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Overview of human circadian biological clock with some physiological parameters.

A circadian rhythm is a roughly 24-hour cycle in the biochemical, physiological or behavioural processes of living entities, including plants, animals, fungi and cyanobacteria (see bacterial circadian rhythms). The term "circadian" comes from the Latin circa, "around", and diem or dies, "day", meaning literally "approximately one day". The formal study of biological temporal rhythms such as daily, tidal, weekly, seasonal, and annual rhythms, is called chronobiology.

Although circadian rhythms are endogenous, they are adjusted (entrained) to the environment by external cues called zeitgebers, the primary one of which is daylight.

Contents

History

The earliest known account of a circadian rhythm dates from the 4th century BC, when Androsthenes, a ship captain serving under Alexander the Great, described diurnal leaf movements of the tamarind tree.[1] The first modern observation of endogenous circadian oscillation was by the French scientist Jean-Jacques d'Ortous de Mairan in the 1700s; he noted that 24-hour patterns in the movement of the leaves of the plant Mimosa pudica continued even when the plants were isolated from external stimuli.

In 1918, J. S. Szymanski showed that animals are capable of maintaining 24-hour activity patterns in the absence of external cues such as light and changes in temperature.[2] Joseph Takahashi discovered the genetic basis for the rodent circadian rhythm in 1994.[3][4]

The term "circadian" was coined by Franz Halberg in the late 1950s.[5]

Criteria

To differentiate genuinely endogenous circadian rhythms from coincidental or apparent ones, three general criteria must be met: 1) the rhythms persist in the absence of cues, 2) they persist equally precisely over a range of temperatures, and 3) the rhythms can be adjusted to match the local time:

  • The rhythm persists in constant conditions (for example, constant dark) with a period of about 24 hours. The rationale for this criterion is to distinguish circadian rhythms from those "apparent" rhythms that are merely responses to external periodic cues. A rhythm cannot be declared to be endogenous unless it has been tested in conditions without external periodic input.
  • The rhythm is temperature-compensated, i.e., it maintains the same period over a range of temperatures. The rationale for this criterion is to distinguish circadian rhythms from other biological rhythms arising due to the circular nature of a reaction pathway. At a low enough or high enough temperature, the period of a circular reaction may reach 24 hours, but it will be merely coincidental.
  • The rhythm can be reset by exposure to an external stimulus. The rationale for this criterion is to distinguish circadian rhythms from other imaginable endogenous 24-hour rhythms that are immune to resetting by external cues and, hence, do not serve the purpose of estimating the local time. Travel across time zones illustrates the necessity of the ability to adjust the biological clock so that it can reflect the local time and anticipate what will happen next. Until rhythms are reset, a person usually experiences jet lag.

Origin

Photosensitive proteins and circadian rhythms are believed to have originated in the earliest cells, with the purpose of protecting the replicating of DNA from high ultraviolet radiation during the daytime. As a result, replication was relegated to the dark. The fungus Neurospora, which exists today, retains this clock-regulated mechanism.

Circadian rhythms allow organisms to anticipate and prepare for precise and regular environmental changes; they have great value in relation to the outside world. The rhythmicity appears to be as important in regulating and coordinating internal metabolic processes, as in coordinating with the environment.[6] This is suggested by the maintenance (heritability) of circadian rhythms in fruit flies after several hundred generations in constant laboratory conditions,[7] as well as in creatures in constant darkness in the wild, and by the experimental elimination of behavioural but not physiological circadian rhythms in quail.[8][9]

The simplest known circadian clock is that of the prokaryotic cyanobacteria. Recent research has demonstrated that the circadian clock of Synechococcus elongatus can be reconstituted in vitro with just the three proteins of their central oscillator. This clock has been shown to sustain a 22-hour rhythm over several days upon the addition of ATP. Previous explanations of the prokaryotic circadian timekeeper were dependent upon a DNA transcription / translation feedback mechanism.

It is an unanswered question whether circadian clocks in eukaryotic organisms require translation/transcription-derived oscillations, for, although the circadian systems of eukaryotes and prokaryotes have the same basic architecture (input – central oscillator – output), they do not share any homology. This implies probable independent origins.

