of resistance.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> Pharmacodynamic Evidence that Ciprofloxacin Failure against Tuberculosis Is Not Due to Poor Microbial Kill but to Rapid Emergence of Resistance -- Gumbo et al. 49 (8): 3178 -- Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://aac.asm.org/cgi/content/full/49/8/3178">aac.asm.org</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="161"><a href="#citable__161"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>As cimetidine and ciprofloxacin are frequently used together for a variety of common clinical indications, clinicians should be aware of this drug interaction and should consider that a similar effect may occur when other enzyme inhibitors are used concomitantly.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Ciprofloxacin</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.bionewsonline.com/4/1/ciprofloxacin_c.htm">www.bionewsonline.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_113" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-113"><span>[</span>114<span>]</span></a></sup> <a name="citable__6" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="6">Altered serum levels of <a href="/Phenytoin" title="Phenytoin">phenytoin</a> (increased and decreased) have been reported in patients receiving concomitant ciprofloxacin.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="6"><a href="#citable__6"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Ciprofloxacin may increase serum caffeine levels if taken with caffeine.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Ciprofloxacin</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.umm.edu/altmed/drugs/ciprofloxacin-029200.htm">www.umm.edu</a> [Source type: Academic]</li><li> <em><c_title>Ciprofloxacin - Richard's Corporate Office</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.richardswholefoods.com/common/adam/DisplayMonograph.asp?storeID=1FQSSEQX5CS92J2000AKHMCCQ259DGG9&DocID=41_029200">www.richardswholefoods.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="6"><a href="#citable__6"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Tizanidine serum concentrations increase with concomitant administration with ciprofloxacin.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Data Sheet</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.medsafe.govt.nz/profs/Datasheet/c/ciprofloxacinrextab.htm">www.medsafe.govt.nz</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="6"><a href="#citable__6"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Phenytoin: Ciprofloxacin may decrease phenytoin levels; monitor.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Ciprofloxacin</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.umm.edu/altmed/drugs/ciprofloxacin-029200.htm">www.umm.edu</a> [Source type: Academic]</li><li> <em><c_title>Ciprofloxacin - Richard's Corporate Office</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.richardswholefoods.com/common/adam/DisplayMonograph.asp?storeID=1FQSSEQX5CS92J2000AKHMCCQ259DGG9&DocID=41_029200">www.richardswholefoods.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_ctcos_23_6" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-ctcos-23"><span>[</span>24<span>]</span></a></sup></div> <h2><span class="mw-headline" id="wikipedia_Overdose">Overdose</span></h2> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__130" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="130">Overdose of ciprofloxaciin may result in reversible renal toxicity.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="130"><a href="#citable__130"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>KNOWN SYMPTOMS OF OVERDOSAGE AND PARTICULARS OF ITS TREATMENT: In the event of acute, excessive oral overdosage, reversible renal toxicity has been reported.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>CIPROBAY® 250, 500, 750 (Tablets); CIPROBAY® IV (Infusion); CIPROBAY® Suspension 5%</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://home.intekom.com/pharm/bayer/ciprobay.html">home.intekom.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="130"><a href="#citable__130"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>In the event of acute, excessive oral overdosage, reversible renal toxicity has been reported in some cases.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Data Sheet</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.medsafe.govt.nz/profs/Datasheet/c/ciprofloxacinrextab.htm">www.medsafe.govt.nz</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> Treatment of overdose includes emptying of the stomach via induced vomiting or by <a href="/Gastric_lavage" title="Gastric lavage">gastric lavage</a>. <a name="citable__145" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="145">Careful monitoring and supportive treatment, monitoring of renal function and maintaining adequate hydration is recommended by the manufacturer.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="145"><a href="#citable__145"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Patients receiving concurrent ciprofloxacin, theophylline, or cyclosporine should have serum levels monitored; CBC, renal and hepatic function during prolonged therapy .</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Ciprofloxacin - Richard's Corporate Office</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.richardswholefoods.com/common/adam/DisplayMonograph.asp?storeID=1FQSSEQX5CS92J2000AKHMCCQ259DGG9&DocID=41_029200">www.richardswholefoods.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="145"><a href="#citable__145"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Other treatment includes supportive care in hospital.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> Anthrax Treatment : Homeland Security News</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.nationalterroralert.com/anthraxtreatment/">www.nationalterroralert.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="145"><a href="#citable__145"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>In view of this potential complication, renal function should be closely monitored in patients receiving ciprofloxacin therapy, especially if other potentially nephrotoxic drugs are prescribed concomitantly.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Ciprofloxacin</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.bionewsonline.com/4/1/ciprofloxacin_c.htm">www.bionewsonline.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__55" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="55">Administration of magnesium, aluminum, or calcium containing antacids can reduce the absorption of ciprofloxacin.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="55"><a href="#citable__55"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Magnesium- and aluminum-containing antacids may also interfere with quinolone absorption .</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Ciprofloxacin</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.bionewsonline.com/4/1/ciprofloxacin_c.htm">www.bionewsonline.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="55"><a href="#citable__55"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Calcium • mechanism: Calcium can decrease absorption of ciprofloxacin.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Ciprofloxacin</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://home.caregroup.org/clinical/altmed/interactions/Drugs/Ciprofloxacin.htm">home.caregroup.org</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="55"><a href="#citable__55"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Aluminum or calcium-based products, including Di-Gel, Gaviscon, Maalox, Mylanta, and Tums, can dramatically interfere with the absorption of Cipro.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Ciprofloxacin Side Effects - The People's Pharmacy®</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.peoplespharmacy.com/2000/04/01/ciprofloxacin/">www.peoplespharmacy.com</a> [Source type: General]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__16" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="16"><a href="/Hemodialysis" title="Hemodialysis">Hemodialysis</a> or <a href="/Peritoneal_dialysis" title="Peritoneal dialysis">peritoneal dialysis</a> removes only less than 10 percent of ciprofloxacin.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="16"><a href="#citable__16"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Only a small amount of ciprofloxacin ( <10%) is removed from the body after haemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>CIPROBAY® 250, 500, 750 (Tablets); CIPROBAY® IV (Infusion); CIPROBAY® Suspension 5%</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://home.intekom.com/pharm/bayer/ciprobay.html">home.intekom.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="16"><a href="#citable__16"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The drug is not removed by peritoneal or hemodialysis.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Ciprofloxacin</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.umm.edu/altmed/drugs/ciprofloxacin-029200.htm">www.umm.edu</a> [Source type: Academic]</li><li> <em><c_title>Ciprofloxacin - Richard's Corporate Office</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.richardswholefoods.com/common/adam/DisplayMonograph.asp?storeID=1FQSSEQX5CS92J2000AKHMCCQ259DGG9&DocID=41_029200">www.richardswholefoods.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="16"><a href="#citable__16"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Only a small amount of ciprofloxacin ( < 10 %) is removed from the body after haemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Inhouse Pharmacy Ciprofloxacin - Ciproxin</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.inhousepharmacy.com/infections/ciproxin-information.html">www.inhousepharmacy.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_FDA_81532304_2C_R_1_108_1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FDA_81532304.2C_R.1-108"><span>[</span>109<span>]</span></a></sup> <a name="citable__136" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="136">Ciprofloxacin may be quantitated in plasma or serum in order to monitor for drug accumulation in patients with hepatic dysfunction or to confirm a diagnosis of poisoning in acute overdose victims.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="136"><a href="#citable__136"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>What drug(s) may interact with ciprofloxacin?</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Generic Ciprofloxacin online. Treatment and side effects. Buy generic Cipro</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.intogenerics.com/generic/ciprofloxacin.html">www.intogenerics.com</a> [Source type: General]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="136"><a href="#citable__136"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Order Ciprofloxacin drugs on Sale.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Ciprofloxacin online - buy Ciprofloxacin - order Ciprofloxacin without prescription</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.yourhealthypharmacy.com/o/n_drug/Ciprofloxacin.shtml">www.yourhealthypharmacy.com</a> [Source type: General]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="136"><a href="#citable__136"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>We present two cases of ciprofloxacin-associated acute renal failure (ARF) in patients undergoing HDC. Maintaining a high index of suspicion for this complication will allow a prompt diagnosis, with discontinuation of the drug usually resulting in a reversal of renal failure.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Ciprofloxacin</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://home.caregroup.org/clinical/altmed/interactions/Drugs/Ciprofloxacin.htm">home.caregroup.org</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_114" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-114"><span>[</span>115<span>]</span></a></sup></div> <h2><span class="mw-headline" id="wikipedia_Chemistry">Chemistry</span></h2> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__26" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="26">Ciprofloxacin is 1-cyclopropyl-6-fluoro-1,4-dihydro-4-oxo-7-(1-piperazinyl)-3-quinolinecarboxylic acid.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="26"><a href="#citable__26"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Ciprofloxacin belongs to the fluoroquinolone group of compounds and is chemically known as 1-cyclopropyl-6-fluoro- 1,4-dihydro-4-oxo-7-(1-piperazinyl ) -3-quinolinecarboxylic acid.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Modified Release Ciprofloxacin Compositions - Patent application</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.faqs.org/patents/app/20080206329">www.faqs.org</a> [Source type: Reference]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="26"><a href="#citable__26"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>US Patent References: 7-amino-1-cyclopropyl-4-oxo-1, 4-dihydro-quinoline-and naphthyridine-3-carboxylic acids and antibacterial agents containing these compounds Grohe et al.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Method for optimizing ciprofloxacin treatment of anthrax-exposed patients according to the patient's characteristics - Patent 6503906</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.freepatentsonline.com/6503906.html">www.freepatentsonline.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> Its empirical formula is C<sub>17</sub>H<sub>18</sub>FN<sub>3</sub>O<sub>3</sub> and its molecular weight is 331.4 g/mol. It is a faintly yellowish to light yellow crystalline substance.<sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_FDA_81532304_2C_R_1_108_2" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FDA_81532304.2C_R.1-108"><span>[</span>109<span>]</span></a></sup></div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__141" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="141">Ciprofloxacin hydrochloride (<a href="/United_States_Pharmacopeia" title="United States Pharmacopeia">USP</a>) is the monohydrochloride monohydrate salt of ciprofloxacin.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="141"><a href="#citable__141"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Ciproxin 750: 1 tablet contains 873mg ciprofloxacin hydrochloride monohydrate, corresp.