The Full Wiki

Citation: Wikis

  
  
  

Encyclopedia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

.Broadly, a citation is a reference to a published or unpublished source (not always the original source).^ If an article has been reprinted from a source published earlier, give the original date of publication in the "original work" element of the citation as shown above (when using this element, the final period in a citation is omitted ).
  • APA Citation Examples - Information & Library Services - UMUC 31 January 2010 12:27 UTC www.umuc.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Chapter of an edited volume originally published elsewhere (as in primary sources) .

^ Note that it is always best to cite the original source of an article, unless the article was originally retrieved from an online database or other such electronic source.
  • Citation Guide - MLA: Modern Languages Association Style Guide | The University of Arizona University Libraries 31 January 2010 12:27 UTC www.library.arizona.edu [Source type: Academic]

.More precisely, a citation is an abbreviated alphanumeric expression (e.g.^ Under this formula, a citation begins with one or more geographical abbreviations, continues with any needed specialized court abbreviations, and ends with circuit or district information enclosed in a parenthetical.
  • AALL Citation Formats Committee - Universal Case Citation 31 January 2010 12:27 UTC www.aallnet.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Citations in the text of the paper would then include the author's name (with a year or abbreviated title if more than one work is cited) and page number; for instance: .
  • Lynch, Guide to Grammar and Style — C 31 January 2010 12:27 UTC andromeda.rutgers.edu [Source type: Original source]

[Newell84]) embedded in the body of an intellectual work that denotes an entry in the bibliographic references section of the work for the purpose of acknowledging the relevance of the works of others to the topic of discussion at the spot where the citation appears. .Generally the combination of both the in-body citation and the bibliographic entry constitutes what is commonly thought of as a citation (whereas bibliographic entries by themselves are not).^ Also, for automatic generation of citations in appropriate citation style, use a bibliographic citation management program such as Refworks or EndNote.
  • APA Citation Style | Cornell University Library 31 January 2010 12:27 UTC www.library.cornell.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ In South Dakota, the Supreme Court in 1995 adopted a rule, based on the work of the Wisconsin Bar, that requires citation to both a generic citation and the North Western Reporter.

^ Furthermore, we introduce the Y-factor which is a simple combination of both the ISI IF and the weighted PageRank, and find that the resulting journal rankings correspond well to a general understanding of journal status."
  • The effect of open access and downloads ('hits') on citation impact: a bibliography of studies 31 January 2010 12:27 UTC opcit.eprints.org [Source type: Academic]

.A prime purpose of a citation is intellectual honesty; to attribute to other authors the ideas they have previously expressed, rather than give the appearance to the work's readers that the work's authors are the original wellsprings of those ideas.^ Those are the citations to works that the user has told us she is not an author of.
  • Citations in ACIS / ACIS documentation 31 January 2010 12:27 UTC acis.openlib.org [Source type: Reference]

^ If an article has been reprinted from a source published earlier, give the original date of publication in the "original work" element of the citation as shown above (when using this element, the final period in a citation is omitted ).
  • APA Citation Examples - Information & Library Services - UMUC 31 January 2010 12:27 UTC www.umuc.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ These are indicated here by opening and ending asterisks (* *) in the belief that they are more distinctive on the computer screen than other possibilities, such as opening and ending underscoring (_ _).
  • A Brief Citation Guide for Internet Sources in History and the Humanities 31 January 2010 12:27 UTC www.h-net.org [Source type: Reference]

.The forms of citations generally subscribe to one of the generally-accepted citations systems, such as the Harvard, APA, and other citations systems, as their syntactic conventions are widely-known and easily interpreted by readers.^ Our “events” (citations) are determined by many different “causes”, of which “access” is only one variable – many other variables, including confounders, have to be taken into account.
  • The effect of open access and downloads ('hits') on citation impact: a bibliography of studies 31 January 2010 12:27 UTC opcit.eprints.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Citations of electronic documents can follow the same general form as citations of printed materials, with the addition of the format or online source and any identifying numbers or pathway needed to access the material.
  • FAQ - Bibliographic Citations (Music Library) 31 January 2010 12:27 UTC www.libraries.iub.edu [Source type: General]

^ Not surprisingly, one of the strongest opponents of a public domain system of legal citation has been West.

.Each of these citation systems has its respective advantages and disadvantages relative to the tradeoffs of being informative (but not too disruptive) and thus should be chosen relative to the needs of the type of publication being crafted.^ Members of the Globus Alliance should consult these guidelines for submitting bibliographic citations .
  • http://www.globus.org/alliance/publications/papers.php 31 January 2010 12:27 UTC www.globus.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Not surprisingly, one of the strongest opponents of a public domain system of legal citation has been West.

^ Its citation system should not hinder this goal, unless in so doing the adjudication process would be compromised.

.Editors will often specify the citation system to use.^ In addition, the development of a uniform citation systems that can be used for citing cases online is just the beginning, not the end, of the reforms necessary for citation to be adapted to an electronic era.

^ Today, only a handful of American courts use a public domain system of citation.

^ For ACIS to process and use citation data, the data must be encoded in the Academic Metadata Format and the system must be configured appropriately.
  • Citations in ACIS / ACIS documentation 31 January 2010 12:27 UTC acis.openlib.org [Source type: Reference]

.Bibliographies, and other list-like compilations of references, are generally not considered citations because they do not fulfill the true spirit of the term: deliberate acknowledgement by other authors of the priority of one's ideas.^ The list is generated in batch mode and citation counts may differ from those currently in the CiteSeer x database, since the database is continuously updated.
  • Statistics - Most Cited Citations in Computer Science 31 January 2010 12:27 UTC citeseerx.ist.psu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ According to the APA Publication Manual, because a personal, unpublished interview consists of unrecoverable data, there is no need to cite it in the reference list.
  • Citation Guide - APA: American Psychological Association Style Guide | The University of Arizona University Libraries 31 January 2010 12:27 UTC www.library.arizona.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Citation: With one companion, voluntarily advanced in a reconnaissance beyond the skirmishers, where he was exposed to imminent peril; also, in the same battle, rode to the front with the commanding general to encourage wavering troops to resume the advance, which they did successfully.
  • Civil War Medal of Honor Recipients - (A-L) 31 January 2010 12:27 UTC www.history.army.mil [Source type: Reference]

Contents

Concepts

.
  • A bibliographic citation is a reference to a book, article, web page, or other published item.^ A list of references used in a book or article.
    • Library Lingo, UM Libraries 31 January 2010 12:27 UTC www.lib.umd.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Place the title in quotation marks if it refers to an article, chapter of a book, or Web page.
    • APA Citation Style | Cornell University Library 31 January 2010 12:27 UTC www.library.cornell.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Other Citation Guides for both books and articles .
    • Lake Forest College Library: Citation Guide: APA 31 January 2010 12:27 UTC library.lakeforest.edu [Source type: Academic]

    .Citations should supply sufficient detail to identify the item uniquely.^ When we know with high certainty that a new citation is pointing to one of your works, should we automatically add it to your identified citations?
    • Citations in ACIS / ACIS documentation 31 January 2010 12:27 UTC acis.openlib.org [Source type: Reference]

    ^ When one of your co-authors has identified a citation as pointing to your co-authored document, should we add it to your profile also?
    • Citations in ACIS / ACIS documentation 31 January 2010 12:27 UTC acis.openlib.org [Source type: Reference]

    ^ Online Sources: Citations for online sources, like those for print sources, should provide information that both identifies a source and allows that source to be located and retrieved again.
    • MLA Citation Style | Cornell University Library 31 January 2010 12:27 UTC www.library.cornell.edu [Source type: Academic]

    [1] .Different citation systems and styles are used in scientific citation, legal citation, prior art, and the arts and the humanities.
  • A citation number, used in some citation systems, is a number or symbol added inline and usually in superscript, to refer readers to a footnote or endnote that cites the source.^ Internet citations, or citing electronic sources (e) .
    • How to Write a Bibliography - Examples in MLA Style 31 January 2010 12:27 UTC www.aresearchguide.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Don't know which citation style to use?
    • American University Library - Citation Style Guide 31 January 2010 12:27 UTC www.library.american.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Internet citations, or citing electronic sources: .
    • How to Write a Bibliography - Examples in MLA Style 31 January 2010 12:27 UTC www.aresearchguide.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    In other citation systems, an inline parenthetical reference is used rather than a citation number, with limited information such as the author's last name, year of publication, and page number referenced; a full identification of the source will then appear in an appended bibliography.

