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.
Circumcision being performed in central Asia, (most likely Turkmenistan,) c.
^ Circumcision is uncommon in Asia, South America, Central America, and most of Europe.
  • Circumcision Policy Statement -- Task Force on Circumcision 103 (3): 686 -- AAP Policy 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC aappolicy.aappublications.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Circumcision Policy Statement -- Task Force on Circumcision 103 (3): 686 -- Pediatrics 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC pediatrics.aappublications.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Have you watched a circumcision being performed?
  • To circumcise or not? | Parents Talk Back | STLtoday 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC www.stltoday.com [Source type: Original source]

^ But, when it comes to one of the most prophylactic procedures like that of circumcising our sons?
  • Adult Circumcision Stories - Men Circumcised As Adults Tell It As It Is... 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.circinfo.net [Source type: Original source]

1865-1872. Restored albumen print.
.Male circumcision is the removal of some or all of the foreskin (prepuce) from the penis.^ Removal of the foreskin desensitizes the penis.
  • Berkeley Parents Network: Advice about Circumcision 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC parents.berkeley.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Removal of the clitoris is not the same as male circumcision.
  • Circumcised at 37: a personal story and a rebuke to the MRAs at Hugo Schwyzer 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC hugoschwyzer.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Circumcision is removal of the foreskin, not the whole tip of the penis.
  • Male Circumcision - Pros and Cons | The Art of Manliness 15 September 2009 5:25 UTC artofmanliness.com [Source type: Original source]

[1] .The word "circumcision" comes from Latin circum (meaning "around") and cædere (meaning "to cut").^ The foreskin itself being being clamped and cut off isn't where a majority of the pain of circumcision comes from.
  • Men's Health Office: The Never-ending Circumcision Debate 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC blogs.webmd.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Also, when circumcision was popularized in America back around WWII, no one worried about that sort of mismatch - intact father, cut son.
  • Daddy Daze | Being a dad in Houston | MomHouston.com 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC blogs.chron.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Yet, from my own experience, very few people encountered at a circumcision even knew the literal meaning of the word Brith Milah besides the significance of the word.
  • Rabbi Schur Thesis - Variance of Behavior Patterns Towards Ritual Circumcision 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.mnemotrix.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Rabbi Schur Thesis - Variance of Behavior Patterns Towards Ritual Circumcision 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.tachash.org [Source type: Original source]

.Early depictions of circumcision are found in cave paintings and Ancient Egyptian tombs, though some pictures are open to interpretation.^ Male circumcision is depicted in Egyptian tombs 5,000 years ago, while Gairdner refers to evidence that it has its origins long before this in prehistory up to 15,000 years ago.
  • Circumcision, Talmud Style 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.come-and-hear.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Many non-Jews (and some Jews) are made uncomfortable by circumcision precisely because it marks a necessary though not sufficient distinction between Jews and non Jews.
  • Washington Diarist: Membership | The New Republic 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.tnr.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In the wake of this silence, some people have tried to give their own interpretations of some verses to support male circumcision.
  • Male and Female Circumcision 15 September 2009 5:25 UTC www.hraicjk.org [Source type: Original source]

[2][3][4] .Religious male circumcision is considered a commandment from God in Judaism.^ God ordered circumcision to all males.
  • Male Circumcision - Pros and Cons | The Art of Manliness 15 September 2009 5:25 UTC artofmanliness.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The practice of male neonatal circumcision is not limited to North America; it is performed worldwide for religious and cultural reasons.
  • Pain relief for neonatal circumcision 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.nichd.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Religious male circumcision is practised under both Jewish and Islamic law, and it is an integral part of some aboriginal and African cultural practices.
  • Is Circumcision Safe? | Mark's Daily Apple 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC www.marksdailyapple.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[5] .In Islam, though not discussed in the Qur'an, male circumcision is widely practised and most often considered to be a sunnah.^ Male circumcision is sunnah and female circumcision is makrumah .
  • Male and Female Circumcision 15 September 2009 5:25 UTC www.hraicjk.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In the USA where most males are circumcised, the HIV/AIDS infection rate is many times higher than in Europe (where most males are intact).
  • bmj.com Rapid Responses for Szabo and Short, 320 (7249) 1592-1594 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.bmj.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Religious male circumcision is practised under both Jewish and Islamic law, and it is an integral part of some aboriginal and African cultural practices.
  • Is Circumcision Safe? | Mark's Daily Apple 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC www.marksdailyapple.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[6] It is also customary in some Christian churches in Africa, including some Oriental Orthodox Churches.[7] .According to the World Health Organization (WHO), global estimates suggest that 30% of males are circumcised, of whom 68% are Muslim.^ Muslim authors skim over male circumcision.
  • To Mutilate in the Name ofJehovah or Allah 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.quran.org [Source type: Original source]

^ RE: Most of the 30% of the world's males who ARE circumcized are Muslims.
  • Put Down the Knife! 11 Reasons Not to Circumcise | Personal Health | AlterNet 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC www.alternet.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Male Circumcision for hygienic health reasons .
  • bmj.com Rapid Responses for Patrick, 335 (7631) 1181 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.bmj.com [Source type: Academic]

[8] .The prevalence of circumcision varies mostly with religious affiliation, and sometimes culture.^ The practice of male neonatal circumcision is not limited to North America; it is performed worldwide for religious and cultural reasons.
  • Pain relief for neonatal circumcision 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.nichd.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Religious male circumcision is practised under both Jewish and Islamic law, and it is an integral part of some aboriginal and African cultural practices.
  • Is Circumcision Safe? | Mark's Daily Apple 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC www.marksdailyapple.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some groups, such as followers of the Jewish and Islamic faiths, practice circumcision for religious and cultural reasons.
  • UrbanBaby - Information For Parents About circumcision 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.urbanbaby.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Most circumcisions are performed during adolescence for cultural or religious reasons;[9] in some countries they are more commonly performed during infancy.^ Religious reasons — some people choose to circumcise for religious or cultural reasons.

^ Many circumcisions are performed for social or religious reasons.
  • Phimosis, Adult Circumcision, and Buried Penis: eMedicine Urology 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In most other countries, circumcision is performed only for religious reasons.
  • News 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.mgmbill.org [Source type: Original source]

[8]
.There is controversy regarding circumcision.^ Circumcision is a controversial topic because there is so much misinformation and emotion included as fact.
  • Men's Health Office: Adult Circumcision 11 September 2009 23:56 UTC blogs.webmd.com [Source type: Original source]

^ July 18, 2007 10:26 PM [ 0 + There are a couple of important issues regarding circumcision and other like practices.
  • Male circumcision and female pleasure - Feministing 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC feministing.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ BACKGROUND. Controversy exists regarding the efficacy of routine neonatal circumcision of male infants.

.Schoen argues that it provides important health advantages which outweigh the risks, has no substantial effects on sexual function, has a low complication rate when carried out by an experienced physician, and is best performed during the neonatal period.^ It also provides a rollover function during sexual intercourse that massages the glans.
  • Male Circumcision - Pros and Cons | The Art of Manliness 15 September 2009 5:25 UTC artofmanliness.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In fact, many countries have come out AGAINST circ… per The Fetus and Newborn Committee of the Canadian Paediatric Society, “circumcision of newborns should not be routinely performed,” and The Royal Australasian College of Physicians (RACP) states that they “reaffirm that there is no medical indication for routine neonatal circumcision”.
  • The Little Seed » Blog Archive » Circumcision, what to consider when making the decision for our children… 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.thelittleseed.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The World Health Organization sensibly warns that it does not provide full protection against HIV/AIDS, and that if the procedure is performed in non-sterile environments, the potential harm may outweigh the benefits.
  • Circumcision: Is It More than a Convenant with God? | BlogHer 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC www.blogher.com [Source type: General]

[10] .Milos and Macris argue that it adversely affects penile function and sexual pleasure, is justified by medical myths, is extremely painful, and is comparable to female genital cutting.^ It is extremely disrespectful and belittling to the women who have gone through this agonizing process, which continues to affect them throughout their lives, to compare their genital mutilation to a process which removes skin with no real, significant purpose.
  • TODAYMoms - Should baby boys be circumcised? 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC community.todaymoms.com [Source type: Original source]

^ You are certainly entitled to forego circumcising your sons, but as a political, medical and aesthetic matter the procedure has virtually nothing in common with female genital mutilation.
  • UrbanBaby - Information For Parents About circumcision 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.urbanbaby.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Why the arguments from sentiment and sexual pleasure don't cut it for me.
  • Her.meneutics: The Case for Male Circumcision 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC blog.christianitytoday.com [Source type: Original source]

[11]
The American Medical Association stated in 1999: "Virtually all current policy statements from specialty societies and medical organizations do not recommend routine neonatal circumcision, and support the provision of accurate and unbiased information to parents to inform their choice."[12]
.The World Health Organization (WHO; 2007), the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS; 2007), and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC; 2008) state that evidence indicates male circumcision significantly reduces the risk of HIV acquisition by men during penile-vaginal sex, but also state that circumcision only provides minimal protection and should not replace other interventions to prevent transmission of HIV.^ According to the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS), 64.1% of male infants were circumcised in the United States during 1995 (unpublished data, 1997).
  • Circumcision Policy Statement -- Task Force on Circumcision 103 (3): 686 -- AAP Policy 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC aappolicy.aappublications.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Circumcision Policy Statement -- Task Force on Circumcision 103 (3): 686 -- Pediatrics 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC pediatrics.aappublications.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Religions that also prevent sexual promiscuity, thereby reducing HIV transmission.
  • Men's Health Office: Foreskin Facts: Turtleneck or No, It All Feels the Same 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC blogs.webmd.com [Source type: Original source]

^ No national health organization on earth recommends routine circumcision.
  • Rumor: Madonna to circumcise David? – Celebrity Baby Blog – People.com 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC celebrity-babies.com [Source type: Original source]

[13][14]

Contents

History

Ancient Egyptian carved scene of circumcision, from the inner northern wall of the Temple of Khonspekhrod at the Precinct of Mut, Luxor, Egypt. Eighteenth dynasty, Amenhotep III, c. 1360 BC.
.It has been variously proposed that circumcision began as a religious sacrifice, an offering to ensure fertility, a tribal mark, a rite of passage, an attempt to emphasise masculinity, a means of humiliating enemies and slaves,[15] or as a hygienic measure.^ The medical benefits of circumcision have overwhelmed the religious meaning of the practice.” .
  • Washington Diarist: Membership | The New Republic 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.tnr.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This meme does not exist in cultures where circumcision is a rite of passage - in those cultures it's is presumed that circumcision demonstrates a certain level of masculine strength and maturity and is something that no infant would be expected to endure.
  • Circumcision: Is It More than a Convenant with God? | BlogHer 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC www.blogher.com [Source type: General]

^ If circumcision was something that I consider necessary for proper hygiene or religious beliefs (which I don’t) it shouldn’t be up to me to decide whether or not to have the procedure?
  • Is Circumcision Safe? | Mark's Daily Apple 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC www.marksdailyapple.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[15][16] .Darby describes these theories as "conflicting", and states that "the only point of agreement among proponents of the various theories is that promoting good health had nothing to do with it."^ But in 1975, the American health commission stated that circumcision was not a good hygienic measure.
  • To Mutilate in the Name ofJehovah or Allah 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.quran.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The agency points out that "although...clamps may appear to have interchangeable parts, these parts may not always be safely interchanged because they may vary slightly in dimensions."
  • Circumcision Complications 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.circumstitions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[15] .Immerman et al. suggest that circumcision causes lowered sexual arousal of pubescent males, and hypothesize that this was a competitive advantage to tribes practising circumcision, leading to its spread.^ Circumcision (male and female) causes pain.
  • To Mutilate in the Name ofJehovah or Allah 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.quran.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Advantages of male circumcision .
  • To Mutilate in the Name ofJehovah or Allah 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.quran.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Religious male circumcision is practised under both Jewish and Islamic law, and it is an integral part of some aboriginal and African cultural practices.
  • Is Circumcision Safe? | Mark's Daily Apple 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC www.marksdailyapple.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[17] .Wilson believes that circumcision represents a signal of commitment to a group, and may serve evolutionary purpose by reducing the incidence of extramarital sex.^ Circumcision reduces the incidence of STD's?
  • The Checkup - Should You Circumcise Your Son? 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC voices.washingtonpost.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Doctor Nawal El-Saadawi denies also that female circumcision will reduce the incidence of genital cancer 130 .
  • To Mutilate in the Name ofJehovah or Allah 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.quran.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Evidence associating neonatal circumcision with reduced incidence of sexually transmitted diseases is conflicting.
  • UrbanBaby - Information For Parents About circumcision 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.urbanbaby.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[18]
.The oldest documentary evidence for circumcision comes from ancient Egypt.^ The oldest documentary evidence for circumcision comes from Egypt.

^ Circumcision is known to have been practiced in ancient Egypt even before it was introduced to the Jews as part of God's covenant with Abraham.
  • Turkish Odyssey/About Turkey/Anotolian Culture/People 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.turkishodyssey.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although its origins are unknown, earliest evidence of the practice dates from ancient Egypt (2300 BC), where it is thought to have been used originally to mark male slaves.
  • CIRCLIST - History and Art 11 September 2009 23:56 UTC www.circlist.com [Source type: Original source]

[19] .Circumcision was common, although not universal, among ancient Semitic peoples.^ Female circumcision is less common, but the great majority of the circumcised women in the world belong to the Muslim community -- although there are many Muslim countries that do not practice female circumcision.
  • Male and Female Circumcision 15 September 2009 5:25 UTC www.hraicjk.org [Source type: Original source]

^ To me, I am sure many people from Africa where female circumcision is common love their children very much.
  • Is Circumcision Safe? | Mark's Daily Apple 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC www.marksdailyapple.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although circumcision of girls was outlawed in response to the practice being common among immigrants from some Muslim countries, boys may still be circumcised if a certified physician is present.
  • News 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.mgmbill.org [Source type: Original source]

[20] .In the aftermath of the conquests of Alexander the Great, however, Greek dislike of circumcision (they regarded a man as truly "naked" only if his prepuce was retracted) led to a decline in its incidence among many peoples that had previously practiced it.^ Who are they who practice circumcision?
  • Male and Female Circumcision 15 September 2009 5:25 UTC www.hraicjk.org [Source type: Original source]

^ This is the problem, when people think about female circumcision they alway think of the worst situation.
  • Put Down the Knife! 11 Reasons Not to Circumcise 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC ecochildsplay.com [Source type: Original source]

^ When the Israelites saw the man, they all ran from him in great fear.
  • Circumcision 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC www.betemunah.org [Source type: Original source]

[21]
.Circumcision has ancient roots among several ethnic groups in sub-equatorial Africa, and is still performed on adolescent boys to symbolize their transition to warrior status or adulthood.^ Among some ethnic groups, an individual receives his or her first marks at the age of 14, signifying transition from childhood to adulthood.
  • News 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.mgmbill.org [Source type: Original source]

^ We are against the performance of tradition-driven, non-therapeutic circumcision in children, both in the newborns and adolescents.

^ We are against the holding of Operation Tule, which promotes the performance of tradition-driven, non-therapeutic circumcision in adolescents.

[22]

Non-religious circumcision in the English-speaking world

.Infant circumcision was taken up in the United States, Australia and the English-speaking parts of Canada, South Africa, New Zealand and to a lesser extent in the United Kingdom.^ The practice spread from England concurrently to other English-speaking countries (Canada, Australia and the United States).
  • To Mutilate in the Name ofJehovah or Allah 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.quran.org [Source type: Original source]

^ I am speaking up for infants, that cannot speak for themselves!
  • Her.meneutics: The Case for Male Circumcision 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC blog.christianitytoday.com [Source type: Original source]

^ USA: from 90% to 57% Canada: from 47% to 9.2% UK: from 35% to about 5% (less than 1% among non-Muslims) Australia: 90% to 12.6% (”routine” circumcision has recently been *banned* in public hospitals in all states except one, so the rate will now be a lot lower) New Zealand: 95% to below 3% (mostly Samoans and Tongans) South America and Europe: never above 5% .
  • Did you circumcise your son? | A Blog for Busy Moms - MOMania 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC blogs.ajc.com [Source type: General]

.There are several hypotheses to explain why infant circumcision was accepted in the United States about the year 1900. The germ theory of disease elicited an image of the human body as a conveyance for many dangerous germs, making the public "germ phobic" and suspicious of dirt and bodily secretions.^ He also explains why God ordered circumcision: .
  • Male and Female Circumcision 15 September 2009 5:25 UTC www.hraicjk.org [Source type: Original source]

^ I am from the UK circumcision is uncommon there (about 8000 a year total).
  • UrbanBaby - Information For Parents About circumcision 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.urbanbaby.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If circumcision is reasonable then why stop there?
  • bmj.com Rapid Responses for Patrick, 335 (7631) 1181 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.bmj.com [Source type: Academic]

.The penis became "dirty" by association with its function, and from this premise circumcision was seen as preventative medicine to be practised universally.^ The best way to prevent concealed penis is to not perform neonatal circumcision.

^ After you have seen a few bad circumcisions, and the softer, smooth skin of an uncircumcised penis, there really is no comparision.
  • Men's Health Office: The Never-ending Circumcision Debate 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC blogs.webmd.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Studies performed at the University of Colorado School of Medicine showed that circumcision is followed by prolonged, unrestful non-REM (rapid eye movement) sleep.

[23] .In the view of many practitioners at the time, circumcision was a method of treating and preventing masturbation.^ In the 1840s, circumcision prevents masturbation.
  • Is Circumcision Wrong? | Momversation 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC www.momversation.com [Source type: General]

^ In the USA where most males are circumcised, the HIV/AIDS infection rate is many times higher than in Europe (where most males are intact).
  • bmj.com Rapid Responses for Szabo and Short, 320 (7249) 1592-1594 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.bmj.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Medicalized circumcision began during the 1800s to prevent masturbation, which was believed to cause disease.
  • The Little Seed » Blog Archive » Circumcision, what to consider when making the decision for our children… 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.thelittleseed.com [Source type: Original source]

[23] Aggleton wrote that John Harvey Kellogg viewed male circumcision in this way, and further "advocated an unashamedly punitive approach."[24] Circumcision was also said to protect against syphilis,[25] phimosis, paraphimosis, balanitis, and "excessive venery" (which was believed to produce paralysis).[23] .Gollaher states that physicians advocating circumcision in the late nineteenth century expected public scepticism, and refined their arguments to overcome it.^ The public considers the physicians as the professionals to turn to when it comes to issues on circumcision.

^ An finally, the AAP states on their site: “benefits are not sufficient… to recommend that all infant boys be circumcised.” http://www.aap.org/publiced/BR_Circumcision.htm .
  • Put Down the Knife! 11 Reasons Not to Circumcise 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC ecochildsplay.com [Source type: Original source]

^ As late as the 1970s, leading American medical textbooks still advocated routine circumcision as a way to prevent masturbation.” — Paul M. Fleiss, MD The Case Against Circumcision .

[23]
.Although it is difficult to determine historical circumcision rates, one estimate of infant circumcision rates in the United States holds that 32% of newborn American boys were being circumcised in 1933.[26] Laumann et al. reported that the prevalence of circumcision among US-born males was approximately 70%, 80%, 85%, and 77% for those born in 1945, 1955, 1965, and 1971 respectively.^ This is the reason the rest of the world has experienced circumcision rates far below those reported in the United States.
  • To circumcise or not? | Parents Talk Back | STLtoday 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC www.stltoday.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The number is similar to the rates of 0.7% to 1.4% reported for uncircumcised males in the United States and Canada.
  • Circumcision Policy Statement -- Task Force on Circumcision 103 (3): 686 -- AAP Policy 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC aappolicy.aappublications.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Circumcision Policy Statement -- Task Force on Circumcision 103 (3): 686 -- Pediatrics 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC pediatrics.aappublications.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Circumcision rates are way down from their peak of 85 percent in 1965.
  • News 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.mgmbill.org [Source type: Original source]

[26] .Xu et al. reported that the prevalence of circumcision among US-born males was 91% for males born in the 1970s and 84% for those born in the 1980s.^ The advent of MRSA in epidemic proportions increases risks associated with male neonatal circumcision beyond those previously contemplated and further increases the desirability of the non-circumcision option.
  • Circumcision Complications 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.circumstitions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ According to Al-Jahiz (died 868): "Male and female circumcision was practiced by Arabs since the time of Abraham and Hagar until today".
  • Male and Female Circumcision 15 September 2009 5:25 UTC www.hraicjk.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Al-Qaradawi says that the war should be declared only in case of abandoning male circumcision.
  • Male and Female Circumcision 15 September 2009 5:25 UTC www.hraicjk.org [Source type: Original source]

[27] .Between 1981 and 1999, National Hospital Discharge Survey data from the National Center for Health Statistics demonstrated that the infant circumcision rate remained relatively stable within the 60% range, with a minimum of 60.7% in 1988 and a maximum of 67.8% in 1995.[28] A 1987 study found that the most prominent reasons US parents choose circumcision were "concerns about the attitudes of peers and their sons' self concept in the future," rather than medical concerns.^ According to the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS), 64.1% of male infants were circumcised in the United States during 1995 (unpublished data, 1997).
  • Circumcision Policy Statement -- Task Force on Circumcision 103 (3): 686 -- AAP Policy 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC aappolicy.aappublications.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Circumcision Policy Statement -- Task Force on Circumcision 103 (3): 686 -- Pediatrics 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC pediatrics.aappublications.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Reasons to choose circumcision .
  • CIGNA - Circumcision: Should I keep my son's penis natural? 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.cigna.com [Source type: General]

^ National Center for Health Statistics (2006).
  • CIGNA - Circumcision: Should I keep my son's penis natural? 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.cigna.com [Source type: General]

[29] .However, a later study speculated that an increased recognition of the potential benefits of neonatal circumcision may have been responsible for the observed increase in the US rate between 1988 and 2000.[30] A report by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality placed the 2005 national circumcision rate at 56%.^ The results of this study suggest that neonatal circumcision results in higher rate of complications than later circumcisions.

^ In 1999, the American Pediatric Association revised their statement on circumcision to acknowledge the “potential medical benefits” of the procedure but concluded “these data are not sufficient to recommend routine neonatal circumcision.” Most of Canada has “de-listed” circumcision as a necessary (i.e.
  • Is Circumcision Safe? | Mark's Daily Apple 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC www.marksdailyapple.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Studies have shown that there is no difference in sensitivity and sexual response between circumcised and uncircumcised penises (41) Editor Male, 17 years 9 months, White - Australia .
  • Stories #3 - Teenage Boys' Sexuality 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC boysunderattack.com [Source type: Original source]

[31]
.In 1949, the United Kingdom's newly-formed National Health Service removed infant circumcision from its list of covered services, and circumcision has since been an out-of-pocket cost to parents.^ Advertisement The last time circumcision made headlines in New York City, the city Department of Health and Mental Hygiene was objecting to an ultra-Orthodox Jewish practice in which mohels -- professional circumcisers -- sucked blood out of the wounds of newly cut infants.
  • To Circumcise or Not? | | AlterNet 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC www.alternet.org [Source type: General]

^ The figure is higher in the United States, where about 79 percent of men are circumcised, according to surveys by the National Center for Health Statistics.” .
  • Did you circumcise your son? | A Blog for Busy Moms - MOMania 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC blogs.ajc.com [Source type: General]

^ According to the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS), 64.1% of male infants were circumcised in the United States during 1995 (unpublished data, 1997).
  • Circumcision Policy Statement -- Task Force on Circumcision 103 (3): 686 -- AAP Policy 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC aappolicy.aappublications.org [Source type: Academic]

.Among men (aged 15 years or older) who are neither Jews nor Muslims, the overall prevalance of circumcision in the UK is 6% according to the WHO's estimates.^ I prefer to be with men who aren't circumcised .
  • UrbanBaby - Information For Parents About circumcision 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.urbanbaby.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There are Jews who are against circumcision.
  • UrbanBaby - Information For Parents About circumcision 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.urbanbaby.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I'm another Jew who circumcised her son.
  • Berkeley Parents Network: Advice about Circumcision 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC parents.berkeley.edu [Source type: Original source]

[8] .When "data from targeted oversampling of black Caribbean, black African, Indian, and Pakistani groups (the Natsal ethnic minority boost) were combined with the main [Natsal II] survey data", it was found that the prevalence of circumcision in the UK is age-graded, with 11.7% of those aged 16–19 years circumcised and 19.6% of those aged 40–44 years.^ I was circumcised at the age of 16 to correct this problem.
  • Men's Health Office: The Never-ending Circumcision Debate 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC blogs.webmd.com [Source type: Original source]

^ We had no choice but to have circumcised at age 11.
  • Put Down the Knife! 11 Reasons Not to Circumcise | Personal Health | AlterNet 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC www.alternet.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I was circumcised 5 years ago at age 34.
  • Adult Circumcision Stories - Men Circumcised As Adults Tell It As It Is... 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.circinfo.net [Source type: Original source]

[32] .There is a clear ethnic division: "With the exception of black Caribbeans, men from all ethnic minority backgrounds were significantly [(3.02 times)] more likely to report being circumcised compared to men who described their ethnicity as white". These particular findings "confirm that the prevalence of male circumcision among British men appears to be declining.^ I prefer to be with men who aren't circumcised .
  • UrbanBaby - Information For Parents About circumcision 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.urbanbaby.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The men who were uncut were able to please me more.
  • Male circumcision and female pleasure - Feministing 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC feministing.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Comparing Male to Female circumcision is ridiculous.
  • Put Down the Knife! 11 Reasons Not to Circumcise | Personal Health | AlterNet 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC www.alternet.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This is despite an increase in the proportion of the British population describing their ethnicity as nonwhite"; indeed, the proportion of newborns circumcised in England and Wales has fallen to less than one percent.^ It took less than one hour.
  • Men's Health Office: Adult Circumcision 11 September 2009 23:56 UTC blogs.webmd.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The advent of MRSA in epidemic proportions increases risks associated with male neonatal circumcision beyond those previously contemplated and further increases the desirability of the non-circumcision option.
  • Circumcision Complications 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.circumstitions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The neonatal circumcision rate in the western US has now fallen to 34.2 percent.

.The circumcision rate has declined sharply in Australia since the 1970s, leading to an age-graded fall in prevalence, with a 2000-01 survey finding 32% of those aged 16–19 years circumcised, 50% for 20–29 years and 64% for those aged 30–39 years.^ I was circumcised at the age of 16 to correct this problem.
  • Men's Health Office: The Never-ending Circumcision Debate 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC blogs.webmd.com [Source type: Original source]

^ "At age 29, I just underwent a circumcision.
  • Adult Circumcision Stories - Men Circumcised As Adults Tell It As It Is... 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.circinfo.net [Source type: Original source]

^ I got circumcised at age 25, I am now 29.
  • Men's Health Office: Foreskin Facts: Turtleneck or No, It All Feels the Same 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC blogs.webmd.com [Source type: Original source]

[33][34]
In Canada, Ontario health services delisted circumcision in 1994.[35]

Cultures and religions

.Family circumcision set and trunk, ca.^ Moreno CA, Realini JP. Infant circumcision in an outpatient setting.

eighteenth century Wooden box covered in cow hide with silver implements: silver trays, clip, pointer, silver flask, spice vessel.
Illustrated account of the circumcision ceremony of Sultan Ahmed III's three sons.
See also Brit milah, Circumcision controversies, Religious male circumcision, Khitan (circumcision)
.In some cultures, males must be circumcised shortly after birth, during childhood, or around puberty as part of a rite of passage.^ The practice of male neonatal circumcision is not limited to North America; it is performed worldwide for religious and cultural reasons.
  • Pain relief for neonatal circumcision 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.nichd.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ In spite of the vocal minority groups, circumcision holds its own with about 65% of the current males being circumcised at birth in the U.S. It also seems to be catching on in some Asian areas such as Korea and Japan where it is the "in" thing.
  • Adult Circumcision Stories - Men Circumcised As Adults Tell It As It Is... 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.circinfo.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Religious male circumcision is practised under both Jewish and Islamic law, and it is an integral part of some aboriginal and African cultural practices.
  • Is Circumcision Safe? | Mark's Daily Apple 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC www.marksdailyapple.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Circumcision is commonly practised in the Jewish and Islamic faiths.^ Religious male circumcision is practised under both Jewish and Islamic law, and it is an integral part of some aboriginal and African cultural practices.
  • Is Circumcision Safe? | Mark's Daily Apple 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC www.marksdailyapple.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This is unlikely to go down well with Jewish, Islamic and Xhosa groups, all of which see circumcision as an essential part of their cultures.
  • News 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.mgmbill.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Some groups, such as followers of the Jewish and Islamic faiths, practice circumcision for religious and cultural reasons.
  • UrbanBaby - Information For Parents About circumcision 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.urbanbaby.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Jewish law states that circumcision is a 'mitzva aseh ("positive commandment" to perform an act) and is obligatory for Jewish-born males and for non-circumcised Jewish male converts.^ Persons born or converted circumcised .
  • Male and Female Circumcision 15 September 2009 5:25 UTC www.hraicjk.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The practice of male neonatal circumcision is not limited to North America; it is performed worldwide for religious and cultural reasons.
  • Pain relief for neonatal circumcision 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.nichd.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ The General Medical Council does not have a public position on the issue of ritual male circumcision on children who cannot give informed consent.
  • News 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.mgmbill.org [Source type: Original source]

.It is only postponed or abrogated in the case of threat to the life or health of the child.^ According the Atlanta Journal-Constitution story: “The case involves a child, identified only as D.P. Jr., who was born at South Fulton Medical Center in 2004.
  • Did you circumcise your son? | A Blog for Busy Moms - MOMania 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC blogs.ajc.com [Source type: General]

^ That's usually only when the parent is careless themselves and doesn't take great care in the health of their child and checks up on this.
  • Men's Health Office: The Never-ending Circumcision Debate 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC blogs.webmd.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Of course, no baby boy can consent for himself, and parents cannot ethically consent to surgery on behalf of a child unless the child's health or life is at risk.
  • Her.meneutics: The Case for Male Circumcision 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC blog.christianitytoday.com [Source type: Original source]

[36] .It is usually performed by a mohel on the eighth day after birth in a ceremony called a Brit milah (or Bris milah, colloquially simply bris), which means "Covenant of circumcision" in Hebrew.^ John the Baptist was circumcised on the eighth day.
  • Circumcision 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC www.betemunah.org [Source type: Original source]

^ I explained that a bris is a circumcision done buy a special rabbi called a Mohel.
  • Circumcision | Jewcy.com 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.jewcy.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Jewish boys get circumcised on the eighth day after birth.
  • Daddy Daze | Being a dad in Houston | MomHouston.com 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC blogs.chron.com [Source type: Original source]

.It is considered of such importance that in some Orthodox communities the body of an uncircumcised Jewish male will sometimes be circumcised before burial.^ In spite of the vocal minority groups, circumcision holds its own with about 65% of the current males being circumcised at birth in the U.S. It also seems to be catching on in some Asian areas such as Korea and Japan where it is the "in" thing.
  • Adult Circumcision Stories - Men Circumcised As Adults Tell It As It Is... 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.circinfo.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Religious male circumcision is practised under both Jewish and Islamic law, and it is an integral part of some aboriginal and African cultural practices.
  • Is Circumcision Safe? | Mark's Daily Apple 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC www.marksdailyapple.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We said before that the Koran did not mention male or female circumcision.
  • Male and Female Circumcision 15 September 2009 5:25 UTC www.hraicjk.org [Source type: Original source]

[37] Although 19th century Reform leaders described it as "barbaric", the practice of circumcision "remained a central rite"[38] and the Union for Reform Judaism has, since 1984, trained and certified over 300 practicing mohels under its "Berit Mila Program".[39] Humanistic Judaism argues that "circumcision is not required for Jewish identity."[40]
.In Islam, circumcision is mentioned in some hadith (it is referred as Khitan), but not in the Qur'an.^ One of the commands given to Abraham, as a test, was circumcision, as mentioned in some of the sayings of Mohammed.
  • To Mutilate in the Name ofJehovah or Allah 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.quran.org [Source type: Original source]

^ There are some hadiths of Muhammad in which he gave orders to persons who became Muslims that they must be circumcised.
  • Male and Female Circumcision 15 September 2009 5:25 UTC www.hraicjk.org [Source type: Original source]

^ We must mention here that there is no reference of Muhammad's circumcision in the biographies written by Ibn-Ishaq (died 767) and Ibn-Hisham (died 828).
  • Male and Female Circumcision 15 September 2009 5:25 UTC www.hraicjk.org [Source type: Original source]

.Some Fiqh scholars state that circumcision is recommended (Sunnah); others that it is obligatory.^ You think someone whi is circumcised is going to take some skin from other parts of their body and staple it to the tip of his penis?This is a wasted effory That's not the point...
  • Get circumcised [Archive] - Xbox 360 & Xbox Forums 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC forum.teamxbox.com [Source type: General]

^ So in the study that looked at the behavioral state during circumcision using a sucrose soaked nipple as the only form of anesthesia, it is unknown how the other parameters responded.

^ Some state that both genitalia must be circumcised, while others hold that only the organ passing urine should be cut.
  • Male and Female Circumcision 15 September 2009 5:25 UTC www.hraicjk.org [Source type: Original source]

[41] .Some have quoted the hadith to argue that the requirement of circumcision is based on the covenant with Abraham.^ Circumcision is the "sign" of the covenant given to Abraham.
  • Circumcision 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC www.betemunah.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Some who were not descendants of Abraham were circumcised.
  • Circumcision 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC www.betemunah.org [Source type: Original source]

^ For example- the blood of the circumcision is an actual blood covenant for Jews, some Orthodox Mohels actually suck the blood from the freshly cut penis- does the Christianity you practice require you to spill any blood- human or animal?
  • Her.meneutics: The Case for Male Circumcision 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC blog.christianitytoday.com [Source type: Original source]

[42] .While endorsing circumcision for males, Islamic scholars note that it is not a requirement for converting to Islam.^ Religious male circumcision is practised under both Jewish and Islamic law, and it is an integral part of some aboriginal and African cultural practices.
  • Is Circumcision Safe? | Mark's Daily Apple 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC www.marksdailyapple.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As long as the first Christians were converted Jews, male circumcision was not questioned because these converts were already circumcised.
  • Male and Female Circumcision 15 September 2009 5:25 UTC www.hraicjk.org [Source type: Original source]

^ For the majority of believers, to belong to Islam implies de facto male circumcision.
  • To Mutilate in the Name ofJehovah or Allah 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.quran.org [Source type: Original source]

[43]
The Catholic Church condemned the observance of circumcision as a mortal sin and ordered against its practice in the Ecumenical Council of Basel-Florence in 1442.[44]
.Circumcision is customary among the Coptic, Ethiopian, and Eritrean Orthodox Churches, and also some other African churches.^ Religious male circumcision is practised under both Jewish and Islamic law, and it is an integral part of some aboriginal and African cultural practices.
  • Is Circumcision Safe? | Mark's Daily Apple 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC www.marksdailyapple.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some people practice female genital mutilation because it's just customary where they live (same with male circumcision here), but others do it as part of a religious practice, for instance...
  • UrbanBaby - Information For Parents About circumcision 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.urbanbaby.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ You think someone whi is circumcised is going to take some skin from other parts of their body and staple it to the tip of his penis?This is a wasted effory That's not the point...
  • Get circumcised [Archive] - Xbox 360 & Xbox Forums 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC forum.teamxbox.com [Source type: General]

[7] .Some Christian churches in South Africa oppose circumcision, viewing it as a pagan ritual, while others, including the Nomiya church in Kenya,[7][45] require circumcision for membership.^ Also South Africas new Childrens Act makes the circumcision of boys under 16 unlawful except for medical or religious reasons.
  • bmj.com Rapid Responses for Patrick, 335 (7631) 1181 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.bmj.com [Source type: Academic]

^ For example- the blood of the circumcision is an actual blood covenant for Jews, some Orthodox Mohels actually suck the blood from the freshly cut penis- does the Christianity you practice require you to spill any blood- human or animal?
  • Her.meneutics: The Case for Male Circumcision 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC blog.christianitytoday.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It was basically about transmission of HIV and other STDs in Africa and how it relates to circumcision.
  • Berkeley Parents Network: Advice about Circumcision 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC parents.berkeley.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Some Christian churches celebrate the Circumcision of Christ.^ Where Christians get confused is that Paul was speaking to a mixed crowd, some who were already circumcised and some who were not.
  • Her.meneutics: The Case for Male Circumcision 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC blog.christianitytoday.com [Source type: Original source]

^ For some families, circumcision is an age-old rite celebrating religious covenant.
  • Is Circumcision Safe? | Mark's Daily Apple 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC www.marksdailyapple.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Do you think the Christian church- which was almost split by this topic once (and this was resolved), should be split today into circumcising and non-circumcising churches, should we convert to Judiasm?
  • Her.meneutics: The Case for Male Circumcision 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC blog.christianitytoday.com [Source type: Original source]

[46][47] .The vast majority of Christians do not practise circumcision as a religious requirement.^ Religious male circumcision is practised under both Jewish and Islamic law, and it is an integral part of some aboriginal and African cultural practices.
  • Is Circumcision Safe? | Mark's Daily Apple 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC www.marksdailyapple.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Yes, there are millions of men who choose to be circumcised later in life for a variety of reasons, but the vast majority of men don't consciously make that choice.
  • Washington Diarist: Membership | The New Republic 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.tnr.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Christianity does not require or even encourage circumcision.
  • Rumor: Madonna to circumcise David? – Celebrity Baby Blog – People.com 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC celebrity-babies.com [Source type: Original source]

.Circumcision in South Korea is largely the result of American cultural and military influence following the Korean War.^ Secondary buried penis may be the result of an overzealous circumcision with subsequent cicatricial scar (trapped penis), a large hernia, or a hydrocele.
  • Phimosis, Adult Circumcision, and Buried Penis: eMedicine Urology 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Many African and South American countries with little circumcision tradition are starting to promote the procedure to help to reduce the AIDS-HIV infection rates.
  • Circumcision: Is It More than a Convenant with God? | BlogHer 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC www.blogher.com [Source type: General]

^ European and South Asian women have told me that their intact partners seem to enjoy sex so much more than their circumcised, American ones.
  • To circumcise or not? | Parents Talk Back | STLtoday 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC www.stltoday.com [Source type: Original source]

.In West Africa infant circumcision may have had tribal significance as a rite of passage or otherwise in the past; today in some non-Muslim Nigerian societies it is medicalised and is simply a cultural norm.^ For some cultures it is a component of a rite of passage to socially acceptable adulthood.
  • Africa Update Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.ccsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Africa Update Archives 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC web.ccsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This study was done in a culture which had circumcision as the norm.