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Inhouse Pharmacy Ciprofloxacin - Ciproxin</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.inhousepharmacy.com/infections/ciproxin-information.html">www.inhousepharmacy.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="141"><a href="#citable__141"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Ciproxin 500: 1 tablet contains 582mg ciprofloxacin hydrochloride monohydrate, corresp.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Inhouse Pharmacy Ciprofloxacin - Ciproxin</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.inhousepharmacy.com/infections/ciproxin-information.html">www.inhousepharmacy.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="141"><a href="#citable__141"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Ciproxin 250: 1 tablet contains 291mg ciprofloxacin hydrochloride monohydrate, corresp.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Inhouse Pharmacy Ciprofloxacin - Ciproxin</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.inhousepharmacy.com/infections/ciproxin-information.html">www.inhousepharmacy.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> It is a faintly yellowish to light yellow crystalline substance with a molecular weight of 385.8 g/mol. Its empirical formula is C<sub>17</sub>H<sub>18</sub>FN<sub>3</sub>O<sub>3</sub>HCl•H<sub>2</sub>O.<sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_FDA_81532304_2C_R_1_108_3" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FDA_81532304.2C_R.1-108"><span>[</span>109<span>]</span></a></sup></div> <h2><span class="mw-headline" id="wikipedia_Pharmacokinetics">Pharmacokinetics</span></h2> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__76" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="76">The effects of 200–400 mg of ciprofloxacin given intravenously are linear; drug accumulation does not occur when administered at 12 hour intervals.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="76"><a href="#citable__76"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Patients received ciprofloxacin 200 mg i.v .</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Ciprofloxacin</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.bionewsonline.com/4/1/ciprofloxacin_c.htm">www.bionewsonline.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="76"><a href="#citable__76"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Mild to moderate: 400 mg every 12 hours for 4-6 weeks .</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Ciprofloxacin</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.umm.edu/altmed/drugs/ciprofloxacin-029200.htm">www.umm.edu</a> [Source type: Academic]</li><li> <em><c_title>Ciprofloxacin - Richard's Corporate Office</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.richardswholefoods.com/common/adam/DisplayMonograph.asp?storeID=1FQSSEQX5CS92J2000AKHMCCQ259DGG9&DocID=41_029200">www.richardswholefoods.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="76"><a href="#citable__76"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>For severe and/or complicated infections 400 mg may be administered every 12 hours (i.e.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>CIPROBAY® 250, 500, 750 (Tablets); CIPROBAY® IV (Infusion); CIPROBAY® Suspension 5%</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://home.intekom.com/pharm/bayer/ciprobay.html">home.intekom.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__27" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="27"><a href="/Bioavailability" title="Bioavailability">Bioavailability</a> is approximately 70-80%, with no significant first pass effect.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="27"><a href="#citable__27"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>No significant effects or complications reported .</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Ciprofloxacin - Richard's Corporate Office</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.richardswholefoods.com/common/adam/DisplayMonograph.asp?storeID=1FQSSEQX5CS92J2000AKHMCCQ259DGG9&DocID=41_029200">www.richardswholefoods.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="27"><a href="#citable__27"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>There were no significant differences in the pharmacokinetic parameters that characterize bioavailability between the two brands .</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Ciprofloxacin</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.bionewsonline.com/4/1/ciprofloxacin_c.htm">www.bionewsonline.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="27"><a href="#citable__27"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>With regard to adhesions, there were, likewise, no significant differences between findings at first laparoscopy and second look-laparoscopy, respectively .</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Ciprofloxacin</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.bionewsonline.com/4/1/ciprofloxacin_c.htm">www.bionewsonline.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__22" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="22"><a href="/IV_administration" title="IV administration" class="mw-redirect">IV administration</a> produces a similar <a href="/Serum" title="Serum">serum</a> levels as those achieved with administration of 500 mg administered orally.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="22"><a href="#citable__22"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>CIPROFLOXACIN TABLETS USP, 250 mg, 500 mg and 750 mg086308640865 [TEVA PHARMACEUTICALS USA] Ciprofloxacin tablets are synthetic broad spectrum antimicrobial agents for oral administration.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Ciprofloxacin - PubChem Public Chemical Database</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/summary/summary.cgi?sid=192835">pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="22"><a href="#citable__22"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>We conclude that concurrent ingestion of sucralfate significantly reduces the concentrations in serum produced by a 500-mg dose of ciprofloxacin .</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Ciprofloxacin</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.bionewsonline.com/4/1/ciprofloxacin_c.htm">www.bionewsonline.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="22"><a href="#citable__22"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The ciprofloxacin dose of 1,500 mg a day achieves a non-protein-bound AUC 0-24 of 30 mg/h/liter in patients ( 1 ).</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> Pharmacodynamic Evidence that Ciprofloxacin Failure against Tuberculosis Is Not Due to Poor Microbial Kill but to Rapid Emergence of Resistance -- Gumbo et al. 49 (8): 3178 -- Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://aac.asm.org/cgi/content/full/49/8/3178">aac.asm.org</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__124" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="124">IV administration over 60 minutes given every 8 hours produces similar serum levels of the drug as 750 mg administered orally every 12 hours.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="124"><a href="#citable__124"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Mild to moderate: 400 mg every 12 hours for 4-6 weeks .</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Ciprofloxacin</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.umm.edu/altmed/drugs/ciprofloxacin-029200.htm">www.umm.edu</a> [Source type: Academic]</li><li> <em><c_title>Ciprofloxacin - Richard's Corporate Office</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.richardswholefoods.com/common/adam/DisplayMonograph.asp?storeID=1FQSSEQX5CS92J2000AKHMCCQ259DGG9&DocID=41_029200">www.richardswholefoods.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="124"><a href="#citable__124"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>For severe and/or complicated infections 400 mg may be administered every 12 hours (i.e.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>CIPROBAY® 250, 500, 750 (Tablets); CIPROBAY® IV (Infusion); CIPROBAY® Suspension 5%</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://home.intekom.com/pharm/bayer/ciprobay.html">home.intekom.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="124"><a href="#citable__124"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The usual dose is 100 mg - 200 mg IV every 12 hours.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>CIPROBAY® 250, 500, 750 (Tablets); CIPROBAY® IV (Infusion); CIPROBAY® Suspension 5%</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://home.intekom.com/pharm/bayer/ciprobay.html">home.intekom.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_FDA_81532304_2C_R_1_108_4" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FDA_81532304.2C_R.1-108"><span>[</span>109<span>]</span></a></sup> Biotransformation is hepatic. <a name="citable__59" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="59">The <a href="/Elimination_half_life" title="Elimination half life" class="mw-redirect">elimination half life</a> is 4 hours.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="59"><a href="#citable__59"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The elimination half-life of unchanged ciprofloxacin is 3-5 hours.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>CIPROBAY® 250, 500, 750 (Tablets); CIPROBAY® IV (Infusion); CIPROBAY® Suspension 5%</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://home.intekom.com/pharm/bayer/ciprobay.html">home.intekom.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="59"><a href="#citable__59"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Theophylline elimination half-life was significantly longer during combined therapy compared with either drug alone .</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Ciprofloxacin</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.bionewsonline.com/4/1/ciprofloxacin_c.htm">www.bionewsonline.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="59"><a href="#citable__59"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The CSF elimination half-life was 260-430 min compared with 145-170 in serum .</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Ciprofloxacin</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.bionewsonline.com/4/1/ciprofloxacin_c.htm">www.bionewsonline.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_ctcos_23_7" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-ctcos-23"><span>[</span>24<span>]</span></a></sup></div> <h2><span class="mw-headline" id="wikipedia_History_of_the_black_box_warnings">History of the black box warnings</span></h2> <div class="rellink boilerplate seealso">See also: <a href="/Quinolone" title="Quinolone">Quinolone#Black box warnings</a></div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__72" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="72">Musculoskeletal disorders attributed to use of quinolone antibiotics were first reported in the medical literature in 1972, as an adverse reaction to <a href="/Nalidixic_acid" title="Nalidixic acid">nalidixic acid</a>.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="72"><a href="#citable__72"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Nalidixic acid was the first quinolone antibacterial agent licensed for use in the United States.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> The Use of Systemic Fluoroquinolones -- Committee on Infectious Diseases 118 (3): 1287 -- Pediatrics</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/cgi/content/full/118/3/1287">pediatrics.aappublications.org</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="72"><a href="#citable__72"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Adverse effects on developing cartilage and ligaments were reported, leading to the contraindication of quinolones in children and pregnant women ( 33–35 ).</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> Evaluation of 99mTc-Ciprofloxacin Scintigraphy in a Rabbit Model of Staphylococcus aureus Prosthetic Joint Infection -- Sarda et al. 43 (2): 239 -- The Journal of Nuclear Medicine</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://jnm.snmjournals.org/cgi/content/full/43/2/239">jnm.snmjournals.org</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="72"><a href="#citable__72"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The specificity of the 7-ethoxyresorufin O-de-ethylase reaction has been determined in the presence and absence of ciprofloxacin , enoxacin, norfloxacin, ofloxacin, nalidixic acid, oxolinic acid and pipemidic acid .</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Ciprofloxacin</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.bionewsonline.com/4/1/ciprofloxacin_c.htm">www.bionewsonline.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_autogenerated604_115_0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-autogenerated604-115"><span>[</span>116<span>]</span></a></sup> <a name="citable__150" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="150">Rheumatic disease after use of a fluoroquinolone (<a href="/Norfloxacin" title="Norfloxacin">norfloxacin</a>) was first reported eleven years later.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="150"><a href="#citable__150"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Information about the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of fluoroquinolones is now much greater than that available 20 years ago, when the first-generation fluoroquinolones such as ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin and ofloxacin emerged.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> Pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic modelling of ciprofloxacin 250 mg/12 h versus 500 mg/24 h for urinary infections -- Sánchez Navarro et al. 50 (1): 67 -- Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://jac.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/full/50/1/67">jac.oxfordjournals.org</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="150"><a href="#citable__150"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>CDC states ciprofloxacin should not be used for prophylaxis in close contacts of individuals with meningococcal disease in areas where fluoroquinolone-resistant strains have been reported (e.g., selected counties of North Dakota and Minnesota).