In 1971, Ronald J. Konopka and Seymour Benzer first identified a genetic component of the biological clock using the fruit fly as a model system. Three mutant lines of flies displayed aberrant behaviour: one had a shorter period, another had a longer one, and the third had none. All three mutations mapped to the same gene, which was named period.[10] The same gene was identified to be defective in the sleep disorder FASPS (Familial advanced sleep phase syndrome) in human beings thirty years later, underscoring the conserved nature of the molecular circadian clock through evolution. Many more genetic components of the biological clock are now known. Their interactions result in an interlocked feedback loop of gene products resulting in periodic fluctuations that the cells of the body interpret as a specific time of the day.

A great deal of research on biological clocks was done in the latter half of the 20th century. It is now known that the molecular circadian clock can function within a single cell; i.e., it is cell-autonomous.[11] At the same time, different cells may communicate with each other resulting in a synchronized output of electrical signaling. These may interface with endocrine glands of the brain to result in periodic release of hormones. The receptors for these hormones may be located far across the body and synchronize the peripheral clocks of various organs. Thus, the information of the time of the day as relayed by the eyes travels to the clock in the brain, and, through that, clocks in the rest of the body may be synchronized. This is how the timing of, for example, sleep/wake, body temperature, thirst, and appetite are coordinately controlled by the biological clock.

Importance in animals

Circadian rhythmicity is present in the sleeping and feeding patterns of animals, including human beings. There are also clear patterns of core body temperature, brain wave activity, hormone production, cell regeneration and other biological activities. In addition, photoperiodism, the physiological reaction of organisms to the length of day or night, is vital to both plants and animals, and the circadian system plays a role in the measurement and interpretation of day length.

Timely prediction of seasonal periods of weather conditions, food availability or predator activity is crucial for survival of many species. Although not the only parameter, the changing length of the photoperiod ('daylength') is the most predictive environmental cue for the seasonal timing of physiology and behavior, most notably for timing of migration, hibernation and reproduction.[12]
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Impact of light–dark cycle

The rhythm is linked to the light–dark cycle. Animals, including humans, kept in total darkness for extended periods eventually function with a freerunning rhythm. Each "day", their sleep cycle is pushed back or forward, depending on whether their endogenous period is shorter or longer than 24 hours. The environmental cues that each day reset the rhythms are called Zeitgebers (from the German, Time Givers).[13] It is interesting to note that totally-blind subterranean mammals (e.g., blind mole rat Spalax sp.) are able to maintain their endogenous clocks in the apparent absence of external stimuli. Although they lack image-forming eyes, their photoreceptors (detect light) are still functional; as well, they do surface periodically.[citation needed]

Freerunning organisms that normally have one consolidated sleep episode will still have it when in an environment shielded from external cues, but the rhythm is, of course, not entrained to the 24-hour light/dark cycle in nature. The sleep–wake rhythm may, in these circumstances, become out of phase with other circadian or ultradian rhythms such as temperature and digestion.[citation needed]

Recent research has influenced the design of spacecraft environments, as systems that mimic the light/dark cycle have been found to be highly beneficial to astronauts.[citation needed]

Arctic animals

Norwegian researchers at the University of Tromsø have shown that some Arctic animals (ptarmigan, reindeer) show circadian rhythms only in the parts of the year that have daily sunrises and sunsets. In one study of reindeer, animals at 70 degrees North showed circadian rhythms in the autumn, winter, and spring, but not in the summer. Reindeer at 78 degrees North showed such rhythms only autumn and spring. The researchers suspect that other Arctic animals as well may not show circadian rhythms in the constant light of summer and the constant dark of winter.[14][15]

However, another study in northern Alaska found that ground squirrels and porcupines strictly maintained their circadian rhythms through 82 days and nights of sunshine. The researchers speculate that these two small mammals see that the apparent distance between the sun and the horizon is shortest once a day, and, thus, a sufficient signal to adjust by.[16]

Butterfly migration

The navigation of the fall migration of the Eastern North American monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus) to their overwintering grounds in central Mexico uses a time-compensated sun compass that depends upon a circadian clock in their antennae.[17][18]

Biological clock in mammals

Diagram illustrating the influence of light and darkness on circadian rhythms and related physiology and behaviour through the suprachiasmatic nucleus in humans.

