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The Clausius–Mossotti equation is named after the Italian physicist Ottaviano-Fabrizio Mossotti, whose 1850 book analyzed the relationship between the dielectric constants of two different media, and the German physicist Rudolf Clausius, who gave the formula explicitly in his 1879 book in the context not of dielectric constants but of indices of refraction. The same formula also arises in the context of conductivity, in which it is known as Maxwell's formula. It arises yet again in the context of refractivity, in which it is known as the Lorentz–Lorenz equation.


Clausius–Mossotti factor

The Clausius–Mossotti factor can be expressed in terms of complex permittivities:

K(\omega) = \frac{\epsilon^*_p - \epsilon^*_m}{\epsilon^*_p + 2\epsilon^*_m}
\epsilon^* = \epsilon + \frac{\sigma}{i\omega} = \epsilon - \frac{i\sigma}{\omega}


In the context of electrokinetic manipulation, the real part of the Clausius-Mossotti factor is a determining factor for the dielectrophoretic force on a particle, whereas the imaginary part is a determining factor for the electrorotational torque on the particle. Other factors are, of course, the geometries of the particle to be manipulated and the electric field.

Richard Feynman on the Clausius–Mossotti Equation

In his Lectures on Physics, (Vol.2, Ch32), Richard Feynman has a background discussion deriving the Clausius-Mosotti Equation, in reference to the Index of Refraction for dense materials. He starts with the derivation of an equation for the index of refraction for gases, and then shows how this must be modified for dense materials, modifying it, because in dense materials, there are also electric fields produced by other nearby atoms, creating local fields. In essence, Feynman is saying that for dense materials the polarization of a material is proportional to its electric field, but that it has a different constant of proportionality than for that of a gas. When this constant is corrected for a dense material, by taking into account the local fields of nearby atoms, you end up with the Clausius-Mosotti Equation.[1] Feynman states the Clausius-Mosotti equation as follows:

N(\alpha) = 3* \frac{n^2 - 1}{n^2 + 2}


  • N is the number of particles per unit volume of the capacitor
  •  \ \alpha is the atomic polarizability
  •  \ n is the refractive index

Feynman discusses "atomic polarizability" and explains it in these terms: When there is a sinusoidal electric field acting on a material, there is an induced dipole moment per unit volume which is proportional to the electric field - with a proportionality constant α that depends on the frequency. This constant is a complex number, meaning that the polarization does not exactly follow the electric field, but may be shifted in phase to some extent. At any rate, there is a polarization per unit volume whose magnitude is proportional to the strength of the electric field.

Dielectric Constant & Polarizability

The polarizability α, of an atom is defined in terms of the local electric field at the atom:

 \ \rho = \ \alpha * E _{local}


  •  \ \rho is the dipole moment
  •  \ E _{local} is the Local Electrical Field at the atom

The polarizability is an atomic property, but the dielectric constant will depend on the manner in which the atoms are assembled to form a crystal. For a non-spherical atom, α will be a tensor.[2]

The polarization of a crystal may be expressed approximately as the product of the polarizabilities of the atoms times the local electric field:

Now, to relate the dielectric constant to the polarizability, which is what the Clausius-Mosotti equation (or relation) is all about[3], you must consider that the results will depend on the relation that holds between the macroscopic electric field and the local electric field.

 P = \sum_{j} N_j\ \rho_j = \sum_{j} N_j \alpha_j * E _{local}(j)


  •  \ N_j is the concentration
  •  \ \alpha_j is the polarizability of atoms, j
  •  \ E _{local}(j) Local Electrical Field at atom sites  \ j


  1. ^ Feynman Lectures on Physics - Volume 2, Chapter 32, section 3 (ISBN 0-201-50064-7 (1989 commemorative hardcover three-volume set))
  2. ^ Introduction to Solid State Physics/Charles Kittel. - 7th ed. (ISBN 0-471-11181-3)
  3. ^ Introduction to Solid State Physics/Charles Kittel. - 7th ed. (ISBN 0-471-11181-3) Chapter 13
  • Konstantin Z. Markov, Elementary Micromechanics of Heterogeneous Media, Chapter 1 in the collection: Heterogeneous Media: Modelling and Simulation, edited by Konstantin Z. Markov and Luigi Preziosi, Birkhauser Boston, 1999, pp. 1–162.
  • Michael Pycraft Hughes, AC Electrokinetics: Applications for Nanotechnology, Nanotechnology 11, 2000, pp. 124–132.
  • J. Gimsa (2001): Characterization of particles and biological cells by AC-electrokinetics, in: A.V. Delgado (ed.) Interfacial Electrokinetics and Electrophoresis. Marcel Dekker Inc., New York, ISBN 0-8247-0603-X, pp. 369–400.
  • Feynman Lectures on Physics, Volume 2, ch 32 (Refractive Index of Dense Materials), section 3.


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