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Clan Gordon
Crest badge
Clan member crest badge - Clan Gordon.svg
Crest: Issuant from a crest coronet Or a stag's head (affrontée) Proper attired with ten tines Or
Motto: Bydand
War cry: A Gordon! A Gordon![1]
Profile
Region Highland
District Aberdeenshire
Plant badge Ivy
Pipe music The Gordon's March
Chief

Marquess of Huntly arms.svg
The Most Hon. Granville Charles Gomer Gordon
The 13th Marquess of Huntly
Seat Aboyne Castle [2]
Historic seat Huntly Castle

Clan Gordon, also known as the House of Gordon, is a traditional Scottish clan name and it is now a common forename. The chief of the Clan Gordon was the powerful Earl of Huntly, now also Marquess of Huntly.

Contents

History

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Origins

The first Gordon on record is Richard of Gordon, previously of Swinton, said to have been the grandson of a famous knight who slew some monstrous animal in the Merse during the time of King Malcolm III of Scotland. This Richard was Lord of the Barony of Gordon in the Merse. Between 1150 and 1160 he granted from his estate a piece of land to the Monks of St. Mary at Kelso, a grant which was confirmed by his son Thomas Gordon. Other notable Gordons from this time include Bertram de Gordon who wounded King Richard of England with an arrow at Châlons.[3]

Alicia Gordon, IV of the Gordon family was the heiress who married her cousin, Adam Gordon. Adam Gordon was a soldier who King Alexander III of Scotland sent with King Louis of France to Palestine. One tradition is that from Adam's grandson, Sir Adam all of the Gordons in Scotland are descended from. This Adam Gordon supported Sir William Wallace in 1297 to recapture the Castle of Wigtown from the English and Adam was made the Governor.[3]

Wars of Scottish Independence

During the Wars of Scottish Independence Sir Adam Gordon who had supported William Wallace later supported Robert the Bruce. Adam was killed leading the Clan Gordon at the Battle of Halidon Hill in 1333 but his son Sir Alexander Gordon escaped and was the first Gordon to be deignated "of Huntly".[3]

Chief Sir John Gordon was killed leading the clan at the Battle of Otterburn, where the English were defeated in 1388. His son, Chief Sir Adam Gordon was killed leading the clan at the Battle of Homildon Hill, also known as the Battle of Humbleton Hill on 14 September 1402. The chief left his only child, a daughter named Elizabeth Gordon who married Alexander Seton, who was the son of Sir William Seton the chief of Clan Seton.[3]

15th century and clan conflicts

The Clan Gordon was at one point one of the most powerful clans in middle Scotland. Clan feuds and battles were frequent, especially with the Clan Cameron, Clan Murray, Clan Forbes and the Chattan Confederation.

  • Huntly Castle 1449; The Gordons defeat the Clan Douglas who had invaded their lands. The Douglases were enemies of the King. The Gordons stood on the king's side, and with their men involved in the south of the country, the Earl of Moray, a relation and ally of the Douglases, took the opportunity to sack the Gordon lands, setting Huntly Castle ablaze. The Gordons returned and quickly destroyed their enemies. Although the castle was burned to the ground, a grander castle was built in its place.
  • In 1449 the eldest son of Elizabeth Gordon and Alexander Seton, who was also named Alexander was made chief, Lord of Gordon and Huntly. However, his male heirs through his third wife Elizabeth Crichton were obliged to bear the name of Gordon to succeed as chiefs of the clan.
  • Chief of Clan Lindsay Alexander Lindsay, the 4th Earl of Crawford, also known as the Tiger Earl and Earl Beardie was badly defeated by the Clan Gordon and Clan Ogilvy under the Earl of Huntly at Brechin in 1452.