</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> ciprofloxacin : Complexes, Storage & Clinical Research on Healthline.com</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.healthline.com/ahfscontent/ciprofloxacin">www.healthline.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="150"><a href="#citable__150"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>This report provides specific guidelines for the systemic use of fluoroquinolones in children.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> The Use of Systemic Fluoroquinolones -- Committee on Infectious Diseases 118 (3): 1287 -- Pediatrics</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/cgi/content/full/118/3/1287">pediatrics.aappublications.org</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_autogenerated590_116_0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-autogenerated590-116"><span>[</span>117<span>]</span></a></sup> In response to a 1995 letter published in the <em><a href="/New_England_Journal_of_Medicine" title="New England Journal of Medicine" class="mw-redirect">New England Journal of Medicine</a></em>, representatives of the <a href="/U.S._Food_and_Drug_Administration" title="U.S. Food and Drug Administration" class="mw-redirect">U.S. Food and Drug Administration</a> (FDA) stated that the agency would "update the labeling [package insert] for all marketed fluoroquinolones to include a warning about the possibility of tendon rupture."<sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_autogenerated193_117_0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-autogenerated193-117"><span>[</span>118<span>]</span></a></sup></div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block">By August 1996, the FDA had not taken action, and the consumer advocacy group <a href="/Public_Citizen" title="Public Citizen">Public Citizen</a> filed a petition with the FDA prompting the agency to act.<sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_118" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-118"><span>[</span>119<span>]</span></a></sup> <a name="citable__137" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="137">Two months later, the FDA published an alert in the <em>FDA Medical Bulletin</em> and requested that fluoroquinolone package inserts be amended to include information on this risk.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="137"><a href="#citable__137"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>[Posted 07/08/2008] FDA notified healthcare professionals that a BOXED WARNING and Medication Guide are to be added to the prescribing information to strengthen existing warnings about the increased risk of developing tendinitis and tendon rupture in patients taking fluoroquinolones for systemic use.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> ciprofloxacin : Complexes, Storage & Clinical Research on Healthline.com</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.healthline.com/ahfscontent/ciprofloxacin">www.healthline.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_FDA1996_72_1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FDA1996-72"><span>[</span>73<span>]</span></a></sup></div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__111" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="111">Nine years later, in 2005, the <a href="/Illinois_Attorney_General" title="Illinois Attorney General">Illinois Attorney General</a> filed a second petition with the FDA again seeking <a href="/Black_Box_Warning" title="Black Box Warning" class="mw-redirect">Black Box Warnings</a> and "Dear Doctor" letters emphasizing the risk of tendon rupture; the FDA responded that it had not yet been able to reach a decision on the matter.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="111"><a href="#citable__111"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>[Posted 07/08/2008] FDA notified healthcare professionals that a BOXED WARNING and Medication Guide are to be added to the prescribing information to strengthen existing warnings about the increased risk of developing tendinitis and tendon rupture in patients taking fluoroquinolones for systemic use.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> ciprofloxacin : Complexes, Storage & Clinical Research on Healthline.com</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.healthline.com/ahfscontent/ciprofloxacin">www.healthline.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="111"><a href="#citable__111"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Fluoroquinolones are associated with an increased risk of tendinitis and tendon rupture.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> ciprofloxacin : Complexes, Storage & Clinical Research on Healthline.com</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.healthline.com/ahfscontent/ciprofloxacin">www.healthline.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="111"><a href="#citable__111"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Corticosteroids: Concurrent use may increase the risk of tendon rupture, particularly in elderly patients (overall incidence rare).</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Ciprofloxacin</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.umm.edu/altmed/drugs/ciprofloxacin-029200.htm">www.umm.edu</a> [Source type: Academic]</li><li> <em><c_title>Ciprofloxacin - Richard's Corporate Office</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.richardswholefoods.com/common/adam/DisplayMonograph.asp?storeID=1FQSSEQX5CS92J2000AKHMCCQ259DGG9&DocID=41_029200">www.richardswholefoods.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_Madigan_119_0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Madigan-119"><span>[</span>120<span>]</span></a></sup> In 2006, Public Citizen, supported by the Illinois Attorney General, renewed its demand of ten years prior for Black Box Warnings by filing a third petition requesting such changes be made.<sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_Madigan_119_1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Madigan-119"><span>[</span>120<span>]</span></a></sup><sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_120" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-120"><span>[</span>121<span>]</span></a></sup> When the FDA failed to respond to these two petitions as required by law Public Citizen, in January 2008, filed suit to compel the FDA to respond to their 2006 petition.<sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_121" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-121"><span>[</span>122<span>]</span></a></sup><sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_122" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-122"><span>[</span>123<span>]</span></a></sup> <a name="citable__18" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="18">On July 7, 2008 the FDA requested that the makers of systemic-use fluoroquinolones add a boxed warning regarding spontaneous tendon ruptures, and to develop a Medication Guide for patients.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="18"><a href="#citable__18"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>[Medline] McGarvey WC, Singh D, Trevino SG. Partial achilles tendon ruptures associated with fluoroquinolone antibiotics: a case report and literature review.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> Evaluation of 99mTc-Ciprofloxacin Scintigraphy in a Rabbit Model of Staphylococcus aureus Prosthetic Joint Infection -- Sarda et al. 43 (2): 239 -- The Journal of Nuclear Medicine</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://jnm.snmjournals.org/cgi/content/full/43/2/239">jnm.snmjournals.org</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="18"><a href="#citable__18"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Fluoroquinolones also are being used for empirical and prophylactic treatment in patients receiving chemotherapy for cancer, which might further contribute to increased resistance to these agents.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> The Use of Systemic Fluoroquinolones -- Committee on Infectious Diseases 118 (3): 1287 -- Pediatrics</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/cgi/content/full/118/3/1287">pediatrics.aappublications.org</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="18"><a href="#citable__18"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>This report provides specific guidelines for the systemic use of fluoroquinolones in children.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> The Use of Systemic Fluoroquinolones -- Committee on Infectious Diseases 118 (3): 1287 -- Pediatrics</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/cgi/content/full/118/3/1287">pediatrics.aappublications.org</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_FDA_123_0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FDA-123"><span>[</span>124<span>]</span></a></sup> <a name="citable__98" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="98">The package inserts for Ciprofloxacin, Avelox (<a href="/Moxifloxacin" title="Moxifloxacin">moxifloxacin</a>), Proquin XR, Factive (<a href="/Gemifloxacin" title="Gemifloxacin">gemifloxacin</a>), Floxin (<a href="/Ofloxacin" title="Ofloxacin">ofloxacin</a>), Noroxin (<a href="/Norfloxacin" title="Norfloxacin">norfloxacin</a>) and Levaquin (<a href="/Levofloxacin" title="Levofloxacin">levofloxacin</a>) were amended on September 8, 2008 to include these new warnings.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="98"><a href="#citable__98"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The specificity of the 7-ethoxyresorufin O-de-ethylase reaction has been determined in the presence and absence of ciprofloxacin , enoxacin, norfloxacin, ofloxacin, nalidixic acid, oxolinic acid and pipemidic acid .</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Ciprofloxacin</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.bionewsonline.com/4/1/ciprofloxacin_c.htm">www.bionewsonline.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="98"><a href="#citable__98"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Currently, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, gatifloxacin, and moxifloxacin are the most widely used fluoroquinolones.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> The Use of Systemic Fluoroquinolones -- Committee on Infectious Diseases 118 (3): 1287 -- Pediatrics</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/cgi/content/full/118/3/1287">pediatrics.aappublications.org</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="98"><a href="#citable__98"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Proquin® XR should not be taken with dairy products (such as milk or yogurt) or calcium-fortified juices alone; however, it may be taken with a meal that contains these products.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title></c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://frames.healthinkonline.com/modules/goldstandard/monograph.asp?cpnum=127&name=Ciprofloxacin">frames.healthinkonline.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_124" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-124"><span>[</span>125<span>]</span></a></sup> <a name="citable__83" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="83"><a href="/Bayer" title="Bayer">Bayer</a>, which manufactures Cipro, Avelox and Proquin XR, issued a Dear Healthcare Professional letter on October 22 concerning these changes.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="83"><a href="#citable__83"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Cipro® XR should not be taken with dairy products (such as milk or yogurt) or calcium-fortified juices alone; however, it may be taken with a meal that contains these products.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title></c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://frames.healthinkonline.com/modules/goldstandard/monograph.asp?cpnum=127&name=Ciprofloxacin">frames.healthinkonline.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="83"><a href="#citable__83"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Proquin® XR should not be taken with dairy products (such as milk or yogurt) or calcium-fortified juices alone; however, it may be taken with a meal that contains these products.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title></c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://frames.healthinkonline.com/modules/goldstandard/monograph.asp?cpnum=127&name=Ciprofloxacin">frames.healthinkonline.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="83"><a href="#citable__83"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Cipro® XR tablets may be taken two hours before or six hours after taking these products.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title></c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://frames.healthinkonline.com/modules/goldstandard/monograph.asp?cpnum=127&name=Ciprofloxacin">frames.healthinkonline.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_125" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-125"><span>[</span>126<span>]</span></a></sup> <a href="/Ortho-McNeil" title="Ortho-McNeil" class="mw-redirect">Ortho-McNeil</a>, the manufacturers of Levaquin, issued a similar letter in November.<sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_126" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-126"><span>[</span>127<span>]</span></a></sup> through the <a name="citable__54" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="54">Health Care Notification Network, a registration-only website that distributes drug alerts to licensed healthcare professionals.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="54"><a href="#citable__54"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>You should always consult a qualified health care professional before beginning, changing or stopping a treatment.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Ciprofloxacin - User ratings & reviews - Revolution Health</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.revolutionhealth.com/drugs-treatments/rating/ciprofloxacin">www.revolutionhealth.com</a> [Source type: General]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="54"><a href="#citable__54"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Give your health care provider a list of all the medicines, herbs, non-prescription drugs, or dietary supplements you use.