Citation content

Citation content can vary depending on the type of source and may include:
.
  • Book: author(s), book title, publisher, date of publication, and page number(s) if appropriate.^ If an article has been reprinted from a source published earlier, give the original date of publication in the "original work" element of the citation as shown above (when using this element, the final period in a citation is omitted ).
    • APA Citation Examples - Information & Library Services - UMUC 31 January 2010 12:27 UTC www.umuc.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ ISBN (International Standard Book Number) A unique 10-digit number that is given to every book or edition of a book before publication to identify the publisher, the title, the edition, and volume number.
    • Library Lingo, UM Libraries 31 January 2010 12:27 UTC www.lib.umd.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Readers can look up the author's last name in the alphabetized list of works cited, where they will learn the work's title and other publication information.
    • Research and Documentation Online 31 January 2010 12:27 UTC dianahacker.com [Source type: Original source]

    [2][3]
  • .
  • Journal: author(s), article title, journal title, date of publication, and page number(s).
  • Newspaper: author(s), article title, name of newspaper, section title and page number(s) if desired, date of publication.
  • Web site: author(s), article and publication title where appropriate, as well as a URL, and a date when the site was accessed.
  • Play: inline citations offer part, scene, and line numbers, the latter separated by periods: 4.452 refers to scene 4, line 452. For example, "In Eugene Onegin, Onegin rejects Tanya when she is free to be his, and only decides he wants her when she is already married" (Pushkin 4.452-53).^ Standard reference with volume, issue, and pages: 2 No author: C. Parts of Serial Articles 4.
    • Sample PubMed Central Citations - XML Tagged 31 January 2010 12:27 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Place a period after the last author's name.

    ^ Article in a magazine, journal, periodical, newsletter, or newspaper with one or more authors: .
    • How to Write a Bibliography - Examples in MLA Style 31 January 2010 12:27 UTC www.aresearchguide.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    [4]
  • .
  • Poem: spaced slashes are normally used to indicate separate lines of a poem, and parenthetical citations usually include the line number(s).^ For a poem, cite the part, stanza, and line numbers, if it has them, separated with periods.
    • Research and Documentation Online 31 January 2010 12:27 UTC dianahacker.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ For poems that are not divided into numbered parts or stanzas, use line numbers.
    • Research and Documentation Online 31 January 2010 12:27 UTC dianahacker.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The only other car to use the "Citation" model name, as far as I know, was the top-of-the-line 1958 Edsel.
    • Car Lust: Chevrolet Citation 31 January 2010 12:27 UTC www.carlustblog.com [Source type: General]

    .For example: "For I must love because I live / And life in me is what you give."^ According to Marx and Lenin, this revolution must be violent, because the bourgeoisie won't give up power by electoral means.

    (Brennan, lines 15–16).[4]

Unique identifiers

.Along with information such as author(s), date of publication, title and page numbers, citations may also include unique identifiers depending on the type of work being referred to.^ Title of the Periodical Date of publication: inclusive page numbers.
  • MLA Citation Style Examples - Owens Library 31 January 2010 12:27 UTC www.nwmissouri.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Magazine Title Copyright date: pages.
  • Citations: MLA Works Cited 31 January 2010 12:27 UTC library.d214.org [Source type: Reference]

^ References to periodical articles must include the following elements: author(s), date of publication, article title, journal title, volume number, issue number (if applicable), and page numbers.
  • APA Citation Style | Cornell University Library 31 January 2010 12:27 UTC www.library.cornell.edu [Source type: Academic]

Citation systems

Broadly speaking, there are two citation systems:[5][6][7]

Note systems

.Note systems involve the use of sequential numbers in the text which refer to either footnotes (notes at the end of the page) or endnotes (a note on a separate page at the end of the paper) which gives the source detail.^ Use only the date or date and page number.
  • APA Citation Examples - Information & Library Services - UMUC 31 January 2010 12:27 UTC www.umuc.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Inclusive page numbers (use N. pag.
  • MLA Citation Style Examples - Owens Library 31 January 2010 12:27 UTC www.nwmissouri.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Note the use of the semi-colon to separate the different sources.

.The notes system may or may not require a full bibliography, depending on whether the writer has used a full note form or a shortened note form.^ Short forms may be used, e.g.
  • How to Write a Bibliography - Examples in MLA Style 31 January 2010 12:27 UTC www.aresearchguide.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Note whether the writer uses professional jargon or specialized terminology.
  • Sources and Citation at Dartmouth College 31 January 2010 12:27 UTC www.dartmouth.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Check the website against several sources in order to determine whether or not the web writers have used their sources responsibly.
  • Sources and Citation at Dartmouth College 31 January 2010 12:27 UTC www.dartmouth.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

For example, an excerpt from the text of a paper using a notes system without a full bibliography could look like this:
"The five stages of grief are denial, anger, bargaining, depression, and acceptance."1
The note, located either at the foot of the page (footnote) or at the end of the paper (endnote) would look like this:
1. Elisabeth Kübler-Ross, On Death and Dying (New York: Macmillan, 1969) 45–60.
In a paper which contains a full bibliography, the shortened note could look like this:
1. Kübler-Ross, On Death and Dying 45–60.
and the bibliography entry, which would be required with a shortened note, would look like this:
Kübler-Ross, Elisabeth. On Death and Dying. New York: Macmillan, 1969.
.In the humanities, many authors use footnotes or endnotes to supply anecdotal information.^ Reference citations in the text of your paper (instead of footnotes or end notes) cite the author and date of the works you used in your research.
  • Research Guide: APA Style Citation Examples - J. Murrey Atkins Library - UNC Charlotte 31 January 2010 12:27 UTC library.uncc.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ This style presents bibliographic information in footnotes or endnotes and, usually, a bibliography.