^ Cultural identity may also be entwined with non-circumcision.
  • Australian Federation of AIDS Organisations (AFAO) 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.afao.org.au [Source type: Academic]

[48] .Circumcision is part of initiation rites in some African, Pacific Islander, and Australian aboriginal traditions in areas such as Arnhem Land,[49] where the practice was introduced by Makassan traders from Sulawesi in the Indonesian Archipelago.^ In spite of the vocal minority groups, circumcision holds its own with about 65% of the current males being circumcised at birth in the U.S. It also seems to be catching on in some Asian areas such as Korea and Japan where it is the "in" thing.
  • Adult Circumcision Stories - Men Circumcised As Adults Tell It As It Is... 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.circinfo.net [Source type: Original source]

^ We find such an argument in an undated flyer, written in Arabic published by the Sudanese Association of Struggle against Traditional Practices which states: .
  • Male and Female Circumcision 15 September 2009 5:25 UTC www.hraicjk.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Some people practice female genital mutilation because it's just customary where they live (same with male circumcision here), but others do it as part of a religious practice, for instance...
  • UrbanBaby - Information For Parents About circumcision 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.urbanbaby.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[50] .Circumcision ceremonies among certain Australian aboriginal societies are noted for their painful nature: subincision is practised amongst some aboriginal peoples in the Western Desert.^ All the people that came out had been circumcised, but all the people born in the desert during the journey from Egypt had not.
  • Circumcision 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC www.betemunah.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Religious male circumcision is practised under both Jewish and Islamic law, and it is an integral part of some aboriginal and African cultural practices.
  • Is Circumcision Safe? | Mark's Daily Apple 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC www.marksdailyapple.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In antiquity, the expansion of the Greek and Roman Empires brought Westerners into contact with the peoples of the Middle East, some of whom marked their children with circumcision and other sexual mutilations.

[51]
.In the Pacific, circumcision or superincision is nearly universal among the Melanesians of Fiji and Vanuatu,[52] while participation in the traditional land diving on Pentecost Island is reserved for those who have been circumcised.^ Best point in this blog…those who have no issue with abortion but do think circumcising should be a decision made by adults.
  • Did you circumcise your son? | A Blog for Busy Moms - MOMania 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC blogs.ajc.com [Source type: General]

^ The study participants were mothers who had just given birth to boys and their results exactly matched the circumcision rate among those boys.
  • Put Down the Knife! 11 Reasons Not to Circumcise 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC ecochildsplay.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Those who are upset with the comparison to female circumcision should read Dr. Fuambai Ahmadu’s work.
  • Is Circumcision Safe? | Mark's Daily Apple 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC www.marksdailyapple.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[53] .Circumcision or superincision is also commonly practiced in the Polynesian islands of Samoa, Tonga, Niue, and Tikopia, where the custom is recorded as a pre-Christian/colonial practice.^ He adds that female circumcision has been a practice for centuries and is a custom accepted by Muslim law.
  • To Mutilate in the Name ofJehovah or Allah 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.quran.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Certainly Jews practiced male circumcision, but Christians did not.
  • Male and Female Circumcision 15 September 2009 5:25 UTC www.hraicjk.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Jewish traditions calls for the circumcision of newborn boys, and many Muslims and Christians support the practice as well.
  • News 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.mgmbill.org [Source type: Original source]

In Samoa it is accompanied by a celebration.
.Among some West African groups, such as the Dogon and Dowayo, circumcision is taken to represent a removal of "feminine" aspects of the male, turning boys into fully masculine males.^ Removal of the clitoris is not the same as male circumcision.
  • Circumcised at 37: a personal story and a rebuke to the MRAs at Hugo Schwyzer 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC hugoschwyzer.net [Source type: Original source]

^ In spite of the vocal minority groups, circumcision holds its own with about 65% of the current males being circumcised at birth in the U.S. It also seems to be catching on in some Asian areas such as Korea and Japan where it is the "in" thing.
  • Adult Circumcision Stories - Men Circumcised As Adults Tell It As It Is... 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.circinfo.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Religious male circumcision is practised under both Jewish and Islamic law, and it is an integral part of some aboriginal and African cultural practices.
  • Is Circumcision Safe? | Mark's Daily Apple 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC www.marksdailyapple.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[54] .Among the Urhobo of southern Nigeria it is symbolic of a boy entering into manhood.^ For some people, as explained, circumcision is a religious requirement, whilst for others it is a social indicator marking a boy's progression into manhood.
  • Questions Young People Ask About Male Circumcision 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.circinfo.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Although in many West African traditional societies circumcision has become medicalised and is simply performed in infancy without ado or any particular conscious cultural significance, among the Urhobo people of southern Nigeria it is symbolic of a boy entering into manhood.
  • CIRCUMCISION 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.xcircum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the predominantly Muslim Northern and Western Africa, circumcision is practiced as a religious rite, while in Eastern and Southern Africa circumcision is considered as a rite of passage into manhood.
  • Circumcision Practices around the World 11 September 2009 23:56 UTC www.circumcisioninfo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The ritual expression, Omo te Oshare ("the boy is now man"), constitutes a rite of passage from one age set to another.^ Now we have plenty of time to research before having another one.

^ UTIs in boys under one year of age or in boys over one year of age.

^ Yes, Baptist Have you had any official recognition of becoming a man (rite of passage)?
  • Stories #3 - Teenage Boys' Sexuality 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC boysunderattack.com [Source type: Original source]

[55] .For Nilotic peoples, such as the Kalenjin and Maasai, circumcision is a rite of passage observed collectively by a number of boys every few years, and boys circumcised at the same time are taken to be members of a single age set.^ Less and less people in the U.S. are now circumcising their boys.

^ The number of ADULT circumcisions , however has risen over the same time period....
  • UrbanBaby - Information For Parents About circumcision 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.urbanbaby.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I was circumcised 5 years ago at age 34.
  • Adult Circumcision Stories - Men Circumcised As Adults Tell It As It Is... 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.circinfo.net [Source type: Original source]

[56]

Prevalence

.
Map published by the United Nations (WHO/UNAIDS) showing percentage of males who have been circumcised, at a country level.
^ The figure is higher in the United States, where about 79 percent of men are circumcised, according to surveys by the National Center for Health Statistics.” .
  • Did you circumcise your son? | A Blog for Busy Moms - MOMania 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC blogs.ajc.com [Source type: General]

^ The General Medical Council does not have a public position on the issue of ritual male circumcision on children who cannot give informed consent.
  • News 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.mgmbill.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Although female circumcision was discussed, this symposium principally dealt with male circumcision, which demonstrates in itself that this form of circumcision is a real problem, especially in the United States.
  • To Mutilate in the Name ofJehovah or Allah 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.quran.org [Source type: Original source]

Data was provided by MEASURE DHS [2] and other sources. [3]
.Estimates of the proportion of males that are circumcised worldwide vary from one-sixth[57] to a third.^ About one in three males worldwide is circumcised.
  • UrbanBaby - Information For Parents About circumcision 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.urbanbaby.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Male circumcision is one of the most commonly performed procedures worldwide.
  • Circumcision Complications 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.circumstitions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The practice of male neonatal circumcision is not limited to North America; it is performed worldwide for religious and cultural reasons.
  • Pain relief for neonatal circumcision 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.nichd.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

[58] .The WHO has estimated that 664,500,000 males aged 15 and over are circumcised (30% global prevalence), with almost 70% of these being Muslim.^ Muslim authors skim over male circumcision.
  • To Mutilate in the Name ofJehovah or Allah 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.quran.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Muslims systematically practice male circumcision.
  • To Mutilate in the Name ofJehovah or Allah 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.quran.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Age for male and female circumcision .
  • To Mutilate in the Name ofJehovah or Allah 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.quran.org [Source type: Original source]

[8] .Circumcision is most prevalent in the Muslim world, parts of South East Asia, Africa, the United States, The Philippines, Israel, and South Korea.^ Also, in most places in the world (though not in Israel, for example), the norm is to not be circumcised.
  • Berkeley Parents Network: Advice about Circumcision 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC parents.berkeley.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Am I to understand that the first world is the United States?
  • UrbanBaby - Information For Parents About circumcision 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.urbanbaby.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Female genital mutilation most frequently occurs in Africa, the Middle East, and Muslim parts of Indonesia and Malaysia, and it is generally part of a ceremonial induction into adult society.

.It is relatively rare in Europe, Latin America, parts of Southern Africa, and most of Asia and Oceania.^ Circumcision is uncommon in Asia, South America, Central America, and most of Europe.
  • Circumcision Policy Statement -- Task Force on Circumcision 103 (3): 686 -- AAP Policy 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC aappolicy.aappublications.org [Source type: Academic]

^ People in Europe, Asia and Latin America are often appalled to hear that American doctors and hospitals routinely remove part of a boy's penis shortly after birth.
  • Her.meneutics: The Case for Male Circumcision 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC blog.christianitytoday.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I hope America eventually goes the way of the majority of Europe and Asia where most men are intact.

.Prevalence is near-universal in the Middle East and Central Asia.^ Is female circumcision in Africa, the Middle East, or South Asia right just because they’ve been doing it for a long time?
  • Male Circumcision - Pros and Cons | The Art of Manliness 15 September 2009 5:25 UTC artofmanliness.com [Source type: Original source]

[8] .The WHO states that "there is generally little non-religious circumcision in Asia, with the exceptions of the Republic of Korea and the Philippines".[8] The WHO presents a map of estimated prevalence in which the level is generally low (< 20%) across Europe,[8] and Klavs et al report findings that "support the notion that the prevalence is low in Europe".[59] In Latin America, prevalence is universally low.^ Circumcision is almost unheard of in Europe, South America, and non-Muslim Asia.

^ Circumcision is uncommon in Asia, South America, Central America, and most of Europe.
  • Circumcision Policy Statement -- Task Force on Circumcision 103 (3): 686 -- AAP Policy 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC aappolicy.aappublications.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Circumcision Policy Statement -- Task Force on Circumcision 103 (3): 686 -- Pediatrics 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC pediatrics.aappublications.org [Source type: Academic]

^ As recently as the fall and winter of 2007, the last two Australian states Victoria [1] and South Australia [2] have discontinued public funding for circumcision (Not that it is common in Australia anymore anyway) and in December of 2007, the Tasmanian Children’s Commissioner, Paul Mason, received the support of the Australian Medical Association to ban non-medically necessary and non-religious circumcision [3].
  • To circumcise or not? | Parents Talk Back | STLtoday 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC www.stltoday.com [Source type: Original source]

[60] .Estimates for individual countries include Spain[61], Colombia[61] and Denmark[62] less than 2%, Finland[63] and Brazil[61] 7%, Taiwan[64] 9%, Thailand[61] 13% and Australia[34] 58.7%.^ It took a little Googling but I was able to find this article about that study which revealed the countries involved were Spain, Brazil, Thailand, Columbia and the Phillipines.
  • Circumcised at 37: a personal story and a rebuke to the MRAs at Hugo Schwyzer 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC hugoschwyzer.net [Source type: Original source]

^ But what this country routinely does to perfectly healthy boys and their perfectly healthy, normal penises, is nothing less than perverted.
  • Male circumcision and female pleasure - Feministing 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC feministing.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I do not understand love of country (a country that today includes people from all over the world, from India to Brazil, from Angola to Moldavia) and love of mankind as anthitetical but as co-extensive, so to speak.” .
  • Washington Diarist: Membership | The New Republic 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.tnr.com [Source type: Original source]

.The WHO estimates prevalence in the United States and Canada at 75% and 30%, respectively.^ The number is similar to the rates of 0.7% to 1.4% reported for uncircumcised males in the United States and Canada.
  • Circumcision Policy Statement -- Task Force on Circumcision 103 (3): 686 -- AAP Policy 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC aappolicy.aappublications.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Circumcision Policy Statement -- Task Force on Circumcision 103 (3): 686 -- Pediatrics 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC pediatrics.aappublications.org [Source type: Academic]

^ There are few data to help estimate accurately the number of newborn males circumcised annually in the United States.
  • Circumcision Policy Statement -- Task Force on Circumcision 103 (3): 686 -- AAP Policy 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC aappolicy.aappublications.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Circumcision Policy Statement -- Task Force on Circumcision 103 (3): 686 -- Pediatrics 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC pediatrics.aappublications.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Although the exact frequency is unknown, it is estimated that 1.2 million newborn males are circumcised in the United States annually at a cost of between $150 and $270 million.
  • Circumcision Policy Statement -- Task Force on Circumcision 103 (3): 686 -- AAP Policy 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC aappolicy.aappublications.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Circumcision Policy Statement -- Task Force on Circumcision 103 (3): 686 -- Pediatrics 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC pediatrics.aappublications.org [Source type: Academic]

[8] .Prevalence in Africa varies from less than 20% in some southern African countries to near universal in North and West Africa.^ Don’t get me wrong, I’ve seen some, well, less than attractive ones, but that goes for toes, noses, ears, and calves as well.
  • Is Circumcision Safe? | Mark's Daily Apple 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC www.marksdailyapple.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The US is a big place and people here can’t be lumped together so easily…in cities on both the east and west coast less people are cicrumcising than ever before.
  • Rumor: Madonna to circumcise David? – Celebrity Baby Blog – People.com 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC celebrity-babies.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The American Academy of Pediatricians reports that in a self-reporting study, circumcised men enjoyed “more varied sexual practice and less sexual dysfunction” than their uncircumcised brothers.
  • Male Circumcision - Pros and Cons | The Art of Manliness 15 September 2009 5:25 UTC artofmanliness.com [Source type: Original source]

[60]

Modern circumcision procedures

.If anesthesia is to be used there are several options: local anesthetic cream (EMLA cream) can be applied to the end of the penis 60-90 minutes prior to the procedure; local anesthetic can be injected at the base of the penis to block the dorsal penile nerve; local anesthetic can be injected in a ring around the middle of the penis in what is called a subcutaneous ring block.^ Ring block versus EMLA .
  • Pain relief for neonatal circumcision 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.nichd.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Beyond dorsal penile nerve block: A more humane circumcision.
  • Pain relief for neonatal circumcision 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.nichd.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Mintz MR, Grillo R. Dorsal penile nerve block for circumcision.
  • Pain relief for neonatal circumcision 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.nichd.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

[65]
.For infant circumcision, devices such as the Gomco clamp, Plastibell, and Mogen clamp are commonly used,[66] together with a restraining device.^ Gomco and Plastibell methods used .
  • Pain relief for neonatal circumcision 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.nichd.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ FACT = Types used; Mogen clamp, Plastibell, Gomco Clamp, and freehand.
  • Daddy Daze | Being a dad in Houston | MomHouston.com 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC blogs.chron.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Usually, the circumcision surgery was described as commencing with application of forceps to the dorsal foreskin of the penis (referred to as dorsal or lateral clamping) and ending with removal of the surgical clamp (the Gomco, Mogen, or Plastibell surgical device, also referred to as a clamp).
  • Pain relief for neonatal circumcision 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.nichd.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

[67]
.With all these devices the same basic procedure is followed.^ Yes these are all extreme examples, but they were done for many of the same reasons that we circumcise male children, aesthetics.
  • Did you circumcise your son? | A Blog for Busy Moms - MOMania 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC blogs.ajc.com [Source type: General]

^ These all include the use of devices: the Gomco clamp, the Plastibell device, and the Mogen clamp (or variations derived from the same principle on which each of these devices is based).
  • Circumcision Policy Statement -- Task Force on Circumcision 103 (3): 686 -- AAP Policy 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC aappolicy.aappublications.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Circumcision Policy Statement -- Task Force on Circumcision 103 (3): 686 -- Pediatrics 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC pediatrics.aappublications.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Claimed benefits for circumcision fails both of these tests–the rates for all claimed reductions are HIGHER, or the same in intact countries as in circumcising countries!
  • To circumcise or not? | Parents Talk Back | STLtoday 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC www.stltoday.com [Source type: Original source]

.First, the amount of foreskin to be removed is estimated.^ When my father was born in Vienna in 1935, he was the first male Schwyzer in the family line not to have the foreskin removed.
  • Circumcised at 37: a personal story and a rebuke to the MRAs at Hugo Schwyzer 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC hugoschwyzer.net [Source type: Original source]

^ This was because the bell clamp would remove equal amounts of inner and outer foreskin, but I wanted an "asymmetrical" circumcision, with far more shaft skin removed than inner foreskin.
  • Adult Circumcision Stories - Men Circumcised As Adults Tell It As It Is... 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.circinfo.net [Source type: Original source]

.The foreskin is then opened via the preputial orifice to reveal the glans underneath and ensure it is normal.^ Ballooning disappears as the foreskin and glans separate and the opening of the foreskin increases in diameter.
  • Berkeley Parents Network: Advice about Circumcision 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC parents.berkeley.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ These expandable pleats allow the foreskin lips to open and roll back, exposing the glans.

^ The foreskin and glans were tightly fused together by the normal balanopreputial membrane called the synechia, similar to the membrane that attaches the fingernail to the finger.

.The inner lining of the foreskin (preputial epithelium) is then bluntly separated from its attachment to the glans.^ Initially, squamous epithelium has no separation between the glans and the foreskin.
  • Circumcision Policy Statement -- Task Force on Circumcision 103 (3): 686 -- Pediatrics 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC pediatrics.aappublications.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In the second century after Christ, Jewish Rabbis decided to tear and strip back the remaining inner lining of the foreskin off the glans and, with a sharpened fingernail, remove the mucous tissue and excise the frenulum; this operation is called periah.
  • Male and Female Circumcision 15 September 2009 5:25 UTC www.hraicjk.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Studies suggest that it is best not to use soap on the glans or foreskin's inner fold.

.The device is then placed (this sometimes requires a dorsal slit) and remains there until blood flow has stopped.^ This will happen naturally sometime before puberty because all little boys play with their penis', until then there is no cleaning necessary.
  • Berkeley Parents Network: Advice about Circumcision 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC parents.berkeley.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ There just to stop the bleeding they put in 3 sutures and the blood flow stopped.
  • Adult Circumcision Stories - Men Circumcised As Adults Tell It As It Is... 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.circinfo.net [Source type: Original source]

^ However, in some situations, a dorsal slit or circumcision is required (see Paraphimosis ).
  • Phimosis, Adult Circumcision, and Buried Penis: eMedicine Urology 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

Finally, the foreskin is amputated.[65] .Sometimes, the frenulum band may need to be broken or crushed and cut from the corona near the urethra to ensure that the glans can be freely and completely exposed.^ Right around the edge of the foreskin is a ridged band of tissue which attaches at the frenulum to the underside of the glans.

^ And when the upper 2/3rd of the glans used to be exposed, I felt as if a tight band had my glans in a vice-like grip, and I could feel my frenulum tugging tightly the tip of my glans.
  • Adult Circumcision Stories - Men Circumcised As Adults Tell It As It Is... 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.circinfo.net [Source type: Original source]

[68]
.
  • With the Plastibell, once the glans is freed the Plastibell is placed over the glans, and the foreskin is placed over the Plastibell.^ The foreskin's frenulum holds it in place over the glans, and, in conjunction with the smooth muscle fibers, helps return the retracted foreskin to its usual forward position over the glans.

    .A ligature is then tied firmly around the foreskin and tightened into a groove in the Plastibell to achieve hemostasis.^ Alternately, they put a plastic bell over the head, and tie a ligature around the foreskin, then cut the foreskin off.

    ^ The hood around the clitoris which extends into the labia minora are very much like the foreskin.
    • Put Down the Knife! 11 Reasons Not to Circumcise 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC ecochildsplay.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ They then tied a cord around the foreskin and sliced off the “extra” bit with a razor sharp scalpel.
    • Is Circumcision Safe? | Mark's Daily Apple 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC www.marksdailyapple.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Foreskin distal to the ligature is excised and the handle is snapped off the Plastibell device.^ Alternately, they put a plastic bell over the head, and tie a ligature around the foreskin, then cut the foreskin off.

    ^ The Plastibell is placed onto the head of the penis during a 10 minute elective, minimally invasive surgical procedure, and the device will fall off within 3 to 7 days.
    • Daddy Daze | Being a dad in Houston | MomHouston.com 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC blogs.chron.com [Source type: Original source]

    .The Plastibell falls from the penis after the wound has healed, typically in four to six days.^ The Plastibell is placed onto the head of the penis during a 10 minute elective, minimally invasive surgical procedure, and the device will fall off within 3 to 7 days.
    • Daddy Daze | Being a dad in Houston | MomHouston.com 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC blogs.chron.com [Source type: Original source]

    [69]
  • .
  • With a Gomco clamp, a section of skin is dorsally crushed with a hemostat and then slit with scissors.^ The hemostats on the frenulum and the application of the Gomco Glamp on the foreskin where it meets the shaft skin is all very briefly painful.
    • Men's Health Office: The Never-ending Circumcision Debate 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC blogs.webmd.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The doctor finally got the glans and foreskin separated, then clamped the foreskin tight with another haemostat and cut the skin vertically with scissors.

    ^ RR recorded at start of each interval (anesthesia/restraint, 3 min post restraint/anesthesia, lateral clamp, blunt dissection, dorsal clamp, adhesion breakdown, Gomco bell on, Gomco clamp on, Gomco clamp removed) .
    • Pain relief for neonatal circumcision 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.nichd.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

    .The foreskin is drawn over the bell shaped portion of the clamp and inserted through a hole in the base of the clamp.^ This was because the bell clamp would remove equal amounts of inner and outer foreskin, but I wanted an "asymmetrical" circumcision, with far more shaft skin removed than inner foreskin.
    • Adult Circumcision Stories - Men Circumcised As Adults Tell It As It Is... 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.circinfo.net [Source type: Original source]

    .The clamp is tightened, "crushing the foreskin between the bell and the base plate."^ The doctor put a large metal clamp around the bleeding foreskin, the cone supposedly to protect the glans, and he proceeded to crush the nerves, the blood vessels and tissue of the foreskin with the clamp.

    ^ The foreskin is pulled to its maximum length and crushed by a metal clamp before it is sliced off with a scalpel.
    • To Mutilate in the Name ofJehovah or Allah 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.quran.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ This was because the bell clamp would remove equal amounts of inner and outer foreskin, but I wanted an "asymmetrical" circumcision, with far more shaft skin removed than inner foreskin.
    • Adult Circumcision Stories - Men Circumcised As Adults Tell It As It Is... 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.circinfo.net [Source type: Original source]

    .The crushed blood vessels provide hemostasis.^ The doctor put a large metal clamp around the bleeding foreskin, the cone supposedly to protect the glans, and he proceeded to crush the nerves, the blood vessels and tissue of the foreskin with the clamp.

    .The flared bottom of the bell fits tightly against the hole of the base plate, so the foreskin may be cut away with a scalpel from above the base plate.^ The foreskin is a natural protection of the penis and not something that needs to be cut away!
    • Rumor: Madonna to circumcise David? – Celebrity Baby Blog – People.com 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC celebrity-babies.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Alternately, they put a plastic bell over the head, and tie a ligature around the foreskin, then cut the foreskin off.

    ^ The bottom line is that Filipino circumcized men are being infected with HIV/AIDS so it may actually be dangerous to propagate the idea that a cut penis protects you from AIDS. .

    [70]
  • .
  • With a Mogen clamp, the foreskin is pulled dorsally with a straight hemostat, and lifted.^ The foreskin is pulled to its maximum length and crushed by a metal clamp before it is sliced off with a scalpel.
    • To Mutilate in the Name ofJehovah or Allah 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.quran.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Usually, the circumcision surgery was described as commencing with application of forceps to the dorsal foreskin of the penis (referred to as dorsal or lateral clamping) and ending with removal of the surgical clamp (the Gomco, Mogen, or Plastibell surgical device, also referred to as a clamp).
    • Pain relief for neonatal circumcision 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.nichd.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

    ^ NIPS scores assigned for each of 6 events (clamping of foreskin, adhesion lysis, dorsal cut, adhesion lysis, tying of Plastibell, foreskin excision) mean NIPS score calculated for each infant .
    • Pain relief for neonatal circumcision 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.nichd.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

    .The Mogen clamp is then slid between the glans and hemostat, following the angle of the corona to "avoid removing excess skin ventrally and to obtain a superior cosmetic result" to Gomco or Plastibell circumcisions.^ FACT = Types used; Mogen clamp, Plastibell, Gomco Clamp, and freehand.
    • Daddy Daze | Being a dad in Houston | MomHouston.com 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC blogs.chron.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Masters and Johnson noted no difference in exteroceptive and light tactile discrimination on the ventral or dorsal surfaces of the glans penis between circumcised and uncircumcised men.
    • Circumcision Policy Statement -- Task Force on Circumcision 103 (3): 686 -- Pediatrics 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC pediatrics.aappublications.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Usually, the circumcision surgery was described as commencing with application of forceps to the dorsal foreskin of the penis (referred to as dorsal or lateral clamping) and ending with removal of the surgical clamp (the Gomco, Mogen, or Plastibell surgical device, also referred to as a clamp).
    • Pain relief for neonatal circumcision 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.nichd.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

    .The clamp is locked, and a scalpel is used to cut the skin from the flat (upper) side of the clamp.^ When they didn't calculate the 1/2 more skin which pulls through the clamp when it is locked down.
    • Men's Health Office: The Never-ending Circumcision Debate 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC blogs.webmd.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Most of the Dr.’s refused to use any kind of anesthetic injection, just grabbed that tender little bit of skin with a forceps clamp and pulled it over a plastic bell, designed to shield the head of the penis from the scalpel.
    • Is Circumcision Safe? | Mark's Daily Apple 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC www.marksdailyapple.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The doctor finally got the glans and foreskin separated, then clamped the foreskin tight with another haemostat and cut the skin vertically with scissors.

    [71][72]
.Adult circumcisions are often performed without clamps and require 4 to 6 weeks of abstinence from masturbation or intercourse after the operation to allow the wound to heal.^ Circumcision is performed without anaesthesia.
  • To Mutilate in the Name ofJehovah or Allah 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.quran.org [Source type: Original source]

^ This abundance of specialized, self-lubricating mobile skin gives the natural penis its unique hallmark ability to smoothly “glide” in and out within itself—permitting natural non-abrasive masturbation and intercourse, without drying out the vagina or requiring artificial lubricants.” — Gary L. Harryman - What is Lost to Circumcision .

^ Circumcisions performed using the Mogen clamp take less time than is required using Gomco clamps.
  • Pain relief for neonatal circumcision 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.nichd.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

[73] .In some African countries, male circumcision is often performed by non-medical personnel under unsterile conditions.^ The majority of circumcisions in this country are performed by non-urologists.
  • The Checkup - Should You Circumcise Your Son? 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC voices.washingtonpost.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The practice of male neonatal circumcision is not limited to North America; it is performed worldwide for religious and cultural reasons.
  • Pain relief for neonatal circumcision 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.nichd.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ The General Medical Council does not have a public position on the issue of ritual male circumcision on children who cannot give informed consent.
  • News 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.mgmbill.org [Source type: Original source]

[74] .After hospital circumcision, the foreskin may be used in biomedical research,[75] consumer skin-care products,[76] skin grafts,[77][78][79] or β-interferon-based drugs.^ Before a baby is circumcised, his foreskin must be torn from his glans, literally skinning it alive.

^ We saw earlier that the enthusiasts of female circumcision called sunnah plead in favour of it because it prevents the use of drugs.
  • To Mutilate in the Name ofJehovah or Allah 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.quran.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Titeylicious 03-08-04, 11:25 AM Originally posted by mjgarden I wonder if they use the snipped section for skin grafts.
  • Get circumcised [Archive] - Xbox 360 & Xbox Forums 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC forum.teamxbox.com [Source type: General]

[80] In parts of Africa, the foreskin may be dipped in brandy and eaten by the patient, eaten by the circumciser, or fed to animals.[81] .According to Jewish law, after a Brit milah, the foreskin should be buried.^ Jewish of her...circ or not, it is her grandson according to Jewish law .
  • UrbanBaby - Information For Parents About circumcision 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.urbanbaby.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A child who is not circumcised at a brit milah is "spiritually cut off from God and the Jewish people."
  • UrbanBaby - Information For Parents About circumcision 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.urbanbaby.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ According to historical Jewish law, he is a Jew because his (uncircumcised) mother was Jewish.
  • Washington Diarist: Membership | The New Republic 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.tnr.com [Source type: Original source]

[82]

Ethical, psychological, and legal considerations

Ethical issues

.Ethical questions have been raised over removing healthy, functioning genital tissue from a minor.^ The foreskin is healthy, sensitive, functional, erogenous genital tissue.
  • Daddy Daze | Being a dad in Houston | MomHouston.com 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC blogs.chron.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It is fundamentally an elective amputation of healthy genital tissue driven by the power of tradition and performed without a patient's consent, occurring when he is most vulnerable and completely dependent.
  • Male Circumcision: A Gender Perspective 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.noharmm.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Circumcision would be the removal of perfectly healthy tissue from a person not legally competent to object, the petition states.
  • News 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.mgmbill.org [Source type: Original source]

.Opponents of circumcision state that infant circumcision infringes upon individual autonomy and represents a human rights violation.^ Infant circumcision is wrong regardless of the state of mind of its opponents.
  • Male Circumcision - Pros and Cons | The Art of Manliness 15 September 2009 5:25 UTC artofmanliness.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Human rights violation?!
  • Male Circumcision - Pros and Cons | The Art of Manliness 15 September 2009 5:25 UTC artofmanliness.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Don’t violate his human rights.
  • Male Circumcision - Pros and Cons | The Art of Manliness 15 September 2009 5:25 UTC artofmanliness.com [Source type: Original source]

[83][84][85] Rennie et al. note that using circumcision as a way of preventing HIV in high prevalence, low-income countries in sub-Saharan Africa, is controversial, but argue that "it would be unethical to not seriously consider one of the most promising [...] new approaches to HIV-prevention in the 25-year history of the epidemic".[86]

Consent

A protest against routine infant circumcision.
.Views differ on whether limits should be placed on caregivers having a child circumcised.^ This is NOT a valid reason for having a child circumcised.
  • Toddlers Community at Mother's Nature 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC www.mothersnature.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Should the child be circumcised only if the father is circumcised?
  • Howstuffworks "How Circumcision Works" 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC health.howstuffworks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He should be suing for having been circumcised!
  • Circumcised Man Sues After Web Article Asserts He Has Foreskin - Gothamist 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC gothamist.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Some medical associations take the position that the parents should determine what is in the best interest of the infant or child,[12][65][87] but the Royal Australasian College of Physicians (RACP) and the British Medical Association (BMA) observe that controversy exists on this issue.^ Parents have the right to give consent but only when in the best interests of a child.
  • News 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.mgmbill.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In fact, many countries have come out AGAINST circ… per The Fetus and Newborn Committee of the Canadian Paediatric Society, “circumcision of newborns should not be routinely performed,” and The Royal Australasian College of Physicians (RACP) states that they “reaffirm that there is no medical indication for routine neonatal circumcision”.
  • The Little Seed » Blog Archive » Circumcision, what to consider when making the decision for our children… 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.thelittleseed.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In circumstances in which there are potential benefits and risks, yet the procedure is not essential to the child's current well-being, parents should determine what is in the best interest of the child.
  • Circumcision Policy Statement -- Task Force on Circumcision 103 (3): 686 -- AAP Policy 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC aappolicy.aappublications.org [Source type: Academic]

[16][88] .The BMA state that in general, "the parents should determine how best to promote their children’s interests, and it is for society to decide what limits should be imposed on parental choices."^ We let parents decide how to dress their kids, pierce their kids’ ears, and decide on how long their kids’ hair should be.
  • Male Circumcision - Pros and Cons | The Art of Manliness 15 September 2009 5:25 UTC artofmanliness.com [Source type: Original source]

^ And we absolutely do make judgments as a society, as an ethical matter AND a legal one, about what sorts of decisions parents do and don't have the right to make for their children.
  • UrbanBaby - Information For Parents About circumcision 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.urbanbaby.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We live in a civilized and democratic society where most of us have the intelligence to decide what is in our own best interests.
  • bmj.com Rapid Responses for Szabo and Short, 320 (7249) 1592-1594 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.bmj.com [Source type: Academic]

.They state that because the parents' interests and the child's interests sometimes differ, there are "limits on parents' rights to choose and parents are not entitled to demand medical procedures contrary to their child's best interests."^ Parents have the right to give consent but only when in the best interests of a child.
  • News 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.mgmbill.org [Source type: Original source]

^ There are decisions that a parent does have the right to make for the child.
  • Is Circumcision Safe? | Mark's Daily Apple 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC www.marksdailyapple.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ And yes, the parent is right there with them.
  • UrbanBaby - Information For Parents About circumcision 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.urbanbaby.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.They state that competent children may decide for themselves.^ Let them decide for themselves when they are older!
  • Her.meneutics: The Case for Male Circumcision 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC blog.christianitytoday.com [Source type: Original source]

^ While informed consent is the gold standard for medical decision-making, in the case of infants and young children unable to decide for themselves, parents have the right and responsibility to make decisions on their behalf.
  • The Circumcision Decision | baby gooroo 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC www.babygooroo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Babies aren't going to be getting any STI's before they're old enough to decide for themselves whether or not they want part of their genitals cutting off.
  • The Checkup - Should You Circumcise Your Son? 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC voices.washingtonpost.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Male Circumcision Fends Off The Most Common STDs - Science News 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.sciencenews.org [Source type: Academic]

[88] UNAIDS states that "[m]ale circumcision is a voluntary surgical procedure and health care providers must ensure that men and young boys are given all the necessary information to enable them to make free and informed choices either for or against getting circumcised."[89]
.Some argue that the medical problems that have their risk reduced by circumcision are already rare, can be avoided, and, if they occur, can usually be treated in less invasive ways than circumcision.^ They already admit routine circumcision isn't medically necessary.
  • Circumcision Information 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC www.uvm.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ They had no infections or problems with the circumcision.
  • The Little Seed » Blog Archive » Circumcision, what to consider when making the decision for our children… 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.thelittleseed.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Circumcision is rarely a medical necessity.

