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The Right Honourable
 The Earl Attlee 
KG OM CH FRS PC


In office
27 July 1945 – 26 October 1951
Monarch George VI
Deputy Herbert Morrison
Preceded by Winston Churchill
Succeeded by Winston Churchill

In office
19 February 1942 – 23 May 1945
Prime Minister Winston Churchill
Preceded by Office Created
Succeeded by Herbert Morrison

In office
25 October 1935 – 22 May 1940
Monarch George VI
Prime Minister Stanley Baldwin
Neville Chamberlain
Winston Churchill
Preceded by George Lansbury
Succeeded by Hastings Lees-Smith
In office
23 May 1945 – 26 July 1945
Monarch George VI
Prime Minister Winston Churchill
Preceded by Arthur Greenwood
Succeeded by Winston Churchill
In office
26 October 1951 – November 1955
Monarch George VI
Elizabeth II
Prime Minister Winston Churchill
Anthony Eden
Preceded by Winston Churchill
Succeeded by Hugh Gaitskell

In office
15 February 1942 – 24 September 1943
Preceded by Viscount Cranborne
Succeeded by Viscount Cranborne

In office
24 September 1943 – 23 May 1945
Preceded by Sir John Anderson
Succeeded by The Lord Woolton

In office
24 September 1943 – 23 May 1945
Preceded by Sir Kingsley Wood
Succeeded by Sir Stafford Cripps

In office
23 May 1930 – 13 March 1931
Preceded by Sir Oswald Mosley
Succeeded by The Lord Ponsonby of Shulbrede

Born 3 January 1883(1883-01-03)
London, England, UK
Died 8 October 1967 (aged 84)
London, England, UK
Nationality British
Political party Labour
Spouse(s) Violet Attlee
Alma mater University College, Oxford
Profession Lawyer, Soldier (served in World War I as a Major)
Religion Agnostic
Signature

Clement Richard Attlee, 1st Earl Attlee, KG, OM, CH, PC, FRS (3 January 1883 – 8 October 1967) was a British Labour politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1945 to 1951, and as Leader of the Labour Party from 1935 to 1955. He was Deputy Prime Minister under Winston Churchill in the wartime coalition government, before leading the Labour Party to a landslide election victory over Churchill's Conservative Party at the 1945 general election. He was the first Labour Prime Minister to serve a full Parliamentary term and the first to have a majority in Parliament.

The government he led put in place the post-war settlement, based upon the assumption that full employment would be maintained by Keynesian policies, and that a greatly enlarged system of social services would be created – aspirations that had been outlined in the wartime Beveridge Report. Within this context, his government undertook the nationalisation of major industries and public utilities as well as the creation of the National Health Service. After initial Conservative opposition to Keynesian fiscal policy, this settlement was broadly accepted by all parties[1] until Margaret Thatcher became leader of the Conservative Party in the 1970s and neoliberalism became mainstream.

His government also presided over the decolonisation of a large part of the British Empire when India, Pakistan, Burma, Sri Lanka and Jordan obtained their independence. The British Mandate of Palestine also came to an end with the creation of Israel on the day of British withdrawal.

In 2004, he was voted the greatest British prime minister of the 20th century in a poll of 139 professors organised by MORI.[2]

Contents

Early life and family

He was born in Putney, London, into a middle-class family, the seventh of eight children. His father was Henry Attlee (1841–1908), a solicitor, and his mother was Ellen Bravery Watson (1847–1920). He was educated at Northaw School, Haileybury and University College, Oxford, where he graduated with a Second Class Honours BA in Modern History in 1904. Attlee then trained as a lawyer, and was called to the Bar in 1906. [3]

From 1906 to 1909, Attlee worked as manager of Haileybury House, a club for working-class boys in Limehouse in the East End of London run by his old school. Prior to this, his political views had been conservative. However, he was shocked by the poverty and deprivation he saw while working with slum children. He came to the view that private charity would never be sufficient to alleviate poverty, and only massive action and income redistribution by the state would have any serious effect. This caused him to convert to socialism. [3] He joined the Independent Labour Party in 1908, and became active in London local politics.

In 1909 he worked briefly as secretary for Beatrice Webb, and from 1909 to 1910 he worked as secretary for Toynbee Hall. [3] In 1911 he took up a government job as an 'official explainer', touring the country to explain David Lloyd George's National Insurance Act. He spent the summer of that year touring Essex and Somerset on a bicycle, explaining the Act at public meetings. [3]

Attlee became a lecturer at the London School of Economics in 1912, but promptly applied for a Commission in August 1914 for World War I. [3]

Military service during World War I

During World War I, Attlee was given the rank of captain and served with the South Lancashire Regiment in the Gallipoli Campaign in Turkey. After a period of fighting in the heat, sand, and flies he became ill with dysentery and was sent to hospital in Malta to recover. This may have saved his life, as while he was in hospital he missed the Battle of Sari Bair in which many of his comrades were killed.

Attlee had gained a reputation among his superiors as a competent leader. When he returned to the front, he was informed that his company had been chosen to hold the final lines when Gallipoli was evacuated. He was the last-but-one man to be evacuated from Suvla Bay (the last being General F.S. Maude). [3]

The Gallipoli campaign had been masterminded by Winston Churchill. Attlee believed that it was a bold strategy, which could have been successful if it had been better implemented. This gave him an admiration for Churchill as a military strategist, which improved their working relationship in later years. [3]

He later served in the Mesopotamian Campaign in Iraq, where he was badly wounded at El Hannah after being hit in the leg by shrapnel from an exploding shell while taking enemy trenches. He was sent back to England to recover, and spent most of 1917 training soldiers. He was sent to France in June 1918 to serve on the Western Front for the last months of the war. [3]

In 1917 he had been promoted to the rank of Major, and continued to be known as "Major Attlee" for much of the inter-war period.