.In this way, what looks like a citation is actually supplementary material, or suggestions for further reading.^ But the rise of citations suggests that this process should be taken one step further.
  • Mihmorandum | Local vs Traditional SEO: Why Citation Is the New Link | General Marketing 31 January 2010 12:27 UTC www.davidmihm.com [Source type: General]

^ I think I referred to them a local web page references (as opposed to citations) and wrote about them in What does a link campaign look like for Local?
  • Mihmorandum | Local vs Traditional SEO: Why Citation Is the New Link | General Marketing 31 January 2010 12:27 UTC www.davidmihm.com [Source type: General]

^ I'm about to put your composure to the test by arguing that the Citation was actually a really nice-looking car.
  • Car Lust: Chevrolet Citation 31 January 2010 12:27 UTC www.carlustblog.com [Source type: General]

[8]

Parenthetical referencing

.Parenthetical referencing is where full or partial, in-text citations are enclosed within parentheses and embedded in the paragraph, as opposed to the footnote style.^ Reference Citations in Text - Parenthetical references .
  • Research Guide: APA Style Citation Examples - J. Murrey Atkins Library - UNC Charlotte 31 January 2010 12:27 UTC library.uncc.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Under this formula, a citation begins with one or more geographical abbreviations, continues with any needed specialized court abbreviations, and ends with circuit or district information enclosed in a parenthetical.
  • AALL Citation Formats Committee - Universal Case Citation 31 January 2010 12:27 UTC www.aallnet.org [Source type: Academic]

^ MLA Citation Style Citing Sources in the Text Works Cited list Other documentation styles .
  • MLA Citation Style | Cornell University Library 31 January 2010 12:27 UTC www.library.cornell.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Depending on the choice of style, fully cited parenthetical references may require no end section.^ If an access date is required by your publisher or discipline, include it parenthetically at the end of the citation, as in the second example below.
  • The Chicago Manual of Style Online: Chicago-Style Citation Quick Guide 31 January 2010 12:27 UTC www.chicagomanualofstyle.org [Source type: Academic]

^ After May 01, 1997 opinions filed shall be cited by reference to the Supreme Court's official paragraph citation form with subsequent parallel citation to Pacific Reporters required.
  • Universal Citation 31 January 2010 12:27 UTC www.abanet.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Note: A parenthetical reference to a familiar historical document -- i.e., the United States Constitution -- no longer requires a corresponding entry in the Works Cited list.
  • MLA Citation Style | Cornell University Library 31 January 2010 12:27 UTC www.library.cornell.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Alternately a list of the citations with complete bibliographical references may be included in an end section sorted alphabetically by author's last name.^ Place a period after the last author's name.

^ Author's name in reference .
  • MLA Citation Style | Cornell University Library 31 January 2010 12:27 UTC www.library.cornell.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The first author of any work is listed last name first : .

This section may be known as:
  • References
  • Bibliography
  • Works cited
  • Works consulted

Citation styles

Style guides
.Citation styles can be broadly divided into styles common to the Humanities and the Sciences, though there is considerable overlap.^ Human society is complicated, and any successful social science will have to take complications into account.

^ In the sciences, an article from just a year or two ago may be outdated, whereas in the humanities, there may be a wider window of timeliness.
  • Sources and Citation at Dartmouth College 31 January 2010 12:27 UTC www.dartmouth.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There are more then 1300 citation styles in EndNote 9.
  • citation-formats · Microformats Wiki 31 January 2010 12:27 UTC microformats.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Some style guides, such as the Chicago Manual of Style, are quite flexible and cover both parenthetical and note citation systems.^ For full details see the MLA Style Guide or the Chicago Manual of Style .
  • Lynch, Guide to Grammar and Style — C 31 January 2010 12:27 UTC andromeda.rutgers.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ For samples from other types of publications, see the MLA Style Manual and Guide to Scholarly Publishing .
  • MLA Sample Citations 31 January 2010 12:27 UTC myrin.ursinus.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Also, for automatic generation of citations in appropriate citation style, use a bibliographic citation management program such as Refworks or EndNote.
  • APA Citation Style | Cornell University Library 31 January 2010 12:27 UTC www.library.cornell.edu [Source type: Academic]

[7] .Others, such as MLA and APA styles, specify formats within the context of a single citation system.^ MLA and APA styles only.
  • Library System - Howard University 31 January 2010 12:27 UTC www.howard.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Features MLA and APA styles.
  • Library System - Howard University 31 January 2010 12:27 UTC www.howard.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Observe that when the same author has more than one work from a single year , the citations are referenced as 1991a, 1991b, and so on when using the APSA format (Elster 1991b, 43).

[6] .These may be referred to as citation formats as well as citation styles.^ Harnad may well be on to an important subject and line of argument in suggesting that citations are a kind of return on investment.
  • The effect of open access and downloads ('hits') on citation impact: a bibliography of studies 31 January 2010 12:27 UTC opcit.eprints.org [Source type: Academic]

^ When referring to specific portions or passages of these opinions, employ the paragraph numbers as pinpoint citations; and pinpoint citations to a case reporter service will be optional.
  • Universal Citation 31 January 2010 12:27 UTC www.abanet.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Those are different than the professional scholars for whom citations are critical (me), or to the professional web developers who might want to implement these formats.
  • citation-formats · Microformats Wiki 31 January 2010 12:27 UTC microformats.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[9][10][11] .The various guides thus specify order of appearance, for example, of publication date, title, and page numbers following the author name, in addition to conventions of punctuation, use of italics, emphasis, parenthesis, quotation marks, etc., particular to their style.^ "Title of Article, Web page or site" in quotation marks.
  • How to Write a Bibliography - Examples in MLA Style 31 January 2010 12:27 UTC www.aresearchguide.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Use only the date or date and page number.
  • APA Citation Examples - Information & Library Services - UMUC 31 January 2010 12:27 UTC www.umuc.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Journal title in italics Volume number.
  • Citation Guide - MLA: Modern Languages Association Style Guide | The University of Arizona University Libraries 31 January 2010 12:27 UTC www.library.arizona.edu [Source type: Academic]

A number of organizations have created styles to fit their needs; consequently, a number of different guides exist. .Individual publishers often have their own in-house variations as well, and some works are so long-established as to have their own citation methods too: Stephanus pagination for Plato; Bekker numbers for Aristotle; citing the Bible by book, chapter and verse; or Shakespeare notation by play, act and scene.^ Furthermore, the use of paragraph numbering is a well-established citation technique.

^ One universally important factor for all authors is impact, typically measured by the number of times a paper is cited (some older studies have estimated monetary returns to authors from article publication via the role citations play in determining salaries).
  • The effect of open access and downloads ('hits') on citation impact: a bibliography of studies 31 January 2010 12:27 UTC opcit.eprints.org [Source type: Academic]

^ A chapter/part of a book cited, in which the chapter/part has a separate title [top] [turn off tags] .
  • Sample PubMed Central Citations - XML Tagged 31 January 2010 12:27 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

Some examples of style guides include:

Humanities

.
  • The American Political Science Association (APSA) relies on the Style Manual for Political Science, a style often used by political science scholars and historians.^ We recorded the number of citations to the sample articles using several methods based upon the ISI Web of Science, Google Scholar and the Google search engine (Web/URL citations).
    • The effect of open access and downloads ('hits') on citation impact: a bibliography of studies 31 January 2010 12:27 UTC opcit.eprints.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ For a more detailed explanation of how to use APA style, see the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association .
    • APA Citation Examples - Information & Library Services - UMUC 31 January 2010 12:27 UTC www.umuc.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ APA citation style refers to the rules and conventions established by the American Psychological Association for documenting sources used in a research paper.
    • APA Citation Style | Cornell University Library 31 January 2010 12:27 UTC www.library.cornell.edu [Source type: Academic]

    .It is largely based on that of the Chicago Manual of Style.
  • The ASA style of American Sociological Association is one of the main styles used in sociological publications.
  • The Chicago Style (CMOS) was developed and its guide is The Chicago Manual of Style.^ Chicago: American Medical Association; 1985.
    • Sample PubMed Central Citations - XML Tagged 31 January 2010 12:27 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

    ^ For full details see the MLA Style Guide or the Chicago Manual of Style .
    • Lynch, Guide to Grammar and Style — C 31 January 2010 12:27 UTC andromeda.rutgers.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ For samples from other types of publications, see the MLA Style Manual and Guide to Scholarly Publishing .
    • MLA Sample Citations 31 January 2010 12:27 UTC myrin.ursinus.edu [Source type: Academic]

    .Some social sciences and humanities scholars use the nearly identical Turabian style.^ It covers humanities, social sciences, history, and the sciences.
    • Library System - Howard University 31 January 2010 12:27 UTC www.howard.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ The communists undertook to build socialism anyway, and some of their rival socialists used the missing bourgeois-democratic revolution to predict that communist power would end badly.