.Somerville states that the removal of healthy genital tissue from a minor should not be subject to parental discretion and that physicians who perform the procedure are not acting in accordance with their ethical duties to the patient.^ Physicians have a duty to refuse to perform circumcision.

^ "Doctors performing 'forced circumcision' on a small minority of children are acting in defiance of general medical council and are effectively medical rebels.
  • News 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.mgmbill.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The DN article on the issue says that 2000 of the 3000 circumcisions carried out annually in Sweden are performed by people who are neither doctors nor have permission to carry out the procedure.
  • Swedish doctors refuse to circumcise boys - The Local 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC www.thelocal.se [Source type: Original source]

[83] .Denniston states that circumcision is harmful and asserts that in the absence of the individual's consent, non-therapeutic child circumcision violates several ethical principles that govern medicine.^ Non-therapeutic circumcision .
  • Circumcision in boys 11 September 2009 23:56 UTC hcd2.bupa.co.uk [Source type: General]
  • Patient information leaflet - Circumcision 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.cks.nhs.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As as young child I was left non-circumcised.
  • Men's Health Office: Foreskin Facts: Turtleneck or No, It All Feels the Same 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC blogs.webmd.com [Source type: Original source]

^ They say that circumcision without consent is a "violation of a child's rights".
  • News 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.mgmbill.org [Source type: Original source]

[90]
.Others believe neonatal circumcision is permissible, if parents should so choose.^ My parents gave permission for my circumcision.
  • SueEasy | Circumcision is sexual abuse, torture and mutilation Emerging Class Action Lawsuit 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.sueeasy.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Others feel that circumcision is unnecessary and choose not to have it done.
  • UrbanBaby - Information For Parents About circumcision 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.urbanbaby.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Men should, I believe, have the right to choose circumcision as adults.
  • Circumcised at 37: a personal story and a rebuke to the MRAs at Hugo Schwyzer 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC hugoschwyzer.net [Source type: Original source]

.Viens argues that, in a cultural or religious context, circumcision is of significant enough importance that parental consent is sufficient and that there is "an absence of sufficient evidence or persuasive argumentation" to support changing the present policy.^ Religious and cultural circumcision .

^ There are also support groups to help parents who regret circumcising.
  • The decision to circumcise or not to circumcise | ProudParenting.com 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC www.proudparenting.com [Source type: General]
  • Gloria Lemay » Common Misconceptions About Circumcision 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC www.glorialemay.com [Source type: Original source]

^ There are cultural religious reasons.
  • Swedish doctors refuse to circumcise boys - The Local 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC www.thelocal.se [Source type: Original source]

[91] .Benatar and Benatar argue that circumcision can be beneficial to a male before he would be able to otherwise provide consent, that "it is far from obvious that circumcision reduces sexual pleasure," and that "it is far from clear that non-circumcision leaves open a future person’s options in every regard."^ She reduced his sexual pleasure by about 1/3, without his consent.
  • Christina Aguilera Zone | Christina's baby circumcised 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.christinazone.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ So leave the option open.
  • Daddy Daze | Being a dad in Houston | MomHouston.com 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC blogs.chron.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Fact: Male circumcision reduces sexual pleasure for both men and women.
  • Circumcision Myths 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.nocircmn.org [Source type: Original source]

[92]

Acknowledgment of pain

Williams (2003) argued that human attitudes toward the pain that animals (including humans) experience may not be based on speciesism, developing an analogy between attitudes toward the pain pigs endure while having their tails docked, and "our culture's indifference to the pain that male human infants experience while being circumcised."[93]

Psychological and emotional consequences

.The British Medical Association (2006) states that "it is now widely accepted, including by the BMA, that this surgical procedure has medical and psychological risks."^ ABSTRACT: A total of 3,253 boys aged 11 to 16 years took part in this study of the psychological effects associated with circumcision procedures (medical vs. Philippines.

^ Making a medical (surgical) decision for sake of conformity is not a sound reason – whether one is talking about circumcision or any other medical procedure.
  • Is Circumcision Safe? | Mark's Daily Apple 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC www.marksdailyapple.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The evidence is that there is a small, but statistically significant risk (of problematic, potentially fatal bleeding) associated with the procedure.
  • To Circumcise or Not? | | AlterNet 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC www.alternet.org [Source type: General]

[88] .Milos and Macris (1992) argue that circumcision encodes the perinatal brain with violence and negatively affects infant-maternal bonding and trust.^ And that’s exactly what I would say you *should* argue– if you want to prove infant circumcision is acceptable, you need to do mroe than prove it’s a tradition.
  • Circumcised at 37: a personal story and a rebuke to the MRAs at Hugo Schwyzer 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC hugoschwyzer.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Others make spurious claims disguised as "facts" that everything from SIDS, to homosexuality, to pornography, and rape can all be traced to the "violence" of infant circumcision!
  • Adult Circumcision Stories - Men Circumcised As Adults Tell It As It Is... 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.circinfo.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Now, you might argue, infant circumcision is prety harmless–certainly not a s bad as stoning adulterers.
  • Circumcised at 37: a personal story and a rebuke to the MRAs at Hugo Schwyzer 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC hugoschwyzer.net [Source type: Original source]

[11] .Goldman (1999) discussed the possible trauma of circumcision on children and parents, anxieties over the circumcised state, a tendency to repeat the trauma, and suggested a need on the part of circumcised doctors to find medical justifications for the procedure.^ Other reasons have been stated for the need to carry out the circumcision procedure.
  • businessshrink.biz » Blog Archive » To circumcise or not to circumcise, that is the question 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC businessshrink.biz [Source type: Original source]

^ The American medical community has tried to find "medical" justifications for the continuation of circumcision.
  • To Mutilate in the Name ofJehovah or Allah 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.quran.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Our doctor said we were the 1st parents to ever ask to be a part of the procedure.

[94] .Furthermore, there are reports of males attempting to undo the effects of circumcision through the practice of foreskin restoration.^ Muslims systematically practice male circumcision.
  • To Mutilate in the Name ofJehovah or Allah 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.quran.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Male Circumcision in Europe: Is there anything we can do?
  • 'Thou Shall Not Circumcise' A Three-Millennial Falsification The 2nd Commandment BANS SEXUAL MUTILATION - Salem-News.Com 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC www.salem-news.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The practice of male neonatal circumcision is not limited to North America; it is performed worldwide for religious and cultural reasons.
  • Pain relief for neonatal circumcision 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.nichd.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

[95] .Moses et al.' (1998) state, however, that "scientific evidence is lacking" for psychological and emotional harm, citing a longitudinal study which did not find a difference in developmental and behavioural indices.^ Dewan P. Book lacks scientific evidence.
  • bmj.com Rapid Responses for Szabo and Short, 320 (7249) 1592-1594 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.bmj.com [Source type: Academic]

^ A newer study by Sorrells et al.
  • Men's Health Office: Foreskin Facts: Turtleneck or No, It All Feels the Same 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC blogs.webmd.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Van Howe et al (1999), in an earlier literature review, found no clear evidence that circumcision prevents STDs.
  • Phimosis, Adult Circumcision, and Buried Penis: eMedicine Urology 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

[96] A literature review by Gerharz and Haarmann (2000) reached a similar conclusion.[97] .Boyle et al. (2002) state that circumcision may result in psychological harm, including post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), citing a study reporting high rates of PTSD among Filipino boys after either ritual or medical circumcision.^ TITLE: Ritual and Medical Circumcision among Filipino boys: Evidence of Post-traumatic Stress Disorder .

^ A newer study by Sorrells et al.
  • Men's Health Office: Foreskin Facts: Turtleneck or No, It All Feels the Same 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC blogs.webmd.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The second part assessed the presence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms.

[98] .Hirji et al. (2005) state that "Reports of [...] psychological trauma are not borne out in studies but remain as an anecdotal cause for concern."^ A newer study by Sorrells et al.
  • Men's Health Office: Foreskin Facts: Turtleneck or No, It All Feels the Same 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC blogs.webmd.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Meuli M, Briner J, Hanimann B, Sacher P. Lichen sclerosus et atrophicus causing phimosis in boys: a prospective study with 5-year followup after complete circumcision.
  • Phimosis, Adult Circumcision, and Buried Penis: eMedicine Urology 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ A number of studies have borne out the fact that freedom from cancer of the cervix was not due to factors such as race or food or environment, but wholly to circumcision.
  • Get circumcised [Archive] - Xbox 360 & Xbox Forums 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC forum.teamxbox.com [Source type: General]

[99]

Legal issues

.In 2001, Sweden passed a law allowing only persons certified by the National Board of Health to circumcise infants, requiring a medical doctor or an anesthesia nurse to accompany the circumciser and for anaesthetic to be applied beforehand.^ According to the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS), 64.1% of male infants were circumcised in the United States during 1995 (unpublished data, 1997).
  • Circumcision Policy Statement -- Task Force on Circumcision 103 (3): 686 -- AAP Policy 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC aappolicy.aappublications.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The USA is the ONLY COUNTRY in the WORLD where the medical profession circumcises the majority of infant males.
  • Swedish doctors refuse to circumcise boys - The Local 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC www.thelocal.se [Source type: Original source]

^ Christoph Dollis wrote on January 13th, 2010 Reply As a newborn nursery nurse I came to hate the times the Doctors came in to circumcise some of the baby boys.
  • Is Circumcision Safe? | Mark's Daily Apple 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC www.marksdailyapple.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Jews and Muslims in Sweden objected to the law,[100] and in 2001, the World Jewish Congress stated that it was "the first legal restriction on Jewish religious practice in Europe since the Nazi era."[101] In 2005, the Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare reviewed the law and recommended that it be maintained. .In 2006, the U.S. State Department's report on Sweden stated that most Jewish mohels had been certified under the law and 3000 Muslim and 40–50 Jewish boys were circumcised each year.^ Circumcision is a Muslim, Jewish, and American thing.
  • Daddy Daze | Being a dad in Houston | MomHouston.com 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC blogs.chron.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The males looses at 40 % of his sensitivity -209 baby boys die each year from circumcision and related complications If not cleaned regularly, an uncircumcised chicken is the perfect breeding ground for various cancer and disease carrying viruses.
  • Get circumcised [Archive] - Xbox 360 & Xbox Forums 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC forum.teamxbox.com [Source type: General]

^ The circumcised group’s rate of sexual satisfaction remained constant, with 98.5% reporting sexual satisfaction before circumcision, and 98.4% reporting so two years after the procedure.” .
  • Male Circumcision - Pros and Cons | The Art of Manliness 15 September 2009 5:25 UTC artofmanliness.com [Source type: Original source]

[102]
.In 2006, a Finnish court found that a parent's actions in having her 4-year-old son circumcised was illegal.^ Parents may want their sons circumcised for r .
  • UrbanBaby - Information For Parents About circumcision 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.urbanbaby.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ My son is 21 years old.
  • Did you circumcise your son? | A Blog for Busy Moms - MOMania 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC blogs.ajc.com [Source type: General]

^ Circumcision stories - Experiences of parents with sons.
  • Adult Circumcision Stories - Men Circumcised As Adults Tell It As It Is... 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.circinfo.net [Source type: Original source]

[103] .However, no punishment was assigned by the court, and in 2008 the Finnish Supreme Court ruled that the mother's actions did not constitute a criminal offense and that circumcision of a child for religious reasons, when performed properly, is not a crime.^ In most other countries, circumcision is performed only for religious reasons.
  • News 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.mgmbill.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The court found that the mothers action was illegal.
  • News 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.mgmbill.org [Source type: Original source]

^ I see no reason to be circumcised.
  • To Circumcise or Not? | | AlterNet 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC www.alternet.org [Source type: General]

[104] .In 2008, the Finnish government was reported to be considering a new law to legalize ritual circumcision if the practitioner is a doctor, "according to the parents' wishes, and with the child's consent", as reported.^ I truly wish my parents had not had me circumcised.
  • Her.meneutics: The Case for Male Circumcision 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC blog.christianitytoday.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Its not an involuntary procedure -- the child's parent has to consent.
  • UrbanBaby - Information For Parents About circumcision 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.urbanbaby.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The General Medical Council does not have a public position on the issue of ritual male circumcision on children who cannot give informed consent.
  • News 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.mgmbill.org [Source type: Original source]

[105]
.By 2007, the Australian states of Victoria, New South Wales, Western Australia and Tasmania had stopped the practice of non-therapeutic male circumcision in all public hospitals.^ Not all male circumcisions are the same.
  • bmj.com Rapid Responses for Szabo and Short, 320 (7249) 1592-1594 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.bmj.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Muslims systematically practice male circumcision.
  • To Mutilate in the Name ofJehovah or Allah 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.quran.org [Source type: Original source]

^ "Routine" circumcision is now *banned* in public hospitals in Australia in all states except one.
  • UrbanBaby - Information For Parents About circumcision 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.urbanbaby.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[106]

Medical aspects

.Medical cost-benefit analyses of circumcision have varied.^ What are the evidences on the medical benefit of routine circumcision?

^ Cost benefit of Circumcision.
  • Adult Circumcision Stories - Men Circumcised As Adults Tell It As It Is... 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.circinfo.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The medical benefits of circumcision have overwhelmed the religious meaning of the practice.” .
  • Washington Diarist: Membership | The New Republic 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.tnr.com [Source type: Original source]

Some found a small net benefit of circumcision,[107][108] some found a small net decrement,[109][110] and one found that the benefits and risks balanced each other out and suggested that the decision could "most reasonably be made on nonmedical factors."[111]

Pain and pain relief

.According to the American Academy of Pediatrics' 1999 Circumcision Policy Statement, “There is considerable evidence that newborns who are circumcised without analgesia experience pain and physiologic stress.”[65] It therefore recommended using pain relief for circumcision.^ In a 1999 policy statement, the AAP recommended that "adequate analgesia should be provided if neonatal circumcision is performed."
  • UrbanBaby - Information For Parents About circumcision 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.urbanbaby.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Circumcision policy statement.
  • bmj.com Rapid Responses for Szabo and Short, 320 (7249) 1592-1594 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.bmj.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In past years the American of Pediatrics said there was not enough evidence to recommend routine circumcision of infants.
  • Did you circumcise your son? | A Blog for Busy Moms - MOMania 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC blogs.ajc.com [Source type: General]

[65] .One of the supporting studies, Taddio 1997, found a correlation between circumcision and intensity of pain response during vaccination months later.^ We do know that the pain of neonatal circumcision alters pain responses in the infant months later (Taddio A. et al.
  • bmj.com Rapid Responses for Patrick, 335 (7631) 1181 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.bmj.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Circumcision is one of the variables being studied.
  • GLT » A cutting controversy: circumcision and HIV 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.gaylesbiantimes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Newborns experience pain during circumcision.
  • Circumcision: Position Paper on Neonatal Circumcision -- American Academy of Family Physicians 15 September 2009 5:25 UTC www.aafp.org [Source type: Academic]

[112] .While acknowledging that there may be "other factors" besides circumcision to account for different levels of pain response, they stated that they did not find evidence of such.^ There are other factors such as the number of sexual partners etc.
  • MEDICAL FRAUD 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC med-fraud.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Did they have different sexual practices?
  • Circumcision update at Hugo Schwyzer 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC hugoschwyzer.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Did not account for outpatient circumcisions.
  • Circumcision: Position Paper on Neonatal Circumcision -- American Academy of Family Physicians 15 September 2009 5:25 UTC www.aafp.org [Source type: Academic]

They concluded "pretreatment and postoperative management of neonatal circumcision pain is recommended based on these results."[112] Other medical associations also cite evidence that circumcision without anesthetic is painful.[113][114]
.Stang, 1998, found 45% of physicians responding to a survey who circumcise used anaesthesia – most commonly a dorsal penile nerve block – for infant circumcisions.^ Beyond dorsal penile nerve block: A more humane circumcision.
  • Pain relief for neonatal circumcision 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.nichd.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Dorsal penile nerve block in neonatal circumcision: Chloroprocaine versus lidocaine.
  • Pain relief for neonatal circumcision 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.nichd.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Mintz MR, Grillo R. Dorsal penile nerve block for circumcision.
  • Pain relief for neonatal circumcision 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.nichd.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

.The obstetricians in the sample used anaesthesia less often (25%) than the family practitioners (56%) or pediatricians (71%).^ Often, inadequate or no anaesthesia is used.
  • To Mutilate in the Name ofJehovah or Allah 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.quran.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Recent surveys indicate that significant numbers of obstetricians (75%), family practitioners (44%), and pediatricians (29%) do not use analgesia/anaesthesia for circumcision because of concerns about adverse drug effects or because they believe that the procedure does not require pain management ( Maxwell 1999 ; Stang 1991 ; Stang 1998 ).
  • Pain relief for neonatal circumcision 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.nichd.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Circumcisions performed using the Mogen clamp take less time than is required using Gomco clamps.
  • Pain relief for neonatal circumcision 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.nichd.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

[115] .Howard et al. (1998) surveyed US medical doctor residency programs and directors, and found that 26% of the programs that taught the circumcision procedure "failed to provide instruction in anesthesia/analgesia for the procedure" and recommended that "residency training in neonatal circumcision should include instruction in pain relief techniques".[116] A 2006 follow-up study revealed that the percentage of programs that taught circumcision and also taught administration of topical or local anesthetic had increased to 97%.^ Should we have to put up with a circumcised doctor calling us turtlenecks, too?
  • Men's Health Office: Foreskin Facts: Turtleneck or No, It All Feels the Same 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC blogs.webmd.com [Source type: Original source]

^ A newer study by Sorrells et al.
  • Men's Health Office: Foreskin Facts: Turtleneck or No, It All Feels the Same 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC blogs.webmd.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Neonatal circumcision is painful.
  • To Mutilate in the Name ofJehovah or Allah 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.quran.org [Source type: Original source]

[117] .However, the authors of the follow-up study also noted that only 84% of these programs used anesthetic "frequently or always" when the procedure was conducted.^ Where are the calls for follow up studies?
  • To circumcise or not? | Parents Talk Back | STLtoday 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC www.stltoday.com [Source type: Original source]

^ However, post-hoc, we selected heart rate (the most frequently reported outcome) for between-study subgroup analyses using a chi-square method proposed by Deeks 2001 .
  • Pain relief for neonatal circumcision 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.nichd.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Even if these "studies" were true, shouldn't it be up to an individual male to decide for himself what measures of "protection" he wants to take?
  • The Checkup - Should You Circumcise Your Son? 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC voices.washingtonpost.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[117]
.Glass, 1999, stated that Jewish ritual circumcision is so quick that "most mohelim do not routinely use any anaesthesia as they feel there is probably no need in the neonate."^ Often, inadequate or no anaesthesia is used.
  • To Mutilate in the Name ofJehovah or Allah 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.quran.org [Source type: Original source]

^ There can be no “Christian” circumcision.
  • Rumor: Madonna to circumcise David? – Celebrity Baby Blog – People.com 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC celebrity-babies.com [Source type: Original source]

^ If there is no medical need for it then why do it?

Glass continued, ".However, there is no Talmudic objection and should the parents wish for local anaesthetic cream to be applied there is no reason why this cannot be done."^ So if there is no medical reason to do so, why would you?
  • Male Circumcision - Pros and Cons | The Art of Manliness 15 September 2009 5:25 UTC artofmanliness.com [Source type: Original source]

^ There is no good reason.

^ However, there's ABSOLUTELY NO REASON it can't be done right in the urologist's office under local anaesthetic.
  • Men's Health Office: Adult Circumcision 11 September 2009 23:56 UTC blogs.webmd.com [Source type: Original source]

.Glass also stated that for older children and adults, a penile block is used.^ SD % change from baseline during procedure reported by clamp used (Mogen, Gomco) and by penile block status (block, no block) .
  • Pain relief for neonatal circumcision 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.nichd.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Dalens B, Vanneuvile G, Dechelotte P. Penile block via the subpubic space in 100 children.
  • Pain relief for neonatal circumcision 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.nichd.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Few adverse effects were reported with use of any of the penile blocks.
  • Pain relief for neonatal circumcision 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.nichd.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

[36] .In 2001 the Swedish government passed a law requiring all boys undergoing a bris to be given anaesthetic administered by a medical professional.^ Unless the procedure is required to correct a medical condition, it should be banned by law for anyone under 18.
  • The Checkup - Should You Circumcise Your Son? 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC voices.washingtonpost.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is, however, given fair weight by most medical professional organizations: .
  • To circumcise or not? | Parents Talk Back | STLtoday 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC www.stltoday.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The newspaper said the plaintiffs are seeking compensation and all related damages, along with reimbursement for costs associated with the medical treatment their son has required.
  • News 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.mgmbill.org [Source type: Original source]

[118]
.Lander et al. demonstrated that babies circumcised without anesthesia showed behavioral and physiological signs of pain and distress.^ They’ve suspended investigations on the pain response of neonatal circumcision without anesthetic because of the obvious distress it causes.
  • Put Down the Knife! 11 Reasons Not to Circumcise 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC ecochildsplay.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Obviously you’ve never viewed a circumcision - the baby is quite obviously in pain and sometimes passes out from it.
  • To circumcise or not? | Parents Talk Back | STLtoday 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC www.stltoday.com [Source type: Original source]

^ A woman on a morning talk show I used to listen to had a baby a while ago, and the baby's father insisted that they have the boy circumcised, simply because he (the father) had been.
  • Male circumcision and female pleasure - Feministing 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC feministing.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[119] .Comparisons of the dorsal penile nerve block and EMLA (lidocaine/prilocaine) topical cream methods of pain control have revealed that while both are safe,[120][121] the dorsal nerve block controls pain more effectively than topical treatments,[122] but neither method eliminates pain completely.^ EMLA versus 30% topical lidocaine .
  • Pain relief for neonatal circumcision 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.nichd.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Beyond dorsal penile nerve block: A more humane circumcision.
  • Pain relief for neonatal circumcision 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.nichd.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Dorsal penile nerve block in neonatal circumcision: Chloroprocaine versus lidocaine.
  • Pain relief for neonatal circumcision 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.nichd.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

[120] .Razmus et al. reported that newborns circumcised with the dorsal block and the ring block in combination with the concentrated oral sucrose had the lowest pain scores.^ Newborns experience pain during circumcision.
  • Circumcision: Position Paper on Neonatal Circumcision -- American Academy of Family Physicians 15 September 2009 5:25 UTC www.aafp.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The act of circumcising a newborn is painful.
  • Her.meneutics: The Case for Male Circumcision 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC blog.christianitytoday.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Men who've had circumcision later in life have related the pain to bone-crushing wounds, and report as much as a 70% loss of pleasurable sensation.
  • Healthy Strokes - Masturbation and More 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC healthystrokes.com [Source type: Original source]

[123] .Ng et al. found that EMLA cream, in addition to local anaesthetic, effectively reduces the sharp pain induced by needle puncture.^ EMLA to reduce circumcision pain .
  • EMLA to reduce circumcision pain 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.nichd.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Local anaesthetic is a numbing medicine that can be injected into the base, or shaft, of the penis, or applied as a cream.
  • Patient information leaflet - Circumcision 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.cks.nhs.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A eutectic mixture of local anesthetics (e.g., EMLA cream) applied to the skin at the base of the penis 30 to 60 minutes before the injections may decrease the pain associated with the needle sticks.
  • Adult Circumcision - March 15, 1999 - American Academy of FamilyPhysicians 11 September 2009 23:56 UTC www.aafp.org [Source type: Academic]

[124]

Sexual effects

.The sexual effects of circumcision are the subject of much debate.^ Male circumcision has had no effect on sexually transmitted diseases.
  • Her.meneutics: The Case for Male Circumcision 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC blog.christianitytoday.com [Source type: Original source]

^ They oppose any debate on the subject of male circumcision 16 .
  • To Mutilate in the Name ofJehovah or Allah 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.quran.org [Source type: Original source]

^ My husband was circumcised himself, but after reading as much as we could about the subject he had no questions as to what he felt was the right decision for our son.
  • Berkeley Parents Network: Advice about Circumcision 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC parents.berkeley.edu [Source type: Original source]

.The American Academy of Pediatrics (1999) stated "A survey of adult males using self-report suggests more varied sexual practice and less sexual dysfunction in circumcised adult men.^ The NT states that men shouldn’t be circumcised.
  • Rumor: Madonna to circumcise David? – Celebrity Baby Blog – People.com 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC celebrity-babies.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The American Academy of Pediatricians reports that in a self-reporting study, circumcised men enjoyed “more varied sexual practice and less sexual dysfunction” than their uncircumcised brothers.
  • Male Circumcision - Pros and Cons | The Art of Manliness 15 September 2009 5:25 UTC artofmanliness.com [Source type: Original source]

^ American Academy of Pediatric Drs no longer recommend circumcision.
  • UrbanBaby - Information For Parents About circumcision 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.urbanbaby.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.There are anecdotal reports that penile sensation and sexual satisfaction are decreased for circumcised males."^ The original intent of male circumcision was to decrease sexual sensation.
  • Put Down the Knife! 11 Reasons Not to Circumcise 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC ecochildsplay.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Male Circumcision in Europe: Is there anything we can do?
  • 'Thou Shall Not Circumcise' A Three-Millennial Falsification The 2nd Commandment BANS SEXUAL MUTILATION - Salem-News.Com 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC www.salem-news.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Circumcision - sensitivity, sensation & sexual function.
  • Adult Circumcision Stories - Men Circumcised As Adults Tell It As It Is... 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.circinfo.net [Source type: Original source]

They continued, "Masters and Johnson noted no difference in exteroceptive and light tactile discrimination on the ventral or dorsal surfaces of the glans penis between circumcised and uncircumcised men."[65] Conversely a 2002 review by Boyle et al. stated that "the genitally intact male has thousands of fine touch receptors and other highly erogenous nerve endings—many of which are lost to circumcision, with an inevitable reduction in sexual sensation experienced by circumcised males." .They concluded, "Evidence has also started to accumulate that male circumcision may result in lifelong physical, sexual, and sometimes psychological harm as well."^ It appears to be a psychological manifestation of the circumcised male.
  • bmj.com Rapid Responses for Szabo and Short, 320 (7249) 1592-1594 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.bmj.com [Source type: Academic]

^ They should be circumcised just as the males.
  • What is Circumcision? 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.aish.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The physical benefits of male circumcision are monumental.
  • Circumcision - God Said Man Said 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.godsaidmansaid.com [Source type: Original source]

[125] .In January 2007, The American Academy of Family Physicians (AAFP) stated "The effect of circumcision on penile sensation or sexual satisfaction is unknown.^ Circumcision - sensitivity, sensation & sexual function.
  • Adult Circumcision Stories - Men Circumcised As Adults Tell It As It Is... 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.circinfo.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The American Academy of Pediatrics (1999) stated: "Circumcision has been suggested as an effective method of maintaining penile hygiene since the time of the Egyptian dynasties, but there is little evidence to affirm the association between circumcision status and optimal penile hygiene."
  • Daddy Daze | Being a dad in Houston | MomHouston.com 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC blogs.chron.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The circumcised group’s rate of sexual satisfaction remained constant, with 98.5% reporting sexual satisfaction before circumcision, and 98.4% reporting so two years after the procedure.” .
  • Male Circumcision - Pros and Cons | The Art of Manliness 15 September 2009 5:25 UTC artofmanliness.com [Source type: Original source]

.Because the epithelium of a circumcised glans becomes cornified, and because some feel nerve over-stimulation leads to desensitization, many believe that the glans of a circumcised penis is less sensitive.^ Circumcision desensitizes: Circumcision desensitizes the penis radically.

^ Some Christians also believe circumcision is required.

^ Conclusions: The glans of the circumcised penis is less sensitive to fine touch than the glans of the uncircumcised penis.
  • Injury and Harm | Circinfo.org 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.circinfo.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[...] .No valid evidence to date, however, supports the notion that being circumcised affects sexual sensation or satisfaction."^ Circumcision - sensitivity, sensation & sexual function .
  • Circumcision Rates - different countries 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.circinfo.net [Source type: Academic]

^ No evidence that Louis XVI was circumcised .

^ Circumcision - sensitivity, sensation & sexual function.
  • Adult Circumcision Stories - Men Circumcised As Adults Tell It As It Is... 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.circinfo.net [Source type: Original source]

[113] .Payne et al. reported that direct measurement of penile sensation during sexual arousal failed to support the hypothesised sensory differences associated with circumcision status.^ Circumcision - sensitivity, sensation & sexual function.
  • Adult Circumcision Stories - Men Circumcised As Adults Tell It As It Is... 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.circinfo.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The American Academy of Pediatrics (1999) stated: "Circumcision has been suggested as an effective method of maintaining penile hygiene since the time of the Egyptian dynasties, but there is little evidence to affirm the association between circumcision status and optimal penile hygiene."
  • Daddy Daze | Being a dad in Houston | MomHouston.com 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC blogs.chron.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Female partners of circumcised men do not report a lower rate of cervical cancer,[40] nor does circumcision prevent penile cancer.

[126] .In a 2007 study, Sorrells et al., using monofilament touch-test mapping, found that the foreskin contains the most sensitive parts of the penis, noting that these parts are lost to circumcision.^ And that the three most sensitive portions of the penis are on the foreskin.
  • Men's Health Office: Foreskin Facts: Turtleneck or No, It All Feels the Same 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC blogs.webmd.com [Source type: Original source]

^ A newer study by Sorrells et al.
  • Men's Health Office: Foreskin Facts: Turtleneck or No, It All Feels the Same 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC blogs.webmd.com [Source type: Original source]

^ MOST SENSITIVE PARTS of the penis are removed.
  • Daddy Daze | Being a dad in Houston | MomHouston.com 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC blogs.chron.com [Source type: Original source]

.They also found that "the glans of the circumcised penis is less sensitive to fine-touch than the glans of the uncircumcised penis."^ He blows in the penis and the vagina of the uncircumcised more than in those of the circumcised.
  • Male and Female Circumcision 15 September 2009 5:25 UTC www.hraicjk.org [Source type: Original source]

^ After searching them, he found that they were not circumcised.
  • Male and Female Circumcision 15 September 2009 5:25 UTC www.hraicjk.org [Source type: Original source]

^ They found that the penile sensitivity of men, whether circumcised or not, is actually less than they had anticipated.
  • Men's Health Office: Foreskin Facts: Turtleneck or No, It All Feels the Same 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC blogs.webmd.com [Source type: Original source]

[127] .In a 2008 study, Krieger et al. stated that "Adult male circumcision was not associated with sexual dysfunction.^ A newer study by Sorrells et al.
  • Men's Health Office: Foreskin Facts: Turtleneck or No, It All Feels the Same 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC blogs.webmd.com [Source type: Original source]

^ According to Al-Jahiz (died 868): "Male and female circumcision was practiced by Arabs since the time of Abraham and Hagar until today".
  • Male and Female Circumcision 15 September 2009 5:25 UTC www.hraicjk.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Al-Qaradawi says that the war should be declared only in case of abandoning male circumcision.
  • Male and Female Circumcision 15 September 2009 5:25 UTC www.hraicjk.org [Source type: Original source]

.Circumcised men reported increased penile sensitivity and enhanced ease of reaching orgasm."^ Circumcised men get penile cancer, too.
  • Rumor: Madonna to circumcise David? – Celebrity Baby Blog – People.com 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC celebrity-babies.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I have read alot more studies saying that circumcised men enjoy sex less, because without the foreskin covering and protecting it the penis becomes less sensitive.
  • Swedish doctors refuse to circumcise boys - The Local 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC www.thelocal.se [Source type: Original source]

^ And one can also expect to see an ever-increasing ratio of circumcised men to get penile cancer until the year 2050 when 90% of the penile cancer cases will be circumcised men.
  • bmj.com Rapid Responses for Szabo and Short, 320 (7249) 1592-1594 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.bmj.com [Source type: Academic]

[128]
.Reports detailing the effect of circumcision on erectile dysfunction have been mixed.^ Although it’s likely impossible to reach any definitive conclusions regarding the issue, self-report research on men who are circumcised in adulthood show mixed results.
  • Is Circumcision Safe? | Mark's Daily Apple 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC www.marksdailyapple.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The reason we have so many men with Erectile Dysfunction is because we have so much circumcision.
  • Daddy Daze | Being a dad in Houston | MomHouston.com 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC blogs.chron.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Many many men of advancing age in this country report a desensitized penis and erectile dysfunction.
  • To circumcise or not? | Parents Talk Back | STLtoday 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC www.stltoday.com [Source type: Original source]

.Studies have shown that circumcision can result in a statistically significant increase,[129][130] or decrease,[26][131] in erectile dysfunction among circumcised men, while other studies have shown little to no effect.^ I was circumcised as a baby and i had no ill effects.
  • Men's Health Office: Adult Circumcision 11 September 2009 23:56 UTC blogs.webmd.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The random effects estimate was not statistically significant.
  • Pain relief for neonatal circumcision 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.nichd.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Circumcised men, on the other hand, can do nothing.
  • Male Circumcision - Pros and Cons | The Art of Manliness 15 September 2009 5:25 UTC artofmanliness.com [Source type: Original source]

[132][133][134]

Complications

.Complication rates ranging from 0.06% to 55% have been cited;[135] more specific estimates have included 2-10%[57] and 0.2-0.6%[12][65].^ Similarly, when the authors assert that neonatal circumcision has a low incidence of complications, they seem to be disregarding studies that have found complication rates of 2 to 10 percent(2) and 55 percent.
  • bmj.com Rapid Responses for Szabo and Short, 320 (7249) 1592-1594 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.bmj.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The modified behavioral pain scale (MBPS) scores ( Kass 2001 ) ranged from 0 to 10 and incorporated ratings for facial expression, crying and body movements.
  • Pain relief for neonatal circumcision 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.nichd.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Posted on Dec 12, 06 at 10:32AM Permalink 109 Comments Post to: .
  • Rumor: Madonna to circumcise David? – Celebrity Baby Blog – People.com 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC celebrity-babies.com [Source type: Original source]

.According to the American Medical Association (AMA), blood loss and infection are the most common complications, but most bleeding is minor and can be stopped by applying pressure.^ In 1999, the American Pediatric Association revised their statement on circumcision to acknowledge the “potential medical benefits” of the procedure but concluded “these data are not sufficient to recommend routine neonatal circumcision.” Most of Canada has “de-listed” circumcision as a necessary (i.e.
  • Is Circumcision Safe? | Mark's Daily Apple 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC www.marksdailyapple.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Common infections can be treated with a plethora of modern medications like antibiotics and steroid creams.
  • Is Circumcision Safe? | Mark's Daily Apple 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC www.marksdailyapple.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There was no loss of sensation or any other complication as a result of this minor, safe, medical procedure.
  • Circumcised at 37: a personal story and a rebuke to the MRAs at Hugo Schwyzer 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC hugoschwyzer.net [Source type: Original source]

[12] .A survey of circumcision complications by Kaplan in 1983 revealed that the rate of bleeding complications was between 0.1% and 35%.^ Kaplan GW. Complications of circumcision.
  • bmj.com Rapid Responses for Szabo and Short, 320 (7249) 1592-1594 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.bmj.com [Source type: Academic]

^ A rate of adverse events, infections and delayed healing described as ‘shocking’ and ‘unacceptable’ by the investigators has been revealed by a survey of both traditional and medically performed circumcisions amongst a traditionally-circumcised ethnic group in Kenya.
  • Men's Health Office: Foreskin Facts: Turtleneck or No, It All Feels the Same 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC blogs.webmd.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Similarly, when the authors assert that neonatal circumcision has a low incidence of complications, they seem to be disregarding studies that have found complication rates of 2 to 10 percent(2) and 55 percent.
  • bmj.com Rapid Responses for Szabo and Short, 320 (7249) 1592-1594 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.bmj.com [Source type: Academic]

[136] .A 1999 study of 48 boys who had complications from traditional male circumcision in Nigeria found that haemorrhage occurred in 52% of the boys, infection in 21% and one child had his penis amputated.^ Boys who aren’t circumcised are dirty .
  • Put Down the Knife! 11 Reasons Not to Circumcise | Personal Health | AlterNet 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC www.alternet.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Put Down the Knife! 11 Reasons Not to Circumcise 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC ecochildsplay.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I know circ boys who have had complications from them also.
  • UrbanBaby - Information For Parents About circumcision 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.urbanbaby.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As a child I was the only one of 4 sibs who was not circumcised.
  • Adult Circumcision Stories - Men Circumcised As Adults Tell It As It Is... 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.circinfo.net [Source type: Original source]

[137]
A penis that has been circumcised.
A penis that has not been circumcised.
.One study looking at 354,297 births in Washington State from 1987-1996 found that immediate post-birth complications occurred at a rate of 0.2% in the circumcised babies and at a rate of 0.01% in the uncircumcised babies.^ Its surgical complication rate is one in 500.