His decision to fight in the war caused a rift between him and his older brother Tom Attlee, who as a pacifist and a conscientious objector spent much of the war in prison. [3] After the war, he returned to teaching at the London School of Economics until 1923.

Marriage and children

Attlee met Violet Millar on a trip to Italy in 1921. Within a few weeks of their return they became engaged and were married at Christ Church, Hampstead on 10 January 1922. [3] Theirs would be a devoted marriage until her death in 1964. Their four children were Lady Janet Helen (b. 1923), Lady Felicity Ann (1925–2007), Martin Richard (1927–91) and Lady Alison Elizabeth (b. 1930).

Early political career

Local politics

Attlee returned to local politics in the immediate post-war period, becoming mayor of the Metropolitan Borough of Stepney in 1919, one of London's poorest inner-city boroughs. During his time as mayor, the council undertook action to tackle slum landlords who charged high rents but refused to spend money on keeping their property in habitable condition. The council served and enforced legal orders on house-owners to repair their property. It also appointed health visitors and sanitary inspectors, and reduced the infant mortality rate. [3]

In 1920, while mayor, he wrote his first book, "The Social Worker", which set out many of the principles which informed his political philosophy and were to underpin the actions of his government in latter years. [3] The book attacked the idea that looking after the poor could be left to voluntary action. He wrote:

'Charity is a cold grey loveless thing. If a rich man wants to help the poor, he should pay his taxes gladly, not dole out money at a whim'.

He went on to write:

'In a civilised community, although it may be composed of self-reliant individuals, there will be some persons who will be unable at some period of their lives to look after themselves, and the question of what is to happen to them may be solved in three ways - they may be neglected, they may be cared for by the organised community as of right, or they may be left to the goodwill of individuals in the community. The first way is intolerable, and as for the third: Charity is only possible without loss of dignity between equals. A right established by law, such as that to an old age pension, is less galling than an allowance made by a rich man to a poor one, dependent on his view of the recipient’s character, and terminable at his caprice'. [3]

He strongly supported the Poplar Rates Rebellion led by George Lansbury in 1921. This put him into conflict with many of the leaders of the London Labour Party, including Herbert Morrison.[4]

Member of Parliament

At the 1922 general election, Attlee became the Member of Parliament (MP) for the constituency of Limehouse in Stepney. He helped Ramsay MacDonald, whom at the time he admired, get elected as Labour Party leader at the 1922 Labour leadership election, a decision which he later regretted. [3] He served as Ramsay MacDonald's parliamentary private secretary for the brief 1922 parliament.

His first taste of ministerial office came in 1924, when he served as Under-Secretary of State for War in the short-lived first Labour government, led by MacDonald. [3]

Attlee opposed the 1926 General Strike, believing that strike action should not be used as a political weapon. However, when it happened he did not attempt to undermine it. At the time of the strike he was chairman of the Stepney Borough Electricity Committee. He negotiated a deal with the Electrical Trade Union that they would continue to supply power to hospitals, but would end supplies to factories. One firm, Scammell and Nephew Ltd, took a civil action against Attlee and the other Labour members of the committee (although not against the Conservative members who had also supported this). The court found against Attlee and his fellow councillors and they were ordered to pay £300 damages. The decision was later reversed on appeal, but the financial problems caused by the episode almost forced Attlee out of politics. [3]

In 1927 he was appointed a member of the multi-party Simon Commission, a Royal Commission set up to examine the possibility of granting self-rule to India. As a result of the time he needed to devote to the commission, and contrary to a promise made to Attlee by MacDonald to induce him to serve on the commission, he was not initially offered a ministerial post in the Second Labour Government. [3] However, his unsought service on the Commission was to equip Attlee (who was later to have to decide the future of India as Prime Minister) with a thorough exposure to India and many of its political leaders.

In 1930, Labour MP Oswald Mosley left the party after its rejection of his proposals for solving the unemployment problem. Attlee was given Mosley's post of Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster. He was Postmaster-General at the time of the 1931 crisis, during which most of the party's leaders lost their seats. During the course of the second Labour government, Attlee had become increasingly disillusioned by Ramsay MacDonald, whom he came to regard as vain and incompetent, and later wrote scathingly of him in his autobiography. [3][5]

Opposition during the 1930s

Deputy Leader of the Labour Party

After the downfall of the second Labour government, the 1931 General Election was held. The election was a disaster for the Labour Party, which lost over 200 seats; most of the party's senior figures lost their seats, including Arthur Henderson the party leader. George Lansbury and Attlee were among the few surviving Labour MPs who had served in government. Accordingly, Lansbury became leader of the party and Attlee became deputy leader. [3]

Attlee served as acting leader for nine months from December 1933, after Lansbury fractured his thigh in an accident. [3] This raised his public profile. During this period, financial problems again almost forced Attlee to quit politics, as his wife was ill, and there was then no separate salary for the Leader of the Opposition. He was persuaded to stay on, however, by Stafford Cripps, a wealthy socialist who agreed to pay him an additional salary. [3]

Leader of the Opposition

George Lansbury, a convinced pacifist, resigned as leader at the 1935 Labour Party conference, after the party voted in favour of sanctions against Italy for its aggression against Abyssinia, a policy which Lansbury strongly opposed. With a general election looming, the Parliamentary Labour Party then appointed Attlee as interim leader, on the understanding that a leadership election would be held after the general election. [3]

Attlee led Labour through the 1935 general election, which saw the party stage a partial recovery from its disastrous performance in 1931, gaining over one hundred seats. In the post-election leadership contest held in November 1935, Attlee was opposed by Herbert Morrison and Arthur Greenwood. Morrison was seen as the favourite by many, but was distrusted by many sections of the party, especially the left. Arthur Greenwood's leadership bid was hampered by his alcohol problem. Attlee came first in both the first and second ballots, and subsequently retained the leadership, a post which he would retain until 1955. [3]

Throughout the 1920s and most of the 1930s, the Labour Party's official policy, supported by Attlee, was to oppose rearmament, and support collective security under the League of Nations. However, with the rising threat from Nazi Germany, and the ineffectiveness of the League of Nations, this policy lost credibility. By 1937, Labour had jettisoned its pacifist position and came to support rearmament and oppose Neville Chamberlain's policy of appeasement. [3]

In 1937 Attlee visited Spain and visited the British Battalion of the International Brigades fighting in the Spanish Civil War. [3] One of the companies was named the 'Major Attlee Company' in his honour.