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> Ciprofloxacin</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.psychiatry.uams.edu/HealthLibrary/Default.aspx?ContentTypeId=26&ContentID=127">www.psychiatry.uams.edu</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="54"><a href="#citable__54"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Do not use any other eye products without telling your doctor or health care professional.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> Ciprofloxacin</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.psychiatry.uams.edu/HealthLibrary/Default.aspx?ContentTypeId=26&ContentID=127">www.psychiatry.uams.edu</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> </div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__123" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="123">Review of the FDA website indicates that the majority of the generic versions of the fluoroquinolones have <em>not</em> been updated to include this Black Box Warning as of September 2009. Additionally there are numerous reports that this information has not been dessiminated to the pharmacist, the name brand products continue to contain the previous labels that are absent of this warning, and the Medication Guide has not been made available to the pharmicist or physician for distribution.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="123"><a href="#citable__123"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Circumstances in which fluoroquinolones may be useful include those in which (1) infection is caused by multidrug-resistant pathogens for which there is no safe and effective alternative and (2) parenteral therapy is not feasible and no other effective oral agent is available.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> The Use of Systemic Fluoroquinolones -- Committee on Infectious Diseases 118 (3): 1287 -- Pediatrics</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/cgi/content/full/118/3/1287">pediatrics.aappublications.org</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="123"><a href="#citable__123"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Information about the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of fluoroquinolones is now much greater than that available 20 years ago, when the first-generation fluoroquinolones such as ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin and ofloxacin emerged.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> Pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic modelling of ciprofloxacin 250 mg/12 h versus 500 mg/24 h for urinary infections -- Sánchez Navarro et al. 50 (1): 67 -- Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://jac.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/full/50/1/67">jac.oxfordjournals.org</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="123"><a href="#citable__123"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Additional modifications resulted in third- and fourth-generation fluoroquinolones (Table 1 ).</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> The Use of Systemic Fluoroquinolones -- Committee on Infectious Diseases 118 (3): 1287 -- Pediatrics</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/cgi/content/full/118/3/1287">pediatrics.aappublications.org</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> </div> <div style="display:table-cell;clear:both;"></div><h3><span class="mw-headline" id="wikipedia_FDA_warning_letters">FDA warning letters</span></h3> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__60" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="60">Additionally the manufacturers of ciprofloxacin (Bayer A.G.) received numerous warning letters from the United States <a href="/Food_and_Drug_Administration_(United_States)" title="Food and Drug Administration (United States)" class="mw-redirect">Food and Drug Administration</a> regarding false advertising and failure to provide adequate warnings within their promotional materials.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="60"><a href="#citable__60"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Drug release from DRC (1:1.3) in deionized water was determined using a United States Pharmacopeia (USP) 24 type II dissolution apparatus.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Molecular Properties of Ciprofloxacin-Indion 234 Complexes</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.aapspharmscitech.org/view.asp?art=pt050462">www.aapspharmscitech.org</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="60"><a href="#citable__60"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The simultaneous administration of ciprofloxacin (oral) and iron, sucralfate or antacids and highly buffered drugs (e.g.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Inhouse Pharmacy Ciprofloxacin - Ciproxin</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.inhousepharmacy.com/infections/ciproxin-information.html">www.inhousepharmacy.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li><li> <em><c_title>Data Sheet</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.medsafe.govt.nz/profs/Datasheet/c/ciprofloxacinrextab.htm">www.medsafe.govt.nz</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="60"><a href="#citable__60"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The pharmacokinetics of ciprofloxacin in skeletal muscle tissue were assessed by means of combined PET and in vivo microdialysis for 5 h after drug administration.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> Combined PET and Microdialysis for In Vivo Assessment of Intracellular Drug Pharmacokinetics in Humans -- Langer et al. 46 (11): 1835 -- The Journal of Nuclear Medicine</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://jnm.snmjournals.org/cgi/content/full/46/11/1835">jnm.snmjournals.org</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_127" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-127"><span>[</span>128<span>]</span></a></sup><sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_128" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-128"><span>[</span>129<span>]</span></a></sup></div> <h2><span class="mw-headline" id="wikipedia_Overprescribing_and_bacterial_resistance">Overprescribing and bacterial resistance</span></h2> <div class="rellink boilerplate seealso">See also: <a href="/Antibiotic_abuse" title="Antibiotic abuse" class="mw-redirect">Antibiotic abuse</a> and <a href="/Antibiotic_resistance" title="Antibiotic resistance">Antibiotic resistance</a></div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__109" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="109">Ciprofloxacin is commonly used for urinary tract and intestinal infections (traveler's diarrhea) and was once considered a powerful antibiotic of last resort,<sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_129" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-129"><span>[</span>130<span>]</span></a></sup><sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_130" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-130"><span>[</span>131<span>]</span></a></sup><sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_131" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-131"><span>[</span>132<span>]</span></a></sup> used to treat especially tenacious infections.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="109"><a href="#citable__109"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>CIPROFLOXACIN / is a fluoroquinolone antibiotic used to treat bacterial infections.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Ciprofloxacin buy online - Ciprofloxacin without prescription - WiseMeds.net</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.wisemeds.net/buy_online/Ciprofloxacin.shtml">www.wisemeds.net</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="109"><a href="#citable__109"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>I was taking Ciprofloxacin to cure a urinary tract infection and I started to ...</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Ciprofloxacin discussions (experiences, side effects, dosages, etc...)</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.drugtalk.com/ciprofloxacin/index.htm">www.drugtalk.com</a> [Source type: General]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="109"><a href="#citable__109"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Urinary Tract Infection caused by Citrobacter .</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Buy Ciprofloxacin Online, Ciprofloxacin Side Effects, User Reviews, Information & More.</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://onlinemedsreview.com/ViewMedInfo_8100.html">onlinemedsreview.com</a> [Source type: General]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__156" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="156">Not all physicians agreed with this assessment, as evidenced by its wide spread use to treat minor infections as well as non-approved uses.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="156"><a href="#citable__156"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>It is used to treat bacterial eye infections.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> Ciprofloxacin</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.psychiatry.uams.edu/HealthLibrary/Default.aspx?ContentTypeId=26&ContentID=127">www.psychiatry.uams.edu</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="156"><a href="#citable__156"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Give your health care provider a list of all the medicines, herbs, non-prescription drugs, or dietary supplements you use.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> Ciprofloxacin</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.psychiatry.uams.edu/HealthLibrary/Default.aspx?ContentTypeId=26&ContentID=127">www.psychiatry.uams.edu</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="156"><a href="#citable__156"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Ciprofloxacin is used to treat different types of bacterial infections.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Generic Ciprofloxacin online. Treatment and side effects. Buy generic Cipro</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.intogenerics.com/generic/ciprofloxacin.html">www.intogenerics.com</a> [Source type: General]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__125" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="125">As a result in recent years many bacteria have developed resistance to this drug, leaving it significantly less effective than it would have been otherwise.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="125"><a href="#citable__125"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Maintain adequate and the development of drug-resistant gonorrhea.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>PointThailand.com by Ecartstudio Co., LTD: Directory Search Engine</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.pointthailand.com/scripts/memberforumdetailTopic.asp?nMEMID=22933&nTopicID=548">www.pointthailand.com</a> [Source type: General]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="125"><a href="#citable__125"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Antipyrine clearance was significantly decreased and the half-life significantly prolonged (P less than 0.05) during ciprofloxacin treatment .</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Ciprofloxacin</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.bionewsonline.com/4/1/ciprofloxacin_c.htm">www.bionewsonline.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="125"><a href="#citable__125"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>In vitro drug release in average salivary pH of 6.7 was less than 5% within 60 seconds.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Molecular Properties of Ciprofloxacin-Indion 234 Complexes</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.aapspharmscitech.org/view.asp?art=pt050462">www.aapspharmscitech.org</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_132" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-132"><span>[</span>133<span>]</span></a></sup><sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_133" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-133"><span>[</span>134<span>]</span></a></sup></div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__84" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="84"><a href="/Antibiotic_resistance" title="Antibiotic resistance">Resistance</a> to ciprofloxacin and other fluoroquinolones may evolve rapidly, even during a course of treatment.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="84"><a href="#citable__84"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Several other resistance mechanisms may be responsible for (low-level) ciprofloxacin resistance in CC22 and CC17 isolates that do not contain amino acid changes in the QRDRs of ParC and GyrA. In Staphylococcus aureus , Streptococcus pneumoniae , and E. coli , mutations in parE and/or gyrB have been associated with fluoroquinolone resistance.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> High-Level Ciprofloxacin Resistance from Point Mutations in gyrA and parC Confined to Global Hospital-Adapted Clonal Lineage CC17 of Enterococcus faecium -- Leavis et al. 44 (3): 1059 -- Journal of Clinical Microbiology</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://jcm.asm.org/cgi/content/full/44/3/1059">jcm.asm.org</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="84"><a href="#citable__84"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>If all those people take ciprofloxacin, other bacteria they carry in their bodies may develop resistance to fluoroquinolones, potentially limiting the usefulness of these drugs as empiric therapy.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> Anthrax Treatment : Homeland Security News</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.nationalterroralert.com/anthraxtreatment/">www.nationalterroralert.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="84"><a href="#citable__84"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Ciprofloxacin and other fluoroquinolones are used for empiric treatment for a variety of serious and common infections in the United States, including pneumonia, gastrointestinal infections, and urinary tract infections.