The primary circadian "clock" in mammals is located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (or nuclei) (SCN), a pair of distinct groups of cells located in the hypothalamus. Destruction of the SCN results in the complete absence of a regular sleep–wake rhythm. The SCN receives information about illumination through the eyes. The retina of the eye contains not only the "classical" photoreceptors which are used for vision but ganglion cells which respond to light and are called photosensitive ganglion cells.

These cells contain the photo pigment melanopsin and their signals follow a pathway called the retinohypothalamic tract, leading to the SCN. If cells from the SCN are removed and cultured, they maintain their own rhythm in the absence of external cues.

The SCN takes the information on the lengths of the day and night from the retina, interprets it, and passes it on to the pineal gland, a tiny structure shaped like a pine cone and located on the epithalamus. In response the pineal secretes the hormone melatonin. Secretion of melatonin peaks at night and ebbs during the day and its presence provides information about night-length.

The circadian rhythms of humans can be entrained to slightly shorter and longer periods than the Earth's 24 hours. Researchers at Harvard have recently shown that human subjects can at least be entrained to a 23.5-hour cycle and a 24.65-hour cycle (the latter being the natural solar day-night cycle on the planet Mars).[19]

Determining the human circadian rhythm

The classic phase markers for measuring the timing of a mammal's circadian rhythm are[20]

  • melatonin secretion by the pineal gland and
  • core body temperature.

For temperature studies, people must remain awake but calm and semi-reclined in near darkness while their rectal temperatures are taken continuously. The average human adult's temperature reaches its minimum at about 05:00 (5 a.m.), about two hours before habitual wake time, though variation is great among normal chronotypes.

Melatonin is absent from the system or undetectably low during daytime. Its onset in dim light, dim-light melatonin onset (DLMO), at about 21:00 (9 p.m.) can be measured in the blood or the saliva. Its major metabolite can also be measured in morning urine. Both DLMO and the midpoint (in time) of the presence of the hormone in the blood or saliva have been used as circadian markers.

However, newer research indicates that the melatonin offset may be the most reliable marker. Benloucif et al. in Chicago in 2005 found that melatonin phase markers were more stable and more highly correlated with the timing of sleep than the core temperature minimum. They found that both sleep offset and melatonin offset were more strongly correlated with the various phase markers than sleep onset. In addition, the declining phase of the melatonin levels was more reliable and stable than the termination of melatonin synthesis.[20]

One method used for measuring melatonin offset is to analyse a sequence of urine samples throughout the morning for the presence of the melatonin metabolite 6-sulphatoxymelatonin (aMT6s). Laberge et al. in Quebec in 1997 used this method in a study that confirmed the frequently found delayed circadian phase in healthy adolescents.[21]

Outside the "master clock"

More-or-less independent circadian rhythms are found in many organs and cells in the body outside the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN), the "master clock". These clocks, called peripheral oscillators, are found in the oesophagus, lungs, liver, pancreas, spleen, thymus, and the skin.[22] Though oscillators in the skin respond to light, a systemic influence has not been proven so far.[23][24] There is some evidence that also the olfactory bulb and prostate may experience oscillations when cultured, suggesting that also these structures may be weak oscillators.

Furthermore, liver cells, for example, appear to respond to feeding rather than to light. Cells from many parts of the body appear to have freerunning rhythms.

Light and the biological clock

Light resets the biological clock in accordance with the phase response curve (PRC). Depending on the timing, light can advance or delay the circadian rhythm. Both the PRC and the required illuminance vary from species to species and lower light levels are required to reset the clocks in nocturnal rodents than in humans.

Lighting levels that affect circadian rhythm in humans are higher than the levels usually used in artificial lighting in homes. According to some researchers[25] the illumination intensity that excites the circadian system has to reach up to 1000 lux striking the retina. In addition to light intensity, wavelength (or colour) of light is a factor in the entrainment of the body clock. Melanopsin is most efficiently excited by blue light, 420–440 nm[26] according to some researchers while others have reported 470–485 nm.

It is thought that the direction of the light may have an effect on entraining the circadian rhythm;[25] light coming from above, resembling an image of a bright sky, has greater effect than light entering our eyes from below.