Deputy Prime Minister

Attlee as Lord Privy Seal, visiting a munitions factory in 1941

Attlee remained opposition leader when war broke out in September 1939. The disastrous Norwegian campaign resulted in a motion of no confidence in the government.[6] Although Chamberlain survived this, the reputation of his administration was so badly damaged that it was clear that a coalition government was necessary. The crisis coincided with the Labour Party Conference. Even if Attlee had been prepared to serve under Chamberlain (in a "national emergency government"), he would not have been able to carry the party with him. Consequently, Chamberlain tendered his resignation, and Labour and the Liberals entered a coalition government led by Winston Churchill.[4]

In the World War II coalition government, three interconnected committees ran the war. Churchill chaired the War Cabinet and the Defence Committee. Attlee was his regular deputy in these committees, and answered for the government in parliament when Churchill was absent. Attlee chaired the third body, the Lord President's Committee, which ran the civil side of the war. As Churchill was most concerned with executing the war, the arrangement suited both men.[4]

Only he and Churchill remained in the war cabinet from the formation of the Government of National Unity to the 1945 election. Attlee was Lord Privy Seal (1940–42), Deputy Prime Minister (1942–45), Dominions Secretary (1942–43), and Lord President of the Council (1943–45). Attlee supported Churchill in his continuation of Britain's resistance after the French capitulation in 1940, and proved a loyal ally to Churchill throughout the conflict.[4]

1945 general election

Following the end of the war in Europe in May 1945, Attlee and Churchill wanted the coalition government to last until Japan had been defeated. However, Herbert Morrison argued that the party would not accept this, and the Labour National Executive Committee agreed with him. Churchill responded by resigning as coalition Prime Minister and decided to call an election at once.[4]

The war set in motion profound social changes within Britain, and led to a popular desire for social reform. This mood was epitomised in the Beveridge Report. The report assumed that the maintenance of full employment would be the aim of postwar governments, and that this would provide the basis for the welfare state. Immediately on its release, it sold hundreds of thousands of copies. All major parties were committed to this aim, but perhaps Attlee and Labour were seen by the electorate as the best candidates to follow it through.

Labour campaigned on the theme of "Let Us Face the Future" and positioned themselves as the party best placed to rebuild Britain after the war, while the Conservatives campaign centred around Churchill. With the hero status of Churchill, few expected a Labour victory. However Churchill made some errors during the campaign: His suggestion during a radio broadcast, that a Labour government would require "some form of gestapo" to implement their socialist policies, was widely seen as being in bad taste, and backfired.[4]

The results of the election when they were announced on 26 July, came as a surprise to almost everyone, including Attlee: Labour had been swept to power on a landslide, winning just under 50% of the vote, to the Conservatives' 36%. Labour won 393 seats, giving them a majority of 147.

The story goes that when Attlee visited King George VI at Buckingham Palace to kiss hands, the notoriously laconic Attlee and the notoriously tongue-tied George VI stood for some minutes in silence, before Attlee finally volunteered the remark "I've won the election." The King replied "I know. I heard it on the Six O'Clock News."[7]

Prime minister

Attlee meeting King George VI after Labour's election victory

Now Prime Minister, Attlee appointed Ernest Bevin as Foreign Secretary; Hugh Dalton was appointed Chancellor of the Exchequer (it had widely been expected to be the other way around). Stafford Cripps became President of the Board of Trade, while Herbert Morrison was given the post of Deputy Prime Minister and given overall control of Labour's nationalisation programme. Aneurin Bevan became Minister of Health, whilst Ellen Wilkinson, the only woman to serve in Attlee's government, became Minister of Education.

Domestic policy

Health and Welfare reforms

In domestic policy, the party had clear aims. Attlee's first Health Secretary, Aneurin Bevan, fought against the general disapproval of the medical establishment in creating the British National Health Service. Although there are often disputes about its organisation and funding, British parties to this day must still voice their general support for the NHS in order to remain electable[8].

The government set about implementing William Beveridge's plans for the creation of a 'cradle to grave' welfare state, and set in place an entirely new system of social security. Among the most important pieces of legislation was the National Insurance Act 1946, in which people in work paid a flat rate of national insurance. In return, they (and the wives of male contributors) were eligible for flat-rate pensions, sickness benefit, unemployment benefit, and funeral benefit. Various other pieces of legislation provided for child benefit and support for people with no other source of income.[9 ]

Nationalisation

Attlee's government also carried out their manifesto commitment for nationalisation of basic industries and public utillities. The Bank of England and civil aviation were nationalised in 1946. Coal mining, the railways, road haulage, canals and cable and wireless were nationalised in 1947, electricity and gas followed in 1948. The steel industry was finally nationalised in 1951. By 1951 about 20% of the British economy had been taken into public ownership.[9 ] Other changes included the creation of a National Parks system, the introduction of the Town and Country Planning system, and the repeal of the Trades Disputes Act 1927.