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> Anthrax Treatment : Homeland Security News</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.nationalterroralert.com/anthraxtreatment/">www.nationalterroralert.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__163" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="163">Numerous <a href="/Pathogen" title="Pathogen">pathogens</a>, including <em><a href="/Staphylococcus_aureus" title="Staphylococcus aureus">Staphylococcus aureus</a></em>, <a href="/Enterococci" title="Enterococci" class="mw-redirect">enterococci</a>, and <em><a href="/Streptococcus_pyogenes" title="Streptococcus pyogenes">Streptococcus pyogenes</a></em> now exhibit resistance worldwide.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="163"><a href="#citable__163"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>A new model of experimental prosthetic joint infection due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus : a microbiologic, histopathologic, and magnetic resonance imaging characterisation.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> Evaluation of 99mTc-Ciprofloxacin Scintigraphy in a Rabbit Model of Staphylococcus aureus Prosthetic Joint Infection -- Sarda et al. 43 (2): 239 -- The Journal of Nuclear Medicine</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://jnm.snmjournals.org/cgi/content/full/43/2/239">jnm.snmjournals.org</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="163"><a href="#citable__163"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Hepatitis A virus —Caliciviruses, including Norwalk/Norwalk-like viruses —Rotavirus — Salmonella — Shigella — Staphylococcus aureus .</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>CIDRAP >> Treatment of Foodborne Gastroenteritis</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.cidrap.umn.edu/cidrap/content/fs/food-disease/gastro-treat/tx-gastro.html">www.cidrap.umn.edu</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_134" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-134"><span>[</span>135<span>]</span></a></sup> Widespread veterinary usage of the fluoroquinolones, particularly in Europe, has been implicated.<sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_135" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-135"><span>[</span>136<span>]</span></a></sup></div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__89" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="89">Fluoroquinolones had become the most commonly prescribed class of antibiotics to adults in 2002.<sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_pmid15745724_136_0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-pmid15745724-136"><span>[</span>137<span>]</span></a></sup> Nearly half (42%) of these prescriptions were for conditions not approved by the FDA, such as acute bronchitis, otitis media, and acute upper respiratory tract infection, according to a study that was supported in part by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="89"><a href="#citable__89"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Antibiotic resistance among various bacteria that cause foodborne disease is increasing; current resistance patterns should be taken into consideration when prescribing antibacterial agents to treat such infections.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>CIDRAP >> Treatment of Foodborne Gastroenteritis</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.cidrap.umn.edu/cidrap/content/fs/food-disease/gastro-treat/tx-gastro.html">www.cidrap.umn.edu</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="89"><a href="#citable__89"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>A doctor may prescribe Ciproxin (Ciprofloxacin) for additional conditions bone, diarrhea; typhoid pneumonia; by infections treat caused anthrax; such fever; skin, gonorrhea; as and urinary infectious bacteria, certain joint, and to used tract infections.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Ciprofloxacin buy online - Ciprofloxacin without prescription - WiseMeds.net</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.wisemeds.net/buy_online/Ciprofloxacin.shtml">www.wisemeds.net</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="89"><a href="#citable__89"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Therefore, use of fluoroquinolones, one of the most commonly prescribed classes of broad-spectrum antibiotics, 28 probably facilitated the emergence of fluoroquinolone-resistant strains.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>NEJM -- Emergence of Ciprofloxacin-Resistant Neisseria meningitidis in North America</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://content.nejm.org/cgi/content/full/360/9/886">content.nejm.org</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_pmid15745724_136_1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-pmid15745724-136"><span>[</span>137<span>]</span></a></sup><sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_137" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-137"><span>[</span>138<span>]</span></a></sup> <a name="citable__25" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="25">Additionally they are commonly prescribed for medical conditions that are not even bacterial to begin with, such as viral infections, or those to which no proven benefit exist.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="25"><a href="#citable__25"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>As with all antibiotics, take the medication according to the schedule you were instructed, and even if you begin to feel better, continue taking it for the full number of days.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> Anthrax Treatment : Homeland Security News</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.nationalterroralert.com/anthraxtreatment/">www.nationalterroralert.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="25"><a href="#citable__25"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Even when the drug is taken exactly as prescribed, it can affect the speed of reaction to such an extent that the ability to drive or to operate machinery is impaired.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Data Sheet</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.medsafe.govt.nz/profs/Datasheet/c/ciprofloxacinrextab.htm">www.medsafe.govt.nz</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="25"><a href="#citable__25"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>It ranks drugs from A, where medical studies show no evidence for danger to the fetus or mother, to B, C, D and X, where the medical evidence indicates that the risk to the fetus outweighs any benefit to the mother.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Ciprofloxacin Tablets, Ciprofloxacin Side Effects, Ciprofloxacin Dosage & Uses</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://gicare.com/MEDICATIONS/Medications.aspx?CID=3&ID=40">gicare.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> </div> <h2><span class="mw-headline" id="wikipedia_Current_litigation">Current litigation</span></h2> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__92" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="92"><strong>Bayer AG</strong> A class action had been filed against Bayer AG on behalf of employees of the Brentwood Post Office in Washington, D.C., and workers at the U.S. Capitol, along with employees of American Media, Inc.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="92"><a href="#citable__92"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Unlawful Conspiracy Restricted Production of Cipro, Consumers Charge in Suit Filed Today Against Bayer Corporation.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>CIPRO COMPULSORY LICENSING DISPUTE</c_title></em> <c_date>11 September 2009 23:53 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.cptech.org/ip/health/cl/cipro/index.html">www.cptech.org</a> [Source type: News]</li><li> <em><c_title>CIPRO COMPULSORY LICENSING DISPUTE</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.cptech.org/ip/health/cl/cipro/">www.cptech.org</a> [Source type: News]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> in <a name="citable__152" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="152">Florida and postal workers in general who allege that they have suffered serious adverse effects from taking the antibiotic ciprofloxacin (Cipro) in the aftermath of the anthrax attacks in 2001. The adverse effects included; tendon rupture, seizures, intestinal problems, tendonitis, anxiety, insomnia, muscle aches, depression and meniscus tears.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="152"><a href="#citable__152"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Tendon inflammation and/or rupture have been reported with ciprofloxacin and other quinolone antibiotics.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Ciprofloxacin</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.umm.edu/altmed/drugs/ciprofloxacin-029200.htm">www.umm.edu</a> [Source type: Academic]</li><li> <em><c_title>Ciprofloxacin - Richard's Corporate Office</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.richardswholefoods.com/common/adam/DisplayMonograph.asp?storeID=1FQSSEQX5CS92J2000AKHMCCQ259DGG9&DocID=41_029200">www.richardswholefoods.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="152"><a href="#citable__152"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>After I have started taking ciprofloxacin to protect me from developing anthrax, what side effects could I get from taking this antibiotic?</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> Anthrax Treatment : Homeland Security News</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.nationalterroralert.com/anthraxtreatment/">www.nationalterroralert.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="152"><a href="#citable__152"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Other less serious side effects are more likely to occur, such as: nausea, vomiting; dizziness or drowsiness; blurred vision; sleep problems (insomnia); joint stiffness or muscle pain; or increased sensitivity of the skin to sunlight.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Generic Ciprofloxacin online. Treatment and side effects. Buy generic Cipro</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.intogenerics.com/generic/ciprofloxacin.html">www.intogenerics.com</a> [Source type: General]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__37" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="37">The action alleged that Bayer failed to warn class members of the potential side effects of the drug, thereby violating the Pennsylvania Unfair Trade Practices and Consumer Protection Laws.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="37"><a href="#citable__37"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The favourable results achieved and the complete absence of side effects show that ciprofloxacin is a useful drug in the treatment of respiratory tract infections.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Ciprofloxacin</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.bionewsonline.com/4/1/ciprofloxacin_c.htm">www.bionewsonline.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="37"><a href="#citable__37"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>After I have started taking doxycycline to protect me from developing anthrax, what side effects could I get from taking this antibiotic?</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> Anthrax Treatment : Homeland Security News</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.nationalterroralert.com/anthraxtreatment/">www.nationalterroralert.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="37"><a href="#citable__37"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>After I have started taking ciprofloxacin to protect me from developing anthrax, what side effects could I get from taking this antibiotic?</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> Anthrax Treatment : Homeland Security News</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.nationalterroralert.com/anthraxtreatment/">www.nationalterroralert.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__135" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="135">According to the allegations within the complaint, exposed individuals were not informed of the true safety profile of ciprofloxacin, the high rate of adverse events associated with its use, or the availability of safer and equally effective alternative drugs.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="135"><a href="#citable__135"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>High-performance liquid chromatographic determination of ciprofloxacin in serum and cells showed that the intracellular/serum ratio was 3.7 at 1.5 h (maximum concentration of drug in serum), 5.7 at 12 h, and 20 at 24 h .</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Ciprofloxacin</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.bionewsonline.com/4/1/ciprofloxacin_c.htm">www.bionewsonline.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="135"><a href="#citable__135"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Circumstances in which fluoroquinolones may be useful include those in which (1) infection is caused by multidrug-resistant pathogens for which there is no safe and effective alternative and (2) parenteral therapy is not feasible and no other effective oral agent is available.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> The Use of Systemic Fluoroquinolones -- Committee on Infectious Diseases 118 (3): 1287 -- Pediatrics</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/cgi/content/full/118/3/1287">pediatrics.aappublications.org</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="135"><a href="#citable__135"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Temafloxacin appears to be a promising alternative to therapy with either ciprofloxacin or amoxicillin in the treatment of respiratory infections in high-risk patients, smokers, and the elderly.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Ciprofloxacin</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.bionewsonline.com/4/1/ciprofloxacin_c.htm">www.bionewsonline.