    ^ Human society is complicated, and any successful social science will have to take complications into account.

    .Used by writers in many fields.
  • The Columbia Style was made by Janice R. Walker and Todd Taylor to give detailed guidelines for citing internet sources.^ Internet citations, or citing electronic sources (e) .
    • How to Write a Bibliography - Examples in MLA Style 31 January 2010 12:27 UTC www.aresearchguide.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Internet citations, or citing electronic sources: .
    • How to Write a Bibliography - Examples in MLA Style 31 January 2010 12:27 UTC www.aresearchguide.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Check the website against several sources in order to determine whether or not the web writers have used their sources responsibly.
    • Sources and Citation at Dartmouth College 31 January 2010 12:27 UTC www.dartmouth.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Columbia Style offers models for both the humanities and the sciences.^ Columbia Style offers models for both the humanities and the sciences.
    • Citations - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 12:27 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Reference]

    ^ Three commonly used styles are: MLA (from Modern Language Association, for use mainly in the humanities), APA (from American Psychological Association, used mainly in the social sciences) and the Chicago manual (used mainly in history).
    • Georgia Tech Library :: Citation Style Guides 31 January 2010 12:27 UTC www.library.gatech.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Chicago-Style Citation Quick Guide Examples for using both humanities style (notes and bibliography) and author-date system .
    • VCU Libraries | Research Guides | Citation Styles 31 January 2010 12:27 UTC www.library.vcu.edu [Source type: Reference]

  • Evidence Explained: Citing History Sources from Artifacts to Cyberspace by Elizabeth Shown Mills covers primary sources not included in CMOS, such as censuses, court, land, government, business, and church records. .Includes sources in electronic format.^ Citing Electronic Sources Using the APSR Format .

    Used by genealogists and historians.[12]
  • .
  • Harvard referencing (or author-date system) is a specific kind of parenthetical referencing.^ In this system, sources are briefly cited in the text, usually in parentheses, by author’s last name and date of publication.
    • The Chicago Manual of Style Online: Chicago-Style Citation Quick Guide 31 January 2010 12:27 UTC www.chicagomanualofstyle.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ The Chicago Manual of Style presents two basic documentation systems, the humanities style (notes and bibliography) and the author-date system.
    • The Chicago Manual of Style Online: Chicago-Style Citation Quick Guide 31 January 2010 12:27 UTC www.chicagomanualofstyle.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ The more concise author-date system has long been used by those in the physical, natural, and social sciences.
    • The Chicago Manual of Style Online: Chicago-Style Citation Quick Guide 31 January 2010 12:27 UTC www.chicagomanualofstyle.org [Source type: Academic]

    .Parenthetical referencing is recommended by both the British Standards Institution and the Modern Language Association.^ Modern Language Association, 2008.
    • MLA Citation Style | Cornell University Library 31 January 2010 12:27 UTC www.library.cornell.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ The Modern Language Association (MLA) Style is widely used for identifying research sources.

    ^ MLA citation style refers to the rules and conventions established by the Modern Language Association for acknowledging sources used in a research paper.
    • MLA Citation Style | Cornell University Library 31 January 2010 12:27 UTC www.library.cornell.edu [Source type: Academic]

    .Harvard referencing involves a short author-date reference, e.g., "(Smith, 2000)", being inserted after the cited text within parentheses and the full reference to the source being listed at the end of the article.
  • MLA style was developed by the Modern Language Association and is most often used in the arts and the humanities, particularly in English studies, other literary studies, including comparative literature and literary criticism in languages other than English ("foreign languages"), and some interdisciplinary studies, such as cultural studies, drama and theatre, film, and other media, including television.^ Title in a language other than English, with translation 14.
    • Sample PubMed Central Citations - XML Tagged 31 January 2010 12:27 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Bibliography style is used widely in literature, history, and the arts.

    ^ In this system, sources are briefly cited in the text, usually in parentheses, by author’s last name and date of publication.
    • The Chicago Manual of Style Online: Chicago-Style Citation Quick Guide 31 January 2010 12:27 UTC www.chicagomanualofstyle.org [Source type: Academic]

    .This style of citations and bibliographical format uses parenthetical referencing with author-page (Smith 395) or author-[short] title-page (Smith, Contingencies 42) in the case of more than one work by the same author within parentheses in the text, keyed to an alphabetical list of sources on a "Works Cited" page at the end of the paper, as well as notes (footnotes or endnotes).^ Internet citations, or citing electronic sources (e) .
    • How to Write a Bibliography - Examples in MLA Style 31 January 2010 12:27 UTC www.aresearchguide.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Note: See the parenthetical documentation and works cited pages.
    • Library System - Howard University 31 January 2010 12:27 UTC www.howard.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ [NOTE: if no author is listed, begin entry with the title of the web page] "Title of Page from Web Site."
    • MLA Citation Style Examples - Owens Library 31 January 2010 12:27 UTC www.nwmissouri.edu [Source type: Academic]

    .See The MLA Style Manual and The MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers, particularly Citation and bibliography format.^ See full text: Revisions to the Manual of Citations .
    • Universal Citation 31 January 2010 12:27 UTC www.abanet.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The examples of MLA style and format listed on this page include many of the most common types of sources used in academic research.
    • MLA Citation Style | Cornell University Library 31 January 2010 12:27 UTC www.library.cornell.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ MLA Citation Style and Tutorial :Indiana State University.
    • Library System - Howard University 31 January 2010 12:27 UTC www.howard.edu [Source type: Academic]

    [13]
  • .
  • The MHRA Style Guide is published by the Modern Humanities Research Association (MHRA) and most widely used in the arts and humanities in the United Kingdom, where the MHRA is based.^ The examples of MLA style and format listed on this page include many of the most common types of sources used in academic research.
    • MLA Citation Style | Cornell University Library 31 January 2010 12:27 UTC www.library.cornell.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ MLA citation style refers to the rules and conventions established by the Modern Language Association for acknowledging sources used in a research paper.
    • MLA Citation Style | Cornell University Library 31 January 2010 12:27 UTC www.library.cornell.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ (Other disciplines, mind you, have their own style guides; psychologists use APA style, and scientists have their own as well.
    • Lynch, Guide to Grammar and Style — C 31 January 2010 12:27 UTC andromeda.rutgers.edu [Source type: Original source]

    .It is available for sale both in the UK and in the United States.^ All United States circuit court decisions are now available, as are a growing number of other federal and state court decisions .

    .It is similar to MLA style, but has some differences.^ Links to related pages: How to Write Footnotes and Endnotes in MLA Style Footnotes and Endnotes - Examples in MLA Style How to Write Parenthetical References - Examples in MLA Style Works Cited, References, and Bibliography - What's the Difference?
    • How to Write a Bibliography - Examples in MLA Style 31 January 2010 12:27 UTC www.aresearchguide.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .For example, MHRA style uses footnotes that reference a citation fully while also providing a bibliography.^ Also, for automatic generation of citations in appropriate citation style, use a bibliographic citation management program such as Refworks or EndNote.
    • APA Citation Style | Cornell University Library 31 January 2010 12:27 UTC www.library.cornell.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ The examples of MLA style and format listed on this page include many of the most common types of sources used in academic research.
    • MLA Citation Style | Cornell University Library 31 January 2010 12:27 UTC www.library.cornell.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Bibliography style is used widely in literature, history, and the arts.