The economy

Nevertheless, the most significant problem remained the economy; the war effort had left Britain nearly bankrupt. The war had cost Britain about a quarter of its national wealth. Overseas investments had been wound up to pay for the war. The transition to a peacetime economy, and the maintaining of strategic military commitments abroad led to continuous and severe problems with the balance of trade. This meant that strict rationing of food and other essential goods were continued in the post war period, to force a reduction in consumption in an effort to limit imports, boost exports and stabilise the Pound Sterling so that Britain could trade its way out of its crisis.

The abrupt ending of the American Lend-Lease program in August 1945 almost caused a crisis. This was mitigated by the Anglo-American loan negotiated in December 1945 by John Maynard Keynes, which provided some respite. The conditions attached to the loan included making the pound fully convertible to the dollar. When this was introduced in July 1947, it led to a currency crisis and convertibility had to be suspended after just five weeks.[9 ] Britain benefited from the American Marshall Aid program from 1948, and the economic situation improved significantly. However another balance of payments crisis in 1949 forced Chancellor of the Exchequer Stafford Cripps into devaluation of the pound.[9 ]

Despite these problems, one of the main achievements of Attlee's government was the maintenance of near full employment. The government maintained most of the wartime controls over the economy, including control over the allocation of materials and manpower, and unemployment rarely rose above 500,000, or 3% of the total workforce.[9 ] In fact labour shortages proved to be more of a problem. One area where the government was not quite as successful was in housing, which was also the responsibility of Aneurin Bevan. The government had a target to build 400,000 new houses a year to replace those which had been destroyed in the war, but shortages of materials and manpower meant that less than half this number were built.

1947 crisis

1947 proved to be a particularly difficult year for the government; an exceptionally cold winter that year caused coal mines to freeze and cease production, creating widespread power cuts and food shortages. The crisis led to an unsuccessful plot by Hugh Dalton to replace Attlee as Prime Minister with Ernest Bevin. Later that year Stafford Cripps tried to persuade Attlee to stand aside for Bevin. However these plots petered out after Bevin refused to co-operate. [3] Later that year, Hugh Dalton resigned as Chancellor after inadvertently leaking details of the budget to a journalist, he was replaced by Cripps.

Relations with the Press and Royal Family

Attlee's government faced constant hostility from Conservative supporting sections of society, including the Conservative supporting press. The Sunday Times journalist James Margach, wrote of the Attlee years; "I have never known the Press so consistently and irresponsibly political, slanted and prejudiced". As early as 1946 the Attorney-General Sir Hartley Shawcross attacked "the campaign of calumny and misrepresentation which the Tory Party and the Tory stooge press has directed at the Labour government. Freedom of the press does not mean freedom to tell lies". In 1946 the government set up a Royal Commission on the press which eventually led to the setting up of the Press Council in 1953. [3]

Relations with the Royal Family were also strained. A letter from Queen Elizabeth (later the Queen Mother), dated 17 May 1947, showed "her decided lack of enthusiasm for the socialist government" and describes the British electorate as "poor people, so many half-educated and bemused" for electing Attlee over Winston Churchill, whom she saw as a war hero. That said, according to Lord Wyatt, this was to be expected as the Queen Mother was "the most right-wing member of the Royal Family."[10]

Foreign policy

Clement Attlee (left) with President Harry S. Truman and Joseph Stalin at the Potsdam Conference

Postwar Europe and the Cold War

In foreign affairs, Attlee's cabinet was concerned with four issues: postwar Europe, the onset of the cold war, the establishment of the United Nations, and decolonisation. The first two were closely related, and Attlee was assisted in these matters by Ernest Bevin. Attlee attended the later stages of the Potsdam Conference in the company of Truman and Stalin.

In the immediate aftermath of the war, the Government faced the challenge of managing relations with Britain's former war-time ally, Joseph Stalin and the Soviet Union. Attlee's Foreign Secretary, the former trade union leader Ernest Bevin, was passionately anti-communist, based largely on his experience of fighting communist influence in the trades union movement. Bevin's initial approach to the USSR as Foreign Secretary has been described by historian Kenneth O. Morgan as "wary and suspicious, but not automatically hostile".[11]

In an early "good-will" gesture that has been criticised more recently, the Attlee government allowed the Soviets access, under the terms of a 1946 UK-USSR Trade Agreement, to several Rolls-Royce Nene jet engines. The Soviets, who at the time were well behind the West in jet technology, reverse-engineered the Nene, and installed their own version in the MiG-15 interceptor, used to good effect against US-UK forces in the subsequent Korean War, as well as in several later MiG models.[12]

After Stalin took political control of most of Eastern Europe and began to subvert other governments in the Balkans, Attlee's and Bevin's worst fears of Soviet intentions were borne out. The Attlee government then became instrumental in the creation of the successful NATO defence alliance to protect Western Europe against any Soviet aggression.[13] In a crucial contribution to the economic stability of post-War Europe, Attlee's cabinet was instrumental in promoting the American Marshall Plan for the economic recovery of Europe.

A group of left wing Labour MPs organised under the banner of "Keep Left", urged the government to steer a middle way between the two emerging superpowers, and advocated the creation of 'third force' of European powers to stand between the USA and USSR. However, deteriorating relations between Britain and the USSR, and Britain's economic reliance on America, steered policy towards supporting America.[9 ]

Fear of Soviet and American intentions led, in January 1947, to a secret meeting of senior cabinet ministers, where it was decided to press ahead with the development of Britain's independent nuclear deterrent, an issue which later caused a split in the Labour Party, although the first successful test did not occur until 1952, after Attlee had left office.[9 ]

In 1950 American president Harry S. Truman said that atomic weapons may be used in the Korean War. Attlee became concerned with the power America possessed and therefore called a meeting of some foreign affairs ministers in order to discuss the issue that had evolved.