16th century and clan conflicts

  • In 1513, during the Anglo-Scottish Wars, the Clan Gordon led by Alexander Gordon, 3rd Earl of Huntly fought at the Battle of Flodden Field.[3]
  • 1520, Feud with Clan Forbes, During the 15th and 16th centuries the Clan was engaged in a long feud against Clan Forbes. The feud which had been carried on for a long time reached a climax in the 1520s with murders committed by both sides occurring constantly. One of the most prominent of those killed by the Forbes action, Seton of Meldrum, was a close connection of the chief of the Gordons, the Earl of Huntly. The Earl of Huntly soon became involved in a plot aimed at the Master of Forbes (son of John, the 6th Lord Forbes), who was heavily implicated in the Seton murder.
  • In 1526 the title of Earl of Sutherland and chieftenship of the Clan Sutherland passed by right of marriage to Adam Gordon who was a younger son of the chief of Clan Gordon.
  • In 1536 Chief of Gordons, the Earl of Huntly accused the Master of Forbes of conspiring to assassinate King James V of Scotland while visiting Aberdeen by shooting at him with a cannon. The Master of Forbes was tried and executed, but within days his sentence was revoked and the Clan Forbes family restored to favour. However the damage to relations between the Clan Forbes and Clan Gordon was irreparable. Attacks by each family and their supporters were carried out more or less continuously throughout the remainder of the century, reducing Aberdeenshire to an unparalleled state of lawlessness.
  • Later during the Anglo-Scottish Wars the Clan Gordon fought in the Scottish army which was defeated at the Battle of Pinkie Cleugh in 1547.
  • George Gordon, 4th Earl of Huntly was General of the forces on the Borders who opposed the forces of Henry VIII of England and Gordon had many victorious encounters. He was however later killed at the Battle of Corrichie in 1562 fighting against the forces of James Stuart, Earl of Moray (half-brother to Mary Queen of Scots). Gordon was killed and his son, Sir John, and other members of his family were later executed at Aberdeen.[3]
  • 1571, Feud with Clan Forbes, During the 15th and 16th centuries the Clan was engaged in a long and bitter struggle against the Clan Forbes. By 1571 the feud had got to the point where other clans began taking sides. The Clan Leslie, Clan Irvine and Clan Seton who had their own feuds with the Forbeses joined forces with Clan Gordon. However opponents of the Gordons such as Clan Keith, Clan Fraser and Clan Crichton joined forces with Clan Forbes. The feud culminated in two full scale battles in 1571; The Battle of Tillieangus and the Battle of Craibstone. It was at the Battle of Tillieangus that the 6th Lord Forbes's youngest son known as Black Aurther Forbes was killed. Legend has it that "he stooped down to quench his thirst and one of the Gordons gave him his death blow through an open joint in his armour".
  • 1571, The Castle Druminnor, then Lord Forbes's seat, was itself plundered and sacked and in the same month the Gordons followed this up by the atrocious massacre of 27 Forbeses of Towie at Corgarff. Two acts of Parliament were required to force the clans to lay down their arms but the struggle had drawn the Forbeses deep into debt making it necessary for them to sell much of their land.

17th century and Civil War

  • Between 1615 and 1616 there appears to have been a disagreement of some sort between the Gordons and the neighboring Clan Leask. In all the recorded cases the Gordons appear to have been the aggressors; Adam Gordon, brother of the Laird of Gight assaulted Alexander Leask, then the son of the chief was attacked by George Gordon and finally William Leask of that Ilk was ambushed by John Gordon of Ardlogy and a party of armed men.
  • In 1644 Alexander Bannerman of Pitmedden fought a duel with his cousin, Sir George Gordon of Haddo, and wounded him.
  • During the Civil War at the Battle of Aberdeen in 1644 there were Gordons on both sides. Lord Lewis Gordon led his forces on the side of the Covenanters while Sir Nathaniel Gordon led his forces in support of the Royalists.
  • 1682, A fight over cattle and land with the southern Scottish family the MacCulloch's of Myreton. Following the fatal fight, Sir Godfrey Macculloch fled the country for a time, but returned, only to be apprehended and executed in 1697.

17th century alliances

In the early 17th century Clan Gordon had a number of alliances by marriage or friendship. Among these was a strong bond to the Clan Burnett of Leys. The Gordon crest is emblazoned in plasterwork on the ceiling of the early 17th century great hall of Muchalls Castle built by Alexander Burnett.

18th century and Jacobite risings

In 1715 the fighting force of the Clan Gordon is given by General George Wade as 1000 Claymores.[3] During the Jacobite Uprisings of 1715 - 1716 and 1745 - 1746 there were Gordons on both sides. The 2nd Duke of Gordon followed the Jacobites in 1715, but Cosmo Gordon, 3rd Duke of Gordon supported the British government by the time of the 1745 uprising. While his brother, Lord Lewis Gordon raised two regiments against him and they fought at the Battle of Inverurie (1745), the Battle of Falkirk (1746) and the Battle of Culloden (1746).