^ The males looses at 40 % of his sensitivity -209 baby boys die each year from circumcision and related complications If not cleaned regularly, an uncircumcised chicken is the perfect breeding ground for various cancer and disease carrying viruses.
  • Get circumcised [Archive] - Xbox 360 & Xbox Forums 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC forum.teamxbox.com [Source type: General]

^ Being Uncircumcised makes your member look and feel BIGGER. Plus One!
  • Is Circumcision Safe? | Mark's Daily Apple 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC www.marksdailyapple.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The authors judged that this was a conservative estimate because it did not capture the very rare but serious delayed complications associated with circumcisions (eg, necrotizing fasciitis, cellulitis) and the less serious but more common complications such as the circumcision scar or a less than ideal cosmetic result.^ Less is never better than more.
  • bmj.com Rapid Responses for Szabo and Short, 320 (7249) 1592-1594 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.bmj.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In fact, he cried more when he got his vaccination than he did for the circumcision.
  • Berkeley Parents Network: Advice about Circumcision 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC parents.berkeley.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Circumcision complications are deadly serious.

They also stated that the risks of circumcision "do not seem to be mitigated by the hands of more experienced physicians".[138]
.Meatal stenosis (a narrowing of the urethral opening) may be a longer-term complication of circumcision.^ Circumcision increases the risk of buried penis, meatal stenosis (narrowing of the urethral opening), skin bridges, and MRSA infection.
  • Put Down the Knife! 11 Reasons Not to Circumcise 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC ecochildsplay.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Circumcised boys also are likely to suffer from meatal stenosis, a condition in which the urethra narrows.
  • To circumcise or not? | Parents Talk Back | STLtoday 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC www.stltoday.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Shorter procedure time may reduce the total amount of pain experienced during circumcision, and may be important in terms of practitioner time to do the surgery.
  • Pain relief for neonatal circumcision 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.nichd.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

.It is thought that because the foreskin no longer protects the meatus, ammonia formed from urine in wet diapers irritates and inflames the exposed urethral opening.^ The foreskin acts as a natural protection from the ammonia in the urine.
  • Put Down the Knife! 11 Reasons Not to Circumcise | Personal Health | AlterNet 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC www.alternet.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It really is as simple as saying “Daddy doesn’t have a foreskin because, when I was born, people thought it was better to remove them.

^ You mean you look at your own specific children, and think, "good thing I had their foreskins stripped off, because no woman should trust them?"
  • Her.meneutics: The Case for Male Circumcision 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC blog.christianitytoday.com [Source type: Original source]

.Meatal stenosis can lead to discomfort with urination, incontinence, bleeding after urination and urinary tract infections.^ Urinary tract infections.
  • Adult Circumcision Stories - Men Circumcised As Adults Tell It As It Is... 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.circinfo.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Using number of patients needed to treat principle, routine circumcision is not warranted to prevent urinary tract infection and penile cancer.

^ There are immediate risks to circumcision such as bleeding, infection and penile injury, as well as complications recognized later that may include buried penis, meatal stenosis, skin bridges, chordee and poor cosmetic appearance.
  • UrbanBaby - Information For Parents About circumcision 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.urbanbaby.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[139][140][141]
.Circumcisions may remove too much or too little skin.^ Who decides if “too much” skin is removed?
  • The Little Seed » Blog Archive » Circumcision, what to consider when making the decision for our children… 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.thelittleseed.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Too little removed leads to re-circumcisions and penile skin adhesions.
  • Her.meneutics: The Case for Male Circumcision 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC blog.christianitytoday.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Circumcision also leads to too much or too little skin being removed.
  • Her.meneutics: The Case for Male Circumcision 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC blog.christianitytoday.com [Source type: Original source]

[57][142] .If insufficient skin is removed, the child may still develop phimosis in later life.^ I wouldn’t remove part of my son’s penis in hopes of preventing penile cancer later in life, just as I would not remove my daughter’s breast tissue in hopes of later preventing breast cancer.
  • Male Circumcision - Pros and Cons | The Art of Manliness 15 September 2009 5:25 UTC artofmanliness.com [Source type: Original source]

^ While this may be true, infections are still very rare and removing the foreskin is akin to yanking out all of our teeth to prevent cavities.
  • Daddy Daze | Being a dad in Houston | MomHouston.com 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC blogs.chron.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Since circumcision may be more risky if done later in life, parents may want to decide before or soon after their son is born if they want their son circumcised.
  • UrbanBaby - Information For Parents About circumcision 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.urbanbaby.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[57] .Van Howe states that "when operating on the infantile penis, the surgeon cannot adequately judge the appropriate amount of tissue to remove because the penis will change considerably as the child ages, such that a small difference at the time of surgery may translate into a large difference in the adult circumcised penis.^ Circumcision removes a large percentag of errogenous tissue on the penis.
  • UrbanBaby - Information For Parents About circumcision 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.urbanbaby.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ What's a circumcision like for an older child or adult?
  • Berkeley Parents Network: Advice about Circumcision 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC parents.berkeley.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Circumcision removes a large percentag of errogenous tissue on...
  • UrbanBaby - Information For Parents About circumcision 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.urbanbaby.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.To date (1997), there have been no published studies showing the ability of a circumciser to predict the later appearance of the penis."^ A study I would personally love to see would be the study of uncircumcised and circumcised men rating there penis.
  • Male Circumcision - Pros and Cons | The Art of Manliness 15 September 2009 5:25 UTC artofmanliness.com [Source type: Original source]

^ From the London AP: Studies show circumcision reduces AIDS risk: By MARIA CHENG (AP) Scientists say conclusive data shows there is no question circumcision reduces men's chances of...
  • UrbanBaby - Information For Parents About circumcision 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.urbanbaby.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Recent studies suggest there is no difference in the amount for circumcised boys than for intact boys.
  • Put Down the Knife! 11 Reasons Not to Circumcise | Personal Health | AlterNet 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC www.alternet.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Put Down the Knife! 11 Reasons Not to Circumcise 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC ecochildsplay.com [Source type: Original source]

[143]
.Cathcart et al. report that 0.5% of boys required a procedure to revise the circumcision.^ The circumcised group’s rate of sexual satisfaction remained constant, with 98.5% reporting sexual satisfaction before circumcision, and 98.4% reporting so two years after the procedure.” .
  • Male Circumcision - Pros and Cons | The Art of Manliness 15 September 2009 5:25 UTC artofmanliness.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I know this experience is way worth than any trauma I might have had at birth because of the circumcision procedure so I chose to do it on my two boys.
  • Daddy Daze | Being a dad in Houston | MomHouston.com 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC blogs.chron.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Al-Kalini (died 941) quotes a saying of Al-Imam Al-Sadiq (died 148): "Circumcision of boys is from the sunnah , but the circumcision of female slaves is not from the sunnah ".
  • Male and Female Circumcision 15 September 2009 5:25 UTC www.hraicjk.org [Source type: Original source]

[144]
.Other complications include concealed penis[145][146], urinary fistulas, chordee, cysts, lymphedema, ulceration of the glans, necrosis of all or part of the penis, hypospadias, epispadias and impotence.^ Other untoward events can result from taking too much skin from the penile shaft causing denudation or rarely, concealed penis, or from not removing sufficient foreskin, producing an unsatisfactory cosmetic result or recurrent phimosis.30,31 Other postoperative complications include formation of skin bridges between the penile shaft and glans, meatitis and meatal stenosis, chordee, inclusion cysts in the circumcision line, lymphedema, hypospadias and epispadias, and urinary retention.32 Case reports have associated circumcision with other rare but severe events including scalded skin syndrome, necrotizing fasciitis, sepsis and meningitis, urethrocutaneous fistulas, necrosis (secondary to cauterization), and partial amputation of the glans penis.5,30,32 Provision of Anesthesia During Circumcision Ordinary humanitarian sentiment prevents consideration of circumcision without anesthesia.
  • UrbanBaby - Information For Parents About circumcision 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.urbanbaby.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Cutting off part of a babys penis violates all of these traditions and strengths.
  • Swedish doctors refuse to circumcise boys - The Local 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC www.thelocal.se [Source type: Original source]

^ You think someone whi is circumcised is going to take some skin from other parts of their body and staple it to the tip of his penis?This is a wasted effory That's not the point...
  • Get circumcised [Archive] - Xbox 360 & Xbox Forums 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC forum.teamxbox.com [Source type: General]

[136] Kaplan stated “Virtually all of these complications are preventable with only a modicum of care" and "most such complications occur at the hands of inexperienced operators who are neither urologists nor surgeons.”[136]
.Another complication of infant circumcision is skin bridge formation, whereby a remaining part of the foreskin fuses to other parts of the penis (often the glans) upon healing.^ The penis skin now remains pulled back from my glans.
  • Adult Circumcision Stories - Men Circumcised As Adults Tell It As It Is... 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.circinfo.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The skin on the glans hardens after circumcision.
  • Put Down the Knife! 11 Reasons Not to Circumcise | Personal Health | AlterNet 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC www.alternet.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He won't have a scar with discolored skin below the glans on his penis.
  • Daddy Daze | Being a dad in Houston | MomHouston.com 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC blogs.chron.com [Source type: Original source]

.This can result in pain during erections and minor bleeding can occur if the shaft skin is forcibly retracted.^ Similarly, during sexual intercourse, the tightness of the skin on the penile shaft makes for increased and more enjoyable sensations.
  • Adult Circumcision Stories - Men Circumcised As Adults Tell It As It Is... 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.circinfo.net [Source type: Original source]

^ He wakes up in the middle of the night from pain when he has an erection during his sleep.
  • Men's Health Office: Adult Circumcision 11 September 2009 23:56 UTC blogs.webmd.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The boy should be the first person to retract his foreskin, since forcible retraction by anyone else results in pain and injury.
  • Her.meneutics: The Case for Male Circumcision 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC blog.christianitytoday.com [Source type: Original source]

[147] .Van Howe advises that to prevent adhesions forming after circumcision, parents should be instructed to retract and clean any skin covering the glans.^ The skin on the glans hardens after circumcision.
  • Put Down the Knife! 11 Reasons Not to Circumcise | Personal Health | AlterNet 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC www.alternet.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The loose circumcision skin covers only about 1/4 of the glans.
  • Adult Circumcision Stories - Men Circumcised As Adults Tell It As It Is... 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.circinfo.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Above that challenge would be to take the time to instruct their son how to properly clean his penis (including retracting the foreskin, when appropriate) and monitoring his bathing rituals to verify that he is actually washing and correctly.
  • Put Down the Knife! 11 Reasons Not to Circumcise 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC ecochildsplay.com [Source type: Original source]

[143]
.Although deaths have been reported,[136][148] the American Academy of Family Physicians states that death is rare, and cites an estimated death rate of 1 infant in 500,000 from circumcision.^ Many other similar cases have been documented[61,62] Infant circumcision has a reported death rate of one in 500,000.

^ Over 500,000 circumcised, American men have died of AIDs.
  • Did you circumcise your son? | A Blog for Busy Moms - MOMania 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC blogs.ajc.com [Source type: General]

^ The American Academy of Pediatrics (1999) stated: "Circumcision has been suggested as an effective method of maintaining penile hygiene since the time of the Egyptian dynasties, but there is little evidence to affirm the association between circumcision status and optimal penile hygiene."
  • Daddy Daze | Being a dad in Houston | MomHouston.com 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC blogs.chron.com [Source type: Original source]

[113] Gairdner's 1949 study[149] reported that an average of 16 children per year out of about 90,000 died following circumcision in the UK. .He found that most deaths had occurred suddenly under anaesthesia and could not be explained further, but hemorrhage and infection had also proven fatal.^ Death may occur from bleeding 2,3 or infection.
  • bmj.com Rapid Responses for Patrick, 335 (7631) 1181 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.bmj.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Opinions Explaining Urinary Tract Infections A UTI of the bladder (bladder infection) is probably the most common UTI. it is painful and annoying and it can lead to serious consequences if the infection spreads to the kidneys.

^ "The immediate physical effects of female genital mutilation can include infection, tetanus, shock, hemorrhage, and even death.

.Deaths attributed to phimosis and circumcision were grouped together, but Gairdner argued that such deaths were probably due to the circumcision operation.^ Pro-circumcision groups argue that circumcision protects against infection, but the NHS stopped routine infant circumcision in 1949 on the ground that it provided no notable health benefits.
  • Sex advice: should my boyfriend get circumcised? - Times Online 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC women.timesonline.co.uk [Source type: News]

^ Prosecutor Agneta Henrikson said: "He decided that the girl should be circumcised and together with another person kept firm hold of her while a circumciser performed the operation."
  • Dad forces girl to circumcise: News24: Africa: News 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC www.news24.com [Source type: News]

^ The actual death rate is unknown (a scandal in itself), and circumcision deaths are commonly blamed on side-factors such as anaesthetic or consequences like haemorrhage or sepsis.
  • BBC - Will & Testament: Circumcision: male genital mutilation? 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC www.bbc.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The penis is thought to be lost in 1 in 1,000,000 circumcisions.^ When a baby boy’s natural and intact penis is “circumcised,” this is what is lost forever: ** An estimated 240 feet of microscopic nerves, including branches of the dorsal nerve.

^ Unfortunately, in my age group, baby boomers, circumcision was quite common as I guess they thought the penis was dirty.
  • Daddy Daze | Being a dad in Houston | MomHouston.com 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC blogs.chron.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He was about eight at the time and was very upset about the thought of his penis being circumcised (he was also very embarrassed by the whole situation).
  • Berkeley Parents Network: Advice about Circumcision 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC parents.berkeley.edu [Source type: Original source]

[150]

Sexually transmitted diseases

Human immunodeficiency virus

.Over forty observational studies have been conducted to investigate the relationship between circumcision and HIV infection.^ HIV/vanhowe4/ Circumcision and HIV infection: review of the literature and meta-analysis R. S. Van Howe MD FAAP Department of Pediatrics, Marshfield Clinic, Lakeland Center, USA "Summary: Thirty-five articles and a number of abstracts have been published in the medical literature looking at the relationship between male circumcision and HIV infection.
  • bmj.com Rapid Responses for Szabo and Short, 320 (7249) 1592-1594 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.bmj.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The study I would like to see is one that investigates the relationship between circumcised men and sexual crimes.
  • To Circumcise or Not? | | AlterNet 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC www.alternet.org [Source type: General]

^ In the USA where most males are circumcised, the HIV/AIDS infection rate is many times higher than in Europe (where most males are intact).
  • bmj.com Rapid Responses for Szabo and Short, 320 (7249) 1592-1594 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.bmj.com [Source type: Academic]

[151] .Reviews of these studies have reached differing conclusions about whether circumcision could be used as a prevention method against HIV.^ "Circumcision doesn't protect against HIV - adopting behaviors inconsistent with transmission protects against HIV. Using condoms, for example, has been shown to be over 98% effective in curbing the spread of HIV. It is commendable that these scientists continue to study HIV transmission and were willing to come to a new conclusion; and the larger issue is the damage done by the earlier, flawed findings.
  • Get circumcised [Archive] - Xbox 360 & Xbox Forums 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC forum.teamxbox.com [Source type: General]

^ Sigismond February 15, 2008 9:21 am (Pacific time) Could someone ask Mc Cain and Obama their standpoint about circumcision.
  • 'Thou Shall Not Circumcise' A Three-Millennial Falsification The 2nd Commandment BANS SEXUAL MUTILATION - Salem-News.Com 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC www.salem-news.com [Source type: Original source]

^ We saw earlier that the enthusiasts of female circumcision called sunnah plead in favour of it because it prevents the use of drugs.
  • To Mutilate in the Name ofJehovah or Allah 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.quran.org [Source type: Original source]

[152][153][154][155]
.Experimental evidence was needed to establish a causal relationship between lack of circumcision and HIV, so three randomized controlled trials were commissioned as a means to reduce the effect of any confounding factors.^ Led by Dr. Bertran Auvert, the investigators found a 60 percent reduction in HIV acquisition for the men enrolled in the circumcised arm of the trial.
  • To circumcise or not? | Parents Talk Back | STLtoday 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC www.stltoday.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In the second trial, a study of 4,996 HIV-negative men in Rakai, Uganda, circumcision was associated with a 48% reduction in HIV infection.
  • To Circumcise or Not? | | AlterNet 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC www.alternet.org [Source type: General]

^ While in Table 1, the rates of condom use were similar between the control group and intervention group (demonstrating good randomization), Table 2 of the study demonstrates that condom use was significantly greater in the intervention group (i.e.
  • The Checkup - Should You Circumcise Your Son? 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC voices.washingtonpost.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[155] .Trials took place in South Africa,[156] Kenya[157] and Uganda.^ The trial, ANRS-1265, was conducted in South Africa to test the effect of adult male circumcision on HIV acquisition.
  • To circumcise or not? | Parents Talk Back | STLtoday 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC www.stltoday.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The two U.S. studies confirm similar results from an earlier trial in South Africa.
  • UrbanBaby - Information For Parents About circumcision 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.urbanbaby.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The findings first were announced in December, when initial results from two major trials - in Kenya and Uganda - showed promising links between circumcision and HIV transmission.
  • UrbanBaby - Information For Parents About circumcision 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.urbanbaby.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[158] .All three trials were stopped early by their monitoring boards on ethical grounds, because those in the circumcised group had a lower rate of HIV contraction than the control group.^ I have three sons, all of whom are circumcised.
  • Berkeley Parents Network: Advice about Circumcision 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC parents.berkeley.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Three separate studies spaced over a 20 year interval found that the annual death rate of infant circumcision is 229 - 230 infant deaths per year.
  • Her.meneutics: The Case for Male Circumcision 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC blog.christianitytoday.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Analysis of results showed the glans of the uncircumcised men had significantly lower thresholds than that of circumcised men (P = 0.040).
  • Did you circumcise your son? | A Blog for Busy Moms - MOMania 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC blogs.ajc.com [Source type: General]

[157] .The results showed that circumcision reduced vaginal-to-penile transmission of HIV by 60%, 53%, and 51%, respectively.^ Circumcision reduced the chances of reducing AIDS by 60% .
  • UrbanBaby - Information For Parents About circumcision 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.urbanbaby.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I was not aware of any studies showing any decreased transmission of HIV in circumcised men.
  • Circumcised at 37: a personal story and a rebuke to the MRAs at Hugo Schwyzer 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC hugoschwyzer.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Analysis of results showed the glans of the uncircumcised men had significantly lower thresholds than that of circumcised men (P = 0.040).
  • Did you circumcise your son? | A Blog for Busy Moms - MOMania 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC blogs.ajc.com [Source type: General]

[159] .A meta-analysis of the African randomised controlled trials found that the risk in circumcised males was 0.44 times that in uncircumcised males, and that 72 circumcisions would need to be performed to prevent one HIV infection.^ Randomised controlled trials (RCTs).
  • Pain relief for neonatal circumcision 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.nichd.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ A) Male circumcision in the time of Muhammad .
  • Male and Female Circumcision 15 September 2009 5:25 UTC www.hraicjk.org [Source type: Original source]

^ That circumcision reduces the risk of male HIV infection is biologically plausible.
  • To circumcise or not? | Parents Talk Back | STLtoday 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC www.stltoday.com [Source type: Original source]

.The authors also stated that using circumcision as a means to reduce HIV infection would, on a national level, require consistently safe sexual practices to maintain the protective benefit.^ The medical benefits of circumcision have overwhelmed the religious meaning of the practice.” .
  • Washington Diarist: Membership | The New Republic 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.tnr.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Circumcision as reducing of the pleasure and maintaining chastity .
  • Male and Female Circumcision 15 September 2009 5:25 UTC www.hraicjk.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The medical benefits of circumcision have overwhelmed the religious meaning of the practice.”" .
  • Washington Diarist: Membership | The New Republic 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.tnr.com [Source type: Original source]

[160]
.As a result of these findings, the WHO and the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) stated that male circumcision is an efficacious intervention for HIV prevention but should be carried out by well trained medical professionals and under conditions of informed consent.^ And on AIDS, it’s circumcision in developing nations where HIV is widespread.
  • Circumcised at 37: a personal story and a rebuke to the MRAs at Hugo Schwyzer 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC hugoschwyzer.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Jurists are not unanimous regarding the age at which circumcision should be carried out.
  • To Mutilate in the Name ofJehovah or Allah 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.quran.org [Source type: Original source]

^ It does not say "circumcision prevents HIV".
  • UrbanBaby - Information For Parents About circumcision 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.urbanbaby.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[8][13][161] .Both the WHO and CDC indicate that circumcision may not reduce HIV transmission from men to women, and that data is lacking for the transmission rate of men who engage in anal sex with a female partner.^ I prefer to be with men who aren't circumcised .
  • UrbanBaby - Information For Parents About circumcision 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.urbanbaby.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ HIV. not sure how female circumcision would impact HIV transmission.
  • UrbanBaby - Information For Parents About circumcision 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.urbanbaby.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I do not engage in homosexual anal sex.
  • Her.meneutics: The Case for Male Circumcision 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC blog.christianitytoday.com [Source type: Original source]

[13][14] .The joint WHO/UNAIDS recommendation also notes that circumcision only provides partial protection from HIV and should never replace known methods of HIV prevention.^ It does not say "circumcision prevents HIV".
  • UrbanBaby - Information For Parents About circumcision 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.urbanbaby.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Circumcision should not be offered as the only strategy for HIV risk reduction.
  • UrbanBaby - Information For Parents About circumcision 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.urbanbaby.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In response the assembled research, the World Health Organization/United Nations Joint Programme on HIV/AIDS issued their official recommendation of circumcision as one method to prevent the spread of HIV. Critics caution that the “context” of the African epidemic, which is as high as 25% of the population in some areas, is so different from the disease rate (as well as cultural and hygienic practices ) in the West that the protective factor of circumcision isn’t nearly as high in Western countries .
  • Is Circumcision Safe? | Mark's Daily Apple 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC www.marksdailyapple.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Male Circumcision Clearinghouse website was formed by WHO, UNAIDS, FHI and AVAC to provide current evidence-based guidance, information and resources to support the delivery of safe male circumcision services in countries that choose to scale up male circumcision as one component of comprehensive HIV prevention services.^ It does not say "circumcision prevents HIV".
  • UrbanBaby - Information For Parents About circumcision 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.urbanbaby.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Look up male circumcision support groups.
  • UrbanBaby - Information For Parents About circumcision 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.urbanbaby.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I still support circumcision for an adult male that chooses to do so.
  • Her.meneutics: The Case for Male Circumcision 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC blog.christianitytoday.com [Source type: Original source]

[162],[163]
.Circumcision has been judged to be a cost-effective method to reduce the spread of HIV in a population,[8] though not necessarily more cost-effective than condoms.^ Condoms are much more effective, though.
  • The Little Seed » Blog Archive » Circumcision, what to consider when making the decision for our children… 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.thelittleseed.com [Source type: Original source]

^ "Circumcision doesn't protect against HIV - adopting behaviors inconsistent with transmission protects against HIV. Using condoms, for example, has been shown to be over 98% effective in curbing the spread of HIV. It is commendable that these scientists continue to study HIV transmission and were willing to come to a new conclusion; and the larger issue is the damage done by the earlier, flawed findings.
  • Get circumcised [Archive] - Xbox 360 & Xbox Forums 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC forum.teamxbox.com [Source type: General]

^ Judaism is not defined by circumcision any more than Christians are defined by the act of baptism, Portuguese or Americans by their passports.
  • Washington Diarist: Membership | The New Republic 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.tnr.com [Source type: Original source]

[8][164] .Some have challenged the validity of the African randomized controlled trials, prompting a number of researchers to question the effectiveness of circumcision as an HIV prevention strategy.^ Led by Dr. Bertran Auvert, the investigators found a 60 percent reduction in HIV acquisition for the men enrolled in the circumcised arm of the trial.
  • To circumcise or not? | Parents Talk Back | STLtoday 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC www.stltoday.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The review has been updated to correct the numbers reported for total patients randomized for the included trials.
  • Pain relief for neonatal circumcision 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.nichd.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Religious male circumcision is practised under both Jewish and Islamic law, and it is an integral part of some aboriginal and African cultural practices.
  • Is Circumcision Safe? | Mark's Daily Apple 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC www.marksdailyapple.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[165][166]
.In addition to the studies which provided information about female-to-male transmission, some studies have addressed other transmission routes.^ And if I, as a male, made any comment about a female’s body part being unappealing to me, I would be labeled as a sexist pig.
  • Is Circumcision Safe? | Mark's Daily Apple 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC www.marksdailyapple.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ All we can say from the available information concerning male and female circumcision is that these two practices were, in the first centuries after Muhammad, left to the discretionary decision of the family.
  • Male and Female Circumcision 15 September 2009 5:25 UTC www.hraicjk.org [Source type: Original source]

^ One lady posted on previous blog about your male child looking different than others.

.A randomised controlled trial in Uganda found that male circumcision did not reduce male to female transmission of HIV. The authors could not rule out the possibility of higher risk of transmission from men who did not wait for the wound to fully heal before engaging in intercourse.^ We said before that the Koran did not mention male or female circumcision.
  • Male and Female Circumcision 15 September 2009 5:25 UTC www.hraicjk.org [Source type: Original source]

^ "Why is female circumcision so denounced while male circumcision is not?"
  • The Checkup - Should You Circumcise Your Son? 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC voices.washingtonpost.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Randomised controlled trials (RCTs).
  • Pain relief for neonatal circumcision 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.nichd.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

[167] A meta-analysis of data from fifteen observational studies of men who have sex with men found "insufficient evidence that male circumcision protects against HIV infection or other STIs."[168]

Human papilloma virus

.Meta-analyses by Van Howe [169] and Bosch et al.[170] of observational studies reached differing conclusions as to whether circumcision reduces infection with human papillomavirus (HPV).^ A newer study by Sorrells et al.
  • Men's Health Office: Foreskin Facts: Turtleneck or No, It All Feels the Same 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC blogs.webmd.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Van Howe RS. Circumcision and HIV infection: review of the literature and meta-analysis .
  • bmj.com Rapid Responses for Szabo and Short, 320 (7249) 1592-1594 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.bmj.com [Source type: Academic]

^ How did you reach this conclusion?
  • Swedish doctors refuse to circumcise boys - The Local 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC www.thelocal.se [Source type: Original source]

.A recent prospective trial in Uganda [171] randomized 3393 subjects to circumcision or a control group and found a significant reduction of HPV infection in the circumcision group.^ Christine speaks about Chlamydia but neglects to discuss one of the more recent studies[4] that said: Adult Male Circumcision Does Not Reduce the Risk of Incident Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, or Trichomonas vaginalis Infection: Results from a Randomized, Controlled Trial in Kenya .
  • Her.meneutics: The Case for Male Circumcision 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC blog.christianitytoday.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Led by Dr. Bertran Auvert, the investigators found a 60 percent reduction in HIV acquisition for the men enrolled in the circumcised arm of the trial.
  • To circumcise or not? | Parents Talk Back | STLtoday 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC www.stltoday.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In one trial ( Herschel 1998 ), the sucrose group had a nipple (and the opportunity for non-nutritive sucking throughout the circumcision procedure), while the no treatment control group did not receive a pacifier at all.
  • Pain relief for neonatal circumcision 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.nichd.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

.At 24 month follow-up, there was a 27.9% prevalence of high-risk HPV genotypes in the control group and only a 18.0% prevalence in the circumcision group (adjusted risk ratio, 0.65; 95% CI, 0.46 to 0.90; P=0.009).^ Please provide some better evidence to back that article up because it is discredited by the governmental control over the press and the fact that there is nothing on this women’s group.
  • Put Down the Knife! 11 Reasons Not to Circumcise 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC ecochildsplay.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Some groups, such as followers of the Jewish and Islamic faiths, practice circumcision for religious and cultural reasons.
  • UrbanBaby - Information For Parents About circumcision 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.urbanbaby.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ IF there are advantages then surely teenagers, at least, can make the decision when they are old enough to understand the risks, and “rewards”, of circumcision.
  • Is Circumcision Safe? | Mark's Daily Apple 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC www.marksdailyapple.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Another recent trial by Auvert et al. in Orange Farm, South Africa, randomized men to either a circumcision or control group.^ Led by Dr. Bertran Auvert, the investigators found a 60 percent reduction in HIV acquisition for the men enrolled in the circumcised arm of the trial.
  • To circumcise or not? | Parents Talk Back | STLtoday 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC www.stltoday.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In one trial ( Herschel 1998 ), the sucrose group had a nipple (and the opportunity for non-nutritive sucking throughout the circumcision procedure), while the no treatment control group did not receive a pacifier at all.
  • Pain relief for neonatal circumcision 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.nichd.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ In the second trial, a study of 4,996 HIV-negative men in Rakai, Uganda, circumcision was associated with a 48% reduction in HIV infection.
  • To Circumcise or Not? | | AlterNet 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC www.alternet.org [Source type: General]

.At the 21 month visit, the prevalence of high-risk HPV infection was lower in the circumcised men than the uncircumcised participants (14.8% and 22.3% respectively, a prevalence rate ratio of 0.66) in the absence of any difference in reported sexual behaviour or gonorrhea prevalence.^ This suggestion was based on studies that reported much lower penile cancer rates among circumcised men than among uncircumcised men.
  • Male Circumcision - Pros and Cons | The Art of Manliness 15 September 2009 5:25 UTC artofmanliness.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The risks of the HPV vaccine are not greater than that of male circumcision.
  • Her.meneutics: The Case for Male Circumcision 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC blog.christianitytoday.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This suggestion is based on studies that reported much lower penile cancer rates among circumcised men than among uncircumcised men.
  • bmj.com Rapid Responses for Szabo and Short, 320 (7249) 1592-1594 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.bmj.com [Source type: Academic]

[172]
.Two studies have shown that circumcised men report, or were found to have, a higher prevalence of genital warts than uncircumcised men;[173][174] however, a 2009 meta-analysis of multiple studies found a non-significant association between genital warts and the presence of a foreskin.^ The US Navy conducted a study that found that circumcised men in the Navy were more likely to have HIV than uncircumcised men, although not statistically significant.
  • Her.meneutics: The Case for Male Circumcision 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC blog.christianitytoday.com [Source type: Original source]

^ A lower rate of syphilis, genital herpes, genital warts, and AIDS in circumcised men has been reported in a number of studies.
  • Berkeley Parents Network: Advice about Circumcision 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC parents.berkeley.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The figure is higher in the United States, where about 79 percent of men are circumcised, according to surveys by the National Center for Health Statistics.” .
  • Did you circumcise your son? | A Blog for Busy Moms - MOMania 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC blogs.ajc.com [Source type: General]

[170]

Other sexually transmitted infections

.Studies evaluating the effect of circumcision on the incidence of other sexually transmitted infections have reached conflicting conclusions.^ Evidence associating neonatal circumcision with reduced incidence of sexually transmitted diseases is conflicting.
  • UrbanBaby - Information For Parents About circumcision 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.urbanbaby.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Male circumcision has had no effect on sexually transmitted diseases.
  • Her.meneutics: The Case for Male Circumcision 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC blog.christianitytoday.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Sexually transmitted infections.
  • Adult Circumcision Stories - Men Circumcised As Adults Tell It As It Is... 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.circinfo.net [Source type: Original source]

.A meta-analysis of observational data from twenty-six studies found that circumcision was associated with lower rates of syphilis, chancroid and possibly genital herpes.^ He found that transmission rates were significantly lower.
  • Berkeley Parents Network: Advice about Circumcision 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC parents.berkeley.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ A lower rate of syphilis, genital herpes, genital warts, and AIDS in circumcised men has been reported in a number of studies.
  • Berkeley Parents Network: Advice about Circumcision 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC parents.berkeley.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Three separate studies spaced over a 20 year interval found that the annual death rate of infant circumcision is 229 - 230 infant deaths per year.
  • Her.meneutics: The Case for Male Circumcision 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC blog.christianitytoday.com [Source type: Original source]

[175] .A large randomized prospective trial in Uganda found a reduction in HSV-2 infection, but not syphilis infection, in the circumcision arm of the study.^ In the second trial, a study of 4,996 HIV-negative men in Rakai, Uganda, circumcision was associated with a 48% reduction in HIV infection.
  • To Circumcise or Not? | | AlterNet 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC www.alternet.org [Source type: General]

^ Three separate studies spaced over a 20 year interval found that the annual death rate of infant circumcision is 229 - 230 infant deaths per year.
  • Her.meneutics: The Case for Male Circumcision 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC blog.christianitytoday.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Led by Dr. Bertran Auvert, the investigators found a 60 percent reduction in HIV acquisition for the men enrolled in the circumcised arm of the trial.
  • To circumcise or not? | Parents Talk Back | STLtoday 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC www.stltoday.com [Source type: Original source]

[171] .In contrast, some studies have failed to find a prophylactic benefit to circumcision.^ From AAP Scientific studies show some medical benefits of circumcision.
  • UrbanBaby - Information For Parents About circumcision 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.urbanbaby.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If one looks at the alleged benfits for circumcision, they will find that every one of them fails both of these parameters.
  • Daddy Daze | Being a dad in Houston | MomHouston.com 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC blogs.chron.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Let me emphasize: though some of the negative health consequences of circumcision are indisputable, many of those I’ve just highlighted are speculative (as are all of the purported benefits).
  • Circumcised at 37: a personal story and a rebuke to the MRAs at Hugo Schwyzer 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC hugoschwyzer.net [Source type: Original source]

.A prospective trial in India found that circumcision offered no protective benefit against herpes simplex virus type 2, syphilis, or gonorrhea.^ Herpes simplex type 2 virus in women.
  • Adult Circumcision Stories - Men Circumcised As Adults Tell It As It Is... 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.circinfo.net [Source type: Original source]

^ He also believed that circumcision protects against epilepsy.
  • bmj.com Rapid Responses for Szabo and Short, 320 (7249) 1592-1594 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.bmj.com [Source type: Academic]

^ However, researchers found circumcision had no effect on the transmission of syphilis.” .
  • Did you circumcise your son? | A Blog for Busy Moms - MOMania 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC blogs.ajc.com [Source type: General]

[176] .A clinical study of 5,925 women from Uganda, Zimbabwe and Thailand found that the circumcision status of their partner did not significantly affect the incidence of Chlamydia, gonorrhea or trichomoniasis.^ "The risk of transmission was not significantly affected by the circumcision status of .
  • Get circumcised [Archive] - Xbox 360 & Xbox Forums 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC forum.teamxbox.com [Source type: General]

^ ID=60750&storytype=DeanTopics Male Circumcision Reduces Female Pleasure January 21, 2004 'Female arousal disorder' blamed on circumcised chickenes A New Zealand study found that reduced female arousal and fewer female orgasms may be linked to women having sex with circumcised male partners.
  • Get circumcised [Archive] - Xbox 360 & Xbox Forums 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC forum.teamxbox.com [Source type: General]

^ Their partners fare better too - studies (in Western countries, not developing countries) show that circumcision significantly reduces the rate at which men infect women with the virus that causes cervical cancer.
  • Berkeley Parents Network: Advice about Circumcision 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC parents.berkeley.edu [Source type: Original source]

[177] .Laumann et al. examined observational data from the United States and found no significant differences between circumcised and uncircumcised men in their likelihood of contracting sexually transmitted diseases.^ Male circumcision has had no effect on sexually transmitted diseases.
  • Her.meneutics: The Case for Male Circumcision 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC blog.christianitytoday.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The NT states that men shouldn’t be circumcised.
  • Rumor: Madonna to circumcise David? – Celebrity Baby Blog – People.com 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC celebrity-babies.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Laumann et al.
  • bmj.com Rapid Responses for Szabo and Short, 320 (7249) 1592-1594 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.bmj.com [Source type: Academic]

[26]

Hygiene, and infectious and chronic conditions

The American Academy of Pediatrics (1999) stated: "Circumcision has been suggested as an effective method of maintaining penile hygiene since the time of the Egyptian dynasties, but there is little evidence to affirm the association between circumcision status and optimal penile hygiene."[65]
.An inflammation of the glans penis and foreskin is called balanoposthitis; that affecting the glans alone is called balanitis.^ (Yang DM, Lin H, Zhang B, Guo W. [Circumcision affects glans penis vibration perception threshold].
  • Her.meneutics: The Case for Male Circumcision 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC blog.christianitytoday.com [Source type: Original source]