    .Some readers find it advantageous that the footnotes provide full citations, instead of shortened references, so that they do not need to consult the bibliography while reading for the rest of the publication details.^ In the end, it will be up to those publishing legal decisions to provide the finding aids to assist in locating decisions based upon the inherent citation information.

    ^ The full citation for each parenthetical reference must be documented in the references list at the end of your paper.
    • Research Guide: APA Style Citation Examples - J. Murrey Atkins Library - UNC Charlotte 31 January 2010 12:27 UTC library.uncc.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ A vendor-neutral citation contains no proprietary data elements and makes no reference to a proprietary publication.
    • AALL Citation Formats Committee - Universal Case Citation 31 January 2010 12:27 UTC www.aallnet.org [Source type: Academic]

    [14]

Law

.
  • The Bluebook is a citation system traditionally used in American academic legal writing, and the Bluebook (or similar systems derived from it) are used by many courts.^ Today, only a handful of American courts use a public domain system of citation.

    ^ If an article has been reprinted from a source published earlier, give the original date of publication in the "original work" element of the citation as shown above (when using this element, the final period in a citation is omitted ).
    • APA Citation Examples - Information & Library Services - UMUC 31 January 2010 12:27 UTC www.umuc.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ The examples of MLA style and format listed on this page include many of the most common types of sources used in academic research.
    • MLA Citation Style | Cornell University Library 31 January 2010 12:27 UTC www.library.cornell.edu [Source type: Academic]

    [15] .At present, academic legal articles are always footnoted, but motions submitted to courts and court opinions traditionally use inline citations which are either separate sentences or separate clauses.
  • The legal citation style used almost universally in Canada is based on the Canadian Guide to Uniform Legal Citation (aka McGill Guide), published by McGill Law Journal.^ Published also as a journal article 24.
    • Sample PubMed Central Citations - XML Tagged 31 January 2010 12:27 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

    ^ For samples from other types of publications, see the MLA Style Manual and Guide to Scholarly Publishing .
    • MLA Sample Citations 31 January 2010 12:27 UTC myrin.ursinus.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Google Scholar Find articles from academic publishers, preprint repositories and universities, as well as scholarly articles across the web (presents citations as separate results) http://scholar.google.com/ User service, free see Added 28 July 2008 Harzing, A. W.K., van der Wal, R. (2008) Google Scholar as a new source for citation analysis , Ethics in Science and Environmental Politics , Vol.
    • The effect of open access and downloads ('hits') on citation impact: a bibliography of studies 31 January 2010 12:27 UTC opcit.eprints.org [Source type: Academic]

    [16]

Sciences, mathematics, engineering, physiology, and medicine

.
  • The American Chemical Society style, or ACS style, is often used in chemistry and other physical sciences.^ Added 29 April 2009 Gaulé, P. (2009) Access to the scientific literature in India CEMI Working Paper 2009-004, February 23, 2009, in In Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, Vol.
    • The effect of open access and downloads ('hits') on citation impact: a bibliography of studies 31 January 2010 12:27 UTC opcit.eprints.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ If an article has been reprinted from a source published earlier, give the original date of publication in the "original work" element of the citation as shown above (when using this element, the final period in a citation is omitted ).
    • APA Citation Examples - Information & Library Services - UMUC 31 January 2010 12:27 UTC www.umuc.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Also, for automatic generation of citations in appropriate citation style, use a bibliographic citation management program such as Refworks or EndNote.
    • APA Citation Style | Cornell University Library 31 January 2010 12:27 UTC www.library.cornell.edu [Source type: Academic]

    .In ACS style references are numbered in the text and in the reference list, and numbers are repeated throughout the text as needed.
  • In the style of the American Institute of Physics (AIP style), references are also numbered in the text and in the reference list, with numbers repeated throughout the text as needed.
  • Styles developed for the American Mathematical Society (AMS), or AMS styles, such as AMS-LaTeX, are typically implemented using the BibTeX tool in the LaTeX typesetting environment.^ APA style requires both in-text citations and a reference list.
    • APA Citation Style | Cornell University Library 31 January 2010 12:27 UTC www.library.cornell.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Also, for automatic generation of citations in appropriate citation style, use a bibliographic citation management program such as Refworks or EndNote.
    • APA Citation Style | Cornell University Library 31 January 2010 12:27 UTC www.library.cornell.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ This is no different than using other tools, like citations or references as tools to guide a scientists to what is important."
    • The effect of open access and downloads ('hits') on citation impact: a bibliography of studies 31 January 2010 12:27 UTC opcit.eprints.org [Source type: Academic]

    .Brackets with author’s initials and year are inserted in the text and at the beginning of the reference.^ Alternative reference with initials only for authors 3.
    • Sample PubMed Central Citations - XML Tagged 31 January 2010 12:27 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

    ^ When a work has two authors, always cite both names every time the reference occurs in the text.
    • APA Citation Style | Cornell University Library 31 January 2010 12:27 UTC www.library.cornell.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Alternative reference with initials only for authors [top] [turn off tags] .
    • Sample PubMed Central Citations - XML Tagged 31 January 2010 12:27 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

    .Typical citations are listed in-line with alphabetic-label format, e.g.^ Here is a list of previous/existing citation formats.
    • citation-formats · Microformats Wiki 31 January 2010 12:27 UTC microformats.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    [AB90]. .This type of style is also called a "Authorship trigraph."
  • The Vancouver system, recommended by the Council of Science Editors (CSE), is used in medical and scientific papers and research.^ The examples of MLA style and format listed on this page include many of the most common types of sources used in academic research.
    • MLA Citation Style | Cornell University Library 31 January 2010 12:27 UTC www.library.cornell.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ MLA citation style refers to the rules and conventions established by the Modern Language Association for acknowledging sources used in a research paper.
    • MLA Citation Style | Cornell University Library 31 January 2010 12:27 UTC www.library.cornell.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ West pioneered computer-assisted legal research, the paper recalled, but now wants to prevent the inevitable use of these new technologies, it said.

    .
    • In one major variant, that used by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME), citation numbers are included in the text in square brackets rather than as superscripts.^ I use the ADS to document the rise in the adoption of astro-ph for three major astronomy journals, and to conduct a broad survey of the citation impact of astro-ph in 13 different journals.
      • The effect of open access and downloads ('hits') on citation impact: a bibliography of studies 31 January 2010 12:27 UTC opcit.eprints.org [Source type: Academic]

      ^ But one frequently gets WILDLY different numbers in comparing the volume of Local “citations” to the number of Yahoo Site Explorer links.
      • Mihmorandum | Local vs Traditional SEO: Why Citation Is the New Link | General Marketing 31 January 2010 12:27 UTC www.davidmihm.com [Source type: General]

      ^ Our “events” (citations) are determined by many different “causes”, of which “access” is only one variable – many other variables, including confounders, have to be taken into account.
      • The effect of open access and downloads ('hits') on citation impact: a bibliography of studies 31 January 2010 12:27 UTC opcit.eprints.org [Source type: Academic]

      .All bibliographical information is exclusively included in the list of references at the end of the document, next to the respective citation number.
    • The International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) is reportedly the original kernel of this biomedical style which evolved from the Vancouver 1978 editors' meeting.^ In the identified tab, the user sees the list of all the citations that she has identified to the document.
      • Citations in ACIS / ACIS documentation 31 January 2010 12:27 UTC acis.openlib.org [Source type: Reference]