British Army regiments

Two regiments named the "Gordon Highlanders" have been raised from the Clan Gordon. The first was the "81st" formed in 1777 by the Hon. Colonel William Gordon, son of the Earl of Aberdeen and was disbanded in 1783. The second was the "92nd" raised by the Marquess of Huntly in 1794.[3]

Chief and arms

Clan profile

  • Gaelic Names: Gordan (Surname), Gordanach (Singular), Na Gordanaich (Collective).
  • Motto: Bydand (Remaining)[9]
  • Motto: Animo non Astutia (By Courage not by craft)[10]
  • Slogan: An Gordonach
  • Pipe Music: "The Gordon's March", "Cock o' the North"
  • Clan badge: Rock Ivy

Tartans

Gordon tartan, as published in the Vestiarium Scoticum of 1842.[11] The tartan is based upon the Black Watch tartan.

Clan Gordon has several recognized tartans:

  • Gordon (Modern)
  • Gordon (Dress)
  • Gordon (Ancient)
  • Gordon (Weathered)
  • Gordon (Muted)
  • Gordon (Red)

The Gordon Modern tartan was used by The Gordon Highlanders, (now The Highlanders (4th Battalion, Royal Regiment of Scotland)) and is sometimes referred to as "Military". The tartan itself is based on the Black Watch military tartan with an additional yellow stripe. The difference between the family sett (modern) and military sett is only in the pleating of the kilt. The military pleat to the stripe, showing a series of stripes across the back of the kilt. The family sett is pleated to the sett, showing the repeat of the pattern in its entirety across the back of the kilt. The Red Gordon tartan is sometimes referred to as "Huntly".

The Gordon Modern tartan was used for many years as the troop tartan for the 10th Finchley (Scottish) Scout Group, London N3.[citation needed]

Castles

Branches

  • Gordon of Haddo
  • Gordon of Lochinvar
  • Gordon of Strathbogie

Septs

  • Ackane
  • Adam(son)
  • Ad(d)i.e.
  • Addison
  • Adkins
  • Aiken
  • Aitchison
  • Aitken
  • Akane
  • Akins
  • Anderson
  • Atkin
  • Atkins(on)
  • Badenoch
  • Barrie
  • Connor
  • Connon
  • Coyle
  • Craig
  • Cromb(i.e.)
  • Cullen
  • Culane
  • Darg(e)
  • Dorward
  • Duff
  • Durward
  • Eadie
  • Ed(d)i.e.
  • Edison
  • Esslemont
  • Garden
  • Gard(i)ner
  • Garioch
  • Garr(o)ick
  • Geddes
  • Gerrie
  • Harrison
  • Haddo
  • Huntl(e)y
  • Jeffrey
  • Jessiman
  • Jopp
  • Jupp
  • La(i)ng
  • Laurie
  • Lawrie
  • Leng
  • Ling
  • Long
  • MacAdam
  • MacGwyverdyne
  • Mallett
  • Manteach
  • Marr
  • Maver
  • McGonigal

See also

Notes and References

  1. ^ The Scottish clans and their tartans
  2. ^ clanchiefs.org
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "The Scottish Clans and Their Tartans". W. & A. K. Johnston Limited. Edinburgh and London. 1886. Page 25.
  4. ^ http://www.geocities.com/clanoliphant/arbroath.html
  5. ^ http://www.burkes-peerage.net/familyhomepage.aspx?FID=0&FN=HUNTLY burkes-peerage.net
  6. ^ The Ballad and the Folk; By David Buchan
  7. ^ The History of Scotland; By Peter Somerset Fry, Fiona Somerset Fry, Rosalind Mitchison
  8. ^ "houseofgordon.com ARMS". http://www.houseofgordon.com/ARMS.html. 
  9. ^ A Dictionary of Mottoes; p.27; By Leslie Gilbert Pine; Published by Routledge, 1983; ISBN 071009339X, ISBN 9780710093394
  10. ^ A Dictionary of Mottoes; p.13; By Leslie Gilbert Pine; Published by Routledge, 1983; ISBN 071009339X, ISBN 9780710093394
  11. ^ Scotland's Forged Tartans, p.68

External links


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