^ A woman who champions foreskins can and never will have any idea what it's like to have a foreskin, let alone a penis.
  • Adult Circumcision Stories - Men Circumcised As Adults Tell It As It Is... 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.circinfo.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The dried-out glans penis is in fact quite insensitive compared to one that has been protected by a foreskin.
  • Put Down the Knife! 11 Reasons Not to Circumcise | Personal Health | AlterNet 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC www.alternet.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Both conditions are usually treated with topical antibiotics (metronidazole cream) and antifungals (clotrimazole cream) or low-potency steroid creams.^ In fact, only 1 percent of males over 18 still have an unretracted foreskin, and then it can be easily treated with a topical steroid cream.
  • Put Down the Knife! 11 Reasons Not to Circumcise 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC ecochildsplay.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Common infections can be treated with a plethora of modern medications like antibiotics and steroid creams.
  • Is Circumcision Safe? | Mark's Daily Apple 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC www.marksdailyapple.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Your example, Phimosis, can be treated either with gentle stretching, or you can be prescribed steroid creams as a second option.
  • Put Down the Knife! 11 Reasons Not to Circumcise 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC ecochildsplay.com [Source type: Original source]

.Although not as necessary as in the past, circumcision may be considered for recurrent or resistant cases.^ According to Professor Khallaf, physicians may not condemn female circumcision based on isolated cases alone, but compare excised and uncircumcised girls and then give their opinion.
  • To Mutilate in the Name ofJehovah or Allah 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.quran.org [Source type: Original source]

^ If circumcision was something that I consider necessary for proper hygiene or religious beliefs (which I don’t) it shouldn’t be up to me to decide whether or not to have the procedure?
  • Is Circumcision Safe? | Mark's Daily Apple 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC www.marksdailyapple.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ OK, I don't want to bum YOU out, but what I read in the AAP guide is that lack of circumcision may be related to infection risk but not so much so that the AAP believes circumcision is necessary.
  • UrbanBaby - Information For Parents About circumcision 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.urbanbaby.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[178][179] .Escala and Rickwood recommend against a policy of routine infant circumcision to avoid balanitis saying that the condition affects no more than 4% of boys, does not cause pathological phimosis, and in most cases is not serious.^ A person against circumcision merely has to say: I am against circumcision.
  • The Little Seed » Blog Archive » Circumcision, what to consider when making the decision for our children… 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.thelittleseed.com [Source type: Original source]

^ No national or international medical organization recommends routine circumcision.
  • Her.meneutics: The Case for Male Circumcision 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC blog.christianitytoday.com [Source type: Original source]

^ No national health organization on earth recommends routine circumcision.
  • Rumor: Madonna to circumcise David? – Celebrity Baby Blog – People.com 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC celebrity-babies.com [Source type: Original source]

[180]
.Fergusson studied 500 boys and found that by 8 years, the circumcised children had a rate of 11.1 problems per 100 children, and the uncircumcised children had a rate of 18.8 per 100. During infancy, circumcised children were found to have a significantly higher risk of problems than uncircumcised children, but after infancy the rate of penile problems was significantly higher among the uncircumcised.^ He found that transmission rates were significantly lower.
  • Berkeley Parents Network: Advice about Circumcision 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC parents.berkeley.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Hence the risk of death, from cancer alone, in being uncircumcised is 100 times higher than the risk of death from being circumcised.
  • bmj.com Rapid Responses for Szabo and Short, 320 (7249) 1592-1594 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.bmj.com [Source type: Academic]

^ But for me after years of hassles and problems I decided to be circumcised.
  • Circumcised at 37: a personal story and a rebuke to the MRAs at Hugo Schwyzer 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC hugoschwyzer.net [Source type: Original source]

.Fergusson et al. said that the great majority of penile problems were relatively minor (penile inflammation including balanitis, meatitis, and inflammation of the prepuce) and most (64%) were resolved after a single medical consultation.^ Like I've said, the majority of Swedish jews are not circumcised so I have no problem with them.
  • Swedish doctors refuse to circumcise boys - The Local 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC www.thelocal.se [Source type: Original source]

^ Miller conceded Tuesday's decision was "limited by the facts of the case," including the agreement that gives the father the right to be consulted on medical care.
  • News 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.mgmbill.org [Source type: Original source]

^ A urologist circumcised me at age 17 due to problems of re-occurring penile infections (balanitis).
  • Adult Circumcision Stories - Men Circumcised As Adults Tell It As It Is... 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.circinfo.net [Source type: Original source]

[181] .Herzog and Alverez found the overall frequency of complications (including balanitis, irritation, adhesions, phimosis, and paraphimosis) to be higher among the uncircumcised children; again, most of the problems were minor.^ Maddern and his research team found no evidence that uncircumcised men have higher rates of penile cancer.
  • Is Circumcision Safe? | Mark's Daily Apple 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC www.marksdailyapple.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ That includes but is not limited to penile or cervical cancer, HIV, HPV, genital herpes, genital warts, balanitis, phimosis or paraphimosis or any of the other excuses given for it.
  • Put Down the Knife! 11 Reasons Not to Circumcise 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC ecochildsplay.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The American Academy of Pediatrics says most complications from the procedure, such as bleeding, are usually minor.
  • News 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.mgmbill.org [Source type: Original source]

[182] .In a study of 398 randomly selected dermatology students, Fakjian et al. reported: "Balanitis was diagnosed in 2.3% of circumcised men and in 12.5% of uncircumcised men."^ Analysis of results showed the glans of the uncircumcised men had significantly lower thresholds than that of circumcised men (P = 0.040).
  • Did you circumcise your son? | A Blog for Busy Moms - MOMania 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC blogs.ajc.com [Source type: General]

^ A study I would personally love to see would be the study of uncircumcised and circumcised men rating there penis.
  • Male Circumcision - Pros and Cons | The Art of Manliness 15 September 2009 5:25 UTC artofmanliness.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I am not worried [ Report this comment ] Posted by: colinmeister on May 12, 2007 5:45 AM Current rating: Not yet rated [ 1 = poor; 5 = excellent] I have not been circumcised, I am married, and I do not screw around.
  • To Circumcise or Not? | | AlterNet 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC www.alternet.org [Source type: General]

[183] In a study of 225 men, O'Farrell et al. reported: "Overall, circumcised men were less likely to be diagnosed with a STI/balanitis (51% and 35%, P = 0.021) than those non-circumcised."[184] Van Howe found that circumcised penises required more care in the first 3 months of life, and that circumcised boys are more likely to develop balanitis.[185]
.The American Medical Association states that circumcision, properly performed, protects against the development of phimosis.^ The American Medical Association must immediately pronounce the abolition of circumcision.
  • 'Thou Shall Not Circumcise' A Three-Millennial Falsification The 2nd Commandment BANS SEXUAL MUTILATION - Salem-News.Com 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC www.salem-news.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He also believed that circumcision protects against epilepsy.
  • bmj.com Rapid Responses for Szabo and Short, 320 (7249) 1592-1594 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.bmj.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In 1999, the American Pediatric Association revised their statement on circumcision to acknowledge the “potential medical benefits” of the procedure but concluded “these data are not sufficient to recommend routine neonatal circumcision.” Most of Canada has “de-listed” circumcision as a necessary (i.e.
  • Is Circumcision Safe? | Mark's Daily Apple 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC www.marksdailyapple.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[12] .Rickwood and other authors have argued that many infant circumcisions are performed unnecessarily for developmental non-retractability of the prepuce rather than for pathological phimosis.^ Implications for adults, rather than infants .
  • bmj.com Rapid Responses for Szabo and Short, 320 (7249) 1592-1594 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.bmj.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In the USA where most males are circumcised, the HIV/AIDS infection rate is many times higher than in Europe (where most males are intact).
  • bmj.com Rapid Responses for Szabo and Short, 320 (7249) 1592-1594 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.bmj.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Circumcisions performed using the Mogen clamp take less time than is required using Gomco clamps.
  • Pain relief for neonatal circumcision 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.nichd.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

[186][187] .Metcalfe et al. stated that "Gairdner[149] and Oster[188] made a strong case for leaving boys uncircumcised, allowing the natural separation of the foreskin from the glans to take place gradually, and instructing boys in proper hygiene.^ Sigismond September 9, 2008 10:52 am (Pacific time) “The foreskin protects the glans throughout life.” (Care of the uncircumcised penis: Guidelines for Parents (pamphlet).
  • 'Thou Shall Not Circumcise' A Three-Millennial Falsification The 2nd Commandment BANS SEXUAL MUTILATION - Salem-News.Com 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC www.salem-news.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Any woman who would leave a man because the foreskin of his penis made it "ugly" is a blessing to your son.
  • Daddy Daze | Being a dad in Houston | MomHouston.com 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC blogs.chron.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I found when uncircumcised this was next to impossible as the glans would retract into the foreskin when I lost my erection.
  • Adult Circumcision Stories - Men Circumcised As Adults Tell It As It Is... 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.circinfo.net [Source type: Original source]

.This obviates the need for 'preventive' circumcision."^ As for the other physical conditions circumcision is meant to prevent, many experts say that the evidence just doesn’t support the need for routine circumcision in every boy.
  • Is Circumcision Safe? | Mark's Daily Apple 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC www.marksdailyapple.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[189] .In a study to determine the most cost-effective treatment for phimosis, Van Howe concluded that using cream was 75% more cost-effective than circumcision at treating pathological phimosis.^ As for STD's - condoms are much more effective than circumcision!
  • UrbanBaby - Information For Parents About circumcision 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.urbanbaby.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ DPNB was the most frequently studied intervention and was the most effective for circumcision pain.
  • Pain relief for neonatal circumcision 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.nichd.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Judaism is not defined by circumcision any more than Christians are defined by the act of baptism, Portuguese or Americans by their passports.
  • Washington Diarist: Membership | The New Republic 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.tnr.com [Source type: Original source]

[190]

Urinary tract infections

.A meta-analysis of 12 studies (one randomised controlled trial, four cohort studies and seven case-control studies) representing 402,908 children determined that circumcision was associated with a significantly reduced risk of urinary tract infection (UTI).^ Randomised controlled trials (RCTs).
  • Pain relief for neonatal circumcision 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.nichd.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Circumcising children is another one.
  • 'Thou Shall Not Circumcise' A Three-Millennial Falsification The 2nd Commandment BANS SEXUAL MUTILATION - Salem-News.Com 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC www.salem-news.com [Source type: Original source]

^ That circumcision reduces the risk of male HIV infection is biologically plausible.
  • To circumcise or not? | Parents Talk Back | STLtoday 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC www.stltoday.com [Source type: Original source]

.However, the authors noted that only 1% of boys with normal urinary tract function experience a UTI, and the number-needed-to treat (number of circumcisions necessary) to prevent one urinary tract infection was calculated to be 111. Because haemorrhage and infection are the commonest complications of circumcision, occurring at rate of about 2%, assuming equal utility of benefits and harms, the authors concluded that the net clinical benefit of circumcision is only likely in boys at high risk of urinary tract infection (such as those with high grade vesicoureteral reflux or a history of recurrent UTIs, where the number needed to treat declined to 11 and 4, respectively).^ Its surgical complication rate is one in 500.

^ Circumcision - risks in adults & older boys.
  • Adult Circumcision Stories - Men Circumcised As Adults Tell It As It Is... 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.circinfo.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Using number of patients needed to treat principle, routine circumcision is not warranted to prevent urinary tract infection and penile cancer.

[191]
.Some UTI studies have been criticized for not taking into account a high rate of UTI's among premature infants, who are usually not circumcised because of their fragile health status.^ Three separate studies spaced over a 20 year interval found that the annual death rate of infant circumcision is 229 - 230 infant deaths per year.
  • Her.meneutics: The Case for Male Circumcision 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC blog.christianitytoday.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Some of the penis length and penis circumference because its double-layered wrapping of loose and usually overhanging foreskin is now missing, making the circumcised penis truncated and thinner than a full-sized intact penis.
  • Male Circumcision - Pros and Cons | The Art of Manliness 15 September 2009 5:25 UTC artofmanliness.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Jacob wrote on January 19th, 2010 Reply I’m female and don’t have children but I knew a guy who had to get circumcised at age 26 because of painful erections.
  • Is Circumcision Safe? | Mark's Daily Apple 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC www.marksdailyapple.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[65] The AMA stated that “depending on the model employed, approximately 100 to 200 circumcisions would need to be performed to prevent 1 UTI," and noted one decision analysis model that concluded that circumcision was not justified as a preventative measure against UTI.[12]

Penile cancer

The American Cancer Society (2009) stated, "Most experts agree that circumcision should not be recommended solely as a way to prevent penile cancer."[192]
.The American Academy of Pediatrics (1999) stated that studies suggest that neonatal circumcision confers some protection from penile cancer, but circumcision at a later age does not seem to confer the same level of protection.^ Fleiss PM, Hodges F. Neonatal circumcision does not protect against cancer .
  • bmj.com Rapid Responses for Szabo and Short, 320 (7249) 1592-1594 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.bmj.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The American Academy of Pediatrics no longer promotes routine circumcision.
  • Circumcision Tutorial (Family & Education) 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.videojug.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Wolbarst A. Circumcision and penile cancer.
  • bmj.com Rapid Responses for Szabo and Short, 320 (7249) 1592-1594 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.bmj.com [Source type: Academic]

.Further, because penile cancer is a rare disease, the risk of penile cancer developing in an uncircumcised man, although increased compared with a circumcised man, remains low.^ Penile cancer, for example, is extremely rare.
  • UrbanBaby - Information For Parents About circumcision 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.urbanbaby.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Nevertheless, in a developed country such as the United States, penile cancer is a rare disease and the risk of penile cancer developing in an uncircumcised man, although increased compared with a circumcised man, is low.
  • Circumcision Policy Statement -- Task Force on Circumcision 103 (3): 686 -- AAP Policy 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC aappolicy.aappublications.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Circumcision Policy Statement -- Task Force on Circumcision 103 (3): 686 -- Pediatrics 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC pediatrics.aappublications.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Wolbarst A. Circumcision and penile cancer.
  • bmj.com Rapid Responses for Szabo and Short, 320 (7249) 1592-1594 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.bmj.com [Source type: Academic]

[65]
.The age-adjusted annual incidence of penile cancer is 0.82 per 100,000 in Denmark, 2.9-6.8 per 100,000 in Brazil, 0.9 to 1 per 100,000 in the USA, and 2.0-10.5 per 100,000 in India.^ The incidence of penile cancer is 1 in 109,000.
  • Put Down the Knife! 11 Reasons Not to Circumcise 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC ecochildsplay.com [Source type: Original source]

^ "I was circumcised at 18 years of age, after 10 years attending a boarding school (Geelong Grammar) where 99 per cent of boys were circumcised.
  • Adult Circumcision Stories - Men Circumcised As Adults Tell It As It Is... 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.circinfo.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Tony, Did you know that penile cancer makes up 30% of all male cancers in South America, India and Asia?
  • Men's Health Office: Adult Circumcision 11 September 2009 23:56 UTC blogs.webmd.com [Source type: Original source]

[65] Researchers have reported that the risk of penile cancer is greater in never-circumcised men than in men who had been circumcised at birth; estimates of the relative risk include 3[193] and 22.[194]

Policies of various national medical associations

Australasia

.The Royal Australasian College of Physicians (RACP; 2009) state that "after extensive review of the literature [they do] not recommend that routine circumcision in infancy be performed, but [accept] that parents should be able to make this decision with their doctors.^ The parent(s) make the decision on behalf of the child.
  • Her.meneutics: The Case for Male Circumcision 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC blog.christianitytoday.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Circumcision is a decision that many parents face.

^ Swedish doctors refusing to perform circumcisions.
  • Swedish doctors refuse to circumcise boys - The Local 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC www.thelocal.se [Source type: Original source]

.One reasonable option is for routine circumcision to be delayed until males are old enough to make an informed choice.^ "Routine male circumcision is NOT necessary!"

^ It is definitely a decision a man should make on his own when he is old enough to make an informed one.
  • Did you circumcise your son? | A Blog for Busy Moms - MOMania 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC blogs.ajc.com [Source type: General]

^ The practice of male neonatal circumcision is not limited to North America; it is performed worldwide for religious and cultural reasons.
  • Pain relief for neonatal circumcision 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.nichd.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

.In all cases where parents request a circumcision for their child the medical attendant is obliged to provide accurate information on the risks and benefits of the procedure.^ He contended that parents are not told of the risks of the procedure.” .
  • Did you circumcise your son? | A Blog for Busy Moms - MOMania 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC blogs.ajc.com [Source type: General]

^ What are the evidences on the medical benefit of routine circumcision?

^ Its not an involuntary procedure -- the child's parent has to consent.
  • UrbanBaby - Information For Parents About circumcision 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.urbanbaby.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Up-to-date, unbiased written material summarising the evidence should be widely available to parents.^ It should not be up to parents as to whether or not to mutilate their child nm Posted by: JoshuaLudd .
  • Put Down the Knife! 11 Reasons Not to Circumcise | Personal Health | AlterNet 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC www.alternet.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ To make an informed choice, parents of all male infants should be given accurate and unbiased information and be provided the opportunity to discuss this decision.
  • Put Down the Knife! 11 Reasons Not to Circumcise 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC ecochildsplay.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This is particularly true of the younger men, who can easily research circumcision on the Internet and wonder why their parents ignored the evidence available to them.
  • Her.meneutics: The Case for Male Circumcision 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC blog.christianitytoday.com [Source type: Original source]

.In the absence of evidence of substantial harm, parental choice should be respected."^ This IS NOT a choice that we as parents should blindly make.
  • The Little Seed » Blog Archive » Circumcision, what to consider when making the decision for our children… 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.thelittleseed.com [Source type: Original source]

^ To make an informed choice, parents of all male infants should be given accurate and unbiased information and be provided the opportunity to discuss this decision.
  • Put Down the Knife! 11 Reasons Not to Circumcise 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC ecochildsplay.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Am I to understand that this mother's decision should be respected "because it was her decision as a parent?"
  • Swedish doctors refuse to circumcise boys - The Local 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC www.thelocal.se [Source type: Original source]

[195]
.The Tasmanian President of the Australian Medical Association (AMA), Haydn Walters, has stated that the AMA would support a call to ban circumcision for non-medical, non-religious reasons.^ I do support the alleged medical reasons.
  • The Little Seed » Blog Archive » Circumcision, what to consider when making the decision for our children… 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.thelittleseed.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I was surprised to read of the numerous medical reasons supporting circumcision.
  • Her.meneutics: The Case for Male Circumcision 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC blog.christianitytoday.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I do not support the alleged medical reasons.
  • The Little Seed » Blog Archive » Circumcision, what to consider when making the decision for our children… 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.thelittleseed.com [Source type: Original source]

[196]

Canada

.The Fetus and Newborn Committee of the Canadian Paediatric Society posted "Neonatal circumcision revisited" in 1996 and "Circumcision: Information for Parents" in November 2004. The 1996 position statement says that "circumcision of newborns should not be routinely performed",[87] and the 2004 information to parents says: 'Circumcision is a "non-therapeutic" procedure, which means it is not medically necessary.^ Also, this post is about Adult circumcision, not neonatal circumcision.
  • Men's Health Office: Adult Circumcision 11 September 2009 23:56 UTC blogs.webmd.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Neonatal circumcision is generally a safe procedure when performed by an experienced operator.
  • UrbanBaby - Information For Parents About circumcision 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.urbanbaby.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ So is any medical procedure on a newborn.
  • UrbanBaby - Information For Parents About circumcision 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.urbanbaby.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Parents who decide to circumcise their newborns often do so for religious, social, or cultural reasons.^ There are cultural religious reasons.
  • Swedish doctors refuse to circumcise boys - The Local 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC www.thelocal.se [Source type: Original source]

^ Religious reasons — some people choose to circumcise for religious or cultural reasons.

^ Jews don't circumcize for religious/cultural reasons?
  • UrbanBaby - Information For Parents About circumcision 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.urbanbaby.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[...] .After reviewing the scientific evidence for and against circumcision, the CPS does not recommend routine circumcision for newborn boys.^ "After reviewing the scientific evidence for and against circumcision, the CPS does not recommend routine circumcision for newborn boys.
  • Put Down the Knife! 11 Reasons Not to Circumcise | Personal Health | AlterNet 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC www.alternet.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Evidence that circumcision does harm?
  • To Circumcise or Not? | | AlterNet 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC www.alternet.org [Source type: General]

^ What are the evidences on the medical benefit of routine circumcision?

.Many paediatricians no longer perform circumcisions.'^ Many paediatricians no longer perform circumcisions.” .
  • Did you circumcise your son? | A Blog for Busy Moms - MOMania 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC blogs.ajc.com [Source type: General]
  • Male Circumcision - Pros and Cons | The Art of Manliness 15 September 2009 5:25 UTC artofmanliness.com [Source type: Original source]

^ But as far as I know the original covenant went a lot further than circumcision and the rest of the covenant is no longer practiced as far as I am aware.
  • Swedish doctors refuse to circumcise boys - The Local 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC www.thelocal.se [Source type: Original source]

^ The largest hospitals in the area do not perform this surgery (LBJ, Ben Taub, and UTMB) and there are so many ethnicities who are repulsed by circumcision.
  • Daddy Daze | Being a dad in Houston | MomHouston.com 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC blogs.chron.com [Source type: Original source]

[114]

United Kingdom

“Male circumcision that is performed for any reason other than physical clinical need is termed non-therapeutic (or sometimes “ritual”) circumcision. .Some people ask for non-therapeutic circumcision for religious reasons, some to incorporate a child into a community, and some want their sons to be like their fathers.^ For that reason, most of non-religious Jews will circumcise their sons.
  • Swedish doctors refuse to circumcise boys - The Local 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC www.thelocal.se [Source type: Original source]

^ Some people will choose to circumcize their sons.
  • Her.meneutics: The Case for Male Circumcision 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC blog.christianitytoday.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Religious reasons — some people choose to circumcise for religious or cultural reasons.

Circumcision is a defining feature of some faiths.” “The Association has no policy on these issues.”
.The BMA provides that “male circumcision is generally assumed to be lawful provided that it is performed competently; it is believed to be in the child’s best interests; and there is valid consent” from both parents and the child, if possible."^ Male Circumcision in Europe: Is there anything we can do?
  • 'Thou Shall Not Circumcise' A Three-Millennial Falsification The 2nd Commandment BANS SEXUAL MUTILATION - Salem-News.Com 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC www.salem-news.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I believe that both male and female circumcision has nothing to do with God's religion.
  • Male and Female Circumcision 15 September 2009 5:25 UTC www.hraicjk.org [Source type: Original source]

^ At best, male circumcision is cosmetic surgery.
  • Daddy Daze | Being a dad in Houston | MomHouston.com 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC blogs.chron.com [Source type: Original source]

.The BMS stipulates that “competent children may decide for themselves; the wishes that children express must be taken into account; if parents disagree, non-therapeutic circumcision must not be carried out without the leave of a court; consent should be confirmed in writing."^ Jurists are not unanimous regarding the age at which circumcision should be carried out.
  • To Mutilate in the Name ofJehovah or Allah 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.quran.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Circumcision should also be illegal without person's consent.
  • Swedish doctors refuse to circumcise boys - The Local 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC www.thelocal.se [Source type: Original source]

^ If one wishes it, then only partial circumcision may be carried, but not total circumcision.
  • To Mutilate in the Name ofJehovah or Allah 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.quran.org [Source type: Original source]

."In the past, circumcision of boys has been considered to be either medically or socially beneficial or, at least, neutral.^ Ritual and Medical Circumcision among Filipino boys .

^ It is true that their can be potential medical benefits down the road, but at the time circumcision is done, on a minor, it is unethical social cosmetic modification.
  • Her.meneutics: The Case for Male Circumcision 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC blog.christianitytoday.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It is medically unethical for a doctor or other person to perform a circumcision on a boy as it is not medically therapeutic.
  • Did you circumcise your son? | A Blog for Busy Moms - MOMania 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC blogs.ajc.com [Source type: General]

.The general perception has been that no significant harm was caused to the child and therefore with appropriate consent it could be carried out.^ Therefore no US law can allow ("respect") mutilation of the child by whatever religion (or am I mistaken in my reading or the 1st amendment?
  • 'Thou Shall Not Circumcise' A Three-Millennial Falsification The 2nd Commandment BANS SEXUAL MUTILATION - Salem-News.Com 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC www.salem-news.com [Source type: Original source]

^ People do have aesthetic surgery performed on their children and unless the child is being harmed, it no one else's business.
  • UrbanBaby - Information For Parents About circumcision 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.urbanbaby.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I would like to emphasise that a procedure carried out with no pathology ( indications ) is immoral AND illegal.
  • bmj.com Rapid Responses for Szabo and Short, 320 (7249) 1592-1594 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.bmj.com [Source type: Academic]

.The medical benefits previously claimed, however, have not been convincingly proven, and it is now widely accepted, including by the BMA, that this surgical procedure has medical and psychological risks.^ This explains the claimed medical 'benefits' of circumcision."
  • bmj.com Rapid Responses for Szabo and Short, 320 (7249) 1592-1594 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.bmj.com [Source type: Academic]

^ However, the procedure is not without risk and I’ve seen a few major complications.
  • The Little Seed » Blog Archive » Circumcision, what to consider when making the decision for our children… 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.thelittleseed.com [Source type: Original source]

^ However, he adds that this form of circumcision is allowed, but not mandatory and suggests that it be forbidden due to its medical and psychological consequences, which he recounts in detail 144 .
  • To Mutilate in the Name ofJehovah or Allah 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.quran.org [Source type: Original source]

.It is essential that doctors perform male circumcision only where this is demonstrably in the best interests of the child.^ Swedish doctors refusing to perform circumcisions.
  • Swedish doctors refuse to circumcise boys - The Local 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC www.thelocal.se [Source type: Original source]

^ At best, male circumcision is cosmetic surgery.
  • Daddy Daze | Being a dad in Houston | MomHouston.com 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC blogs.chron.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The practice of male neonatal circumcision is not limited to North America; it is performed worldwide for religious and cultural reasons.
  • Pain relief for neonatal circumcision 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.nichd.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

.The responsibility to demonstrate that non-therapeutic circumcision is in a particular child’s best interests falls to his parents.^ We are against the performance of tradition-driven, non-therapeutic circumcision in children, both in the newborns and adolescents.

^ We are against the holding of Operation Tule, which promotes the performance of tradition-driven, non-therapeutic circumcision in adolescents.

^ OMMC is the first hospital in the Philippines that has openly declared its stand against tradition-driven and non-therapeutic circumcision.

.The BMA considers that the evidence concerning health benefit from non-therapeutic circumcision is insufficient for this alone to be a justification for doing it."^ Are there health benefits to circumcision?
  • Circumcised at 37: a personal story and a rebuke to the MRAs at Hugo Schwyzer 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC hugoschwyzer.net [Source type: Original source]

^ What are the evidences on the medical benefit of routine circumcision?

^ As for Jews, Muslim authors considered circumcision as a mark that distinguishes the believer from the non-believer.
  • Male and Female Circumcision 15 September 2009 5:25 UTC www.hraicjk.org [Source type: Original source]

[88]

United States

.The American Academy of Pediatrics (1999) stated: "Existing scientific evidence demonstrates potential medical benefits of newborn male circumcision; however, these data are not sufficient to recommend routine neonatal circumcision.^ In fact, circumcision with or without analgesia remains controversial, said Dr....evidence demonstrates potential medical benefits of newborn male circumcision ; however, these data are not sufficient to recommend...
  • UrbanBaby - Information For Parents About circumcision 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.urbanbaby.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ No national or international medical organization recommends routine circumcision.
  • Her.meneutics: The Case for Male Circumcision 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC blog.christianitytoday.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1999, the American Pediatric Association revised their statement on circumcision to acknowledge the “potential medical benefits” of the procedure but concluded “these data are not sufficient to recommend routine neonatal circumcision.” Most of Canada has “de-listed” circumcision as a necessary (i.e.
  • Is Circumcision Safe? | Mark's Daily Apple 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC www.marksdailyapple.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In the case of circumcision, in which there are potential benefits and risks, yet the procedure is not essential to the child’s current well-being, parents should determine what is in the best interest of the child."^ Are there health benefits to circumcision?
  • Circumcised at 37: a personal story and a rebuke to the MRAs at Hugo Schwyzer 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC hugoschwyzer.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Since circumcision is not essential to a child?s health, parents should choose what is best for their child.
  • UrbanBaby - Information For Parents About circumcision 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.urbanbaby.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "Circumcision is not a zero risk procedure.
  • The Checkup - Should You Circumcise Your Son? 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC voices.washingtonpost.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[65] .The AAP recommends that if parents choose to circumcise, analgesia should be used to reduce pain associated with circumcision.^ AAP does not recommend circumcision -- leaves it to parent .
  • UrbanBaby - Information For Parents About circumcision 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.urbanbaby.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ AAP to recommend circumcision as a routine procedure.
  • UrbanBaby - Information For Parents About circumcision 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.urbanbaby.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ AAP does not recommend circumcision -- leaves it to parent...
  • UrbanBaby - Information For Parents About circumcision 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.urbanbaby.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It states that circumcision should only be performed on newborns who are stable and healthy.^ In fact, many countries have come out AGAINST circ… per The Fetus and Newborn Committee of the Canadian Paediatric Society, “circumcision of newborns should not be routinely performed,” and The Royal Australasian College of Physicians (RACP) states that they “reaffirm that there is no medical indication for routine neonatal circumcision”.
  • The Little Seed » Blog Archive » Circumcision, what to consider when making the decision for our children… 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.thelittleseed.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The son of a woman who performed female circumcision was pejoratively referred to as "son of the cutter of clitoris".
  • Male and Female Circumcision 15 September 2009 5:25 UTC www.hraicjk.org [Source type: Original source]

^ There are plenty of circumcised men in this world who don't walk about questioning about sexual performance for good reason.
  • Swedish doctors refuse to circumcise boys - The Local 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC www.thelocal.se [Source type: Original source]

[65]
.The American Medical Association supports the AAP's 1999 circumcision policy statement with regard to non-therapeutic circumcision, which they define as the non-religious, non-ritualistic, not medically necessary, elective circumcision of male newborns.^ Circumcision policy statement.
  • bmj.com Rapid Responses for Szabo and Short, 320 (7249) 1592-1594 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.bmj.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The American Medical Association must immediately pronounce the abolition of circumcision.
  • 'Thou Shall Not Circumcise' A Three-Millennial Falsification The 2nd Commandment BANS SEXUAL MUTILATION - Salem-News.Com 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC www.salem-news.com [Source type: Original source]

^ AAP's current policy is that it's not medically necessary.
  • UrbanBaby - Information For Parents About circumcision 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.urbanbaby.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.They state that "policy statements issued by professional societies representing Australian, Canadian, and American pediatricians do not recommend routine circumcision of male newborns."^ Circumcision policy statement.
  • bmj.com Rapid Responses for Szabo and Short, 320 (7249) 1592-1594 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.bmj.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The issue of male circumcision is really a bundle of issues.
  • Circumcised at 37: a personal story and a rebuke to the MRAs at Hugo Schwyzer 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC hugoschwyzer.net [Source type: Original source]

^ "Routine male circumcision is NOT necessary!"

[12]
The American Academy of Family Physicians (2007) recognizes the controversy surrounding circumcision and recommends that physicians "discuss the potential harms and benefits of circumcision with all parents or legal guardians considering this procedure for their newborn son."[197]
.The American Urological Association (2007) stated that neonatal circumcision has potential medical benefits and advantages as well as disadvantages and risks.^ (AUA) believes that neonatal circumcision has potential medical benefits and advantages as well as disadvantages and risks.
  • UrbanBaby - Information For Parents About circumcision 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.urbanbaby.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ (AUA) believes that neonatal circumcision has potential medical benefits and advantages as well as...are reported to be three percent.
  • UrbanBaby - Information For Parents About circumcision 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.urbanbaby.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The American Medical Association must immediately pronounce the abolition of circumcision.
  • 'Thou Shall Not Circumcise' A Three-Millennial Falsification The 2nd Commandment BANS SEXUAL MUTILATION - Salem-News.Com 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC www.salem-news.com [Source type: Original source]

[198]

See also

Further reading

.
  • Billy Ray Boyd.^ Boyd, Billy Ray.
    • Circumcision 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.drabruzzi.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ You'll find a good analysis and description in: Circumcision Exposed : Rethinking a Medical and Cultural Tradition....by Billy Ray Boyd.
    • Berkeley Parents Network: Advice about Circumcision 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC parents.berkeley.edu [Source type: Original source]

    .Circumcision Exposed: Rethinking a Medical and Cultural Tradition. Freedom, CA: The Crossing Press, 1998. (ISBN 978-0-89594-939-4)
  • Anne Briggs.^ The medical profession's role in cultural circumcision .
    • bmj.com Rapid Responses for Patrick, 335 (7631) 1181 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.bmj.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ The Academy also stated, It is legitimate for the parents to take into account cultural, religious, and ethnic traditions, in addition to medical factors, when making this choice [ 34 ].
    • Male Circumcision and Risk for HIV Transmission: Implications for the United States | Factsheets | CDC HIV/AIDS 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.cdc.gov [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Circumcision Exposed : Rethinking a Medical and Cultural Tradition by Billy Ray Boyd "It's about time that this cruel practice was put in its place - in the history books (as far back in the history books as possible).
    • Circumcision: painful, unnecessary procedure inflicted on the newborn 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.shirleys-wellness-cafe.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Circumcision: What Every Parent Should Know. Charlottesville, VA: Birth & Parenting Publications, 1985. (ISBN 978-0-9615484-0-7)
  • Robert Darby.^ I suffered complications from circumcision, which are far more common than the doctors would want people to know, and I hate my parents for mutilating me.
    • To circumcise or not to circumcise?-ukcoalition.org 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC www.ukcoalition.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Every Jew all over the world for example is circumcised on the 7th day without much concern on the part of his parents.
    • To Mutilate in the Name ofJehovah or Allah 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.quran.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ They should be thankful for being circumcised at birth.
    • Men's Health Office: The Never-ending Circumcision Debate 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC blogs.webmd.com [Source type: Original source]

    .A surgical temptation: The demonization of the foreskin and the rise of circumcision in Britain. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2005. (ISBN 978-0-226-13645-5)
  • Aaron J. Fink, M.D. Circumcision: A Parent's Decision for Life.^ Chicago: University of Chicago press; 1963.
    • 'Thou Shall Not Circumcise' A Three-Millennial Falsification The 2nd Commandment BANS SEXUAL MUTILATION - Salem-News.Com 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC www.salem-news.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Circumcision is a decision that many parents face.

    ^ Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2005: pp.

    .Kavanah Publishing Company, Inc., 1988. (ISBN 978-0-9621347-0-8)
  • Paul M. Fleiss, M.D. and Frederick Hodges, D. Phil.^ Here is Sterling's story: no longer blind Frederick Hodges, D.Phil earned his doctorate in medical history at the University of Oxford.
    • Circumcision: painful, unnecessary procedure inflicted on the newborn 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.shirleys-wellness-cafe.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ What Your Doctor May Not Tell You about Circumcision Untold Facts on America's Most Widely Performed-and Most Unneccessary- Surgery Paul Fleiss, M.D. and Frederick M. Hodges, D.Phil .
    • My Son Is Refusing To Circumcise His Newborn – The Bintel Brief – Forward.com 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC blogs.forward.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Menlo Park: Kavanaugh Publishing Company, 1988.
    • bmj.com Rapid Responses for Szabo and Short, 320 (7249) 1592-1594 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.bmj.com [Source type: Academic]

    .What Your Doctor May Not Tell You About Circumcision. New York: Warner Books, 2002. (ISBN 978-0-446-67880-3)
  • Leonard B. Glick.^ You are talking about the health care of your child.
    • Daddy Daze | Being a dad in Houston | MomHouston.com 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC blogs.chron.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ It’s a damn shame that many circumcised men also share your friend’s misimpression that you don’t need to keep a circumcised penis clean.
    • Circumcised at 37: a personal story and a rebuke to the MRAs at Hugo Schwyzer 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC hugoschwyzer.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ If your doctor doesn't use pain management for a newborn's circumcision, then I suggest finding a new doctor!
    • TODAYMoms - Should baby boys be circumcised? 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC community.todaymoms.com [Source type: Original source]

    .Marked in Your Flesh: Circumcision from Ancient Judea to Modern America. New York: Oxford University Press, 2005. (ISBN 978-0-19-517674-2)
  • David Gollaher.^ New York: Plenum Press, 1997.