According to a 2010 study completed by the Lighting Research Center, daylight has a direct effect on circadian rhythms and, consequently, on performance and well-being. The research showed that students who experience disruption in lighting schemes in the morning consequently experience disruption in sleeping patterns. The change in sleeping patterns may lead to negatively impacted student performance and alertness. Removing circadian light in the morning delays the dim light melatonin onset by 6 minutes a day, for a total of 30 minutes for five days.[27]

Enforced longer cycles

Modern research under very controlled conditions has shown the human period for adults to be just slightly longer than 24 hours on average. Czeisler et al. at Harvard found the range for normal, healthy adults of all ages to be quite narrow: 24 hours and 11 minutes ± 16 minutes. The "clock" resets itself daily to the 24-hour cycle of the Earth's rotation.[28]

The 28-hour day is presented as a concept of time management.[29] It builds on the fact that the week of seven days at 24 hours and a "week" of six days at 28 hours both equal a week of 168 hours. To live on the 28-hour day and six-day week would require staying awake for 19 to 20 hours and sleeping for eight to nine hours. Each "day" on this system has a unique light/dark pattern.

Studies by Nathaniel Kleitman[30] in 1938 and by Derk-Jan Dijk and Charles Czeisler[31][32] in 1994/5 have put human subjects on enforced 28-hour sleep–wake cycles, in constant dim light and with other time cues suppressed, for over a month. Because normal people cannot entrain to a 28-hour day,[33] this is referred to as a forced desynchrony protocol. Sleep and wake episodes are uncoupled from the endogenous circadian period of about 24.18 hours and researchers are allowed to assess the effects of circadian phase on aspects of sleep and wakefulness including sleep latency and other functions.[34]

Early research into circadian rhythms suggested that most people preferred a day closer to 25 hours when isolated from external stimuli like daylight and timekeeping. Early investigators determined the human circadian period to be 25 hours or more. They went to great lengths to shield subjects from time cues and daylight, but they were not aware of the effects of indoor electric lights. The subjects were allowed to turn on light when they were awake and to turn it off when they wanted to sleep. Electric light in the evening delayed their circadian phase. These results became well known.[28] Researchers allowed subjects to keep electric lighting on in the evening, as it was thought at that time that a couple of 60W bulbs would not have a resetting effect on the circadian rhythms of humans. More recent research[citation needed] has shown that adults have a built-in day, which averages just over 24 hours, that indoor lighting does affect circadian rhythms and that most people attain their best-quality sleep during their chronotype-determined sleep periods.

Human health

Timing of medical treatment in coordination with the body clock may significantly increase efficacy and reduce drug toxicity or adverse reactions. For example, appropriately timed treatment with angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEi) may reduce nocturnal blood pressure and also benefit left ventricular (reverse) remodelling.[citation needed]

A short nap during the day does not affect circadian rhythms.

A number of studies have concluded that a short period of sleep during the day, a power-nap, does not have any effect on normal circadian rhythm, but can decrease stress and improve productivity.[35][36]

There are many health problems associated with disturbances of the human circadian rhythm, such as seasonal affective disorder (SAD), delayed sleep phase syndrome (DSPS) and other circadian rhythm disorders.[37] Circadian rhythms also play a part in the reticular activating system, which is crucial for maintaining a state of consciousness. In addition, a reversal in the sleep–wake cycle may be a sign or complication of uremia,[38] azotemia or acute renal failure.

Studies have also shown that light has a direct effect on human health because of the way it influences the circadian rhythms.[39][40][41][42]

Disruption

Disruption to rhythms usually has a negative effect. Many travellers have experienced the condition known as jet lag, with its associated symptoms of fatigue, disorientation and insomnia.

A number of other disorders, for example bipolar disorder and some sleep disorders, are associated with irregular or pathological functioning of circadian rhythms. Recent research suggests that circadian rhythm disturbances found in bipolar disorder are positively influenced by lithium's effect on clock genes.[43]

Disruption to rhythms in the longer term is believed to have significant adverse health consequences on peripheral organs outside the brain, particularly in the development or exacerbation of cardiovascular disease.[44] The suppression of melatonin production associated with the disruption of the circadian rhythm may increase the risk of developing cancer.[45]

Effect of drugs

Circadian rhythms and clock genes expressed in brain regions outside the SCN may significantly influence the effects produced by drugs such as cocaine.[46][47] Moreover, genetic manipulations of clock genes profoundly affect cocaine's actions.[48]

See also

References

Bibliography

Notes

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