      ^ APA style requires both in-text citations and a reference list.
      • APA Citation Style | Cornell University Library 31 January 2010 12:27 UTC www.library.cornell.edu [Source type: Academic]

      ^ "This next link shows the number of these papers which are available OA in the arXiv, and their citations.
      • The effect of open access and downloads ('hits') on citation impact: a bibliography of studies 31 January 2010 12:27 UTC opcit.eprints.org [Source type: Academic]

      [17] .The MEDLINE/PubMed database uses this citation style and the National Library of Medicine provides "ICMJE Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals -- Sample References".[18]
  • The style of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), or IEEE style, encloses citation numbers within square brackets and arranges the reference list by the order of citation, not by alphabetical order.
  • Pechenik Citation Style is a style described in A Short Guide to Writing about Biology, 6th ed.^ APA style requires both in-text citations and a reference list.
    • APA Citation Style | Cornell University Library 31 January 2010 12:27 UTC www.library.cornell.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ April 2008, 85-91 Abstract: "This paper explores the factors shaping the current uses of the ISI citation databases in evaluation both of journals and of individual scholars and their institutions.
    • The effect of open access and downloads ('hits') on citation impact: a bibliography of studies 31 January 2010 12:27 UTC opcit.eprints.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Also, for automatic generation of citations in appropriate citation style, use a bibliographic citation management program such as Refworks or EndNote.
    • APA Citation Style | Cornell University Library 31 January 2010 12:27 UTC www.library.cornell.edu [Source type: Academic]

    (2007), by Jan A. Pechenik.[19]
  • .
  • In 2006, Eugene Garfield proposed a bibliographic system for scientific literature, to consolidate the integrity of scientific publications.^ Added 03 August 2006 PLoS Medicine Editors (2006) The Impact Factor Game: It is time to find a better way to assess the scientific literature PLoS Medicine , Vol.
    • The effect of open access and downloads ('hits') on citation impact: a bibliography of studies 31 January 2010 12:27 UTC opcit.eprints.org [Source type: Academic]

    [20]

Social sciences

.
  • The style of the American Psychological Association, or APA style, published in The Style Manual of the APA, is most often used in social sciences.^ For a more detailed explanation of how to use APA style, see the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association .
    • APA Citation Examples - Information & Library Services - UMUC 31 January 2010 12:27 UTC www.umuc.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Publication manual of the American Psychological .
    • Research Guide: APA Style Citation Examples - J. Murrey Atkins Library - UNC Charlotte 31 January 2010 12:27 UTC library.uncc.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association 6th ed.
    • Research Guide: APA Style Citation Examples - J. Murrey Atkins Library - UNC Charlotte 31 January 2010 12:27 UTC library.uncc.edu [Source type: Academic]

    .APA style uses Harvard referencing within the text, listing the author's name and year of publication, keyed to an alphabetical list of sources at the end of the paper on a References page
  • The American Political Science Association publishes both a style manual and a style guide for publications in this field.^ Author's name in reference .
    • MLA Citation Style | Cornell University Library 31 January 2010 12:27 UTC www.library.cornell.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ For a more detailed explanation of how to use APA style, see the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association .
    • APA Citation Examples - Information & Library Services - UMUC 31 January 2010 12:27 UTC www.umuc.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ APA citation style refers to the rules and conventions established by the American Psychological Association for documenting sources used in a research paper.
    • APA Citation Style | Cornell University Library 31 January 2010 12:27 UTC www.library.cornell.edu [Source type: Academic]

    [21]
  • The American Anthropological Association utilizes a modified form of the Chicago Style laid out in their Publishing Style Guide

See also

Footnotes

  1. ^ "Library glossary". Benedictine University. August 22, 2008. http://www.ben.edu/library/help/glossary.htm. Retrieved 2009-02-27. 
  2. ^ Long Island University.
  3. ^ Duke University Libraries 2007.
  4. ^ a b Brigham Young University 2008.
  5. ^ University of Maryland, College Park 2006.
  6. ^ a b Yale University 2008.
  7. ^ a b Colorado State University 2008.
  8. ^ "How to Write Research Papers with Citations - MLA, APA, Footnotes, Endnotes". http://www.studenthandouts.com/citations.htm. Retrieved 2010-01-31. 
  9. ^ California State University 2007.
  10. ^ Lesley University 2007.
  11. ^ Rochester Institute of Technology 2003.
  12. ^ Mills, Elizabeth Shown. Evidence explained : citing history sources from artifacts to cyberspace (Baltimore:Genealogical Pub. Co., 2007).
  13. ^ The field of Communication (or Communications) overlaps with some of the disciplines also covered by the MLA and has its own disciplinary style recommendations for documentation format; the style guide recommended for use in student papers in such departments in American colleges and universities is often The Publication Manual of the APA (American Psychological Association); designated for short as "APA style".
  14. ^ The 2nd edition (updated April 2008) of the MHRA Style Guide is downloadable for free from the Modern Humanities Research Association official Website.
  15. ^ Martin 2007.
  16. ^ Canadian Guide to Uniform Legal Citation (Cite Guide). McGill Law Journal. Updated October 2008. Retrieved on 2009-02-05.
  17. ^ Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals.
  18. ^ International Committee of Medical Journal Editors. "ICMJE Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals -- Sample References".
  19. ^ Pechenik Citation Style QuickGuide (PDF). University of Alberta, Augustana Campus, Canada. Web. November 2007.
  20. ^ Garfield, Eugene (2006). "Citation indexes for science. A new dimension in documentation through association of ideas". International Journal of Epidemiology 35 (5): 1123–1127. doi:1093/ije/dyl189 (inactive 2010-01-07). PMID 16987841. 
  21. ^ Stephen Yoder, ed. (2008). The APSA Guide to Writing and Publishing and Style Manual for Political Science. Rev. ed. August 2006. APSAnet.org Publications. Retrieved on 2009-02-05.

References

.
  • "ACS (American Chemical Society) Style Guidelines Quick Guide".^ A Guide for Writing Research Papers Based on Styles Recommended by the American Psychological Association.
    • Library System - Howard University 31 January 2010 12:27 UTC www.howard.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ American Psychological Association's Web site Purdue University Online Writing Lab's APA Formatting and Style Guide Harnack & Kleppinger's Online!
    • APA Citation Style | Cornell University Library 31 January 2010 12:27 UTC www.library.cornell.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ For additional examples and more detailed information about APA citation style, refer to the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association and the APA Style Guide to Electronic References .
    • APA Citation Style | Cornell University Library 31 January 2010 12:27 UTC www.library.cornell.edu [Source type: Academic]

    Berkeley.edu. 2006. .http://www.lib.berkeley.edu/CHEM/acsstyle.html.^ Cited 1 May, 2006 < http://www.dianahacker.com/resdoc/p04_c08_s2.html > .
    • Library System - Howard University 31 January 2010 12:27 UTC www.howard.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Graphs of those results are posted at http://www.lib.ncsu.edu/staff/kantelman/OA_by_citations.xls .
    • The effect of open access and downloads ('hits') on citation impact: a bibliography of studies 31 January 2010 12:27 UTC opcit.eprints.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Retrieved from http://www.victorians.org/bronte.html .
    • APA Citation Examples - Information & Library Services - UMUC 31 January 2010 12:27 UTC www.umuc.edu [Source type: Academic]

    Retrieved 2008-02-03
    . 
  • "Anatomy of a Citation". LIUNet.edu. .http://www.liunet.edu/cwis/cwp/library/workbook/evaluate.htm#citing.^ Cited 1 May, 2006 < http://panther.indstate.edu/tutorials/mla/ > .
    • Library System - Howard University 31 January 2010 12:27 UTC www.howard.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ May1] Available from: < http://library.tamu.edu/vgn/images/portal/cit744/35/38/5993170Using%20CBE%20Format.pdf > .
    • Library System - Howard University 31 January 2010 12:27 UTC www.howard.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Cited 1 May, 2006 < http://www.dianahacker.com/resdoc/p04_c08_s2.html > .
    • Library System - Howard University 31 January 2010 12:27 UTC www.howard.edu [Source type: Academic]

    Retrieved 2008-02-03
    .
     