    ^ Read about Jewish Nobel Laureate Harvard biologist, George Wald's essay, "Circumcision", at http://sicsociety.org/crick-wald.htm Read Jewish MD and anthropologist Leonard Glick's book, "Marked in Your Flesh: Circumcision from Ancient Judea to Modern America", published by Oxford University Press.
    • Swedish doctors refuse to circumcise boys - The Local 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC www.thelocal.se [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Mork February 25, 2009 at 12:19 pm Just a point on the argument about ‘looking like your dad.’ I’m circumcised and my dad is too.
    • Male Circumcision - Pros and Cons | The Art of Manliness 15 September 2009 5:25 UTC artofmanliness.com [Source type: Original source]

    .Circumcision: A History of the World's Most Controversial Surgery. New York: Basic Books, 2000. (ISBN 0465026532)
  • Ronald Goldman, Ph.D. Circumcision: The Hidden Trauma. Boston: Vanguard, 1996. (ISBN 978-0-9644895-3-0)
  • Paysach J. Krohn, Rabbi.^ Ronald Goldman, a psychologist and founder of the Circumcision Resource Center, makes the point that "the U.S. has the highest circumcision rate and the highest HIV-infection rate in the developed world."
    • To Circumcise or Not? | | AlterNet 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC www.alternet.org [Source type: General]

    ^ Also, in most places in the world (though not in Israel, for example), the norm is to not be circumcised.
    • Berkeley Parents Network: Advice about Circumcision 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC parents.berkeley.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Europe, where most men are uncircumcised, have one of the lowest HIV rates in the world, while in the US, where most men are circumcised, has one of the highest HIV rates.
    • The Checkup - Should You Circumcise Your Son? 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC voices.washingtonpost.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Bris Milah. .Circumcision—The Covenant Of Abraham/A Compendium of Laws, Rituals, And Customs From Birth To Bris, Anthologized From Talmudic, And Traditional Sources. New York: Mesorah Publications, 1985, 2005.
  • Brian J. Morris, Ph.D., D.Sc.^ "Many believe that the Old Covenant refers to a harsh Ten Commandments law, while the New Covenant pertains only to grace and promises not based on law or obedience.
    • 'Thou Shall Not Circumcise' A Three-Millennial Falsification The 2nd Commandment BANS SEXUAL MUTILATION - Salem-News.Com 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC www.salem-news.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ In my religion, Judaism, circumcision is the supposed covenant between G-d and man… and along with that, i’ve been taught that New Year’s Day is also the feast of Jesus’s circumcision… .

    ^ Any uncircumcised male, who has not been circumcised in the flesh, will be cut off from his people; he has broken my covenant."Genesis 17 Genesis is in the Old Testament.The Second Covenant is the New Testament.
    • 'Thou Shall Not Circumcise' A Three-Millennial Falsification The 2nd Commandment BANS SEXUAL MUTILATION - Salem-News.Com 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC www.salem-news.com [Source type: Original source]

    .In Favour of Circumcision. Sydney: UNSW Press, 1999. (ISBN 978-0-86840-537-7)
  • Peter Charles Remondino.^ Australian Medicine 1999;11(11):18 (Review of "In Favour of Circumcision" by Brian Morris).
    • bmj.com Rapid Responses for Szabo and Short, 320 (7249) 1592-1594 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.bmj.com [Source type: Academic]

    .History of Circumcision from the Earliest Times to the Present. Philadelphia and London; F. A. Davis; 1891.
  • Holm Putzke, Ph.D. Die strafrechtliche Relevanz der Beschneidung von Knaben.^ You’ve ignored the evidence presented here several times that female circumcision does not cause the “eradication of all sexual pleasure”.
    • Is Circumcision Safe? | Mark's Daily Apple 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC www.marksdailyapple.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ At the present time, the notion that circumcision can prevent the transmission of HIV remains an unproven hypothesis.
    • bmj.com Rapid Responses for Szabo and Short, 320 (7249) 1592-1594 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.bmj.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ At various times in history, circumcision was also used to designate social status as well as religious identity.
    • Is Circumcision Safe? | Mark's Daily Apple 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC www.marksdailyapple.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Zugleich ein Beitrag über die Grenzen der Einwilligung in Fällen der Personensorge
    , in: H. Putzke u.a. (Hrsg.), .Strafrecht zwischen System und Telos, Festschrift für Rolf Dietrich Herzberg zum siebzigsten Geburtstag am 14. Februar 2008 , Mohr Siebeck: Tübingen 2008, p. 669–709 (ISBN 978-3161495700)
  • Holm Putzke, Ph.D., Maximilian Stehr, Ph.D., and Hans-Georg Dietz, Ph.D. Liability to penalty for circumcision in boys.^ Hugh7 1:50 am April 24th, 2008 “Circumcision of baby boys is .
    • To circumcise or not? | Parents Talk Back | STLtoday 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC www.stltoday.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Michelle 5:11 pm April 23rd, 2008 Oh boy, here we go with the circumcision debate again.
    • To circumcise or not? | Parents Talk Back | STLtoday 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC www.stltoday.com [Source type: Original source]

    .Medico-legal aspects of a controversial medical intervention
    , in: Monatsschrift Kinderheilkunde 8/2008, p. 783–788
  • Rosemary Romberg.^ Every aspect of circumcision was considered: medical, psychological, economic, religious and legal.
    • To Mutilate in the Name ofJehovah or Allah 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.quran.org [Source type: Original source]

    .Circumcision: The Painful Dilemma. South Hadley, MA Bergan & Garvey, 1985. (ISBN 978-0-89789-073-1)
  • Edgar J Schoen, M.D. Ed Schoen, MD on Circumcision. Berkeley, CA: RDR Books, 2005. (ISBN 978-1-57143-123-3)
  • Edward Wallerstein.^ Circumcision: The painful dilemma.
    • Male Circumcision: A Gender Perspective 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.noharmm.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Romberg, Circumcision: The Painful Dilemma , 81.

    ^ Thursday, 14 June 2007 BERKELEY, CA (UroToday.com) – The most common medical procedure in the US is infant male circumcision.
    • Did you circumcise your son? | A Blog for Busy Moms - MOMania 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC blogs.ajc.com [Source type: General]

    .Circumcision: An American Health Fallacy. New York: Springer, 1980 (ISBN 978-0-8261-3240-6)
  • Gerald N. Weiss M.D. and Andrea W Harter.^ Fleshly circumcision has health benefits too, but I still feel it is right to obey the physical command for our new-born males as we are believers.

    ^ United States Circumcision Incidence Geoffery Falk http://www.cirp.org/library/statistics/USA/ Circumcision: An American Health Fallacy Edward Wallerstein New York: Springer Publishing; 1980, chapter 13, pages 128, 131.
    • Male Circumcision in the USA: A Human Rights Primer, by Rich Winkel, 7/7/03 11 September 2009 23:56 UTC www.ratical.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ According to New York City's Commissioner of Health, coincidence does not explain this.
    • Modern Love: Sex, Relationships & Your Health: One More Reason Not to Circumcise 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC blogs.webmd.com [Source type: Original source]

    .Circumcision: Frankly Speaking. Wiser Publications, 1998. (ISBN 978-0-9667219-0-4)
  • Yosef David Weisberg, Rabbi.^ Frankly Speaking January 15th, 2009 at 2:26 pm I can’t help but notice everyone pushing circumcision happens to know someone who “had” to be circumcised later.
    • » Blog Archive » #46: Circumcision 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC bestparentever.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Rabbi Yosef Weisberg, the ministry's national supervisor of ritual circumcisers, had not yet been informed of the case.
    • Circumcision Complications 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.circumstitions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Rabbi Yosef Weisberg, national inspector of circumcisors for the Israeli Health Ministry, said he is assessing the kit.
    • CIRCUMCISION 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.xcircum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Otzar Habris. Encyclopedia of the laws and customs of Bris Milah and Pidyon Haben. Jerusalem: Hamoer, 2002.

Notes and references

Some referenced articles are available on-line only in the .Circumcision Information and Resource Page’s (CIRP) library or in The Circumcision Reference Library (CIRCS).^ See http://research.cirp.org http://www.cirp.org/library/anatomy/taylor/ http://www.cirp.org/library/anatomy/cold-taylor/ Fact: Circumcising normal, healthy children kills some of them.
  • Swedish doctors refuse to circumcise boys - The Local 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC www.thelocal.se [Source type: Original source]

^ Circumcision Information and Resource Pages .

^ Anonymous September 9, 2008 11:06 am (Pacific time) A study (National organization of circumcision information resource centers.
  • 'Thou Shall Not Circumcise' A Three-Millennial Falsification The 2nd Commandment BANS SEXUAL MUTILATION - Salem-News.Com 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC www.salem-news.com [Source type: Original source]

.CIRP articles are chosen from an anti-circumcision point of view, and text in support of this position is often highlighted on-screen using HTML.^ If they conclude that female circumcision is harmful and they decide to forbid it, the prohibition will neither be contrary to a religious text nor with the unanimous position of religious scholars.
  • Male and Female Circumcision 15 September 2009 5:25 UTC www.hraicjk.org [Source type: Original source]

^ This article is invoked against female circumcision even though the word is not mentioned in the text.
  • To Mutilate in the Name ofJehovah or Allah 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.quran.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The dislike of circumcision in Europe is the Volkisch point ot view.
  • Washington Diarist: Membership | The New Republic 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.tnr.com [Source type: Original source]

.CIRCS articles are chosen from a pro-circumcision point of view.^ Circumcision, WITHOUT a condom, does NOT protect health (no one, even the most pro-circ, claim that it does).
  • Her.meneutics: The Case for Male Circumcision 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC blog.christianitytoday.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Amy Tuteur , a blogger on the blog Science Based Medicine , has posted a pro-circumcision blog entry discussing the recently published article in the Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine.

^ The ny times ran an article in August; the AAP will soon become more pro-circumcision for health reasons.
  • UrbanBaby - Information For Parents About circumcision 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.urbanbaby.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.If documents are not freely available on-line elsewhere, links to articles in one or other of these two websites may be provided.^ There are other articles and posts on WebMD that follow your line of thinking.
  • Men's Health Office: Foreskin Facts: Turtleneck or No, It All Feels the Same 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC blogs.webmd.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Vince 11:01 am April 24th, 2008 Who Cares, what I told you is that if you are going to be neutral, you better provide links to the other side of the debate.
  • To circumcise or not? | Parents Talk Back | STLtoday 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC www.stltoday.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Immunization information, safety and prevention tips, AAP guidelines for various conditions, and links to other organizations are also available.
  • Circumcision - Yahoo! Health 11 September 2009 23:56 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Circumcision - Revolution Health 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.revolutionhealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Circumcision 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.seton.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Health Information 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.mountauburnhospital.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

  1. ^ Dictionary definitions of circumcision:
    • "The act of cutting off the prepuce or foreskin of males, or the internal labia of females." Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary (1913) [1]
    • "to remove the foreskin of (males) sometimes as a religious rite." The Macquarie Dictionary (2nd Edition, 1991)
    • "Cut off foreskin of (as Jewish or Mohammedan rite, or surgically), Concise Oxford Dictionary, 5th Edition, 1964
    Circumcision defined in a medical context:
  2. ^ Hodges, F.M. (Fall 2001). "The ideal prepuce in ancient Greece and Rome: male genital aesthetics and their relation to lipodermos, circumcision, foreskin restoration, and the kynodesme.". The Bulletin of the History of Medicine 75 (3): 375–405. doi:10.1353/bhm.2001.0119. PMID 11568485. 
  3. ^ Wrana, P. (1939). "Historical review: Circumcision". Archives of Pediatrics 56: 385–392.  as quoted in: Zoske, Joseph (Winter 1998). "Male Circumcision: A Gender Perspective". The Journal of Men's Studies 6 (2): 189–208. http://www.noharmm.org/zoske.htm. Retrieved 2006-06-14. 
  4. ^ Gollaher, David L. (February 2000). Circumcision: a history of the world’s most controversial surgery. New York, NY: Basic Books. pp. 53–72. ISBN [[Special:BookSources/978-0-465-04397-2 LCCN 99-40015|978-0-465-04397-2 LCCN 99-40015]]. 
  5. ^ "Circumcision". American-Israeli Cooperative Enterprise. http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/Judaism/circumcision.html. Retrieved 2006-10-03. 
  6. ^ Rizvi, S.A.H.; A Naqvi, S.A.; Hussain, M.; Hasan, A.S. (1999). "Religious circumcision: a Muslim view". BJU International 83: 13. doi:10.1046/j.1464-410x.1999.0830s1013.x. 
  7. ^ a b c Customary in some Coptic and other churches:
    • "The Coptic Christians in Egypt and the Ethiopian Orthodox Christians —two of the oldest surviving forms of Christianity— retain many of the features of early Christianity, including male circumcision. Circumcision is not prescribed in other forms of Christianity.…Some Christian churches in South Africa oppose the practice, viewing it as a pagan ritual, while others, including the Nomiya church in Kenya, require circumcision for membership and participants in focus group discussions in Zambia and Malawi mentioned similar beliefs that Christians should practice circumcision since Jesus was circumcised and the Bible teaches the practice." Male Circumcision: context, criteria and culture (Part 1), Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS, February 26, 2007.
    • "The decision that Christians need not practice circumcision is recorded in Acts 15; there was never, however, a prohibition of circumcision, and it is practiced by Coptic Christians." "circumcision", The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition, 2001-05.
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k "Male circumcision: Global trends and determinants of prevalence, safety and acceptability" (PDF). World Health Organization. 2007. http://whqlibdoc.who.int/publications/2007/9789241596169_eng.pdf. Retrieved 2009-03-04. 
  9. ^ Schmid GP, Dick B. (2008). "Adolescent boys: who cares?" (PDF). Bulletin of the World Health Organization 86 (9): 659. doi:10.2471/BLT.08.057752. PMID 18797635. PMC 2649485. http://www.who.int/entity/bulletin/volumes/86/9/08-057752.pdf. 
  10. ^ Schoen, Edgar J (December 1, 2007). "Should newborns be circumcised? Yes". Can Fam Physician 53 (12): 2096–8, 2100–2. PMID 18077736. http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pubmed&pubmedid=18077736. Retrieved 2008-05-02. 
  11. ^ a b Milos, Marilyn Fayre; Donna Macris (March–April 1992). "Circumcision: A medical or a human rights issue?". Journal of Nurse-Midwifery 37 (2 S1): S87–S96. doi:10.1016/0091-2182(92)90012-R. PMID 1573462. http://www.cirp.org/library/ethics/milos-macris/. Retrieved 2007-04-06. 
  12. ^ a b c d e f g "Report 10 of the Council on Scientific Affairs (I-99):Neonatal Circumcision". 1999 AMA Interim Meeting: Summaries and Recommendations of Council on Scientific Affairs Reports. American Medical Association. December 1999. pp. 17. http://www.ama-assn.org/ama/no-index/about-ama/13585.shtml. Retrieved 2006-06-13. 
  13. ^ a b c (PDF) New Data on Male Circumcision and HIV Prevention: Policy and Programme Implications. World Health Organization. March 28, 2007. http://www.who.int/hiv/mediacentre/MCrecommendations_en.pdf. Retrieved 2007-08-13. 
  14. ^ a b "Male Circumcision and Risk for HIV Transmission and Other Health Conditions: Implications for the United States". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2008. http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/resources/factsheets/circumcision.htm. 
  15. ^ a b c Robert Darby (2003). "Medical history and medical practice: persistent myths about the foreskin". Medical Journal of Australia 178(4): 178–9. http://www.mja.com.au/public/issues/178_04_170203/dar10676_fm.html. 
  16. ^ a b "Policy Statement On Circumcision" (PDF). Royal Australasian College of Physicians. September 2004. http://www.racp.edu.au/index.cfm?objectid=B5606813-F174-8FA9-0522EE1FC3053078. Retrieved 2010-01-25. ""The Paediatrics and Child Health Division, The Royal Australasian College of Physicians (RACP) has prepared this statement on routine circumcision of infants and boys to assist parents who are considering having this procedure undertaken on their male children and for doctors who are asked to advise on or undertake it. After extensive review of the literature the RACP reaffirms that there is no medical indication for routine neonatal circumcision. Circumcision of males has been undertaken for religious and cultural reasons for many thousands of years. It remains an important ritual in some religious and cultural groups.…In recent years there has been evidence of possible health benefits from routine male circumcision. The most important conditions where some benefit may result from circumcision are urinary tract infections, HIV and later cancer of the penis.…The complication rate of neonatal circumcision is reported to be around 1% to 5% and includes local infection, bleeding and damage to the penis. Serious complications such as bleeding, septicaemia and meningitis may occasionally cause death. The possibility that routine circumcision may contravene human rights has been raised because circumcision is performed on a minor and is without proven medical benefit. Whether these legal concerns are valid will be known only if the matter is determined in a court of law. If the operation is to be performed, the medical attendant should ensure this is done by a competent operator, using appropriate anaesthesia and in a safe child-friendly environment. .In all cases where parents request a circumcision for their child the medical attendant is obliged to provide accurate information on the risks and benefits of the procedure.^ He contended that parents are not told of the risks of the procedure.” .
    • Did you circumcise your son? | A Blog for Busy Moms - MOMania 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC blogs.ajc.com [Source type: General]

    ^ What are the evidences on the medical benefit of routine circumcision?

    ^ Its not an involuntary procedure -- the child's parent has to consent.
    • UrbanBaby - Information For Parents About circumcision 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.urbanbaby.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Up-to-date, unbiased written material summarising the evidence should be widely available to parents.^ It should not be up to parents as to whether or not to mutilate their child nm Posted by: JoshuaLudd .
    • Put Down the Knife! 11 Reasons Not to Circumcise | Personal Health | AlterNet 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC www.alternet.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ To make an informed choice, parents of all male infants should be given accurate and unbiased information and be provided the opportunity to discuss this decision.
    • Put Down the Knife! 11 Reasons Not to Circumcise 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC ecochildsplay.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ This is particularly true of the younger men, who can easily research circumcision on the Internet and wonder why their parents ignored the evidence available to them.
    • Her.meneutics: The Case for Male Circumcision 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC blog.christianitytoday.com [Source type: Original source]

    Review of the literature in relation to risks and benefits shows there is no evidence of benefit outweighing harm for circumcision as a routine procedure in the neonate."
    "Circumcision of males has been undertaken for religious and cultural reasons for many thousands of years. It probably originated as a hygienic measure in communities living in hot, dusty and dry environments."
    "
     
  17. ^ Immerman, R.S.; W.C. Mackey (Fall-Winter 1997). "A biocultural analysis of circumcision". Social Biology 44 (3-4): 265–275. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9744.1976.tb00285.x. PMID 9446966. http://www.cirp.org/library/psych/immerman2/. 
  18. ^ Wilson, Christopher G. (2008). "Male genital mutilation: an adaptation to sexual conflict". Evolution and Human Behavior 29: 149–164. http://www.anth.uconn.edu/degree_programs/ecolevo/mgmarticle.pdf. 
  19. ^ Tomb artwork from the Sixth Dynasty (2345–2181 BCE) shows men with circumcised penises, and one relief from this period shows the rite being performed on a standing adult male. The Egyptian hieroglyph for "penis" depicts either a circumcised or an erect organ. The examination of Egyptian mummies has found some with foreskins and others who were circumcised.
  20. ^ The book of Genesis records circumcision as God's covenant/command to Abraham. It was a sign of obedience and was to be performed by the male child's eighth day after birth. The Book of Jeremiah, written in the sixth century BCE, lists the Egyptians, Jews, Edomites, Ammonites, and Moabites as circumcising cultures. Herodotus, writing in the fifth century BCE, would add the Colchians, Ethiopians, Phoenicians, and Syrians to that list.
  21. ^ The writer of the 1 Maccabees wrote that under the Seleucids, many Jewish men attempted to hide or reverse their circumcision so they could exercise in Greek gymnasia, where nudity was the norm. First Maccabees also relates that the Seleucids forbade the practice of brit milah (Jewish circumcision), and punished those who performed it–as well as the infants who underwent it–with death.
  22. ^ Marck, J (1997). "Aspects of male circumcision in sub-equatorial African culture history". Health Transit Review 7 (supplement): 337–360. PMID 10173099. 
  23. ^ a b c d Gollaher, David (Fall 1994). "From ritual to science: the medical transformation of circumcision in America". Journal of Social History 28 (1): 5–36. http://www.cirp.org/library/history/gollaher/. Retrieved 2007-12-06. 
  24. ^ Aggleton, P. (2007). "Roundtable: “Just a Snip”?: A Social History of Male Circumcision." (PDF). Reproductive Health Matters 15 (29): 15–21. doi:10.1016/S0968-8080(07)29303-6. PMID 17512370. http://www.hsph.harvard.edu/pihhr/files/RHM/RHM29%20-%20Aggleton.pdf. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  25. ^ "On the influence of circumcision in preventing syphilis". Medical Times and Gazette NS Vol II: 542–3. 1855. 
  26. ^ a b c d Laumann, E.; C. Masi and F. Zuckerman (1997). "Circumcision in the United States. Prevalence, prophylactic effects, and sexual practice". JAMA 277 (13): 1052–1057. doi:10.1001/jama.277.13.1052. PMID 9091693. http://www.circs.org/library/laumann/index.html. 
  27. ^ Xu F, Markowitz LE, Sternberg MR, Aral SO (July 2007). "Prevalence of circumcision and herpes simplex virus type 2 infection in men in the United States: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 1999-2004". Sex Transm Dis 34 (7): 479–84. doi:10.1097/01.olq.0000253335.41841.04. PMID 17413536. 
  28. ^ "Trends in circumcisions among newborns". National Hospital Discharge Survey. National Center for Health Statistics. January 11, 2007. http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/products/pubs/pubd/hestats/circumcisions/circumcisions.htm. Retrieved 2008-08-19. 
  29. ^ Brown, M.S.; C.A. Brown (August 1987). "Circumcision decision: prominence of social concerns". Pediatrics 80 (2): 215–219. PMID 3615091. 
  30. ^ Nelson, C.P.; R. Dunn, J. Wan, J.T. Wei (March 2005). "The increasing incidence of newborn circumcision: data from the nationwide inpatient sample". Journal of Urology 173 (3): 978–981. doi:10.1097/01.ju.0000145758.80937.7d. PMID 15711354. 
  31. ^ "U.S. circumcision rates vary by region" (PDF). Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. January, 2008. http://www.hcup-us.ahrq.gov/reports/statbriefs/sb45.pdf. Retrieved 2008-08-19. 
  32. ^ Dave SS, Fenton KA, Mercer CH, Erens B, Wellings K, Johnson AM (December 2003). "Male circumcision in Britain: findings from a national probability sample survey". Sexually Transmitted Infections 79 (6): 499–500. doi:10.1136/sti.79.6.499. PMID 14663134. 
  33. ^ "In Australia and New Zealand, the circumcision rate has fallen considerably in recent years and it is estimated that currently only 10%-20% of male infants are routinely circumcised." (RACP: 2004)
  34. ^ a b Richters, J; et al. (2006). "Circumcision in Australia: prevalence and effects on sexual health". Int J STD AIDS 17 (8): 547–554. doi:10.1258/095646206778145730. PMID 16925903. http://www.cirp.org/library/general/richters1/. "Neonatal circumcision was routine in Australia until the 1970s … In the last generation, Australia has changed from a country where most newborn boys are circumcised to one where circumcision is the minority experience.". 
  35. ^ Walton RE, Ostbye T, Campbell MK (1997). "Neonatal male circumcision after delisting in Ontario. Survey of new parents". Can Fam Physician 43: 1241–7. PMID 9241462. 
  36. ^ a b Glass JM (January 1999). "Religious circumcision: a Jewish view". BJU Int. 83 Suppl 1: 17–21. PMID 10349410. http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/cgi-bin/fulltext/119091414/PDFSTART. 
  37. ^ Lamm, Maurice (1969). The Jewish way in death and mourning. Middle Village, N.Y: J. David. pp. 239–40. ISBN 0-8246-0126-2. http://www.chabad.org/library/article_cdo/aid/281541/jewish/The-Jewish-Way-in-Death-and-Mourning.htm. 
  38. ^ adapted from Shamash (2007). "The Origins of Reform Judaism". Jewish Virtual Library. http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/Judaism/The_Origins_of_Reform_Judaism.html. Retrieved 2007-11-03. 
  39. ^ Berit Mila Program of Reform Judaism, Union for Reform Judaism website. Retrieved January 23, 2010.
  40. ^ Hilary Leila Kreiger (21 November 2002). "A cut above the rest". Jerusalem Post. http://jewishcircumcision.org/israel_news.htm. 
  41. ^ Al-Munajjid, Muhammed Salih. "Question #9412: Circumcision: how it is done and the rulings on it". Islam Q&A. http://www.islam-qa.com/index.php?ln=eng&ds=qa&lv=browse&QR=9412&dgn=4. Retrieved 2006-07-01. 
  42. ^ Al-Munajjid, Muhammed Salih. "Question #7073: The health and religious benefits of circumcision". Islam Q&A. http://www.islam-qa.com/index.php?ln=eng&ds=qa&lv=browse&QR=7073&dgn=3. Retrieved 2006-07-01. 
  43. ^ al-Sabbagh, Muhammad Lutfi (1996). Islamic ruling on male and female circumcision. Alexandria: World Health Organization. p. 16. 
  44. ^ "Session 11—4 February 1442 (Bull of union with the Copts)". Eccumenical Council of Florence (1438-1445). Eternal Word Television Network. http://www.ewtn.com/library/councils/Florence.htm#5. Retrieved 2009-05-11. "Therefore it strictly orders all who glory in the name of Christian, not to practise circumcision either before or after baptism, since whether or not they place their hope in it, it cannot possibly be observed without loss of eternal salvation." 
  45. ^ Mattson CL, Bailey RC, Muga R, Poulussen R, Onyango T (February 2005). "Acceptability of male circumcision and predictors of circumcision preference among men and women in Nyanza Province, Kenya". AIDS Care 17 (2): 182–94. doi:10.1080/09540120512331325671. PMID 15763713. 
  46. ^ "Greek Orthodox Archdiocese calendar of Holy Days". http://www.goarch.org/en/chapel/calendar.asp?Y=2007&M=1. 
  47. ^ "Russian Orthodox Church, Patriarchate of Moscow". http://www.holytrinityorthodox.com/calendar/los/January/01-01.htm. 
  48. ^ Ajuwon et al., "Indigenous surgical practices in rural southwestern Nigeria: Implications for disease," Health Educ. Res..1995; 10: 379–384 Health Educ. Res..1995; 10: 379–384 Retrieved 3 October 2006
  49. ^ Aaron David Samuel Corn (2001) (PDF). Ngukurr Crying: Male Youth in a Remote Indigenous Community. Working Paper Series No. 2. University of Wollongong. http://www.uow.edu.au/arts/sealcp/wkgpapers/wp2.pdf. Retrieved 2006-10-18. 
  50. ^ "Migration and Trade". Green Turtle Dreaming. http://www.mfgsc.vic.edu.au/greenturtledreaming/EKmigrate.htm. Retrieved 2006-10-18. "In exchange for turtles and trepang the Makassans introduced tobacco, the practice of circumcision and knowledge to build sea-going canoes." 
  51. ^ Jones IH (June 1969). "Subincision among Australian western desert Aborigines". The British Journal of Medical Psychology 42 (2): 183–90. PMID 5783777. 
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  54. ^ "Circumcision amongst the Dogon". The Non-European Components of European Patrimony (NECEP) Database. 2006. http://www.necep.net/articles.php?id_soc=12&id_article=84. Retrieved 2006-09-03. 
  55. ^ Agberia, J. T. (2006). "Aesthetics and Rituals of the Opha Ceremony among the Urhobo People". Journal of Asian and African Studies 41: 249. doi:10.1177/0021909606063880. 
  56. ^ "Masai of Kenya". http://www.masaikenya.org/. Retrieved 2007-04-06. "Authority derives from the age-group and the age-set. Prior to circumcision a natural leader or olaiguenani is selected; he leads his age-group through a series of rituals until old age, sharing responsibility with a select few, of whom the ritual expert (oloiboni) is the ultimate authority. Masai youths are not circumcised until they are mature, and a new age-set is initiated together at regular intervals of twelve to fifteen years. The young warriors (ilmurran) remain initiates for some time, using blunt arrows to hunt small birds which are stuffed and tied to a frame to form a head-dress." 
  57. ^ a b c d Williams, N; L. Kapila (October 1993). "Complications of circumcision". British Journal of Surgery 80 (10): 1231–1236. doi:10.1002/bjs.1800801005. http://www.cirp.org/library/complications/williams-kapila/. Retrieved 2006-07-11. 
  58. ^ Crawford, DA (December 2002). "Circumcision: a consideration of some of the controversy". J Child Health Care. 6 (4): 259–270. doi:10.1177/136749350200600403. PMID 12503896. http://chc.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/6/4/259. 
  59. ^ Klavs I, Hamers FF (February 2008). "Male circumcision in Slovenia: results from a national probability sample survey". Sexually Transmitted Infections 84 (1): 49–50. doi:10.1136/sti.2007.027524. PMID 17881413. 
  60. ^ a b Drain PK, Halperin DT, Hughes JP, Klausner JD, Bailey RC (2006). "Male circumcision, religion, and infectious diseases: an ecologic analysis of 118 developing countries". BMC Infectious Diseases 6: 172. doi:10.1186/1471-2334-6-172. PMID 17137513. 
  61. ^ a b c d Castellsagué X, Bosch FX, Muñoz N, et al. (April 2002). "Male circumcision, penile human papillomavirus infection, and cervical cancer in female partners". The New England Journal of Medicine 346 (15): 1105–12. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa011688. PMID 11948269. 
  62. ^ Frisch M, Friis S, Kjaer SK, Melbye M (December 1995). "Falling incidence of penis cancer in an uncircumcised population (Denmark 1943-90)". BMJ 311 (7018): 1471. PMID 8520335. PMC 2543732. http://bmj.com/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=8520335. 
  63. ^ Schoen EJ, Colby CJ, To TT (March 2006). "Cost analysis of neonatal circumcision in a large health maintenance organization". The Journal of Urology 175 (3 Pt 1): 1111–5. doi:10.1016/S0022-5347(05)00399-X. PMID 16469634. 
  64. ^ Ko MC, Liu CK, Lee WK, Jeng HS, Chiang HS, Li CY (April 2007). "Age-specific prevalence rates of phimosis and circumcision in Taiwanese boys". Journal of the Formosan Medical Association = Taiwan Yi Zhi 106 (4): 302–7. doi:10.1016/S0929-6646(09)60256-4. PMID 17475607. "…the prevalence of circumcision slightly increased with age from 7.2% (95% CI, 5.3-10.8%) for boys aged 7 years to 8.7% (95% CI, 6.5-13.3%) for boys aged 13 years.". 
  65. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m "Circumcision policy statement. American Academy of Pediatrics. Task Force on Circumcision". Pediatrics 103 (3): 686–93. March 1999. doi:10.1542/peds.103.3.686. PMID 10049981. 
  66. ^ Holman JR, Lewis EL, Ringler RL (August 1995). "Neonatal circumcision techniques". American Family Physician 52 (2): 511–8, 519–20. PMID 7625325. 
  67. ^ Wiswell TE (April 1997). "Circumcision circumspection". The New England Journal of Medicine 336 (17): 1244–5. PMID 9110914. http://content.nejm.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=short&pmid=9110914&promo=ONFLNS19. 
  68. ^ "Neonatal Circumcision: An Audiovisual Primer". Stanford School of Medicine. http://newborns.stanford.edu/Circumcision.html. 
  69. ^ Barrie H, Huntingford PJ, Gough MH (July 1965). "The Plastibell Technique for Circumcision". British Medical Journal 2 (5456): 273–5. doi:10.1136/bmj.2.5456.273. PMID 14310205. 
  70. ^ Peleg D, Steiner A (September 1998). "The Gomco circumcision: common problems and solutions". American Family Physician 58 (4): 891–8. PMID 9767725. 
  71. ^ Fowler, Grant C.; Pfenninger, John L. (2003). Pfenninger and Fowler's procedures for primary care. St. Louis: Mosby. ISBN 978-0-323-00506-7. 
  72. ^ Reynolds RD (July 1996). "Use of the Mogen clamp for neonatal circumcision". American Family Physician 54 (1): 177–82. PMID 8677833. 
  73. ^ Holman JR, Stuessi KA (March 1999). "Adult circumcision". American Family Physician 59 (6): 1514–8. PMID 10193593. http://www.aafp.org/afp/990315ap/1514.html. 
  74. ^ "In Africa, a problem with circumcision and AIDS". http://www.iht.com/articles/2007/02/27/news/health.php. 
  75. ^ Hovatta O, Mikkola M, Gertow K, et al. (July 2003). "A culture system using human foreskin fibroblasts as feeder cells allows production of human embryonic stem cells". Human Reproduction 18 (7): 1404–9. doi:10.1093/humrep/deg290. PMID 12832363. 
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  80. ^ Cowan, Alison Leigh (April 19, 1992). "Wall Street; A Swiss Firm Makes Babies Its Bet". New York Times:Business. New York Times. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9E0CE6D81E38F93AA25757C0A964958260&partner. Retrieved 2008-08-20. 
  81. ^ Anonymous (editorial) (1949-12-24). "A ritual operation". British Medical Journal 2: 1458–1459. ""...in parts of West Africa, where the operation is performed at about 8 years of age, the prepuce is dipped in brandy and eaten by the patient; in other districts the operator is enjoined to consume the fruits of his handiwork, and yet a further practice, in Madagascar, is to wrap the operation specifically in a banana leaf and feed it to a calf."". 
  82. ^ Shulchan Aruch, Yoreh Deah, 265:10
  83. ^ a b Somerville, Margaret (November 2000). "Altering Baby Boys’ Bodies: The Ethics of Infant Male Circumcision". The ethical canary: science, society, and the human spirit. New York, NY: Viking Penguin Canada. pp. 202–219. LCCN 2001-369341. ISBN 0670893021. http://www.intact.ca/canary.htm. Retrieved 2007-02-12. 
  84. ^ Van Howe, R.S.; J.S. Svoboda, J.G. Dwyer, and C.P. Price (January 1999). "Involuntary circumcision: the legal issues" (PDF). BJU International 83 (Supp1): 63–73. doi:10.1046/j.1464-410x.1999.0830s1063.x. PMID 10349416. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/doi/pdf/10.1046/j.1464-410x.1999.0830s1063.x. Retrieved 2007-02-12. 
  85. ^ Tanne, Janice Hopkins (August 2005). "US group lobbies UN to outlaw male circumcision". British Medical Journal 331 (7514): 422. doi:10.1136/bmj.331.7514.422-b. 
  86. ^ Rennie S, Muula AS, Westreich D (June 2007). "Male circumcision and HIV prevention: ethical, medical and public health tradeoffs in low-income countries". Journal of Medical Ethics 33 (6): 357–61. doi:10.1136/jme.2006.019901. PMID 17526688. 
  87. ^ a b Fetus and Newborn Committee (March 1996). "Neonatal circumcision revisited". Canadian Medical Association Journal 154 (6): 769–780. http://www.cps.ca/english/statements/FN/fn96-01.htm. Retrieved 2006-07-02.  "We undertook this literature review to consider whether the CPS should change its position on routine neonatal circumcision from that stated in 1982. The review led us to conclude the following. There is evidence that circumcision results in an approximately 12-fold reduction in the incidence of UTI during infancy. The overall incidence of UTI in male infants appears to be 1% to 2%. The incidence rate of the complications of circumcision reported in published articles varies, but it is generally in the order of 0.2% to 2%. Most complications are minor, but occasionally serious complications occur. There is a need for good epidemiological data on the incidence of the surgical complications of circumcision, of the later complications of circumcision and of problems associated with lack of circumcision. Evaluation of alternative methods of preventing UTI in infancy is required. More information on the effect of simple hygienic interventions is needed. Information is required on the incidence of circumcision that is truly needed in later childhood. There is evidence that circumcision results in a reduction in the incidence of penile cancer and of HIV transmission. However, there is inadequate information to recommend circumcision as a public health measure to prevent these diseases. When circumcision is performed, appropriate attention needs to be paid to pain relief. The overall evidence of the benefits and harms of circumcision is so evenly balanced that it does not support recommending circumcision as a routine procedure for newborns. There is therefore no indication that the position taken by the CPS in 1982 should be changed. When parents are making a decision about circumcision, they should be advised of the present state of medical knowledge about its benefits and harms. Their decision may ultimately be based on personal, religious or cultural factors."
  88. ^ a b c d Medical Ethics Committee (June 2006). "The law and ethics of male circumcision – guidance for doctors". British Medical Association. http://www.bma.org.uk/ethics/consent_and_capacity/malecircumcision2006.jsp. Retrieved 2006-07-01. 
  89. ^ "Information Package on Male Circumcision and HIV Prevention" (PDF). http://data.unaids.org/pub/InformationNote/2007/mc_briefing_pack1_en.pdf. 
  90. ^ "Circumcision and the Code of Ethics, George C. Denniston, Humane Health Care Volume 12, Number 2". http://www.humanehealthcare.com/Article.asp?art_id=620. 
  91. ^ Viens AM (2004). "Value judgment, harm, and religious liberty". J Med Ethics 30 (3): 241–7. doi:10.1136/jme.2003.003921. PMID 15173355. 
  92. ^ Benatar, David; Benatar, Michael (2003). "How not to argue about circumcision" (PDF). American Journal of Bioethics 3 (2): W1–W9. doi:10.1162/152651603102387820. http://bioethics.net/journal/pdf/3_2_LT_w01_Benetar.pdf. 
  93. ^ Williams, R. M. (2003-01). "On the Tail-Docking of Pigs, Human Circumcision, and their Implications for Prevailing Opinion Regarding Pain". Journal of Applied Philosophy 20 (1): 89–93. doi:10.1111/1468-5930.00237. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/doi/abs/10.1111/1468-5930.00237. Retrieved 2008-06-24. 
  94. ^ Goldman, R. (January 1999). "The psychological impact of circumcision" (PDF). BJU International 83 (S1): 93–102. doi:10.1046/j.1464-410x.1999.0830s1093.x. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/doi/pdf/10.1046/j.1464-410x.1999.0830s1093.x. Retrieved 2006-07-02. 
  95. ^ Schultheiss D, Truss MC, Stief CG, Jonas U (1998). "Uncircumcision: A Historical Review of Preputial Restoration". Plast Reconstr Surg. 101(7) (7): 1990–8. PMID 9623850. 
  96. ^ Moses, S; Bailey, RC; Ronald AR (1998). "Male circumcision: assessment of health benefits and risks". Sex Transm Infect 74: 368–73. doi:10.1136/sti.74.5.368. 
  97. ^ Gerharz EW, Haarmann C (August 2000). "The first cut is the deepest? Medicolegal aspects of male circumcision". BJU Int. 86 (3): 332–8. doi:10.1046/j.1464-410x.2000.00103.x. PMID 10930942. 
  98. ^ Boyle, G; Goldman, R; Svoboda, JS; Fernandez E (2002). "Male Circumcision: Pain, Trauma and Psychosexual Sequelae". Journal of Health Psychology 7 (3): 329–343. 
  99. ^ Hirji, H; Charlton, R; Sarmah S (2005). "Male circumcision: a review of the evidence". Journal of men's health 2 (1): 21–30. http://www.journals.elsevierhealth.com/periodicals/jmhg/article/PIIS1571891305000105/abstract. 
  100. ^ "Sweden restricts circumcisions". BBC Europe. October 1, 2001. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/1572483.stm. Retrieved 2006-10-18. "Swedish Jews and Muslims object to the new law, saying it violates their religious rights." 
  101. ^ "Jews protest Swedish circumcision restriction". Reuters. 2001-06-07. http://www.hrwf.net/religiousfreedom/news/sweden2001.html#JewsprotestSwedish. "A WJC spokesman said, "This is the first legal restriction placed on a Jewish rite in Europe since the Nazi era. This new legislation is totally unacceptable to the Swedish Jewish community."" 
  102. ^ Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor (September 15, 2006). "Sweden". International Religious Freedom Report 2006. U.S. Department of State. http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/irf/2006/71410.htm. Retrieved 2007-07-04. 
  103. ^ "Court rules circumcision of four-year-old boy illegal". HELSINGIN SANOMAT, INTERNATIONAL EDITION. 2006-08-07. http://www.hs.fi/english/article/Court+rules+circumcision+of+four-year-old+boy+illegal/1135220958830. Retrieved 2007-09-17. 
  104. ^ "Supreme Court: Properly performed religious based male circumcision no crime". Helsingin Sanomat. October 17, 2008. http://www.hs.fi/english/article/Supreme+Court+Properly+performed+religious+based+male+circumcision+no+crime/1135240316614. Retrieved 2008-10-17. 
  105. ^ "Finland Considers Legalising Male Circumcision". Ylesiradio. 2008-07-31. http://www.yle.fi/news/left/id97605.html. Retrieved 2008-08-05. 
  106. ^ "Circumcision debate on Mornings". ABC Tasmania. 2007-07-15. http://www.abc.net.au/tasmania/stories/s2004776.htm. .
  107. ^ Schoen, Edgar J.; Christopher J. Colby, Trinh T. To (March 2006). "Cost Analysis of Neonatal Circumcision in a Large Health Maintenance Organization" (Abstract). The Journal of Urology 175 (3): 1111–1115. doi:10.1016/S0022-5347(05)00399-X. PMID 16469634. http://www.jurology.com/article/PIIS002253470500399X/abstract. Retrieved 2006-07-01. 
  108. ^ Alanis, Mark C.; Richard S. Lucidi (May 2004). "Neonatal Circumcision: A Review of the World’s Oldest and Most Controversial Operation" (Abstract). Obstetrical & Gynecological Survey 59 (5): 379–395. doi:10.1097/00006254-200405000-00026. PMID 15097799. http://www.obgynsurvey.com/pt/re/obgynsurv/abstract.00006254-200405000-00026.htm;jsessionid=FbJT6LYnQxr66KhvWNsBW0msy7shpJgL39wbFTGLnQpzJ82BGLVQ!1096339265!-949856144!8091!-1. Retrieved 2006-09-27. 
  109. ^ Van Howe, Robert S. (November 2004). "A Cost-Utility Analysis of Neonatal Circumcision" (Abstract). Medical Decision Making 24 (6): 584–601. doi:10.1177/0272989X04271039. PMID 15534340. http://mdm.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/24/6/584. Retrieved 2006-07-01. 
  110. ^ Ganiats, TG; Humphrey JB, Taras HL, Kaplan RM. (Oct–December 1991). "Routine neonatal circumcision: a cost-utility analysis". Medical Decision Making 11 (4): 282–293. doi:10.1177/0272989X9101100406. PMID 1766331. 
  111. ^ Lawler, FH; Bisonni RS, Holtgrave DR. (Nov–December 1991). "Circumcision: a decision analysis of its medical value.". Family Medicine 23 (8): 587–593. PMID 1794670. 
  112. ^ a b Taddio, Anna; Joel Katz, A Lane Ilersich, Gideon Koren (March 1997). "Effect of neonatal circumcision on pain response during subsequent routine vaccination" (PDF — free registration required). The Lancet 349 (9052): 599–603. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(96)10316-0. http://download.thelancet.com/pdfs/journals/0140-6736/PIIS0140673696103160.pdf. Retrieved 2007-08-08. 
  113. ^ a b c "Circumcision: Position Paper on Neonatal Circumcision". American Academy of Family Physicians. 2007. http://www.aafp.org/online/en/home/clinical/clinicalrecs/circumcision.html. Retrieved 2007-01-30. 
  114. ^ a b "Circumcision: Information for parents". Caring for kids. Canadian Paediatric Society. November 2004. http://www.cps.ca/caringforkids/pregnancy&babies/Circumcision.htm. Retrieved 2006-10-24. "Circumcision is a "non-therapeutic" procedure, which means it is not medically necessary. .Parents who decide to circumcise their newborns often do so for religious, social, or cultural reasons.^ There are cultural religious reasons.
    • Swedish doctors refuse to circumcise boys - The Local 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC www.thelocal.se [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Religious reasons — some people choose to circumcise for religious or cultural reasons.

