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Class collaboration is a principle of social organization that forms part of Fascist philosophy. It is based upon the belief that the division of society into a hierarchy of social classes is a positive and essential aspect of civilization. In the words of Benito Mussolini, "[Fascism] affirms the irremediable, fruitful and beneficent inequality of men."[1] Given this premise, Fascists conclude that the preservation of social hierarchy is in the interests of all classes, and therefore all classes should collaborate in its defense. Both the lower and the higher classes should accept their roles and perform their respective duties.

In Fascist thought, the principle of class collaboration is combined with strong nationalism. The stability and prosperity of the nation was seen as the ultimate purpose of collaboration between classes.

Opposition to class struggle

Class collaboration is to a large extent the reversal of the Marxist concept of class struggle. Whereas the doctrine of class struggle urges the lower classes to overthrow the ruling class and the existing social order for the purpose of establishing equality, the doctrine of class collaboration urges them to accept inequality as part of the natural state of things and preserve the social order. Furthermore it holds that the State alone 'reconciles' class antagonisms in society, and that the strife which gives rise to Communism can be harmonized. The idea that inequality is natural and that social progress must be resisted is a distinctly reactionary and more conservative view, while more radical fascists such as the Falangists and early Italian fascists called for a social-revolution to overcome the old injustices which were holding back their respective nations from becoming truly great. That in itself is a great divide between the radical fascists and the conservative autocratic ones.

Some Marxists use the term "class collaboration" as a pejorative term describing working class organisations that do not pursue class struggle.


  1. ^ "The Doctrine of Fascism". Enciclopedia Italiana. Rome: Istituto Giovanni Treccani. 1932.  

See also



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