Foreign Secretary Ernest Bevin (left) with Clement Attlee in 1945

Decolonisation

Attlee's government was responsible for the first significant decolonisation of part of the British Empire -- India. Attlee appointed Lord Louis Mountbatten Viceroy of India, and agreed to Mountbatten's request for plenipotentiary powers for negotiating Indian independence. In view of implacable demands by the political leadership of the Islamic community in British India for a Muslim homeland, Mountbatten conceded the partition of India between a Hindu-majority India and a predominantly Muslim Pakistan (which at the time incorporated East Pakistan, now Bangladesh). Partition was accomplished at the cost of large-scale population movements and heavy communal bloodshed on both sides. The independence of Burma and Ceylon was also negotiated around this time. Some of the new countries became British Dominions, the genesis of the modern Commonwealth of Nations.[9 ]

One of the most urgent problems concerned the future of the Palestine Mandate. British policies there were perceived by the Zionist movement and the Truman administration as pro-Arab and anti-Jewish, and in the face of armed revolt of Jewish militant groups and increasing violence of the local Arab population Britain had found itself unable to control events. This was a very unpopular commitment and the evacuation of British troops and subsequent handing over of the issue to the UN was widely supported by the public.[9 ]

The government's policies with regard to the other colonies, however, particularly those in Africa, were very different. A major military base was built in Kenya, and the African colonies came under an unprecedented degree of direct control from London, as development schemes were implemented with a view to helping solve Britain's desperate post-war balance of payments crisis, and raising African living standards. This 'new colonialism' was, however, generally a failure: in some cases, such as a then-infamous Tanganyika groundnut scheme, spectacularly so.[9 ]

Demise of Attlee's government

The Labour Party was returned to power in the general election of 1950 with a much reduced parliamentary majority under the first-past-the-post voting system, despite an increase in the popular vote. It was at this time that a degree of Conservative opposition recovered at the expense of the declining Liberal Party.

By 1951, the Attlee government was looking increasingly exhausted, with several of its most important ministers having died or ailing. The party split in 1951 over the austerity budget brought in by Hugh Gaitskell to pay for the cost of Britain's participation in the Korean War: Aneurin Bevan, architect of the National Health Service (NHS), resigned to protest against the new charges for "teeth and spectacles" introduced by the budget, and was joined in this action by the later prime minister, Harold Wilson.[9 ]

Labour lost the general election of 1951 to Churchill's renewed Conservatives, despite polling more votes than in the 1945 election and more votes nationwide than the Conservative party, and, indeed, the most votes Labour had ever won.

His short list of Resignation Honours announced in November 1951 included an Earldom for William Jowitt, Lord Chancellor.[14]

Return to opposition and retirement

Following the defeat in 1951, Attlee continued to lead the party in opposition. His last four years as leader are widely seen as one of the Labour Party's weaker periods.[9 ] The party became split between its right wing led by Hugh Gaitskell and its left led by Aneurin Bevan. One of his main reasons for staying on as leader was to frustrate the leadership ambitions of Herbert Morrison,[9 ] whom Attlee disliked for political and personal reasons. Attlee had reportedly at one time favoured Bevan to succeed him as leader, [3] but this became problematic after the latter split the party.

Attlee, now aged 72, contested the 1955 general election against Anthony Eden, which saw the Conservative majority increase. He retired as leader on 7 December 1955, having led the party for over twenty years, and was succeeded by Hugh Gaitskell.[4]

He retired from the Commons and was elevated to the peerage to take his seat in the House of Lords as Earl Attlee and Viscount Prestwood on 16 December 1955. In 1958 he was, along with Bertrand Russell, one of a group of notables to establish the Homosexual Law Reform Society, which campaigned for the decriminalization of homosexual acts in private by consenting adults, a reform which was voted through parliament nine years later.

He attended Churchill's funeral in January 1965 - elderly and frail by then, he had to remain seated in the freezing cold as the coffin was carried, having tired himself out by standing at the rehearsal the previous day.

He lived to see Labour return to power under Harold Wilson in 1964, but also to see his old constituency of Walthamstow West fall to the Conservatives in a by-election in September 1967. Clement Attlee died of pneumonia at the age of 84 at Westminster Hospital on 8 October 1967. [3]

On his death, the title passed to his son Martin Richard Attlee, 2nd Earl Attlee (1927–91). It is now held by Clement Attlee's grandson John Richard Attlee, 3rd Earl Attlee. The third earl (a member of the Conservative Party) retained his seat in the Lords as one of the hereditary peers to remain under an amendment to Labour's 1999 House of Lords Act.

When Attlee died, his estate was sworn for probate purposes at a value of £7,295, a relatively modest sum for so prominent a figure.

His ashes are buried in the nave of Westminster Abbey, close to those of Lord Passfield and Ernest Bevin.

Legacy

"A modest man, but then he has so much to be modest about", is a quote about Attlee that is very commonly ascribed to Churchill (although Churchill in fact respected Attlee's service in the War Cabinet).[15] Attlee's modesty and quiet manner hid a great deal that has only come to light with historical reappraisal. In terms of the machinery of government, he was one of the most businesslike and effective of all the British prime ministers. Indeed he is widely praised by his successors, both Labour and Conservative.

His leadership style of consensual government, acting as a chairman rather than a president, won him much praise from historians and politicians alike. Even Thatcherites confess to admiring him. Christopher Soames, a Cabinet Minister under Thatcher, remarked that "Mrs. Thatcher was not really running a team. Every time you have a Prime Minister who wants to make all the decisions, it mainly leads to bad results. Attlee didn't. That's why he was so damn good."[16] Even Thatcher herself wrote in her 1995 memoirs, which charted her beginnings in Grantham to her victory in the 1979 General Election, that she admired Attlee saying: "Of Clement Attlee, however, I was an admirer. He was a serious man and a patriot. Quite contrary to the general tendency of politicians in the 1990s, he was all substance and no show".