    ^ Jews don't circumcize for religious/cultural reasons?
    • UrbanBaby - Information For Parents About circumcision 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.urbanbaby.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    To help make the decision about circumcision, parents should have information about risks and benefits. It is helpful to speak with your baby’s doctor. .After reviewing the scientific evidence for and against circumcision, the CPS does not recommend routine circumcision for newborn boys.^ "After reviewing the scientific evidence for and against circumcision, the CPS does not recommend routine circumcision for newborn boys.
    • Put Down the Knife! 11 Reasons Not to Circumcise | Personal Health | AlterNet 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC www.alternet.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Evidence that circumcision does harm?
    • To Circumcise or Not? | | AlterNet 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC www.alternet.org [Source type: General]

    ^ What are the evidences on the medical benefit of routine circumcision?

    Many paediatricians no longer perform circumcisions.
    "
     
  115. ^ Stang, Howard J.; Leonard W. Snellman (June 1998). "Circumcision Practice Patterns in the United States" (PDF). Pediatrics 101 (6): e5–. doi:10.1542/peds.101.6.e5. ISSN 1098-4275. http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/cgi/reprint/101/6/e5.pdf. Retrieved 2006-06-29. 
  116. ^ Howard, C.R.; F.M. Howard, L.C. Garfunkel, E.A. de Blieck, M. Weitzman (1998). "Neonatal Circumcision and Pain Relief: Current Training Practices". Pediatrics 101 (3): 423–428. doi:10.1542/peds.101.3.423. PMID 9481008. http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/cgi/content/abstract/101/3/423. Retrieved 2008-06-19. 
  117. ^ a b Yawman, D.; C.R. Howard, P. Auinger, L.C. Garfunkel, M. Allan and M. Weitzman (2006). "Pain relief for neonatal circumcision: a follow-up of residency training practices". Ambulatory Pediatrics 6 (4): 210–214. doi:10.1016/j.ambp.2006.04.008. PMID 16843252. 
  118. ^ "Jews protest Swedish circumcision restriction". Reuters, June 7, 2001.
  119. ^ Lander, J.; Brady-Fryer, B., Metcalfe, J.B., Nazarali, S. and S. Muttitt (1997). "Comparison of ring block, dorsal penile nerve block, and topical anesthesia for neonatal circumcision: a randomized controlled trial". JAMA 278 (24): 2157–2162. doi:10.1001/jama.278.24.2157. PMID 9417009. 
  120. ^ a b Brady-Fryer, B; Wiebe N, Lander JA (July 2004). "Pain relief for neonatal circumcision". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (3): Art. No.: CD004217. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD004217.pub2. PMID 15495086. 
  121. ^ Lehr, V.T.; E. Cepeda, D.A. Frattarelli, R. Thomas, J. LaMothe and J.V. Aranda (2005). "Lidocaine 4% cream compared with lidocaine 2.5% and prilocaine 2.5% or dorsal penile block for circumcision". Am J Perinatol 22 (5): 231–237. doi:10.1055/s-2005-871655. PMID 16041631. 
  122. ^ Garry, D.J.; E. Swoboda, A. Elimian and R. Figueroa (2006). "A video study of pain relief during newborn male circumcision". J Perinatology 26 (2): 106–110. doi:10.1038/sj.jp.7211413. PMID 16292334. 
  123. ^ Razmus I, Dalton M, Wilson D (2004). "Pain management for newborn circumcision". Pediatr Nurs 30 (5): 414–7, 427. PMID 15587537. 
  124. ^ Ng, WT; et al. (2001). "The use of topical lidocaine/prilocaine cream prior to childhood circumcision under local anesthesia". Ambul Surg 9 (1): 9–12. doi:10.1016/S0966-6532(00)00061-5. PMID 11179706. 
  125. ^ Boyle, Gregory J; Svoboda, J Steven; Goldman, Ronald; Fernandez, Ephrem (2002). "Male circumcision: pain, trauma, and psychosexual sequelae". Bond University Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences. http://epublications.bond.edu.au/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1036&context=hss_pubs. 
  126. ^ Payne, Kimberley; Lea Thaler, Tuuli Kukkonen, Serge Carrier, Yitzchak Binik (April 2007). "Sensation and Sexual Arousal in Circumcised and Uncircumcised Men". Journal of Sexual Medicine 4 (3): 667–674. doi:10.1111/j.1743-6109.2007.00471.x. PMID 17419812. http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/118496134/abstract. Retrieved 2008-09-07. 
  127. ^ Sorrells, M.L.; J.L. Snyder, M.D. Reiss, C. Eden, M.F. Milos, N. Wilcox and R.S. Van Howe (May 2007). "Fine-touch pressure thresholds in the adult penis". BJU International 99 (4): 864–869. doi:10.1111/j.1464-410X.2006.06685.x. PMID 17378847. 
  128. ^ Krieger, JN; Mehta SD, Bailey RC, Agot K, Ndinya-Achola JO, Parker C, Moses S (August 2008). "Adult Male Circumcision: Effects on Sexual Function and Sexual Satisfaction in Kisumu, Kenya". The Journal of Sexual Medicine Epub ahead of print (11): 2610–22. doi:10.1111/j.1743-6109.2008.00979.x. PMID 18761593. 
  129. ^ Fink, K.S.; C.C. Carson, R.S. DeVellis (May 2002). "Adult Circumcision Outcomes Study: Effect on Erectile Dysfunction, Penile Sensitivity, Sexual Activity and Satisfation". Journal of Urology 167 (5): 2113–2116. doi:10.1016/S0022-5347(05)65098-7. PMID 11956453. http://www.cirp.org/library/sex_function/fink1/. Retrieved 2008-06-28. 
  130. ^ Shen, Z.; S. Chen, C. Zhu, Q. Wan and Z. Chen (2004). "Erectile function evaluation after adult circumcision (in Chinese)". Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue 10 (1): 18–19. PMID 14979200. 
  131. ^ Richters J, Smith AM, de Visser RO, Grulich AE, Rissel CE (August 2006). "Circumcision in Australia: prevalence and effects on sexual health". Int J STD AIDS 17 (8): 547–54. doi:10.1258/095646206778145730. PMID 16925903. 
  132. ^ Senkul, T.; C. IşerI, B. şen, K. KarademIr, F. Saraçoğlu and D. Erden (2004). "Circumcision in adults: effect on sexual function". Urology 63 (1): 155–8. doi:10.1016/j.urology.2003.08.035. PMID 14751371. 
  133. ^ Collins S, Upshaw J, Rutchik S, Ohannessian C, Ortenberg J, Albertsen P (2002). "Effects of circumcision on male sexual function: debunking a myth?". J Urol 167 (5): 2111–2. doi:10.1016/S0022-5347(05)65097-5. PMID 11956452. 
  134. ^ Masood S, Patel H, Himpson R, Palmer J, Mufti G, Sheriff M (2005). "Penile sensitivity and sexual satisfaction after circumcision: are we informing men correctly?". Urol Int 75 (1): 62–6. doi:10.1159/000085930. PMID 16037710. 
  135. ^ Fetus and Newborn Committee (March 1996). "Neonatal circumcision revisited". Canadian Medical Association Journal 154 (6): 769–780. http://www.cps.ca/english/statements/FN/fn96-01.htm. Retrieved 2006-07-02. 
  136. ^ a b c d Kaplan, G.W. (August 1983). "Complications of Circumcision". Urologic Clinics of North America 10 (3): 543–549. PMID 6623741. http://www.cirp.org/library/complications/kaplan/. Retrieved 2006-09-29. 
  137. ^ Ahmed A,, A; Mbibi NH, Dawam D, Kalayi GD (March 1999). "Complications of traditional male circumcision". Annals of Tropical Paediatrics 19 (1): 113–117. doi:10.1080/02724939992743. PMID ISSN [http://www.worldcat.org/issn/0272-4936 0272-4936 10605531 ISSN 0272-4936]. 
  138. ^ Christakis, Dmitry A.; Eric Harvey, Danielle M. Zerr, Chris Feudtner, Jeffrey A. Wright, and Frederick A. Connell (January 2000). "A Trade-off Analysis of Routine Newborn Circumcision". Pediatrics 105 (1): 246–249. doi:10.1542/peds.105.1.S2.246 (inactive 2008-06-26). PMID 10617731. http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/cgi/content/full/105/1/S2/246. Retrieved 2006-07-01. 
  139. ^ Yegane, Rooh-Allah; Abdol-Reza Kheirollahi, Nour-Allah Salehi, Mohammad Bashashati, Jamal-Aldin Khoshdel, and Mina Ahmadi (May 2006). "Late complications of circumcision in Iran" (Abstract). Pediatric Surgery International 22 (5): 442–445. doi:10.1007/s00383-006-1672-1. PMID 16649052. http://www.springerlink.com/content/l62453357073k7mn/. Retrieved 2008-09-25. 
  140. ^ Angel, Carlos A. (June 12, 2006). "Meatal Stenosis". eMedicine. WebMD. http://www.emedicine.com/PED/topic2356.htm. Retrieved 2006-07-02. 
  141. ^ Van Howe, R.S. (2006). "Incidence of meatal stenosis following neonatal circumcision in a primary care setting". Clinical Pediatrics (Phila) 45 (1): 49–54. doi:10.1177/000992280604500108. PMID 16429216. 
  142. ^ Yegane, R.A.; A.R. Kheirollahi, N.A. Salehi, M. Bashashati, J.A. Khoshdel and M. Ahmadi (May 2006). "Late complications of circumcision in Iran". Pediatr Surg Int 22 (5): 442–445. doi:10.1007/s00383-006-1672-1. PMID 16649052. 
  143. ^ a b Van Howe, R.S. (November 1997). "Variability in penile appearance and penile findings: a prospective study.". British Journal of Urology 80 (5): 776–782. PMID 9393302. http://www.cirp.org/library/complications/vanhowe/. 
  144. ^ Cathcart P, Nuttall M, van der Meulen J, Emberton M, Kenny SE (July 2006). "Trends in paediatric circumcision and its complications in England between 1997 and 2003". Br J Surg 93 (7): 885–90. doi:10.1002/bjs.5369. PMID 16673355. 
  145. ^ Trier, William C.; George W. Drach (February 1973). "Concealed Penis: Another Complication of Circumcision". American Journal of diseases of children 125 (2): 276–277. PMID 4685840. http://www.cirp.org/library/complications/trier1/. Retrieved 2008-09-25. 
  146. ^ Bergeson, Paul S.; Robert J. Hopkin, Robert B. Bailey, Leigh C. MCGill, Janice P. Piatt (December 1993). "The inconspicuous penis". Pediatrics 92 (6): 794–799. PMID 8233739. http://www.cirp.org/library/complications/bergeson/. Retrieved 2008-09-25. 
  147. ^ Naimer, Sody A.; Roni Peleg, Yevgeni Meidvidovski, Alex Zvulunov, Arnon Dov Cohen, and Daniel Vardy (November 1, 2002). "Office Management of Penile Skin Bridges with Electrocautery" (PDF). Journal of the American Board of Family Practice 15 (6): 485–488. PMID 10605531. http://www.jabfm.org/cgi/reprint/15/6/485. Retrieved 2006-07-01. 
  148. ^ Paediatric Death Review Committee: Office of the Chief Coroner of Ontario (April 2007). "Coroner's Corner Circumcision: A minor procedure?" (PDF). Paediatric Child Health Vol 12 No 4, April 2007 pages 311–312. Pulsus Group Inc.. http://www.pulsus.com/Paeds/12_04/Pdf/zwol_ed.pdf. Retrieved 2007-06-17. 
  149. ^ a b Gairdner D (December 1949). "The fate of the foreskin, a study of circumcision". British Medical Journal 2 (4642): 1433–7, illust. doi:10.1136/bmj.2.4642.1433. PMID 15408299. 
  150. ^ "Complications Of Circumcision". Paediatric Policy – Circumcision. The Royal Australasian College of Physicians. October 2004. Archived from the original on 2007-01-11. http://web.archive.org/web/20070111015035/http://www.racp.edu.au/hpu/paed/circumcision/complications.htm. Retrieved 2006-07-11. 
  151. ^ Szabo, R.; R.V. Short (June 2000). "How does male circumcision protect against HIV infection?". BMJ 320 (7249): 1592–1594. doi:10.1136/bmj.320.7249.1592. PMID 10845974. PMC 1127372. http://www.bmj.com/cgi/content/full/320/7249/1592?. 
  152. ^ Van Howe, R.S. (January 1999). "Circumcision and HIV infection: review of the literature and meta-analysis". International Journal of STD's and AIDS 10: 8–16. doi:10.1258/0956462991913015. http://www.cirp.org/library/disease/HIV/vanhowe4/. Retrieved 2008-09-23. "Thirty-five articles and a number of abstracts have been published in the medical literature looking at the relationship between male circumcision and HIV infection. Study designs have included geographical analysis, studies of high-risk patients, partner studies and random population surveys. Most of the studies have been conducted in Africa. A meta-analysis was performed on the 29 published articles where data were available. When the raw data are combined, a man with a circumcised penis is at greater risk of acquiring and transmitting HIV than a man with a non-circumcised penis (odds ratio (OR)=1.06, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.01-1.12). Based on the studies published to date, recommending routine circumcision as a prophylactic measure to prevent HIV infection in Africa, or elsewhere, is scientifically unfounded.". 
  153. ^ O'Farrell N, Egger M (March 2000). "Circumcision in men and the prevention of HIV infection: a 'meta-analysis' revisited". International Journal of STD & AIDS 11 (3): 137–42. doi:10.1258/0956462001915480. PMID 10726934. http://ijsa.rsmjournals.com/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=10726934. "The results from this re-analysis thus support the contention that male circumcision may offer protection against HIV infection, particularly in high-risk groups where genital ulcers and other STDs 'drive' the HIV epidemic. A systematic review is required to clarify this issue. Such a review should be based on an extensive search for relevant studies, published and unpublished, and should include a careful assessment of the design and methodological quality of studies. Much emphasis should be given to the exploration of possible sources of heterogeneity. In view of the continued high prevalence and incidence of HIV in many countries in sub-Saharan Africa, the question of whether circumcision could contribute to prevent infections is of great importance, and a sound systematic review of the available evidence should be performed without delay.". 
  154. ^ Weiss HA, Quigley MA, Hayes RJ (October 2000). "Male circumcision and risk of HIV infection in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review and meta-analysis". AIDS 14 (15): 2361–70. doi:10.1097/00002030-200010200-00018. PMID 11089625. http://meta.wkhealth.com/pt/pt-core/template-journal/lwwgateway/media/landingpage.htm?issn=0269-9370&volume=14&issue=15&spage=2361. "Male circumcision is associated with a significantly reduced risk of HIV infection among men in sub-Saharan Africa, particularly those at high risk of HIV. These results suggest that consideration should be given to the acceptability and feasibility of providing safe services for male circumcision as an additional HIV prevention strategy in areas of Africa where men are not traditionally circumcised.". 
  155. ^ a b Siegfried, N; M Muller, J Volmink, J Deeks, M Egger, N Low, H Weiss, S Walker, P Williamson (July 2003). "Male circumcision for prevention of heterosexual acquisition of HIV in men". Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (3). http://www.cirp.org/library/disease/HIV/cochrane2003/. Retrieved 2009-07-25. "We found insufficient evidence to support an interventional effect of male circumcision on HIV acquisition in heterosexual men. The results from existing observational studies show a strong epidemiological association between male circumcision and prevention of HIV, especially among high-risk groups. However, observational studies are inherently limited by confounding which is unlikely to be fully adjusted for. In the light of forthcoming results from RCTs, the value of IPD analysis of the included studies is doubtful. The results of these trials will need to be carefully considered before circumcision is implemented as a public health intervention for prevention of sexually transmitted ". 
  156. ^ Auvert B, Taljaard D, Lagarde E, Sobngwi-Tambekou J, Sitta R, Puren A (November 2005). "Randomized, controlled intervention trial of male circumcision for reduction of HIV infection risk: the ANRS 1265 Trial". PLoS Medicine 2 (11): e298. doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.0020298. PMID 16231970. "There were 20 HIV infections (incidence rate = 0.85 per 100 person-years) in the intervention group and 49 (2.1 per 100 person-years) in the control group, corresponding to an RR of 0.40 (95% CI: 0.24%-0.68%; p < 0.001). This RR corresponds to a protection of 60% (95% CI: 32%-76%).". 
  157. ^ a b Bailey RC, Moses S, Parker CB, et al. (February 2007). "Male circumcision for HIV prevention in young men in Kisumu, Kenya: a randomised controlled trial". Lancet 369 (9562): 643–56. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(07)60312-2. PMID 17321310. "The two year HIV incidence was 2.1% (95% CI 1.2-3.0) in the circumcision group and 4.2% (3.0-5.4) in the control group (p=0.0065); the relative risk of HIV infection in circumcised men was 0.47 (0.28-0.78), which corresponds to a reduction in the risk of acquiring an HIV infection of 53% (22-72).". 
  158. ^ Gray RH, Kigozi G, Serwadda D, et al. (February 2007). "Male circumcision for HIV prevention in men in Rakai, Uganda: a randomised trial". Lancet 369 (9562): 657–66. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(07)60313-4. PMID 17321311. "In the modified intention-to-treat analysis, HIV incidence over 24 months was 0.66 cases per 100 person-years in the intervention group and 1.33 cases per 100 person-years in the control group (estimated efficacy of intervention 51%, 95% CI 16-72; p=0.006). The as-treated efficacy was 55% (95% CI 22-75; p=0.002); efficacy from the Kaplan-Meier time-to-HIV-detection as-treated analysis was 60% (30-77; p=0.003).". 
  159. ^ Siegfried N, Muller M, Deeks JJ, Volmink J (2009). "Male circumcision for prevention of heterosexual acquisition of HIV in men". Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (Online) (2): CD003362. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD003362.pub2. PMID 19370585. 
  160. ^ Mills E, Cooper C, Anema A, Guyatt G (July 2008). "Male circumcision for the prevention of heterosexually acquired HIV infection: a meta-analysis of randomized trials involving 11,050 men". HIV Medicine 9 (6): 332–5. doi:10.1111/j.1468-1293.2008.00596.x. PMID 18705758. 
  161. ^ "WHO and UNAIDS announce recommendations from expert consultation on male circumcision for HIV prevention". World Health Organisation. March 2007. http://www.who.int/hiv/mediacentre/news68/en/index.html. 
  162. ^ Male Circumcision Clearinghouse Male Circumcision Clearinghouse
  163. ^ AVAC About male circumcision
  164. ^ Mcallister RG, Travis JW, Bollinger D, Rutiser C, Sundar V (Fall 2008). "The cost to circumcise Africa". International Journal of Men's Health (Men's Studies Press) 7 (3): 307–316. doi:10.3149/jmh.0703.307. http://www.thefreelibrary.com/The+cost+to+circumcise+Africa.-a0189486243. 
  165. ^ Mills, J.; N. Siegfried (October 2006). "Cautious optimism for new HIV/AIDS prevention strategies.". Lancet 368 (9543): 1236. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(06)69513-5. PMID 17027724. ""The inferences drawn from the only completed randomised controlled trial (RCT) of circumcision could be weak because the trial stopped early. In a systematic review of RCTs stopped early for benefit, such RCTs were found to overestimate treatment effects. When trials with events fewer than the median number (n=66) were compared with those with event numbers above the median, the odds ratio for a magnitude of effect greater than the median was 28 (95% CI 11--73). The circumcision trial recorded 69 events, and is therefore at risk of serious effect overestimation. We therefore advocate an impartial meta-analysis of individual patients' data from this and other trials underway before further feasibility studies are done.". 
  166. ^ Dowsett, G.W.; M. Couch (May 2007). "Male circumcision and HIV prevention: is there really enough of the right kind of evidence?" (PDF). Reproductive Health Matters 15 (29): 33–44. doi:10.1016/S0968-8080(07)29302-4. PMID 17512372. http://download.journals.elsevierhealth.com/pdfs/journals/0968-8080/PIIS0968808007293024.pdf. 
  167. ^ Wawer, Maria; et al. (18 July 2009). "Circumcision in HIV-infected men and its effect on HIV transmission to female partners in Rakai, Uganda: a randomised controlled trial". Lancet 374 (9685): 229–237. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(09)60998-3. PMID 19616720. http://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736(09)60998-3/fulltext. 
  168. ^ Millett GA, Flores SA, Marks G, et al. (2008). "Circumcision Status and Risk of HIV and Sexually Transmitted Infections Among Men Who Have Sex With Men". JAMA 300 (14): 1674–1684. doi:10.1001/jama.300.14.1674. http://jama.ama-assn.org/cgi/content/short/300/14/1674. 
  169. ^ Van Howe, Robert S. (May 2007). "Human papillomavirus and circumcision: A meta-analysis". Journal of Infection 54 (5): 490–496. doi:10.1016/j.jinf.2006.08.005. PMID 16997378. http://www.cirp.org/library/disease/cancer/vanhowe2006b/. Retrieved 2008-09-18. 
  170. ^ a b Bosch FX, Albero G, Castellsagué X (January 2009). "Male circumcision, human papillomavirus and cervical cancer: from evidence to intervention". J Fam Plann Reprod Health Care 35 (1): 5–7. doi:10.1783/147118909787072270. PMID 19126309. 
  171. ^ a b Tobian, Aaron; et al. (March 2009). "Male Circumcision for the Prevention of HSV-2 and HPV Infections and Syphilis". New England Journal of Medicine 360 (13): 1298–1309. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa0802556. PMID 19321868. PMC 2676895. http://content.nejm.org/cgi/content/short/360/13/1298. 
  172. ^ Auvert, B.; J. Sobngwi-Tambekou, E. Cutler, M. Nieuwoudt, P. Lissouba, A. Puren, D. Taljaard (2009). "Effect of Male Circumcision on the Prevalence of High-Risk Human Papillomavirus in Young Men: Results of a Randomized Controlled Trial Conducted in Orange Farm, South Africa". Journal of Infectious Diseases 199 (1): 14–19. doi:10.1086/595566. PMID 19086814. http://www.journals.uchicago.edu/doi/pdf/10.1086/595566. Retrieved 2009-01-05. 
  173. ^ Dinh, T.H.; M. Sternberg, E.F. Dunne and L.E. Markowitz (April 2008). "Genital Warts Among 18- to 59-Year-Olds in the United States, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999-2004". Sexually Transmitted Diseases 35 (4): 357–360. doi:10.1097/OLQ.0b013e3181632d61. PMID 18360316. "The percentage of circumcised men reporting a diagnosis of genital warts was significantly higher than uncircumcised men, 4.5% (95% CI, 3.6%–5.6%) versus 2.4% (95% CI, 1.5%–4.0%)". 
  174. ^ Cook LS, Koutsky LA, Holmes KK (August 1993). "Clinical presentation of genital warts among circumcised and uncircumcised heterosexual men attending an urban STD clinic". Genitourinary Medicine 69 (4): 262–4. PMID 7721284. 
  175. ^ Weiss HA, Thomas SL, Munabi SK, Hayes RJ (April 2006). "Male circumcision and risk of syphilis, chancroid, and genital herpes: a systematic review and meta-analysis". Sexually Transmitted Infections 82 (2): 101–9; discussion 110. doi:10.1136/sti.2005.017442. PMID 16581731. 
  176. ^ Reynolds SJ, Shepherd ME, Risbud AR, et al. (March 2004). "Male circumcision and risk of HIV-1 and other sexually transmitted infections in India". Lancet 363 (9414): 1039–40. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(04)15840-6. PMID 15051285. 
  177. ^ Turner AN, Morrison CS, Padian NS, et al. (July 2008). "Male circumcision and women's risk of incident chlamydial, gonococcal, and trichomonal infections". Sexually Transmitted Diseases 35 (7): 689–95. doi:10.1097/OLQ.0b013e31816b1fcc. PMID 18418300. 
  178. ^ Leber, Mark J.; Anuritha Tirumani (June 8, 2006). "Balanitis". EMedicine. http://www.emedicine.com/derm/topic615.htm. Retrieved 2008-10-14. 
  179. ^ Osipov, Vladimir O.; Scott M. Acker (November 14, 2006). "Balanoposthitis". Reactive and Inflammatory Dermatoses. EMedicine. http://www.emedicine.com/derm/topic615.htm. Retrieved 2006-11-20. 
  180. ^ Escala, JM; AMK Rickwood (March 1988). "Balanitis". British journal of urology 63 (2): 196–197. doi:10.1111/j.1464-410X.1989.tb05164.x. PMID 2702407. http://www.cirp.org/library/disease/balanitis/escala1/. Retrieved 2008-10-14. 
  181. ^ Fergusson, DM; JM Lawton and FT Shannon (April 1988). "Neonatal circumcision and penile problems: an 8-year longitudinal study". Pediatrics 81 (4): 537–541. PMID 3353186. http://www.circs.org/library/fergusson/index.html. Retrieved 2007-07-18. 
  182. ^ Herzog, LW; SR Alvarez (March 1986). "The frequency of foreskin problems in uncircumcised children". Am J Dis Child 140 (3): 254–6. PMID 3946358. http://www.circs.org/library/herzog/index.html. 
  183. ^ Fakjian, N; S Hunter, GW Cole and J Miller (August 1990). "An argument for circumcision. Prevention of balanitis in the adult". Arch Dermatol 126 (8): 1046–7. doi:10.1001/archderm.126.8.1046. PMID 2383029. 
  184. ^ O’Farrel, Nigel; Maria Quigley and Paul Fox (August 2005). "Association between the intact foreskin and inferior standards of male genital hygiene behaviour: a cross-sectional study" (Abstract). International Journal of STD & AIDS 16 (8): 556–588(4). doi:10.1258/0956462054679151. PMID 16105191. http://ijsa.rsmjournals.com/cgi/content/abstract/16/8/556. Retrieved 2008-09-06. "Overall, circumcised men were less likely to be diagnosed with a STI/balanitis (51% and 35%, P = 0.021) than those non-circumcised.". {verify source}
  185. ^ Van Howe, RS (May 2007). "Neonatal Circumcision and Penile Inflammation in Young Boys". Clinical Pediatrics 46 (4): 329–333. doi:10.1177/0009922806295708. PMID 17475991. http://cpj.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/46/4/329. "Penile inflammation was more common in circumcised than noncircumcised boys, especially in the first 3 years of life (exact odds ratio, 8.01, 95% confidence interval, 31-329.15). When adjusted for the number of genital examinations and age younger than 3 years, exact logistic regression found an adjusted exact odds ratio of 7.91 (95% confidence interval, 1.76-77.66).". 
  186. ^ Rickwood AM, Walker J (September 1989). "Is phimosis overdiagnosed in boys and are too many circumcisions performed in consequence?". Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons of England 71 (5): 275–7. PMID 2802472. 
  187. ^ Shankar KR, Rickwood AM (July 1999). "The incidence of phimosis in boys". BJU International 84 (1): 101–2. doi:10.1046/j.1464-410x.1999.00147.x. PMID 10444134. 
  188. ^ Oster J (April 1968). "Further fate of the foreskin. Incidence of preputial adhesions, phimosis, and smegma among Danish schoolboys". Archives of Disease in Childhood 43 (228): 200–3. doi:10.1136/adc.43.228.200. PMID 5689532. 
  189. ^ Metcalfe, Thomas J.; Lucy M. Osborn, E. Mark Mariani (August 1983). "Circumcision: A Study of Current Practices". Clinical Pediatrics 22 (8): 575–579. doi:10.1177/000992288302200811. PMID 6861426. http://www.cirp.org/library/procedure/metcalf/. 
  190. ^ Van Howe RS (October 1998). "Cost-effective treatment of phimosis". Pediatrics 102 (4): E43. doi:10.1542/peds.102.4.e43. PMID 9755280. "The argument that circumcision is a minor surgical procedure without complications is not only erroneous, but also irrelevant. It is ethically as well as economically questionable to operate on a child to treat a physiological process". 
  191. ^ Singh-Grewal D, Macdessi J, Craig J (August 2005). "Circumcision for the prevention of urinary tract infection in boys: a systematic review of randomised trials and observational studies". Archives of Disease in Childhood 90 (8): 853–8. doi:10.1136/adc.2004.049353. PMID 15890696. "Circumcision was associated with a significantly reduced risk of UTI (OR = 0.13; 95% CI, 0.08 to 0.20; p<0.001) with the same odds ratio (0.13) for all three types of study design.". 
  192. ^ "Can Penile Cancer be Prevented?". http://www.cancer.org/docroot/CRI/content/CRI_2_4_2X_Can_penile_cancer_be_prevented_35.asp. 
  193. ^ Maden, C; et al. (January 1993). "History of circumcision, medical conditions, and sexual activity and risk of penile cancer". J Natl Cancer Inst 85 (1): 19–24. doi:10.1093/jnci/85.1.19. PMID 8380060. 
  194. ^ Schoen, EJ; Oehrli, M; Colby, C; Machin, G (March 2000). "The highly protective effect of newborn circumcision against invasive penile cancer". Pediatrics 105 (3): e36. doi:10.1542/peds.105.3.e36. PMID 10699138. http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/cgi/content/full/105/3/e36. 
  195. ^ "Current College Position on Circumcision". Royal Australasian College of Physicians. 27 August 2009. http://racp.edu.au/download.cfm?DownloadFile=59AE2C7C-9F08-B344-21061157DF3636B9. 
  196. ^ "Doctors back call for circumcision ban". ABC News. 2007-12-09. http://www.abc.net.au/news/stories/2007/12/09/2113665.htm. 
  197. ^ "Circumcision: Position Paper on Neonatal Circumcision". American Academy of Family Physicians. 2007. http://www.aafp.org/online/en/home/clinical/clinicalrecs/circumcision.html. Retrieved 2007-01-30. "Considerable controversy surrounds neonatal circumcision. Putative indications for neonatal circumcision have included preventing UTIs and their sequelae, preventing the contraction of STDs including HIV, and preventing penile cancer as well as other reasons for adult circumcision. Circumcision is not without risks. Bleeding, infection, and failure to remove enough foreskin occur in less than 1% of circumcisions. Evidence-based complications from circumcision include pain, bruising, and meatitis. More serious complications have also occurred. Although numerous studies have been conducted to evaluate these postulates, only a few used the quality of methodology necessary to consider the results as high level evidence.