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__47" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="47">The complaint further alleged that, as a result of taking Cipro, many individuals suffered severe and debilitating injuries.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="47"><a href="#citable__47"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Follow-up was incomplete for many patients resulting in many instances of no further cultures, and compliance could not be assured .</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Ciprofloxacin</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.bionewsonline.com/4/1/ciprofloxacin_c.htm">www.bionewsonline.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__122" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="122">The action sought funding for a medical monitoring program and compensatory damages for those workers who have suffered side effects.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="122"><a href="#citable__122"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>By the time I started the medication, the symptoms were gone, however, the side effects hit hard.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Ciprofloxacin - User ratings & reviews - Revolution Health</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.revolutionhealth.com/drugs-treatments/rating/ciprofloxacin">www.revolutionhealth.com</a> [Source type: General]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="122"><a href="#citable__122"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> Ciprofloxacin</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.psychiatry.uams.edu/HealthLibrary/Default.aspx?ContentTypeId=26&ContentID=127">www.psychiatry.uams.edu</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="122"><a href="#citable__122"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Certain foods and medications should not be taken with ciprofloxacin; this should be discussed at the time the antibiotic is prescribed, so that side effects will not occur from the combinations.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> Anthrax Treatment : Homeland Security News</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 8:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.nationalterroralert.com/anthraxtreatment/">www.nationalterroralert.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> In 2004, the law firm of Goodell, DeVries, Leech & Dann, LLP were retained as national counsel in this litigation. 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Final disposition of that lawsuit is unknown. <a name="citable__166" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="166">Following the addition of the Black Box Warning in 2008, regarding tendon damage, a significant number of product liability law firms began soliciting clients who have suffered a spontaneous tendon rupture following fluoroquinolone therapy.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="166"><a href="#citable__166"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>[Medline] McGarvey WC, Singh D, Trevino SG. 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PRlog. 11 July 2008<span class="printonly">. <a href="http://www.prlog.org/10088464-legalview-reveals-details-of-the-fda-mandated-black-box-warning-for-fluoroquinolone-antibiotics.html" class="external free" rel="nofollow">http://www.prlog.org/10088464-legalview-reveals-details-of-the-fda-mandated-black-box-warning-for-fluoroquinolone-antibiotics.html</a></span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=bookitem&rft.btitle=LegalView+Reveals+Details+of+the+FDA+Mandated+Black+Box+Warning+For+Fluoroquinolone+Antibiotics&rft.atitle=&rft.date=11+July+2008&rft.pub=PRlog&rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.prlog.org%2F10088464-legalview-reveals-details-of-the-fda-mandated-black-box-warning-for-fluoroquinolone-antibiotics.html&rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Ciprofloxacin"><span style="display: none;"> </span></span></li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_142"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-142">^</a></strong> <span class="citation web">Cynthia Diaz (6 July 2009). <a href="http://www.zimbio.com/Shocking+Sports+Injuries/articles/W6tlqlrajER/Levaquin+Litigation+Moving+Ahead" class="external text" rel="nofollow">"Levaquin Litigation Moving Ahead"</a>. Zimbio<span class="printonly">. <a href="http://www.zimbio.com/Shocking+Sports+Injuries/articles/W6tlqlrajER/Levaquin+Litigation+Moving+Ahead" class="external free" rel="nofollow">http://www.zimbio.com/Shocking+Sports+Injuries/articles/W6tlqlrajER/Levaquin+Litigation+Moving+Ahead</a></span>. "In May we wrote that most litigation specialists expected thousands of people to file lawsuits against the makers of Levaquin and similar drugs..."</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=bookitem&rft.btitle=Levaquin+Litigation+Moving+Ahead&rft.atitle=&rft.aulast=Cynthia+Diaz&rft.au=Cynthia+Diaz&rft.date=6+July+2009&rft.pub=Zimbio&rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.zimbio.com%2FShocking%2BSports%2BInjuries%2Farticles%2FW6tlqlrajER%2FLevaquin%2BLitigation%2BMoving%2BAhead&rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Ciprofloxacin"><span style="display: none;"> </span></span></li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_143"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-143">^</a></strong> <span class="citation web">Carey and Danis LLC (3 September 2009). <a href="http://www.reuters.com/article/pressRelease/idUS199242+03-Sep-2009+BW20090903" class="external text" rel="nofollow">"Carey and Danis LLC Announces Four Lawsuits against the Makers of Levaquin"</a>. Reuters<span class="printonly">. <a href="http://www.reuters.com/article/pressRelease/idUS199242+03-Sep-2009+BW20090903" class="external free" rel="nofollow">http://www.reuters.com/article/pressRelease/idUS199242+03-Sep-2009+BW20090903</a></span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=bookitem&rft.btitle=Carey+and+Danis+LLC+Announces+Four+Lawsuits+against+the+Makers+of+Levaquin&rft.atitle=&rft.aulast=Carey+and+Danis+LLC&rft.au=Carey+and+Danis+LLC&rft.date=3+September+2009&rft.pub=Reuters&rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.reuters.com%2Farticle%2FpressRelease%2FidUS199242%2B03-Sep-2009%2BBW20090903&rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Ciprofloxacin"><span style="display: none;"> </span></span></li> </ol> </div> <h2><span class="mw-headline" id="wikipedia_External_links">External links</span></h2> <ul> <li><a href="http://health.howstuffworks.com/cipro.htm" class="external text" rel="nofollow">How Stuff Works - Cipro</a></li> <li><a href="http://www.dmoz.org/Society/Issues/Health/Drugs/Medical/" class="external text" rel="nofollow">Ciprofloxacin</a> at the <a href="/Open_Directory_Project" title="Open Directory Project">Open Directory Project</a></li> </ul> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><br style="clear:both" /> </div> <table class="navbox" cellspacing="0" style=";"> <tr> <td style="padding:2px;"> <table cellspacing="0" class="nowraplinks collapsible autocollapse" style="width:100%;background:transparent;color:inherit;;"> <tr> <th style=";" colspan="2" class="navbox-title"><span class="" style="font-size:110%;"><a href="/Antibiotic" title="Antibiotic">Antibacterials</a>: <a href="/Nucleic_acid_inhibitor" title="Nucleic acid inhibitor">nucleic acid inhibitors</a> (<a href="/ATC_code_J01" title="ATC code J01">J01E</a>, <a href="/ATC_code_J01" title="ATC code J01">J01M</a>)</span></th> </tr> <tr style="height:2px;"> <td></td> </tr> <tr> <td class="navbox-group" style=";background:PowderBlue;;"><a href="/Antifolate" title="Antifolate">Antifolates</a><br /> (inhibits<br /> <a href="/Purine_metabolism" title="Purine metabolism">purine metabolism</a>,<br /> thereby inhibiting<br /> DNA and RNA synthesis)</td> <td style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;;;" class="navbox-list navbox-odd"> <table cellspacing="0" class="nowraplinks navbox-subgroup" style="width:100%;;;;"> <tr> <td class="navbox-group" style=";padding-left:0em;padding-right:0em;background:PowderBlue;;"> <div style="padding:0em 0.75em;"><a href="/Dihydrofolate_reductase_inhibitor" title="Dihydrofolate reductase inhibitor">DR inhibitor</a></div> </td> <td style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;;;" class="navbox-list navbox-odd"> <div style="padding:0em 0.25em"><em><a href="/2,4-Diaminopyrimidine" title="2,4-Diaminopyrimidine">2,4-Diaminopyrimidine</a></em> (<a href="/Trimethoprim" title="Trimethoprim">Trimethoprim</a><sup>#</sup>, <a href="/Brodimoprim" title="Brodimoprim">Brodimoprim</a>, <a href="/Tetroxoprim" title="Tetroxoprim">Tetroxoprim</a>, <a href="/Iclaprim" title="Iclaprim">Iclaprim</a><sup>†</sup>)</div> </td> </tr> <tr style="height:2px"> <td></td> </tr> <tr> <td class="navbox-group" style=";padding-left:0em;padding-right:0em;background:PowderBlue;;"> <div style="padding:0em 0.75em;"><a href="/Sulfonamide_(medicine)" title="Sulfonamide (medicine)">Sulfonamides</a><br /> (<a href="/Dihydropteroate_synthetase_inhibitor" title="Dihydropteroate synthetase inhibitor">DS inhibitor</a>)</div> </td> <td style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;;;" class="navbox-list navbox-even"> <table cellspacing="0" class="nowraplinks navbox-subgroup" style="width:100%;;;;"> <tr> <td class="navbox-group" style=";padding-left:0em;padding-right:0em;background-color: PowderBlue;"> <div style="padding:0em 0.75em;"><a href="/Sulfonamide_(medicine)" title="Sulfonamide (medicine)">Short-<br /> acting</a></div> </td> <td style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;;;" class="navbox-list navbox-odd"> <div style="padding:0em 0.25em"><a href="/Sulfisomidine" title="Sulfisomidine">Sulfaisodimidine</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Sulfamethizole" title="Sulfamethizole">Sulfamethizole</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Sulfadimidine" title="Sulfadimidine">Sulfadimidine</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Sulfapyridine" title="Sulfapyridine">Sulfapyridine</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Sulfafurazole" title="Sulfafurazole">Sulfafurazole</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Sulfanilamide" title="Sulfanilamide">Sulfanilamide</a> (<a href="/Prontosil" title="Prontosil">Prontosil</a>)<span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Sulfathiazole" title="Sulfathiazole">Sulfathiazole</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Sulfathiourea" title="Sulfathiourea">Sulfathiourea</a></div> </td> </tr> <tr style="height:2px"> <td></td> </tr> <tr> <td class="navbox-group" style=";padding-left:0em;padding-right:0em;background-color: PowderBlue;"> <div style="padding:0em 0.75em;"><a href="/Sulfonamide_(medicine)" title="Sulfonamide (medicine)">Intermediate-<br /> acting</a></div> </td> <td style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;;;" class="navbox-list navbox-even"> <div style="padding:0em 0.25em"><a href="/Sulfamethoxazole" title="Sulfamethoxazole">Sulfamethoxazole</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Sulfadiazine" title="Sulfadiazine">Sulfadiazine</a><sup>#</sup><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Sulfamoxole" title="Sulfamoxole">Sulfamoxole</a></div> </td> </tr> <tr style="height:2px"> <td></td> </tr> <tr> <td class="navbox-group" style=";padding-left:0em;padding-right:0em;background-color: PowderBlue;"> <div style="padding:0em 0.75em;"><a href="/Sulfonamide_(medicine)" title="Sulfonamide (medicine)">Long-<br /> acting</a></div> </td> <td style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;;;" class="navbox-list navbox-odd"> <div style="padding:0em 0.25em"><a href="/Sulfadimethoxine" title="Sulfadimethoxine">Sulfadimethoxine</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Sulfalene" title="Sulfalene">Sulfalene</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Sulfametomidine" title="Sulfametomidine">Sulfametomidine</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Sulfametoxydiazine" title="Sulfametoxydiazine">Sulfametoxydiazine</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Sulfamethoxypyridazine" title="Sulfamethoxypyridazine">Sulfamethoxypyridazine</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Sulfaperin" title="Sulfaperin">Sulfaperin</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Sulfamerazine" title="Sulfamerazine">Sulfamerazine</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Sulfaphenazole" title="Sulfaphenazole">Sulfaphenazole</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Sulfamazone" title="Sulfamazone">Sulfamazone</a></div> </td> </tr> </table> </td> </tr> <tr style="height:2px"> <td></td> </tr> <tr> <td class="navbox-group" style=";padding-left:0em;padding-right:0em;background:PowderBlue;;"> <div style="padding:0em 0.75em;">Other/ungrouped</div> </td> <td style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;;;" class="navbox-list navbox-odd"> <div style="padding:0em 0.25em"><em><a href="/Sulfanilamide" title="Sulfanilamide">sulfanilamide</a></em> (<a href="/Sulfacetamide" title="Sulfacetamide">Sulfacetamide</a>, <a href="/Sulfametrole" title="Sulfametrole">Sulfametrole</a>)</div> </td> </tr> <tr style="height:2px"> <td></td> </tr> <tr> <td class="navbox-group" style=";padding-left:0em;padding-right:0em;background:PowderBlue;;"> <div style="padding:0em 0.75em;">Combinations</div> </td> <td style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;;;" class="navbox-list navbox-even"> <div style="padding:0em 0.25em"><a href="/Co-trimoxazole" title="Co-trimoxazole">Sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim</a><sup>#</sup></div> </td> </tr> </table> </td> </tr> <tr style="height:2px"> <td></td> </tr> <tr> <td class="navbox-group" style=";background:PowderBlue;;"><a href="/Topoisomerase_inhibitor" title="Topoisomerase inhibitor">Topoisomerase<br /> inhibitors</a>/<br /> <a href="/Quinolones" title="Quinolones" class="mw-redirect">quinolones</a>/<br /> (inhibits<br /> <a href="/DNA_replication" title="DNA replication">DNA replication</a>)</td> <td style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;;;" class="navbox-list navbox-even"> <table cellspacing="0" class="nowraplinks navbox-subgroup" style="width:100%;;;;"> <tr> <td class="navbox-group" style=";padding-left:0em;padding-right:0em;background:PowderBlue;;"> <div