His administration presided over the successful transition from a wartime economy to peacetime, tackling problems of demobilisation, shortages of foreign currency, and adverse deficits in trade balances and government expenditure. Further domestic policies that he brought about included the establishment of the National Health Service and post-war Welfare State, which became key to the reconstruction of post-war Britain.

Statue of Attlee outside Limehouse Library

In foreign affairs, he did much to assist with the post-war economic recovery of Europe, though this did not lead to a realisation that this was where Britain's future might lie. He proved a loyal ally of America at the onset of the cold war. Because of his style of leadership it was not he but Ernest Bevin who masterminded foreign policy.

It was Attlee's government that decided Britain should have an independent atomic weapons programme, and work began on it in 1947. Bevin, Attlee's Foreign Secretary, famously stated that "We've got to have it and it's got to have a bloody Union Jack on it." However, the first operational British A Bomb was not detonated until October 1952, about one year after Attlee had left office.

Though a socialist, Attlee still believed in the British Empire of his youth, an institution that, on the whole, he thought was a power for good in the world. Nevertheless, he saw that a large part of it needed to be self-governing. Using the Dominions of Canada, Australia, and New Zealand as a model, he began the transformation of the Empire into the Commonwealth.

His greatest achievement, surpassing many of these, was, perhaps, the establishment of a political and economic consensus about the governance of Britain that all parties, whether Labour, Conservative or Liberal subscribed to for three decades, fixing the arena of political discourse until the later 1970s.

Image

Although possessed of a genial personality, Clement Attlee was notably taciturn in his relations with the Press, sometimes offering only monosyllabic answers to reporters' questions. He was seldom referred to by his forenames; usually he was referred to as "C. R. Attlee" or "Mr. Attlee."

Appearance in popular culture

Art

Literature

  • Attlee composed this limerick about himself to demonstrate how he was often underestimated:-
Few thought he was even a starter.
There were many who thought themselves smarter.
But he finished PM,
CH and OM,
An earl and a Knight of the Garter.
Source: Jones, B., Barry Jones' Dictionary of World Biography, 1998
  • An alternative version also exists, which may reflect Attlee's use of English more closely:-
There were few who thought him a starter,
Many who thought themselves smarter.
But he ended PM,
CH and OM,
an Earl and a Knight of the Garter.
Source: Kenneth Harris, "Attlee" (Weidenfeld and Nicholson, London, 1982)

Music

  • Lord Beginner's song "General Election" was inspired by Attlee's victory in the 1950 British general election.

Sport

Drama

  • Played by Patrick Troughton in Edward & Mrs. Simpson.
  • Appeared as a character in the play Tom and Clem, by Stephen Churchett. In the original production in 1997, Alec McCowen played Attlee, and Michael Gambon played Tom Driberg.
  • Played by Alan David in the final episode of the BBC sitcom Goodnight Sweetheart,
  • The main character in the BBC Radio 4 Saturday Play That Man Attlee. Broadcast on 15 September 2007, it was written by Robin Glendinning, with Bill Wallis playing Attlee.
  • Played by Richard Attlee, his grandson, in Jerome Vincent’s 'Stuffing Their Mouths with Gold'; the story of how the National Health Service came to be. Broadcast on Radio 4 on 4 July 2008, the day before the 60th anniversary of the founding of the NHS.

Attlee's cabinet 1945–50

Changes

Attlee's cabinet 1950–51

In February 1950, a substantial reshuffle took place following the General Election:

Changes

  • October 1950: Hugh Gaitskell succeeds Sir Stafford Cripps as Chancellor of the Exchequer.
  • January 1951: Aneurin Bevan succeeds George Isaacs as Minister of Labour and National Service. Bevan's successor as Minister of Health is not in the cabinet. Hugh Dalton's post is renamed Minister of Local Government and Planning.
  • March 1951: Herbert Morrison succeeds Ernest Bevin as Foreign Secretary. Lord Addison succeeds Morrison as Lord President. Bevin succeeds Addison as Lord Privy Seal. James Chuter Ede succeeds Morrison as Leader of the House of Commons whilst remaining Home Secretary.
  • April 1951: Richard Stokes succeeds Ernest Bevin as Lord Privy Seal. Alf Robens succeeds Aneurin Bevan (resigned) as Minister of Labour and National Service. Sir Hartley Shawcross succeeds Harold Wilson (resigned) as President of the Board of Trade.

Further reading

Clement Attlee published his memoirs, As it Happened, in 1954.

Francis Williams' A Prime Minister Remembers, based on interviews with Attlee, was published in 1961.

Attlee's other publications include:

The Social Worker (1920); The Town Councillor (1925); The Will and the Way to Socialism (1935); The Labour Party in Perspective (1937); Collective Security Under the United Nations (1958); Empire into Commonwealth (1961).

Biographies include:

  • Roy Jenkins, Mr Attlee (1948);
  • Kenneth Harris, Attlee (1982);
  • Trevor Burridge, Clement Attlee: A Political Biography, (1985);
  • Francis Beckett, Clem Attlee (1997).

Biographies of Attlee and of his Cabinet can be found in:

  • Greg Rosen (ed) Dictionary of Labour Biography. Politicos Publishing. ISBN 1902301188

The entry on Attlee in the Dictionary of National Biography (DNB) was prepared by Maurice Shock, who as a Fellow of University College, Oxford (Attlee's alma mater), came to know Attlee personally in his later years.