    The evidence indicates that neonatal circumcision prevents UTIs in the first year of life with an absolute risk reduction of about 1% and prevents the development of penile cancer with an absolute risk reduction of less than 0.2%. The evidence suggests that circumcision reduces the rate of acquiring an STD, but careful sexual practices and hygiene may be as effective. Circumcision appears to decrease the transmission of HIV in underdeveloped areas where the virus is highly prevalent. No study has systematically evaluated the utility of routine neonatal circumcision for preventing all medically-indicated circumcisions in later life. Evidence regarding the association between cervical cancer and a woman’s partner being circumcised or uncircumcised, and evidence regarding the effect of circumcision on sexual functioning is inconclusive. If the decision is made to circumcise, anesthesia should be used.

    The American Academy of Family Physicians recommends physicians discuss the potential harms and benefits of circumcision with all parents or legal guardians considering this procedure for their newborn son.
    "
     
  198. ^ American Urological Association. "Circumcision". http://www.auanet.org/content/guidelines-and-quality-care/policy-statements/c/circumcision.cfm. Retrieved 2008-11-02. 

External links

Circumcision opposition

Circumcision promotion

Circumcision techniques and videos

.
  • Description of an adult circumcision from the American Academy of Family Physicians.
  • Videos of infant circumcision: using a Plastibell, a Gomco clamp and a Mogen clamp (all from Stanford Medical School.^ FACT = Types used; Mogen clamp, Plastibell, Gomco Clamp, and freehand.
    • Daddy Daze | Being a dad in Houston | MomHouston.com 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC blogs.chron.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Using evidence-based medicine study approach, with analysis of almost 40 years of medical research on circumcision, the American Academy of Pediatrics in 1999 has come out with a stand that the benefits are not significant enough to recommend circumcision as a routine procedure.

    ^ To make an informed choice, parents of all male infants should be given accurate and unbiased information.” Circumcision Policy Statement American Academy of Pediatrics March 1, 1999 When a baby boy’s normal intact penis is circumcised, this is what is lost — forever: *1.
    • Male Circumcision - Pros and Cons | The Art of Manliness 15 September 2009 5:25 UTC artofmanliness.com [Source type: Original source]

    )
  • Video of the circumcision procedure from the US Medical Videos Journal

Quotes

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiquote

Sourced

.
  • "A remedy [for masturbation] which is almost always successful in small boys is circumcision, especially when there is any degree of phimosis.^ In 1888, Dr. John Harvey Kellogg, a well respected physician and founder of the Kellogg cereal company, spoke for mainstream Victorian medicine when he wrote: "A remedy for masturbation which is almost always successful in small boys is circumcision.
    • Male Circumcision in the USA: A Human Rights Primer, by Rich Winkel, 7/7/03 11 September 2009 23:56 UTC www.ratical.org [Source type: Academic]
    • Male Circumcision in the USA: A Human Rights Primer, by Rich Winkel, 5/12/05 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.math.missouri.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Circumcisions began in the Victorian ages so boys would not masturbate (didn’t stop them).
    • » Blog Archive » #46: Circumcision 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC bestparentever.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ One publication in 1912 went so far as to state that "parents who do not have an early circumcision performed on their boys are almost criminally negligent" (Lydston quoted in Gollaher).
    • Circumcision 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.drabruzzi.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .The operation should be performed by a surgeon without administering an anæsthetic, as the brief pain attending the operation will have a salutary effect upon the mind, especially if it be connected with the idea of punishment, as it may well be in some cases.^ The operation should be performed by a surgeon without administering an anesthetic as the brief pain [sic, see below] attending the operation will have a salutary effect upon the mind, especially if it be connected with the idea of punishment."  [ 17 ] .
    • Male Circumcision in the USA: A Human Rights Primer, by Rich Winkel, 7/7/03 11 September 2009 23:56 UTC www.ratical.org [Source type: Academic]
    • Male Circumcision in the USA: A Human Rights Primer, by Rich Winkel, 5/12/05 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.math.missouri.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ The operation should take 10 to 15 minutes under a local anesthetic, performed with a clamp designed to seal the blood-vessels.
    • Circumcision 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.drabruzzi.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Each successive pain violation upon the man is a further cutting, which continues to separate him from connection with the web of life.
    • Male Circumcision: A Gender Perspective 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.noharmm.org [Source type: Academic]

    .The soreness which continues for several weeks interrupts the practice, and if it had not previously become too firmly fixed, it may be forgotten and not resumed."^ In the past, the period of seclusion may have lasted several weeks or even several months.
    • Circumcision 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.drabruzzi.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ After the anesthetic wears off, however, the area will be sore and tender, often for several weeks.
    • Circumcision | Jewcy.com 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.jewcy.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ We did become sexually closed (and still continue to be closed) with their influence, but luckily didn’t get this practice.
    • Is Circumcision Safe? | Mark's Daily Apple 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC www.marksdailyapple.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ~ .Dr John Harvey Kellogg, Plain facts for old and young: embracing the natural history and hygiene of organic life, 1877
  • "Circumcising a baby boy to protect against STDs is like selling your car to make sure he's never injured in a crash."^ Circumcision, a condom for life against AIDS ...
    • bmj.com Rapid Responses for Szabo and Short, 320 (7249) 1592-1594 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.bmj.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Should baby boys be circumcised?
    • TODAYMoms - Should baby boys be circumcised? 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC community.todaymoms.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Like circumcising a baby girl would make her cleaner?

    ~ .Dr Schwanz, Men's Health, July/August 2002
  • "Male circumcision provides a degree of protection against acquiring HIV infection, equivalent to what a vaccine of high efficacy would have achieved.^ Therefore, recommending mass circumcision of minor males to provide an illusion of protection against HIV is unethical.
    • bmj.com Rapid Responses for Szabo and Short, 320 (7249) 1592-1594 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.bmj.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ I would like to comment on the article "How does male circumcision protect against HIV infection?"
    • bmj.com Rapid Responses for Szabo and Short, 320 (7249) 1592-1594 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.bmj.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ This provides a protective barrier against HIV infection.
    • bmj.com Rapid Responses for Szabo and Short, 320 (7249) 1592-1594 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.bmj.com [Source type: Academic]

    .Male circumcision may provide an important way of reducing the spread of HIV infection in sub-Saharan Africa."^ And I don't specifically have a problem with circumcision as a way to reduce HIV risk.
    • Matthew Yglesias (September 07, 2007) - Circumcision and AIDS (Miscellaneous) 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC matthewyglesias.theatlantic.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Garenne M. Male circumcision and HIV control in Africa.
    • bmj.com Rapid Responses for Patrick, 335 (7631) 1181 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.bmj.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Male circumcision and protection against HIV infection.
    • bmj.com Rapid Responses for Szabo and Short, 320 (7249) 1592-1594 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.bmj.com [Source type: Academic]

    - .Dr Auvert, et al, PLoS Medicine, November 2005
  • "To cut off the uppermost skin of the secret parts is directly against the honesty of nature, and an injurious insufferable trick put upon her."^ Circumcision IS cutting off a body part.
    • Male Circumcision - Pros and Cons | The Art of Manliness 15 September 2009 5:25 UTC artofmanliness.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Auvert B, et al.
    • CIGNA - Circumcision: Should I keep my son's penis natural? 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.cigna.com [Source type: General]

    ^ By cutting off a part of his body!
    • Put Down the Knife! 11 Reasons Not to Circumcise 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC ecochildsplay.com [Source type: Original source]

    ~ Dr John Bulwer Anthropometamorphosis, man transform'd, or the artificial changeling (London 1650), p. .213
  • "Despite overwhelming evidence from urological surgeons that neoplasm of the penis is a lethal disease that can be prevented by removal of the foreskin, some physicians continue to argue against routine circumcision in a highly emotional and aggressive fashion."^ Circumcision doesn't prevent disease.

    ^ Removal of the foreskin desensitizes the penis.
    • Berkeley Parents Network: Advice about Circumcision 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC parents.berkeley.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Circumcision is removal of the foreskin, not the whole tip of the penis.
    • Male Circumcision - Pros and Cons | The Art of Manliness 15 September 2009 5:25 UTC artofmanliness.com [Source type: Original source]

    - .Dr Dagher, Journal of Urology, 1973
  • "Why is the operation of circumcision practiced?^ Dr Mobolaji Olaoye, said traditional practices like circumcision and facial marks could cause children to bleed to death.
    • News 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.mgmbill.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Why concentrate on the viewpoints of Sullivan and Hitchens concerning the general practice of circumcision?
    • Washington Diarist: Membership | The New Republic 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.tnr.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ What is a circumcision and why do we still practice this mutilating custom?

    .One might as well attempt to explain the rites of voodoo!"^ One might as well attempt to explain the rites of voodoo!"
    • Male Circumcision: A Gender Perspective 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.noharmm.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ One might as well attempt to explain the rites of voodoo!
    • Male Circumcision: A Gender Perspective 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.noharmm.org [Source type: Academic]

    ~ .William Keith C. Morgan, MD The Rape of the Phallus, 1967
  • "In an apparent effort to bolster the weak anticircumcision argument, 2 anecdotal beliefs are added to the listed reasons not to choose circumcision: the "protective benefit" of the foreskin on the tip of the penis and the belief that circumcision causes decreased sexual pleasure later in life.^ Reasons to choose circumcision .
    • CIGNA - Circumcision: Should I keep my son's penis natural? 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.cigna.com [Source type: General]

    ^ The foreskin is there to protect the head of the penis.
    • Should all boys be circumcised? - Features, Health & Families - The Independent 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.independent.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Circumcision is removal of the foreskin, not the whole tip of the penis.
    • Male Circumcision - Pros and Cons | The Art of Manliness 15 September 2009 5:25 UTC artofmanliness.com [Source type: Original source]

    .Neither of these anecdotal beliefs meets the stated criterion of being evidence-based."^ But again, such a theory is based on anecdotal evidence.
    • Male Circumcision - Pros and Cons | The Art of Manliness 15 September 2009 5:25 UTC artofmanliness.com [Source type: Original source]

    - .Dr Schoen, et al, Pediatrics, 2000
  • "Circumcision is a solution looking for a problem.^ Circumcision is a solution in search of a problem.
    • Put Down the Knife! 11 Reasons Not to Circumcise 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC ecochildsplay.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Van Howe et al (1999), in an earlier literature review, found no clear evidence that circumcision prevents STDs.
    • Phimosis, Adult Circumcision, and Buried Penis: eMedicine Urology 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Pediatrics 1994; 93:641-646 [Abstract/ Free  Full Text] Stang HJ, Snellman LW, Condon LM, et al.
    • Circumcision Policy Statement -- Task Force on Circumcision 103 (3): 686 -- Pediatrics 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC pediatrics.aappublications.org [Source type: Academic]

    .The medical profession bears responsibility for the introduction of prophylactic circumcision without scientific basis in the past and for its continued use and rationalization without scientific basis in the present.^ The medical profession's role in cultural circumcision .
    • bmj.com Rapid Responses for Patrick, 335 (7631) 1181 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.bmj.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Over the last 100 years or so, the medical profession in the U.S. has at one point or another claimed that circumcision prevents or cures hysteria, lunacy, epilepsy, masturbation.
    • Happy Holy Circumcision Day! - Page 1 - The Daily Beast 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.thedailybeast.com [Source type: General]
    • Happy Holy Circumcision Day! - Page 1 - The Daily Beast 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.thedailybeast.com [Source type: General]

    ^ They’ve suspended investigations on the pain response of neonatal circumcision without anesthetic because of the obvious distress it causes.
    • Put Down the Knife! 11 Reasons Not to Circumcise 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC ecochildsplay.com [Source type: Original source]

    ~ .Edward Wallerstein, Circumcision: An American Health Fallacy, 1980
  • "The multiple benefits of newborn circumcision are additive over a lifetime and include prevention of cancer of the penis, of balanoposthitis, and protection against the effects of phimosis and poor hygiene as well as prevention of UTI and STD, particularly of HIV." - Dr Schoen, et al, Archives of Diseases in Childhood, 1997
  • "Circumcised males do not benefit from their circumcision but instead only suffer pain and permanent disfigurement of their genitalia."^ Circumcision doesn't prevent disease.

    ^ Male circumcision has had no effect on sexually transmitted diseases.
    • Her.meneutics: The Case for Male Circumcision 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC blog.christianitytoday.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Are there health benefits to circumcision?
    • Circumcised at 37: a personal story and a rebuke to the MRAs at Hugo Schwyzer 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC hugoschwyzer.net [Source type: Original source]

    ~ .Thomas Bartman, MD, PHD Division of Neonatology University of California, San Francisco Pediatrics, Evanston, Jan 2001, Vol.^ "If you have a solid Victorian, American background, routine circumcision is not unusual," said Carol A. Miller, clinical professor of pediatrics at University of California at San Francisco.
    • UrbanBaby - Information For Parents About circumcision 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.urbanbaby.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Paul M. Fleiss, MD, MPH, is assistant clinical professor of pediatrics at the University of Southern California Medical Center.

    ^ Bazmamoun H, Ghorbanpour M, Mousavi-Bahar SH. Department of Pediatrics, Division of Gastroenterology, School Of Medicine, Hamadan University Of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran.
    • Circumcision Complications 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.circumstitions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .107:1, p 210
  • "Analgesia is safe and effective in reducing the procedural pain associated with circumcision; therefore, if a decision for circumcision is made, procedural analgesia should be provided."^ If a decision for circumcision is made, procedural analgesia should be provided.
    • Circumcision Policy Statement -- Task Force on Circumcision 103 (3): 686 -- AAP Policy 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC aappolicy.aappublications.org [Source type: Academic]
    • Circumcision Policy Statement -- Task Force on Circumcision 103 (3): 686 -- Pediatrics 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC pediatrics.aappublications.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ RB is also effective to reduce circumcision pain compared with placebo.
    • Pain relief for neonatal circumcision 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.nichd.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Circumcision should therefore rarely be necessary.
    • Injury and Harm | Circinfo.org 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.circinfo.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    - .Dr Lannon, et al, American Academy of Pediatrics: Circumcision Policy Statement, Pediatrics, 1999
  • "If I was a newborn baby tonight and I could speak and I was asked about circumcision, I would say, "Can you hold off a bit until I can make up my own mind.""^ I am not circumcised, I would not circumcise my son.
    • Did you circumcise your son? | A Blog for Busy Moms - MOMania 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC blogs.ajc.com [Source type: General]

    ^ But I could never do that to my baby.
    • » Blog Archive » #46: Circumcision 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC bestparentever.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ If you could talk to the babies, they would have a similar position.
    • Put Down the Knife! 11 Reasons Not to Circumcise 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC ecochildsplay.com [Source type: Original source]

    ~ .Roger McClay, New Zealand Commissioner for Children, The first cut, NZ Listener, Nov 17, 2001
  • "Our conclusion is that circumcision is neither a compelling prophylactic measure nor a form of child abuse.^ Circumcision is child abuse.
    • Put Down the Knife! 11 Reasons Not to Circumcise | Personal Health | AlterNet 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC www.alternet.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Children's commissioner wants circumcision banned .
    • News 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.mgmbill.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Circumcision probably also protects against syphilis, but the findings, published in the New England Journal of Medicine in March, were based on too small a sample to be conclusive.
    • Should all boys be circumcised? - Features, Health & Families - The Independent 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.independent.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .For this reason, nontherapeutic circumcision of infant boys is a suitable matter for parental discretion."^ What motivates parents to baby boy circumcision.
    • Adult Circumcision Stories - Men Circumcised As Adults Tell It As It Is... 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.circinfo.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Also South Africas new Childrens Act makes the circumcision of boys under 16 unlawful except for medical or religious reasons.
    • bmj.com Rapid Responses for Patrick, 335 (7631) 1181 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.bmj.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ If you’re having your son circumcised for religious reasons, none of the other points above really matter.
    • Male Circumcision - Pros and Cons | The Art of Manliness 15 September 2009 5:25 UTC artofmanliness.com [Source type: Original source]

    - .Drs Benatar and Benatar, American Journal of Bioethics, 2003
  • "Where possible, circumcision should not be done until the person is able to give informed consent."^ Circumcision should also be illegal without person's consent.
    • Swedish doctors refuse to circumcise boys - The Local 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC www.thelocal.se [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The General Medical Council does not have a public position on the issue of ritual male circumcision on children who cannot give informed consent.
    • News 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.mgmbill.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Now if there is a religion that states circumcision is wrong then I have no right to go against it, but yet your saying that we should go against it and get consent when they are an adult.
    • Men's Health Office: The Never-ending Circumcision Debate 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC blogs.webmd.com [Source type: Original source]

    ~ .Dr Rodger Charlton, June 2001, School of Postgraduate Medical Education University of Warwick, UK, "Men's health - a neglected area?", NZ Family Physician, v28 no3"
  • "[The] Task Force did recommend making all parents aware of the potential benefits and risks of circumcision and leaving it to the family to decide whether circumcision is in the best interests of their child."^ If a parent makes the choice that they believe being circumcised will benefit the child, then so be it.
    • Male Circumcision - Pros and Cons | The Art of Manliness 15 September 2009 5:25 UTC artofmanliness.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ What are the evidences on the medical benefit of routine circumcision?

    ^ The parent(s) make the decision on behalf of the child.
    • Her.meneutics: The Case for Male Circumcision 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC blog.christianitytoday.com [Source type: Original source]

    - .Dr Lannon, et al, 1999 AAP Task Force on Circumcision, Pediatrics, 2000
  • "Circumcision is like a substantial and well-secured annuity; every year of life you draw the benefits.^ I'd like you to imagine for a while that you were not circumcised.
    • Her.meneutics: The Case for Male Circumcision 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC blog.christianitytoday.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ "Thank you for a wonderful, well-reasoned article on the benefits of circumcision.
    • Adult Circumcision Stories - Men Circumcised As Adults Tell It As It Is... 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.circinfo.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ If you don't like circumcision, then don't do it.
    • UrbanBaby - Information For Parents About circumcision 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.urbanbaby.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Parents cannot make a better paying investment for their little boys."^ My rationale was "once it's done, it cannot be undone" so I felt it was better to leave well enough alone since we as parents couldn't come to a resolution.
    • Is Circumcision Wrong? | Momversation 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC www.momversation.com [Source type: General]

    ^ A teacher notices that a little boy at the back of the class is squirming around, scratching his crotch and not paying attention.
    • Crazy circumcised jokes 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC jokes.aspcode.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The pressure is not on the little boys in the lockerroom- the pressure is back at the parent's level saying, "I plan to tell him that everyone is circumcised- end of story...
    • Circumcision: Is It More than a Convenant with God? | BlogHer 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC www.blogher.com [Source type: General]

    - .Dr Remondino, The History of Circumcision, 1891
  • "Circumcision: Cut the crap, not the baby!"^ In an Orthodox Jewish circumcision ceremony, the foreskin of the baby's penis is cut with a knife.
    • Circumcision, Talmud Style 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.come-and-hear.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Circumcision is a symbol of the covenant that the Jewish male baby enters into with God, family, community, history, culture.
    • Berkeley Parents Network: Advice about Circumcision 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC parents.berkeley.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ NOT one of those soft-soap productions from advocates of circumcision who tell you about how it doesn’t hurt the baby while they cut on him.
    • To circumcise or not? | Parents Talk Back | STLtoday 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC www.stltoday.com [Source type: Original source]

    ~ .National Organization to Halt the Abuse and Routine Mutilation of Males (NOHARMM)
  • "God designed us, circumcision is blasphemy."^ No national or international medical organization recommends routine circumcision.
    • Her.meneutics: The Case for Male Circumcision 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC blog.christianitytoday.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ No national health organization on earth recommends routine circumcision.
    • Rumor: Madonna to circumcise David? – Celebrity Baby Blog – People.com 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC celebrity-babies.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Male circumcision IS mutilation.
    • Is Circumcision Safe? | Mark's Daily Apple 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC www.marksdailyapple.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ~ Arthur C. Clarke in 3001 (Ch.12)
  • "Behold, I Paul say unto you, that if ye be circumcised, Christ shall profit you nothing." ~ Paul

Credited

.
  • "I think circumcision is a good idea...^ Q: Do you think it is a good idea to just have it done for cosmetic reasons?
    • Men's Health Office: Adult Circumcision 11 September 2009 23:56 UTC blogs.webmd.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Strangely, I actually do think it would be easier to get all the men to agree to circumcision than it would be to get them to wear condoms...but I don't think that's good reasoning for anything here.
    • snopes.com: Cut Them All Off!! More Circumcision 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC msgboard.snopes.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Do you think it is a good idea to just have it done for cosmetic reasons?
    • Men's Health Office: Adult Circumcision 11 September 2009 23:56 UTC blogs.webmd.com [Source type: Original source]

    However, it is not absolutely necessary. .(1946-68) I think circumcision is a good idea...^ Someone above says that circumcision to prevent penile cancer is a good idea.
    • Daddy Daze | Being a dad in Houston | MomHouston.com 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC blogs.chron.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ I think this has been an excellent post and forum for the discussion of circumcision- with great respect and good points for both views.

    ^ I think many people have made good points about circumcision and FGM/female genital alteration.
    • Circumcised at 37: a personal story and a rebuke to the MRAs at Hugo Schwyzer 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC hugoschwyzer.net [Source type: Original source]

    However, it is not necessary. .(1968-74) I strongly recommend leaving the foreskin alone.^ Leave our foreskins alone.
    • Her.meneutics: The Case for Male Circumcision 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC blog.christianitytoday.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ I specifically remember the doctor-author of the article saying, "Leave the foreskin alone, don't retract it."
    • Berkeley Parents Network: Advice about Circumcision 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC parents.berkeley.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Leave nature alone — whether you believe God created men with a foreskin, or nature simply evolved this way, there must be some reason men have foreskins.

    .(1985) ~ Dr Benjamin Spock, Baby and Child Care
  • "If I was to cut off any other part of a baby for no good cause and without an anaesthetic, I'd be struck off the medical register and the parents would most likely lose custody of the child."^ It's not made to be cut off, and I would never, ever do that to my baby."
    • UrbanBaby - Information For Parents About circumcision 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.urbanbaby.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ At not point is the cord cut off the baby!
    • Swedish doctors refuse to circumcise boys - The Local 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC www.thelocal.se [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Circumcision IS cutting off a body part.
    • Male Circumcision - Pros and Cons | The Art of Manliness 15 September 2009 5:25 UTC artofmanliness.com [Source type: Original source]

    ~ .Christopher Green, paediatrician, Camperdown Children's Hospital, Sydney, 2001
  • "I want first-time offenders to think of their first appearance in my courtroom as the second-worst experience of their lives, circumcision being the first."^ I want to get physically violent any time I think of what was done to me.
    • To circumcise or not? | Parents Talk Back | STLtoday 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC www.stltoday.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The first time was his circumcision.
    • Swedish doctors refuse to circumcise boys - The Local 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC www.thelocal.se [Source type: Original source]

    ^ While I continued to think about circumcision it somehow kept getting put on the back burner until 5 years ago when approaching my 50th birthday I decided it was time to do something about it and was circumcised a few weeks before my 50th.
    • Circumcised Guys Do it Better | Jewcy.com 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.jewcy.com [Source type: General]

    ~ Judge Judy Sheindlin

Anonymous

.
  • "Circumcision: The more you know, the worse it is."^ RE: If you've been circumcised you don't know what you are missing Posted by: Ahimsa .
    • Put Down the Knife! 11 Reasons Not to Circumcise | Personal Health | AlterNet 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC www.alternet.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ It's an illustration, I don't know why you would find it offensive (unless you're a strong advocate of circumcision and it hits too close to home) .
    • UrbanBaby - Information For Parents About circumcision 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.urbanbaby.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ So no, this is not junk science and no, you don't know more than scientists or doctors about circumcision or any other subject related to health.
    • Men's Health Office: Foreskin Facts: Turtleneck or No, It All Feels the Same 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC blogs.webmd.com [Source type: Original source]

    ~ Anonymous
  • "If God had wanted us to be uncircumcised, we'd all be born with foreskins." ~ Anonymous
  • "A sword destroys life but a cock can create life."
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From BibleWiki

cutting around. .This rite, practised before, as some think, by divers races, was appointed by God to be the special badge of his chosen people, an abiding sign of their consecration to him.^ People just need to look at it realistically and honestly, and THINK before they sign the consent form.
  • To circumcise or not? | Parents Talk Back | STLtoday 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC www.stltoday.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Chosen People received from God distinctive signs and symbols that marked its liturgical life.
  • Do Catholics in the US Circumcise? - Catholic Answers Forums 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC forums.catholic.com [Source type: General]

^ Why do some people think it "should be a decision made by the boy when he reaches the age to decide for himself"?
  • Men's Health Office: The Never-ending Circumcision Debate 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC blogs.webmd.com [Source type: Original source]

.It was established as a national ordinance (Gen 17:10, 11).^ Ezekiel 11:17-20 "Therefore say: 'This is what the Sovereign HaShem says: I will gather you from the nations and bring you back from the countries where you have been scattered, and I will give you back the land of Israel again.'
  • Circumcision 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC www.betemunah.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Aug 17, 2009 11:10:00 AM     Anonymous said...
  • Modern Love: Sex, Relationships & Your Health: One More Reason Not to Circumcise 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC blogs.webmd.com [Source type: Original source]

.In compliance with the divine command, Abraham, though ninety-nine years of age, was circumcised on the same day with Ishmael, who was thirteen years old (17:24-27).^ "And Abraham circumcised his son Isaac, at the age of eight days, as G-d had commanded him."
  • Rabbi Schur Thesis - Variance of Behavior Patterns Towards Ritual Circumcision 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.mnemotrix.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Rabbi Schur Thesis - Variance of Behavior Patterns Towards Ritual Circumcision 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.tachash.org [Source type: Original source]

^ I have a soon-to-be 12 year old son who was not circumcised.
  • ***The GirlieGirl Army*** » Blog Archive » To Circumcise, or Not to Circumcise, That is the Question. 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC girliegirlarmy.com [Source type: Original source]

^ My son is not circumcised and he is 9 years old.
  • TODAYMoms - Should baby boys be circumcised? 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC community.todaymoms.com [Source type: Original source]

.Slaves, whether home-born or purchased, were circumcised (17:12, 13); and all foreigners must have their males circumcised before they could enjoy the privileges of Jewish citizenship (Ex 12:48).^ Not all male circumcisions are the same.
  • bmj.com Rapid Responses for Szabo and Short, 320 (7249) 1592-1594 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.bmj.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Whether born in your household or bought with your money, they must be circumcised.
  • Circumcision 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC www.betemunah.org [Source type: Original source]
  • 'Thou Shall Not Circumcise' A Three-Millennial Falsification The 2nd Commandment BANS SEXUAL MUTILATION - Salem-News.Com 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC www.salem-news.com [Source type: Original source]
  • #6. The Covenant of Circumcision with Abraham (Genesis 17) 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.jesuswalk.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I was circumcised before coming home from the hospital and would sue if I could.
  • To Circumcise or Not? | | AlterNet 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC www.alternet.org [Source type: General]

.During the journey through the wilderness, the practice of circumcision fell into disuse, but was resumed by the command of Joshua before they entered the Promised Land (Josh 5:2-9).^ Here, too, we see the promise of the land coming immediately before the command of circumcision.
  • Circumcision 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC www.betemunah.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Remember that in Joshua chapter 5 the Israelites are circumcised just before they enter the land.
  • Circumcision 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC www.betemunah.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Who are they who practice circumcision?
  • Male and Female Circumcision 15 September 2009 5:25 UTC www.hraicjk.org [Source type: Original source]

.It was observed always afterwards among the tribes of israel, although it is not expressly mentioned from the time of the settlement in Canaan till the time of Christ, about 1,450 years.^ He has not complained about it, although I have noticed the tip of his penis seems red from time to time (a little neosporin usually takes care of it).
  • Berkeley Parents Network: Advice about Circumcision 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC parents.berkeley.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ In Acts 15, about nineteen years after the start of the church age, James, the brother of Jesus Christ is clearly the supreme authority in the Jerusalem church.
  • The Two Ways Of The First Centry Church 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC my.en.com [Source type: Original source]

^ By the time the skin had separated enough to clean, he was old enough (about 2.5 years) to clean it himself in the tub.
  • Berkeley Parents Network: Advice about Circumcision 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC parents.berkeley.edu [Source type: Original source]

.The Jews prided themselves in the possession of this covenant distinction (Jdg 14:3; 15:18; 1Sam 14:6; 17:26; 2 Sam 1:20; Ezek 31:18).^ Bereshit (Genesis) 17:9-14 Then G-d said to Abraham, "As for you, you must keep my covenant , you and your descendants after you for the generations to come.
  • Circumcision 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC www.betemunah.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Sabbath is a sign of the holiness of God's people (Exodus 31:13, 17; Ezekiel 20:12).
  • #6. The Covenant of Circumcision with Abraham (Genesis 17) 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.jesuswalk.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Report abuse » #157 18:17 July 26, 2009 by Benzed Very wise, Beffers.
  • Swedish doctors refuse to circumcise boys - The Local 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC www.thelocal.se [Source type: Original source]

.As a rite of the church it ceased when the New Testament times began (Gal 6:15; Col 3:11).^ But the real argument comes in New Testament times.
  • Her.meneutics: The Case for Male Circumcision 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC blog.christianitytoday.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Anonymous February 15, 2008 9:11 am (Pacific time) "All of the discussion concerning religion and circumcision is moot,..."
  • 'Thou Shall Not Circumcise' A Three-Millennial Falsification The 2nd Commandment BANS SEXUAL MUTILATION - Salem-News.Com 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC www.salem-news.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Jonathan Nathan, New York City [Time magazine, May 11, 2009] .
  • CIRCUMCISION 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.xcircum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Some Jewish Christians sought to impose it, however, on the Gentile converts; but this the apostles resolutely resisted (Acts 15:1; Gal 6:12).^ When this began to happen, not only were the Jews enraged, but Jewish Christians from Judea came to these new, predominantly Gentile Christian churches teaching, "Unless you are circumcised, according to the custom taught by Moses, you cannot be saved" (Acts 15:1).
  • #6. The Covenant of Circumcision with Abraham (Genesis 17) 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.jesuswalk.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Acts 15 is the lightning-rod text for every Gentile convert to understand.

^ It is addressed to the Gentiles in Syria and Cilicia as well (Acts 15:23).
  • The Two Ways Of The First Centry Church 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC my.en.com [Source type: Original source]

.Our Lord was circumcised, for it "became him to fulfil all righteousness," as of the seed of Abraham, according to the flesh; and Paul "took and circumcised" Timothy (Acts 16:3), to avoid giving offence to the Jews.^ Acts 7:8: And He gave him the covenant of circumcision.
  • Home-Circumcision 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.etz-chayim.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Was Abraham, the ancestor, the father of Jews, circumcised before he was righteous, as all Jews are?
  • israel today > Commentary > The New Jew 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.israeltoday.co.il [Source type: Original source]

^ Paul was teaching the Jews to be circumcised.
  • Circumcision 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC www.betemunah.org [Source type: Original source]

.It would render Timothy's labours more acceptable to the Jews.^ Paul himself circumcised his assistant Timothy, so he would be accepted by the Jews to whom Paul ministered on his missionary trips (Acts 16:1-3).
  • #6. The Covenant of Circumcision with Abraham (Genesis 17) 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.jesuswalk.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I asked which would be more taboo, to be friends with a lesbian or with a Jew.
  • Circumcision | Jewcy.com 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.jewcy.com [Source type: Original source]

.But Paul would by no means consent to the demand that Titus should be circumcised (Gal 2:3-5).^ No "consent" should be needed.
  • Men's Health Office: Foreskin Facts: Turtleneck or No, It All Feels the Same 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC blogs.webmd.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It moves then to Paul who warns of the false faith of the Judaizers who want to demand people observe the law and be circumcised before they can be saved.
  • The Distinctive Qualities of the True Christian--Part 1 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.biblebb.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Professor Morris is saying that there is no evidence that the foreskin leads to greater sexual pleasure, which allegedly means that circumcising doesn’t affect sexual experience.
  • The Little Seed » Blog Archive » Circumcision, what to consider when making the decision for our children… 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.thelittleseed.com [Source type: Original source]

The great point for which he contended was the free admission of uncircumcised Gentiles into the church. He contended successfully in behalf of Titus, even in Jerusalem.
.In the Old Testament a spiritual idea is attached to circumcision.^ God ordered circumcision in The Old Testament.
  • 'Thou Shall Not Circumcise' A Three-Millennial Falsification The 2nd Commandment BANS SEXUAL MUTILATION - Salem-News.Com 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC www.salem-news.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Under Jewish law, the mohel is required to draw blood from the circumcision site, to remove what the Old Testament refers to as "impurities."
  • Modern Love: Sex, Relationships & Your Health: One More Reason Not to Circumcise 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC blogs.webmd.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Any uncircumcised male, who has not been circumcised in the flesh, will be cut off from his people; he has broken my covenant."Genesis 17 Genesis is in the Old Testament.The Second Covenant is the New Testament.
  • 'Thou Shall Not Circumcise' A Three-Millennial Falsification The 2nd Commandment BANS SEXUAL MUTILATION - Salem-News.Com 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC www.salem-news.com [Source type: Original source]

It was the symbol of purity (Isa 52:1). .We read of uncircumcised lips (Ex 6:12, 30), ears (Jer 6:10), hearts (Lev 26:41).^ In Leviticus, God talks about Israel's future treachery and hostility towards him, using the term "uncircumcised hearts" (Leviticus 26:40-41).
  • #6. The Covenant of Circumcision with Abraham (Genesis 17) 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.jesuswalk.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Thu Jan-07-10 03:30 PM Response to Reply #12 .
  • Should Pediatricians Recommend Routine Circumcision? - Democratic Underground 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.democraticunderground.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ VIII. Uncircumcised Heart (Erel Lev) .
  • Circumcision 6 February 2010 10:49 UTC www.betemunah.org [Source type: Original source]

.The fruit of a tree that is unclean is spoken of as uncircumcised (Lev 19:23).^ Lev 19:23 And when ye shall come into the land, and shall have planted all manner of trees for food, then ye shall count the fruit thereof as uncircumcised: three years shall it be as uncircumcised unto you: it shall not be eaten of.
  • CIRCLIST - History and Art 11 September 2009 23:56 UTC www.circlist.c