style="padding:0em 0.75em;"><a href="/Fluoroquinolone" title="Fluoroquinolone" class="mw-redirect">1st generation</a></div> </td> <td style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;;;" class="navbox-list navbox-odd"> <div style="padding:0em 0.25em"><a href="/Cinoxacin" title="Cinoxacin">Cinoxacin</a><sup>‡</sup><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Flumequine" title="Flumequine">Flumequine</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Nalidixic_acid" title="Nalidixic acid">Nalidixic acid</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Oxolinic_acid" title="Oxolinic acid">Oxolinic acid</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Pipemidic_acid" title="Pipemidic acid">Pipemidic acid</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Piromidic_acid" title="Piromidic acid">Piromidic acid</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Rosoxacin" title="Rosoxacin">Rosoxacin</a></div> </td> </tr> <tr style="height:2px"> <td></td> </tr> <tr> <td class="navbox-group" style=";padding-left:0em;padding-right:0em;background:PowderBlue;;"> <div style="padding:0em 0.75em;"><a href="/Fluoroquinolone" title="Fluoroquinolone" class="mw-redirect">Fluoroquinolones</a></div> </td> <td style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;;;" class="navbox-list navbox-even"> <table cellspacing="0" class="nowraplinks navbox-subgroup" style="width:100%;;;;"> <tr> <td class="navbox-group" style=";padding-left:0em;padding-right:0em;background-color: PowderBlue;"> <div style="padding:0em 0.75em;"><a href="/Fluoroquinolone" title="Fluoroquinolone" class="mw-redirect">2nd<br /> generation</a></div> </td> <td style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;;;" class="navbox-list navbox-even"> <div style="padding:0em 0.25em"><strong class="selflink">Ciprofloxacin</strong><sup>#</sup> <span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Enoxacin" title="Enoxacin">Enoxacin</a><sup>‡</sup><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Fleroxacin" title="Fleroxacin">Fleroxacin</a><sup>‡</sup><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Lomefloxacin" title="Lomefloxacin">Lomefloxacin</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Nadifloxacin" title="Nadifloxacin">Nadifloxacin</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Ofloxacin" title="Ofloxacin">Ofloxacin</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Norfloxacin" title="Norfloxacin">Norfloxacin</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Pefloxacin" title="Pefloxacin">Pefloxacin</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Rufloxacin" title="Rufloxacin">Rufloxacin</a></div> </td> </tr> <tr style="height:2px"> <td></td> </tr> <tr> <td class="navbox-group" style=";padding-left:0em;padding-right:0em;background-color: PowderBlue;"> <div style="padding:0em 0.75em;"><a href="/Fluoroquinolone" title="Fluoroquinolone" class="mw-redirect">3rd<br /> generation</a></div> </td> <td style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;;;" class="navbox-list navbox-odd"> <div style="padding:0em 0.25em"><a href="/Balofloxacin" title="Balofloxacin">Balofloxacin</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Grepafloxacin" title="Grepafloxacin">Grepafloxacin</a><sup>‡</sup><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Levofloxacin" title="Levofloxacin">Levofloxacin</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Pazufloxacin" title="Pazufloxacin">Pazufloxacin</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Sparfloxacin" title="Sparfloxacin">Sparfloxacin</a><sup>‡</sup><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Temafloxacin" title="Temafloxacin">Temafloxacin</a><sup>‡</sup><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Tosufloxacin" title="Tosufloxacin">Tosufloxacin</a></div> </td> </tr> <tr style="height:2px"> <td></td> </tr> <tr> <td class="navbox-group" style=";padding-left:0em;padding-right:0em;background-color: PowderBlue;"> <div style="padding:0em 0.75em;"><a href="/Fluoroquinolone" title="Fluoroquinolone" class="mw-redirect">4th<br /> generation</a></div> </td> <td style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;;;" class="navbox-list navbox-even"> <div style="padding:0em 0.25em"><a href="/Besifloxacin" title="Besifloxacin">Besifloxacin</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Clinafloxacin" title="Clinafloxacin">Clinafloxacin</a><sup>†</sup><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Garenoxacin" title="Garenoxacin">Garenoxacin</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Gemifloxacin" title="Gemifloxacin">Gemifloxacin</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Moxifloxacin" title="Moxifloxacin">Moxifloxacin</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Gatifloxacin" title="Gatifloxacin">Gatifloxacin</a><sup>‡</sup><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Sitafloxacin" title="Sitafloxacin">Sitafloxacin</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Trovafloxacin" title="Trovafloxacin">Trovafloxacin</a><sup>‡</sup>/<a href="/Alatrofloxacin" title="Alatrofloxacin">Alatrofloxacin</a><sup>‡</sup><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Prulifloxacin" title="Prulifloxacin">Prulifloxacin</a></div> </td> </tr> <tr style="height:2px"> <td></td> </tr> <tr> <td class="navbox-group" style=";padding-left:0em;padding-right:0em;background-color: PowderBlue;"> <div style="padding:0em 0.75em;"><a href="/Fluoroquinolone" title="Fluoroquinolone" class="mw-redirect">Veterinary</a></div> </td> <td style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;;;" class="navbox-list navbox-odd"> <div style="padding:0em 0.25em"><a href="/Danofloxacin" title="Danofloxacin">Danofloxacin</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Difloxacin" title="Difloxacin">Difloxacin</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Enrofloxacin" title="Enrofloxacin">Enrofloxacin</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Ibafloxacin" title="Ibafloxacin">Ibafloxacin</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Marbofloxacin" title="Marbofloxacin">Marbofloxacin</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Orbifloxacin" title="Orbifloxacin">Orbifloxacin</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Pradofloxacin" title="Pradofloxacin">Pradofloxacin</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Sarafloxacin" title="Sarafloxacin">Sarafloxacin</a></div> </td> </tr> <tr style="height:2px"> <td></td> </tr> <tr> <td class="navbox-group" style=";padding-left:0em;padding-right:0em;background-color: PowderBlue;"> <div style="padding:0em 0.75em;">Related agents (<a href="/DNA_gyrase" title="DNA gyrase">DG</a>)</div> </td> <td style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;;;" class="navbox-list navbox-even"> <div style="padding:0em 0.25em"><a href="/Aminocoumarin" title="Aminocoumarin">Aminocoumarins</a>: <a href="/Novobiocin" title="Novobiocin">Novobiocin</a></div> </td> </tr> </table> </td> </tr> </table> </td> </tr> <tr style="height:2px"> <td></td> </tr> <tr> <td class="navbox-group" style=";background:PowderBlue;;"><a href="/Anaerobic_organism" title="Anaerobic organism">Anaerobic</a> DNA<br /> <a href="/Nucleic_acid_inhibitor" title="Nucleic acid inhibitor">inhibitors</a></td> <td style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;;;" class="navbox-list navbox-odd"> <table cellspacing="0" class="nowraplinks navbox-subgroup" style="width:100%;;;;"> <tr> <td class="navbox-group" style=";padding-left:0em;padding-right:0em;background-color: PowderBlue;"> <div style="padding:0em 0.75em;"><a href="/Nitroimidazole" title="Nitroimidazole">Nitro-</a> <a href="/Imidazole" title="Imidazole">imidazole</a> derivatives</div> </td> <td style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;;;" class="navbox-list navbox-odd"> <div style="padding:0em 0.25em"><a href="/Metronidazole" title="Metronidazole">Metronidazole</a><sup>#</sup> <span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Tinidazole" title="Tinidazole">Tinidazole</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Ornidazole" title="Ornidazole">Ornidazole</a></div> </td> </tr> <tr style="height:2px"> <td></td> </tr> <tr> <td class="navbox-group" style=";padding-left:0em;padding-right:0em;background-color: PowderBlue;"> <div style="padding:0em 0.75em;"><a href="/Nitrofuran" title="Nitrofuran">Nitrofuran</a> derivatives</div> </td> <td style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;;;" class="navbox-list navbox-even"> <div style="padding:0em 0.25em"><a href="/Nitrofurantoin" title="Nitrofurantoin">Nitrofurantoin</a><sup>#</sup> <span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Nifurtoinol" title="Nifurtoinol">Nifurtoinol</a></div> </td> </tr> </table> </td> </tr> <tr style="height:2px"> <td></td> </tr> <tr> <td class="navbox-group" style=";background:PowderBlue;;"><a href="/RNA" title="RNA">RNA</a> synthesis</td> <td style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;;;" class="navbox-list navbox-even"> <table cellspacing="0" class="nowraplinks navbox-subgroup" style="width:100%;;;;"> <tr> <td class="navbox-group" style=";padding-left:0em;padding-right:0em;background-color: PowderBlue;"> <div style="padding:0em 0.75em;"><a href="/Rifamycin" title="Rifamycin">Rifamycins</a>/<br /> <a href="/RNA-dependent_RNA_polymerase" title="RNA-dependent RNA polymerase">RNA polymerase</a></div> </td> <td style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;;;" class="navbox-list navbox-odd"> <div style="padding:0em 0.25em"><a href="/Rifampicin" title="Rifampicin">Rifampicin</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Rifabutin" title="Rifabutin">Rifabutin</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Rifapentine" title="Rifapentine">Rifapentine</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Rifaximin" title="Rifaximin">Rifaximin</a></div> </td> </tr> </table> </td> </tr> <tr style="height:2px;"> <td></td> </tr> <tr> <td class="navbox-abovebelow" style=";background:#D3D3D3;" colspan="2"><sup>#</sup><a href="/List_of_World_Health_Organization_Essential_Medicines" title="List of World Health Organization Essential Medicines">WHO-EM</a>. <sup>‡</sup><a href="/List_of_withdrawn_drugs" title="List of withdrawn drugs">Withdrawn</a> from market. <a href="/Clinical_trials" title="Clinical trials" class="mw-redirect">CLINICAL TRIALS</a>: <sup>†</sup><a href="/Clinical_trial" title="Clinical trial">Phase III</a>. <sup>§</sup><a href="/Clinical_trial" title="Clinical trial">Never to phase III</a></td> </tr> </table> </td> </tr> </table> <table class="navbox" cellspacing="0" style=";"> <tr> <td style="padding:2px;"> <table cellspacing="0" class="nowraplinks collapsible autocollapse" style="width:100%;background:transparent;color:inherit;;"> <tr> <th style=";" colspan="2" class="navbox-title"><span class="" style="font-size:110%;"><a href="/Piperazine" title="Piperazine">Piperazines</a></span></th> </tr> <tr style="height:2px;"> <td></td> </tr> <tr> <td colspan="2" style="width:100%;padding:0px;;;" class="navbox-list navbox-odd"> <div style="padding:0em 0.25em"> <div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a href="/1-Cyclohexylpiperazine" title="1-Cyclohexylpiperazine">1-Cyclohexylpiperazine</a> • <a href="/2C-B-BZP" title="2C-B-BZP">2C-B-BZP</a> • <a href="/Acaprazine" title="Acaprazine">Acaprazine</a> • <a href="/Almitrine" title="Almitrine">Almitrine</a> • <a href="/Alnespirone" title="Alnespirone">Alnespirone</a> • <a href="/Aminoethylpiperazine" title="Aminoethylpiperazine">Aminoethylpiperazine</a> • <a href="/Amoxapine" title="Amoxapine">Amoxapine</a> • <a href="/Antrafenine" title="Antrafenine">Antrafenine</a> • <a href="/Aripiprazole" title="Aripiprazole">Aripiprazole</a> • <a href="/Atevirdine" title="Atevirdine">Atevirdine</a> • <a href="/Azaperone" title="Azaperone">Azaperone</a> • <a href="/Azimilide" title="Azimilide">Azimilide</a> • <a href="/Befuraline" title="Befuraline">Befuraline</a> • <a href="/Bifeprunox" title="Bifeprunox">Bifeprunox</a> • <a href="/Binospirone" title="Binospirone">Binospirone</a> • <a href="/BRL-15572" title="BRL-15572">BRL-15572</a> • <a href="/Buclizine" title="Buclizine">Buclizine</a> • <a href="/Buspirone" title="Buspirone">Buspirone</a> • <a href="/Benzylpiperazine" title="Benzylpiperazine">BZP</a> • <a href="/Chlorbenzoxamine" title="Chlorbenzoxamine">Chlorbenzoxamine</a> • <a href="/Chlorcyclizine" title="Chlorcyclizine">Chlorcyclizine</a> • <a href="/Cinepazet" title="Cinepazet">Cinepazet</a> • <a href="/Cinnarizine" title="Cinnarizine">Cinnarizine</a> • <strong class="selflink">Ciprofloxacin</strong> • <a href="/Clocinizine" title="Clocinizine">Clocinizine</a> • <a href="/Clopenthixol" title="Clopenthixol">Clopenthixol</a> • <a href="/Clozapine" title="Clozapine">Clozapine</a> • <a href="/CPPene" title="CPPene">CPPene</a> • <a href="/Cyclizine" title="Cyclizine">Cyclizine</a> • <a href="/Dapiprazole" title="Dapiprazole">Dapiprazole</a> • <a href="/Dasatinib" title="Dasatinib">Dasatinib</a> • <a href="/DBL-583" title="DBL-583">DBL-583</a> • <a href="/DBZP" title="DBZP" class="mw-redirect">DBZP</a> • <a href="/Dibenzylpiperazine" title="Dibenzylpiperazine">Dibenzylpiperazine</a> • <a href="/Diethylcarbamazine" title="Diethylcarbamazine">Diethylcarbamazine</a> • <a href="/Dimethylphenylpiperazinium" title="Dimethylphenylpiperazinium">Dimethylphenylpiperazinium</a> • <a href="/Dotarizine" title="Dotarizine">Dotarizine</a> • <a href="/DPI-3290" title="DPI-3290">DPI-3290</a> • <a href="/Dropropizine" title="Dropropizine">Dropropizine</a> • <a href="/EGIS-12233" title="EGIS-12233" class="mw-redirect">EGIS-12233</a> • <a href="/Eltoprazine" title="Eltoprazine">Eltoprazine</a> • <a href="/Enilospirone" title="Enilospirone">Enilospirone</a> • <a href="/Ensaculin" title="Ensaculin">Ensaculin</a> • <a href="/Etoperidone" title="Etoperidone">Etoperidone</a> • <a href="/Fipexide" title="Fipexide">Fipexide</a> • <a href="/Flesinoxan" title="Flesinoxan">Flesinoxan</a> • <a href="/Flibanserin" title="Flibanserin">Flibanserin</a> • <a href="/Flupentixol" title="Flupentixol">Flupentixol</a> • <a href="/Fluphenazine" title="Fluphenazine">Fluphenazine</a> • <a href="/Fluprazine" title="Fluprazine">Fluprazine</a> • <a href="/GBR-12935" title="GBR-12935">GBR-12935</a> • <a href="/Gepirone" title="Gepirone">Gepirone</a> • <a href="/HEPPS" title="HEPPS">HEPPS</a> • <a href="/Hexocyclium" title="Hexocyclium">Hexocyclium</a> • <a