Accounts of the period include:

Kenneth O. Morgan, Labour in Power 1945–51, Oxford University Press, 1984;

Greg Rosen, Old Labour to New, Politicos Publishing, 2005.

Notes

  1. ^ Conservative Party website - the postwar consensus.
  2. ^ http://www.mori.com/polls/2004/leeds.shtml Ipsos MORI: Rating British Prime Ministers.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac Beckett, Francis. (1997) Clem Attlee A Biography By Francis Beckett, Richard Cohen Books, ISBN 1 86066 101 7
  4. ^ a b c d e f g Howell, David. (2006) Attlee (20 British Prime Ministers of the 20th Century), Haus Publishing, ISBN 1-904950-64-7
  5. ^ Spartacus Schoolnet - Contains excerpt from Attlee's biography towards the bottom of the page.
  6. ^ BBC - History - The Norway Campaign in World War Two
  7. ^ Hennessy 2006, p. 56
  8. ^ See, e.g., http://content.healthaffairs.org/cgi/reprint/8/4/52.pdf
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Thorpe, Andrew. (2001) A History Of The British Labour Party, Palgrave, ISBN 0-333-92908-x
  10. ^ Andrew Pierce, "What Queen Mother really thought of Attlee's socialist 'heaven on earth'." The Times, 13 May 2006, p. 9)
  11. ^ Morgan, Labour in Power.
  12. ^ Gordon, Yefim, Mikoyan-Gurevich MIG-15: The Soviet Union's Long-Lived Korean War Fighter, Midland Press (2001)
  13. ^ See, e.g., Kenneth O. Morgan, Labour in Power (Oxford, 1984), especially Chapter 6.
  14. ^ The Times, 30 November 1951; p. 6; Issue 52172; col G: "The Resignation Honours: Earldom For Lord Jowitt".
  15. ^ Walter L. Arnstein, Britain Yesterday and Today: 1830 to the Present, Chapter 19, p. 363
  16. ^ Peter Hennessy, The Prime Minister: The Office and its Holders since 1945, Chapter 7, p. 150

References

Hennessy, Peter (2006), Never Again: Britain 1945–51 (2 ed.), London: Penguin Books, ISBN 0141016023  

External links

Political offices
Preceded by
Wilfrid Ashley
Under-Secretary of State for War
1924
Succeeded by
The Earl of Onslow
Preceded by
Sir Oswald Mosley
Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster
1930 – 1931
Succeeded by
The Lord Ponsonby of Shulbrede
Preceded by
Hastings Lees-Smith
Postmaster General
1931
Succeeded by
Sir William Ormsby-Gore
Preceded by
George Lansbury
Leader of the Opposition
1935 – 1940
Succeeded by
Hastings Lees-Smith
Preceded by
Sir Kingsley Wood
Lord Privy Seal
1940 – 1942
Succeeded by
Sir Stafford Cripps
New title Deputy Prime Minister of the United Kingdom
1942 – 1945
Succeeded by
Herbert Stanley Morrison
Preceded by
Viscount Cranborne
Secretary of State for Dominion Affairs
1942 – 1943
Succeeded by
Viscount Cranborne
Preceded by
Sir John Anderson
Lord President of the Council
1943 – 1945
Succeeded by
The Lord Woolton
Preceded by
Arthur Greenwood
Leader of the Opposition
1945
Succeeded by
Winston Churchill
Preceded by
Winston Churchill
Prime Minister of the United Kingdom
27 July 1945 – 26 October 1951
Minister of Defence
1945 – 1946
Succeeded by
A. V. Alexander
Leader of the Opposition
1951 – 1955
Succeeded by
Hugh Gaitskell
Parliament of the United Kingdom
Preceded by
Sir William Pearce
Member of Parliament for Limehouse
19221950
Constituency abolished
Preceded by
Valentine McEntee
Member of Parliament for Walthamstow West
1950 – 1956
Succeeded by
Edward Redhead
Party political offices
Preceded by
John Robert Clynes
Deputy Leader of the British Labour Party
1932 – 1935
Succeeded by
Arthur Greenwood
Preceded by
George Lansbury
Leader of the British Labour Party
1935 – 1955
Succeeded by
Hugh Gaitskell
Peerage of the United Kingdom
New creation Earl Attlee
1955 – 1967
Succeeded by
Martin Attlee

Quotes

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiquote

Clement Richard Attlee, 1st Earl Attlee KG OM CH FRS PC (3 January 1883 – 8 October 1967) was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1945 to 1951. Coming from an upper middle class background, Attlee was converted to socialism through working in the East End of London and became MP for Stepney in 1922. He was elected Labour Party leader in 1935 and won a landslide victory in the 1945 election; his government put in place the welfare state including the National Health Service. Attlee was well known for his laconic turn of phrase.