  • "APA Citation Format". Lesley.edu. 2005. .http://www.lesley.edu/library/guides/citation/apa.html.^ Graphs of those results are posted at http://www.lib.ncsu.edu/staff/kantelman/OA_by_citations.xls .
    • The effect of open access and downloads ('hits') on citation impact: a bibliography of studies 31 January 2010 12:27 UTC opcit.eprints.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Siya Ram and Rishi Shanker http://www.bioinfo.de/isb/2005/05/0045/main.html .

    ^ M. Weghorst, Carol L.K. Sabourin http://www.ufscc.ufl.edu/~escott/lab/genechip.htm .

    .Retrieved 2008-02-11.
     
  • "APA Citation Format".^ Added 11 February 2008 Armbruster, C. (2008) Access, Usage and Citation Metrics: What Function for Digital Libraries and Repositories in Research Evaluation?
    • The effect of open access and downloads ('hits') on citation impact: a bibliography of studies 31 January 2010 12:27 UTC opcit.eprints.org [Source type: Academic]

    RIT.edu. 2003. .http://wally.rit.edu/pubs/guides/apa.html.^ You are here: http://honolulu.hawaii.edu/library/mlahcc.html Return to the MLA Introduction Page .

    ^ Available from http://www.sscm.harvard.edu/jscm/v4/no1/Schulenberg.html ; Internet.
    • FAQ - Bibliographic Citations (Music Library) 31 January 2010 12:27 UTC www.libraries.iub.edu [Source type: General]

    ^ Retrieved from http://docsouth.unc.edu/nc/suffrage/ menu.html .
    • Research Guide: APA Style Citation Examples - J. Murrey Atkins Library - UNC Charlotte 31 January 2010 12:27 UTC library.uncc.edu [Source type: Academic]

    Retrieved 2008-02-11
    . 
  • Armstrong, J Scott (July 1996). "The Ombudsman: Management Folklore and Management Science - On Portfolio Planning, Escalation Bias, and Such". Interfaces (Providence: Institute of Management Sciences) 26 (4): 28–42. OCLC 210941768. .http://marketing.wharton.upenn.edu/ideas/pdf/armstrong2/armstrong-managementfolklore.pdf. 
  • "ASME Journals Digital Submission Tool".^ May1] Available from: < http://library.tamu.edu/vgn/images/portal/cit744/35/38/5993170Using%20CBE%20Format.pdf > .
    • Library System - Howard University 31 January 2010 12:27 UTC www.howard.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Retrieved May 1, 2006, from < http://www.lib.berkeley.edu/TeachingLib/Guides/APAstyle.pdf .> .
    • Library System - Howard University 31 January 2010 12:27 UTC www.howard.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Retrieved from http://www.ohiolink.edu/etd/send-pdf.cgi?acc_num=osu1111184984 .
    • APA Citation Examples - Information & Library Services - UMUC 31 January 2010 12:27 UTC www.umuc.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ASME.org. American Society of Mechanical Engineers. .http://journaltool.asme.org/Help/AuthorHelp/WebHelp/JournalsHelp.htm.^ Gerrit J. Schut, Scott D. Brehm, Susmita Datta,and Michael W. Adams http://jb.asm.org/cgi/content/full/185/13/3935 .

    ^ Brett R. Baldwin, Cindy H. Nakatsu, and Loring Nies http://aem.asm.org/cgi/content/full/69/6/3350 .

    ^ Eddie CK Pang, Gururaj P Kadkol and Paul WJ Taylor http://www.regional.org.au/au/gcirc/4/464.htm .

    Retrieved 2008-02-08
    . 
  • "Book with a Single Author". Duke.edu. 2007. .http://library.duke.edu/research/citing/workscited/booksingle.html.^ Retrieved from http://www.nwmissouri.edu/Library/IPChecking.asp?http://search.
    • Owens Library APA Citation Style Examples 31 January 2010 12:27 UTC www.nwmissouri.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ THOMAS: legislative information on the Internet [Internet]    updated 2001 Apr 25; cited 2001 Apr 27    Washington    Library of Congress (US)    Available from:      http://thomas.loc.gov 3.
    • Sample PubMed Central Citations - XML Tagged 31 January 2010 12:27 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

    ^ You are here: http://honolulu.hawaii.edu/library/mlahcc.html Return to the MLA Introduction Page .

    .Retrieved 2008-02-04.
     
  • "CBE - Council of Biology Editors (Citation/Sequence System)".^ Garfield, E. (1998) The use of journal impact factors and citation analysis in the evaluation of science Author eprint, presented at the 41st Annual Meeting of the Council of Biology Editors , Salt Lake City, UT, May 4, 1998 .
    • The effect of open access and downloads ('hits') on citation impact: a bibliography of studies 31 January 2010 12:27 UTC opcit.eprints.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Added 13 January 2009 O'Leary, D. E. (2008) The relationship between citations and number of downloads Decision Support Systems , Vol.
    • The effect of open access and downloads ('hits') on citation impact: a bibliography of studies 31 January 2010 12:27 UTC opcit.eprints.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ In November 1996 the general council of the New Jersey State Bar Association unanimously voted to recommend that its state Supreme Court adopt a uniform citation system.

    ColoState.edu. 2008. http://writing.colostate.edu/guides/researchsources/documentation/cbe_citation/index.cfm. .Retrieved 2008-02-11. 
  • "Citation Formats & Style Manuals".^ Chicago Manual of Style APA Citation Style   .
    • MLA Citation Style | Cornell University Library 31 January 2010 12:27 UTC www.library.cornell.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ To locate additional citation examples, consult Style Manuals on Reserve .
    • MLA Citation Style Examples - Owens Library 31 January 2010 12:27 UTC www.nwmissouri.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Added 11 February 2008 Armbruster, C. (2008) Access, Usage and Citation Metrics: What Function for Digital Libraries and Repositories in Research Evaluation?
    • The effect of open access and downloads ('hits') on citation impact: a bibliography of studies 31 January 2010 12:27 UTC opcit.eprints.org [Source type: Academic]

    CSUChico.edu. 2007. .http://www.csuchico.edu/lref/newciting.html.^ Retrieved from http://www.victorians.org/bronte.html .
    • APA Citation Examples - Information & Library Services - UMUC 31 January 2010 12:27 UTC www.umuc.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Retrieved from http://www.nwmissouri.edu/Library/IPChecking.asp?http://search.
    • Owens Library APA Citation Style Examples 31 January 2010 12:27 UTC www.nwmissouri.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Siya Ram and Rishi Shanker http://www.bioinfo.de/isb/2005/05/0045/main.html .

    .Retrieved 2008-02-11.
     
  • "Citation Systems and Style Manuals".^ To locate additional citation examples, consult Style Manuals on Reserve .
    • MLA Citation Style Examples - Owens Library 31 January 2010 12:27 UTC www.nwmissouri.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Added 13 January 2009 O'Leary, D. E. (2008) The relationship between citations and number of downloads Decision Support Systems , Vol.
    • The effect of open access and downloads ('hits') on citation impact: a bibliography of studies 31 January 2010 12:27 UTC opcit.eprints.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ In contrast, nothing about the new system is very cumbersome - the learning curve for the new style of citation is not steep.