href="/Hydroxyzine" title="Hydroxyzine">Hydroxyzine</a> • <a href="/Imatinib" title="Imatinib">Imatinib</a> • <a href="/Indinavir" title="Indinavir">Indinavir</a> • <a href="/Ipsapirone" title="Ipsapirone">Ipsapirone</a> • <a href="/Itraconazole" title="Itraconazole">Itraconazole</a> • <a href="/JNJ-7777120" title="JNJ-7777120">JNJ-7777120</a> • <a href="/Ketoconazole" title="Ketoconazole">Ketoconazole</a> • <a href="/Levodropropizine" title="Levodropropizine">Levodropropizine</a> • <a href="/Lidoflazine" title="Lidoflazine">Lidoflazine</a> • <a href="/Loxapine" title="Loxapine">Loxapine</a> • <a href="/Lurasidone" title="Lurasidone">Lurasidone</a> • <a href="/Manidipine" title="Manidipine">Manidipine</a> • <a href="/1-Methyl-4-benzylpiperazine" title="1-Methyl-4-benzylpiperazine" class="mw-redirect">MBZP</a> • <a href="/1-(3-Chlorophenyl)piperazine" title="1-(3-Chlorophenyl)piperazine" class="mw-redirect">mCPP</a> • <a href="/Methylenedioxybenzylpiperazine" title="Methylenedioxybenzylpiperazine">MDBZP</a> • <a href="/Meclizine" title="Meclizine">Meclizine</a> • <a href="/MeOPP" title="MeOPP" class="mw-redirect">MeOPP</a> • <a href="/Nefazodone" title="Nefazodone">Nefazodone</a> • <a href="/Niaprazine" title="Niaprazine">Niaprazine</a> • <a href="/Olanzapine" title="Olanzapine">Olanzapine</a> • <a href="/Opipramol" title="Opipramol">Opipramol</a> • <a href="/Oxatomide" title="Oxatomide">Oxatomide</a> • <a href="/Oxypertine" title="Oxypertine">Oxypertine</a> • <a href="/PB28" title="PB28" class="mw-redirect">PB28</a> • <a href="/Perazine" title="Perazine">Perazine</a> • <a href="/Perospirone" title="Perospirone">Perospirone</a> • <a href="/Perphenazine" title="Perphenazine">Perphenazine</a> • <a href="/PFPP" title="PFPP" class="mw-redirect">pFPP</a> • <a href="/Piberaline" title="Piberaline">Piberaline</a> • <a href="/Piperazine" title="Piperazine">Piperazine</a> • <a href="/PIPES" title="PIPES">PIPES</a> • <a href="/Pirenzepine" title="Pirenzepine">Pirenzepine</a> • <a href="/Piribedil" title="Piribedil">Piribedil</a> • <a href="/Posaconazole" title="Posaconazole">Posaconazole</a> • <a href="/Prochlorperazine" title="Prochlorperazine">Prochlorperazine</a> • <a href="/PRX-00023" title="PRX-00023">PRX-00023</a> • <a href="/Quipazine" title="Quipazine">Quipazine</a> • <a href="/Ranolazine" title="Ranolazine">Ranolazine</a> • <a href="/Revospirone" title="Revospirone">Revospirone</a> • <a href="/S-15535" title="S-15535">S-15535</a> • <a href="/SA_4503" title="SA 4503" class="mw-redirect">SA 4503</a> • <a href="/SB-258,585" title="SB-258,585">SB-258,585</a> • <a href="/SB-271,046" title="SB-271,046">SB-271,046</a> • <a href="/SB-357,134" title="SB-357,134">SB-357,134</a> • <a href="/SB-399,885" title="SB-399,885">SB-399,885</a> • <a href="/Sildenafil" title="Sildenafil">Sildenafil</a> • <a href="/Tandospirone" title="Tandospirone">Tandospirone</a> • <a href="/Trifluoromethylphenylpiperazine" title="Trifluoromethylphenylpiperazine">TFMPP</a> • <a href="/Thiethylperazine" title="Thiethylperazine">Thiethylperazine</a> • <a href="/Thiothixene" title="Thiothixene">Thiothixene</a> • <a href="/Tirilazad" title="Tirilazad">Tirilazad</a> • <a href="/Trazodone" title="Trazodone">Trazodone</a> • <a href="/Trelibet" title="Trelibet" class="mw-redirect">Trelibet</a> • <a href="/Trifluoperazine" title="Trifluoperazine">Trifluoperazine</a> • <a href="/Trimazosin" title="Trimazosin">Trimazosin</a> • <a href="/Trimetazidine" title="Trimetazidine">Trimetazidine</a> • <a href="/Umespirone" title="Umespirone">Umespirone</a> • <a href="/Vanoxerine" title="Vanoxerine">Vanoxerine</a> • <a href="/Vardenafil" title="Vardenafil">Vardenafil</a> • <a href="/Vesnarinone" title="Vesnarinone">Vesnarinone</a> • <a href="/Vilazodone" title="Vilazodone">Vilazodone</a> • <a href="/VUF-6002" title="VUF-6002">VUF-6002</a> • <a href="/WAY-100,135" title="WAY-100,135">WAY-100,135</a> • <a href="/WAY-100,635" title="WAY-100,635">WAY-100,635</a> • <a href="/Zalospirone" title="Zalospirone">Zalospirone</a> • <a href="/Zipeprol" title="Zipeprol">Zipeprol</a> • <a href="/Ziprasidone" title="Ziprasidone">Ziprasidone</a> • <a href="/Zuclopenthixol" title="Zuclopenthixol">Zuclopenthixol</a></div> </div> </div> </td> </tr> </table> </td> </tr> </table> <div id='catlinks' class='catlinks'> <div id="wikipedia_mw_normal_catlinks">Categories: <span dir='ltr'><a href="/Category:Quinolone_antibiotics" title="Category:Quinolone antibiotics">Quinolone antibiotics</a></span> | <span dir='ltr'><a href="/Category:Fluoroquinolone_antibiotics" title="Category:Fluoroquinolone antibiotics">Fluoroquinolone antibiotics</a></span> | <span dir='ltr'><a href="/Category:Organofluorides" title="Category:Organofluorides">Organofluorides</a></span> | <span dir='ltr'><a href="/Category:Piperazines" title="Category:Piperazines">Piperazines</a></span> | <span dir='ltr'><a href="/Category:World_Health_Organization_essential_medicines" title="Category:World Health Organization essential medicines">World Health Organization essential medicines</a></span></div> </div> </div> </div> </div><br/> </div> <div class="section-delimeter"></div></div> <div id="core_panel_main" > <div class="section" id="citable_sentences"> <h1 class="section-title"> <a name="citable_sentences">Citable sentences</a> </h1> <div style="float:right"> <span class="core-uptodate">Up to date as of December 15, 2010</span> <br> </div> <div class="fragment"> <div id="citable_fragments"> <div id="citableSentencesList"> <p> Here are sentences from other pages on Ciprofloxacin, which are similar to those in the above article. <div id="citable__sentence_list"> </div> </p> </div> </div> </div><br/> </div> <div class="section-delimeter"></div> <div id="external_links_revision_history_tooltip"> </div> <script> $(document).ready(function() { $("#external_links_revision_history_fragments a[title]").tooltip({tip: '#external_links_revision_history_tooltip', effect: 'toggle', position: 'bottom right', offset: [-1,2], lazy: true, delay: 100}); $("#external_links_revision_history_fragments img[title]").tooltip({tip: '#external_links_revision_history_tooltip', position: 'bottom right', offset: [-1,0], lazy: true, effect: 'toggle'}); }); </script> <div class="section" id="related_links"> <h1 class="section-title"> <a name="related_links">Related links</a> </h1> <span class="core-uptodate">Up to date as of November 16, 2009</span> <span class="fragment"> <div id="external_links_revision_history_fragments"> <table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" hspace="0" vspace="0"><tr><td valign="top" nowrap bgcolor="white"><nobr><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/spacer.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/tick-green-8x11.gif" align="bottom" title = "This page is marked authoritative because it has been included for <B>100%</B> of the life of the Wikipedia article."> </nobr></td><td><a href="http://www.drugs.com/cons/Cipro_I_V_.html" title="<TABLE STYLE='font-size: 12;'><TR><TD VALIGN='TOP'>•</TD><TD><B>Ciprofloxacin</B> may be taken 2 hours before or 6 hours after these medicines.</TD></TR><TR><TD VALIGN='TOP'>&bull</TD><TD>Drinking extra water will help to prevent some unwanted effects of <B>ciprofloxacin</B> and norfloxacin.</TD></TR><TR><TD VALIGN='TOP'>&bull</TD><TD><B>Ciprofloxacin</B>, gatifloxacin, levofloxacin, lomefloxacin, moxifloxacin, ofloxacin, or sparfloxacin may be taken with meals or on an empty stomach.</TD></TR></TABLE><BR><A HREF=http://www.drugs.com/cons/Cipro_I_V_.html>http://www.drugs.com/cons/Cipro_I_V_.html</A>">Data sheet for Cipro</a> - Cipro I.V. consumer information from Drugs.com</td></tr></table> </div> </span><br/> <span class="fragment"> <div id="external_links_revision_history_fragments"> <table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" hspace="0" vspace="0"><tr><td valign="top" nowrap bgcolor="white"><nobr><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/spacer.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/tick-green-8x11.gif" align="bottom" title = "This page is marked authoritative because it has been included for <B>100%</B> of the life of the Wikipedia article."> </nobr></td><td><a href="http://www.fqresearch.org" title="querying the overall safety of fluoroquinolones<br><br><A HREF=http://www.fqresearch.org>http://www.fqresearch.org</A>">Fluoroquinolone Toxicity Research Foundation</a> - Home Page of the Fluoroquinolone Toxicity Research Foundation</td></tr></table> </div> </span><br/> <span class="fragment"> <div id="external_links_revision_history_fragments"> <table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" hspace="0" vspace="0"><tr><td valign="top" nowrap bgcolor="white"><nobr><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/spacer.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/tick-green-8x11.gif" align="bottom" title = "This page is marked authoritative because it has been included for <B>90%</B> of the life of the Wikipedia article."> </nobr></td><td><a href="http://www.emedmag.com/html/pre/fea/features/011501.asp" title="<TABLE STYLE='font-size: 12;'><TR><TD VALIGN='TOP'>•</TD><TD>Since the introduction of <B>ciprofloxacin</B> in 1987, fluoroquinolones have expanded far beyond their early role in the treatment of urinary tract infections.</TD></TR><TR><TD VALIGN='TOP'>&bull</TD><TD>Although the newer agents offer a much broader spectrum of action, <B>ciprofloxacin</B> remains the most effective fluoroquinolone against gram-negative pathogens, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa.</TD></TR><TR><TD VALIGN='TOP'>&bull</TD><TD>One exception, however, is <B>ciprofloxacin</B>, which is not reliably active against C.</TD></TR></TABLE><BR><A HREF=http://www.emedmag.com/html/pre/fea/features/011501.asp>http://www.emedmag.com/html/pre/fea/features/011501.asp</A>">Emergency Medicine Magzine</a></td></tr></table> </div> </span><br/> <span class="fragment"> <div id="external_links_revision_history_fragments"> <table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" hspace="0" vspace="0"><tr><td valign="top" nowrap bgcolor="white"><nobr><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/spacer.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"> </nobr></td><td><a href="http://health.howstuffworks.com/cipro.htm" title="Cipro, the Bayer brand name for the drug <B>ciprofloxacin</B>, is one of the antibiotics that is effective against the anthrax bacteria.<br><br><A HREF=http://health.howstuffworks.com/cipro.htm>http://health.howstuffworks.com/cipro.htm</A>">How Stuff Works - Cipro</a> - HowStuffWorks "How Cipro Works"</td></tr></table> </div> </span><br/> <span class="fragment"> <div id="external_links_revision_history_fragments"> <table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" hspace="0" vspace="0"><tr><td valign="top" nowrap bgcolor="white"><nobr><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/spacer.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"> </nobr></td><td><a href="http://www.fda.gov/medwatch/safety/2005/Nov_PI/CiproXR_PI.pdf" title="Page 7 Warning of tendon ruptures and irreversible neurological conditions.<br><br><A HREF=http://www.fda.gov/medwatch/safety/2005/Nov_PI/CiproXR_PI.pdf>http://www.fda.gov/medwatch/safety/2005/Nov_PI/CiproXR_PI.pdf</A>">Cipro package insert.</a></td></tr></table> </div> </span><br/> <span class="fragment"> <div id="external_links_revision_history_fragments"> <table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" hspace="0" vspace="0"><tr><td valign="top" nowrap bgcolor="white"><nobr><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/spacer.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"> </nobr></td><td><a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?Db=pubmed&Cmd=ShowDetailView&TermToSearch=11083629&ordinalpos=8&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsPanel.Pubmed_RVDocSum" title="<TABLE STYLE='font-size: 12;'><TR><TD VALIGN='TOP'>•</TD><TD>Persistence of Chlamydia trachomatis is induced by <B>ciprofloxacin</B> and ofloxacin in vitro.</TD></TR><TR><TD VALIGN='TOP'>&bull</TD><TD>An in vitro cell culture model was used to investigate the long-term effect of <B>ciprofloxacin</B> and ofloxacin on infection with Chlamydia trachomatis.</TD></TR><TR><TD VALIGN='TOP'>&bull</TD><TD>Incubation of such established chlamydial cultures with <B>ciprofloxacin</B> and ofloxacin not only failed to eradicate the organism from host cells, but rather induced a state of chlamydial persistence.</TD></TR></TABLE><BR><A HREF=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?Db=pubmed&Cmd=ShowDetailView&TermToSearch=11083629&ordinalpos=8&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsPanel.Pubmed_RVDocSum>http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?Db=pubmed&Cmd=ShowDetailView&TermToSearch=11083629&ordinalpos=8&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsPanel.Pubmed_RVDocSum</A>">PMID 11083629</a> - Persistence of Chlamydia trachomatis is induced by...[Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2000] - PubMed Result</td></tr></table> </div> </span><br/> </div> <div class="section-delimeter"></div> <div class="section" id="related_topics"> <h1 class="section-title"> <a name="related_topics">Related topics</a> </h1> <span class="core-uptodate">Up to date as of August 19, 2010</span> <ul> <span class="fragment"> <li> <a href="/Levofloxacin">Levofloxacin</a> </li> </span> <span class="fragment"> <li> <a href="/Ofloxacin">Ofloxacin</a> </li> </span> <span class="fragment"> <li> <a href="/Moxifloxacin">Moxifloxacin</a> </li> </span> <span class="fragment"> <li> <a href="/Norfloxacin">Norfloxacin</a> </li> </span> <span class="fragment"> <li> <a href="/Ketoconazole">Ketoconazole</a> </li> </span> <span class="fragment"> <li> <a href="/Clozapine">Clozapine</a> </li> </span> <span class="fragment"> <li> <a href="/Quinolone">Quinolone</a> </li> </span> <span class="fragment"> <li> <a href="/Posaconazole">Posaconazole</a> </li> </span> <span class="fragment"> <li> <a href="/Vardenafil">Vardenafil</a> </li> </span> <span class="fragment"> <li> <a href="/Sildenafil">Sildenafil</a> </li> </span> </ul> </div> <div class="section-delimeter"></div></div> </div> <br/><br/><br/> <script type="text/javascript" language="javascript"><!-- function checkEmail(myForm) { if (/^\w+([\.-]?\w+)*@\w+([\.-]?\w+)*(\.\w{2,3})+$/.test(myForm.str_email.value)){ return (true); } alert("Invalid E-mail Address! 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