Contents

Sourced

  • ... the Peace Treaties must be scrapped ... I stand for no more war and no more secret diplomacy.
    • T.W. Walding (ed.), "Who's Who in the New Parliament:Members and their pledges" (Philip Gee, London, 1922), p. 35.
    • Extract from his 1922 election address.
  • Christianity affirms the value of each individual soul. Nazism denies it. The individual is sacrificed to the idol of the German Leader, German State or the German race. The ordinary citizen is allowed to hear and think only as the rulers decree.
  • I am pleased to see from the laughter on the Ministerial benches that there is no implication on their part to take Sir Oswald Mosley too seriously. It can easily be seen to-day that this idea of a dictator is gradually falling down.
    • The Times, 14 July 1934, p. 7.
    • Speech in the House of Commons, 13 July 1934, on the Foreign Office estimates. His remarks about dictatorships gradually falling down was a reference to the Night of the Long Knives in Nazi Germany a fortnight before.
  • We have absolutely abandoned any idea of nationalist loyalty.
    • Speech to the Labour Party Conference in Southport, October 1934.
  • We are told in the White Paper that there is danger against which we have to guard ourselves. We do not think you can do it by national defence. We think you can only do it by moving forward to a new world – a world of law, the abolition of national armaments with a world force and a world economic system. I shall be told that that is quite impossible.
    • Hansard, House of Commons, 5th series, vol. 299, col. 45.
    • Speech in the House of Commons, 11 March 1935. Attlee's concluding observation was met by Conservative cries of "Hear, hear", with one MP shouting "Tell that to Hitler" according to The Times of 12 March 1935.
  • Mr. Chamberlain's Budget was the natural expression of the character of the present Government. There was hardly any increase allowed for the services which went to build up the life of the people, education and health. Everything was devoted to piling up the instruments of death. The Chancellor expressed great regret that he should have to spend so much on armaments, but said that it was absolutely necessary and was due only to the actions of other nations. One would think to listen to him that the Government had no responsibility for the state of world affairs.
    • "Mr. Attlee on a war budget", The Times, 23 April 1936, p. 16.
    • Broadcast, 22 April 1936.
  • The Government has now resolved to enter upon an arms race, and the people will have to pay for their mistake in believing that it could be trusted to carry out a policy of peace. ... This is a War Budget. We can look in the future for no advance in Social Legislation. All available resources are to be devoted to armaments.
    • "Mr. Attlee on a war budget", The Times, 23 April 1936, p. 16.
    • Broadcast, 22 April 1936.
  • Not Churchill. Sixty-five, old for a Churchill.
    • Harold Wilson, "Memoirs 1916-1964: The Making of a Prime Minister" (Weidenfeld & Nicolson and Michael Joseph, London, 1986), p. 54.
    • At the University College 'gaudy' in Oxford, December 1939, when the dons suggested Winston Churchill should be made Prime Minister.
  • You have no right whatever to speak on behalf of the Government. Foreign affairs are in the capable hands of Ernest Bevin. His task is quite sufficiently difficult without the irresponsible statements of the kind you are making . . . I can assure you there is widespread resentment in the Party at your activities and a period of silence on your part would be welcome.
    • David Butler and Gareth Butler, "Twentieth Century British Political Facts" (Palgrave Macmillan, 2005), p. 289.
    • Letter to Harold Laski, Chairman of the Labour Party, in 1946.
  • There were few who thought him a starter,
    Many who thought themselves smarter.
    But he ended PM,
    CH and OM,
    an Earl and a Knight of the Garter.
    • Kenneth Harris, "Attlee" (Weidenfeld and Nicholson, London, 1982)
    • Self-penned limerick.

Attributed

  • A Tory minister can sleep in ten different women's beds in a week. A Labour minister gets it in the neck if he looks at his neighbour's wife over the garden fence.
    • Harold Wilson, "Memoirs 1916-1964: The Making of a Prime Minister" (Weidenfeld & Nicolson and Michael Joseph, London, 1986), p. 121.
  • Can't publish. Don't rhyme, don't scan.
    • Harold Wilson, "Memoirs 1916-1964: The Making of a Prime Minister" (Weidenfeld & Nicolson and Michael Joseph, London, 1986), p. 128.
    • Response to John Strachey who had to ask permission to publish a collection of poems while a Minister.
  • I move previous face!
    • Harold Wilson, "Memoirs 1916-1964: The Making of a Prime Minister" (Weidenfeld & Nicolson and Michael Joseph, London, 1986), p. 128.
    • To Sydney Silverman, a Labour MP who had arrived back at Parliament with a beard. Echoes the motion "I move previous business" used at Parliamentary Labour Party meetings to end discussion on a topic.
  • Not up to the job.
    • Harold Wilson, "Memoirs 1916-1964: The Making of a Prime Minister" (Weidenfeld & Nicolson and Michael Joseph, London, 1986), p. 122.
    • Explaining to John Parker why he was being sacked from the government in 1946.
  • The Common Market. The so-called Common Market of six nations. Know them all well. Very recently this country spent a great deal of blood and treasure rescuing four of 'em from attacks by the other two.
    • Peter Hennessy, The Prime Minister: The Office and its Holders since 1945 (Penguin, 2001), p. 173.
    • Attlee's speech to a group of anti-Common Market Labour backbench MPs in 1967, as recalled by Douglas Jay to Peter Hennessy in 1983. This was Attlee's last ever speech.

About

  • An empty taxi drew up outside 10 Downing Street and Clement Attlee got out of it.
    • A remark commonly attributed to Winston Churchill; however, Churchill refuted the attribution, saying "Mr Attlee is an honourable and gallant gentleman, and a faithful colleague who served his country well at the time of her greatest need. I should be obliged if you would make it clear whenever an occasion arises that I would never make such a remark about him, and that I strongly disapprove of anybody who does."
  • A modest man with much to be modest about.
    • A remark supposedly made by Winston Churchill, this is unconfirmed but the phrase has passed into popular usage.

External links

Wikipedia
Wikipedia has an article about:

Simple English

The Rt Hon. Clement Attlee
File:Clement Attlee statue - Limehouse


In office
27 July 1945 – 26 October 1951
Deputy Herbert Morrison
Preceded by Winston Churchill
Succeeded by Sir Winston Churchill

Born 3 January 1883
Putney, London
Died 8 October 1967
London
Political party Labour

Clement Richard Attlee, 1st Earl Attlee, KG, OM, CH, PC was born on 3 January 1883 and died on 8 October 1967 was a British prime minister. He was the first Labour prime minister with a majority in government, and was very important in the setting up of the welfare state. He was prime minister between 1945 and 1951. He was made a member of the House of Lords after he retired, and became the first Earl Attlee.

Attlee is buried in Westminster Abbey.








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