    UMD.edu. 2006. .http://www.lib.umd.edu/guides/style_manuals.html.^ Graphs of those results are posted at http://www.lib.ncsu.edu/staff/kantelman/OA_by_citations.xls .
    • The effect of open access and downloads ('hits') on citation impact: a bibliography of studies 31 January 2010 12:27 UTC opcit.eprints.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Retrieved from http://www.victorians.org/bronte.html .
    • APA Citation Examples - Information & Library Services - UMUC 31 January 2010 12:27 UTC www.umuc.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Retrieved March 30, 2001, from University of Wisconsin Web site: http://www.polyglot.lss.wisc.edu/lss/jane/janeausten.htm .
    • OSLIS :: APA Citation Maker :: Home 31 January 2010 12:27 UTC old.oslis.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Retrieved 2008-02-11.
     
  • "How to cite sources in the body of your paper".^ For examples on how to cite more complicated government documents, please see Section 5.6.21 in MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers, 6th ed.
    • How to Write a Bibliography - Examples in MLA Style 31 January 2010 12:27 UTC www.aresearchguide.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ List of References: The list of "References" identifies and makes it possible for the reader to retrieve all of the sources you have referred to in the body of your paper.
    • Research Guide: APA Style Citation Examples - J. Murrey Atkins Library - UNC Charlotte 31 January 2010 12:27 UTC library.uncc.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Since the content of a Web site can change over time, include the date that you viewed the cited information in your "retrieved from" line.
    • APA Citation Examples - Information & Library Services - UMUC 31 January 2010 12:27 UTC www.umuc.edu [Source type: Academic]

    BYUI.edu. 2008. .http://www.byui.edu/english/mlaguide/MLA_intext_citation.htm.^ Graphs of those results are posted at http://www.lib.ncsu.edu/staff/kantelman/OA_by_citations.xls .
    • The effect of open access and downloads ('hits') on citation impact: a bibliography of studies 31 January 2010 12:27 UTC opcit.eprints.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Retrieved from http://www.nwmissouri.edu/Library/IPChecking.asp?http://search.
    • Owens Library APA Citation Style Examples 31 January 2010 12:27 UTC www.nwmissouri.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Available from: http://www.pslgroup.com/DOCGUIDE.HTM .
    • Sample PubMed Central Citations - XML Tagged 31 January 2010 12:27 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

    Retrieved 2008-02-08
    . 
  • "IEEE Editorial Style Manual". IEEE.org. 2007. .http://www.ieee.org/portal/cms_docs_iportals/iportals/publications/authors/transjnl/stylemanual.pdf.^ Available from: http://www.ana.org .
    • Sample PubMed Central Citations - XML Tagged 31 January 2010 12:27 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Robert A. Winz and Ian T. Baldwin http://www.plantphysiol.org/cgi/content/full/125/4/2189 .

    ^ Li Tan, Joseph F. Leykam and Marcia J. Kieliszewski, June 2003 http://www.plantphysiol.org/cgi/content/full/132/3/1362 .

    .Retrieved 2008-02-08.
     
  • Martin, Peter W (May 2007).^ Mike Blumenthal says at May 29th, 2008 at 11:08 am Hi David- .
    • Mihmorandum | Local vs Traditional SEO: Why Citation Is the New Link | General Marketing 31 January 2010 12:27 UTC www.davidmihm.com [Source type: General]

    ^ David Mihm says at May 30th, 2008 at 7:08 am Mike, that’s an excellent observation.
    • Mihmorandum | Local vs Traditional SEO: Why Citation Is the New Link | General Marketing 31 January 2010 12:27 UTC www.davidmihm.com [Source type: General]

    "Introduction to Basic Legal Citation (LII 2007 ed.)". Cornell.edu. .http://www.law.cornell.edu/citation/.^ Graphs of those results are posted at http://www.lib.ncsu.edu/staff/kantelman/OA_by_citations.xls .
    • The effect of open access and downloads ('hits') on citation impact: a bibliography of studies 31 January 2010 12:27 UTC opcit.eprints.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Retrieved from http://www.nwmissouri.edu/Library/IPChecking.asp?http://search.
    • Owens Library APA Citation Style Examples 31 January 2010 12:27 UTC www.nwmissouri.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ M. Weghorst, Carol L.K. Sabourin http://www.ufscc.ufl.edu/~escott/lab/genechip.htm .

    Retrieved 2008-02-03
    . 
  • "MHRA Style Guide: A Handbook for Authors, Editors, and Writers of Theses". MHRA.org.uk. .Modern Humanities Research Association.^ The Modern Language Association (MLA) Style is widely used for identifying research sources.

    2008. .http://www.mhra.org.uk/Publications/Books/StyleGuide/.^ Available from: http://www.ana.org .
    • Sample PubMed Central Citations - XML Tagged 31 January 2010 12:27 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Robert A. Winz and Ian T. Baldwin http://www.plantphysiol.org/cgi/content/full/125/4/2189 .

    ^ These criteria are still being developed by MLA. For the most recent guidelines, check their web site at http://www.mla.org .
    • MLA Sample Citations 31 January 2010 12:27 UTC myrin.ursinus.edu [Source type: Academic]

    Retrieved 2009-02-05
    .
      (2nd ed.)
  • Pechenik, Jan A (2004). A Short Guide to Writing About Biology (5th ed.). New York: Pearson/Longman. ISBN 0321159810. OCLC 52166026. 
  • "Why Are There Different Citation Styles?". Yale.edu. 2008. .http://www.yale.edu/bass/writing/sources/kinds/principles/why.html.^ Graphs of those results are posted at http://www.lib.ncsu.edu/staff/kantelman/OA_by_citations.xls .
    • The effect of open access and downloads ('hits') on citation impact: a bibliography of studies 31 January 2010 12:27 UTC opcit.eprints.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Siya Ram and Rishi Shanker http://www.bioinfo.de/isb/2005/05/0045/main.html .

    ^ M. Weghorst, Carol L.K. Sabourin http://www.ufscc.ufl.edu/~escott/lab/genechip.htm .

    Retrieved 2008-02-11
    .
     
  • Wright, Malcolm; Armstrong, J Scott (March 2008). ."The Ombudsman: Verification of Citations: Fawlty Towers of Knowledge?" ( – Scholar search).^ We recorded the number of citations to the sample articles using several methods based upon the ISI Web of Science, Google Scholar and the Google search engine (Web/URL citations).
    • The effect of open access and downloads ('hits') on citation impact: a bibliography of studies 31 January 2010 12:27 UTC opcit.eprints.org [Source type: Academic]

    Interfaces (Providence: Institute of Management Sciences) 38 (2): 125–139. doi:10.1287/inte.1070.0317. OCLC 229821277. http://marketing.wharton.upenn.edu/Marketing_Content_Management/Marketing_files/Publication_Files/Citations-Interfaces.pdf.
     

External links

Guidelines
Examples
  • Illustrated examples, generated using BibTeX, of several major styles, including more than those listed above.
  • PDF file bibstyles.pdf illustrates how several bibliographic styles appear with citations and reference entries, generated using BibTeX.
Style guides
Other online resources

1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010
(Redirected to Database error article)

From LoveToKnow 1911

(There is currently no text in this page)


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 27, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Citation, which are similar to those in the above article.








Got something to say? Make a comment.
Your name
Your email address
Message