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Worldwide Climate Classifications
.Climate encompasses the statistics of temperature, humidity, atmospheric pressure, wind, rainfall, atmospheric particle count and numerous other meteorological elements in a given region over long periods of time.^ It includes wind, temperature, humidity, atmospheric pressure, cloudiness, sunshine and precipitation.
  • Climate Change - What is climate change? 10 February 2010 13:31 UTC www.ecy.wa.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Climate refers to the overall weather of a location over a long period of time.
  • Climate, Climate Control, Climate Change at LiveScience.com 10 February 2010 13:31 UTC www.livescience.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Climate , on the other hand, is the general weather conditions over a long period of time.
  • Introduction to Climate: Background Material 10 February 2010 13:31 UTC www.ucar.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Climate can be contrasted to weather, which is the present condition of these same elements over periods up to two weeks.^ A period of nice and calm weather will be present during the first part of the week, but a chance of rain returns by Thursday and Friday, followed by a nice weekend.
  • Central Florida News 13 - Weather On The 1's 17 January 2010 8:29 UTC www.cfnews13.com [Source type: News]

^ Climate refers to the overall weather of a location over a long period of time.
  • Climate, Climate Control, Climate Change at LiveScience.com 10 February 2010 13:31 UTC www.livescience.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ And finally when the lights come up, one is surprised to realize how fast these two hours have gone by.
  • Rain Tickets, Cheap Rain Ticket 16 January 2010 19:19 UTC www.ticketluck.com [Source type: General]

.The climate of a location is affected by its latitude, terrain, altitude, ice or snow cover, as well as nearby water bodies and their currents.^ Rain chains hold a limited amount of snow and ice and never get heavy enough to affect your rain gutters.
  • Rain Gutter Chain, Copper Rain Chain Downspout for Sale 16 January 2010 19:19 UTC www.rainchainsstore.com [Source type: General]

^ Acid rain is a popular term for the atmospheric deposition of acidified rain, snow, sleet, hail, acidifying gases and particles, as well as acidified fog and cloud water.
  • Acid rain - Encyclopedia of Earth 16 January 2010 19:19 UTC www.eoearth.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Average annual days of snow cover, a critical factor for agriculture, depends on both latitude and altitude.
  • Russian climate, Russian climate map, Russia's climate, weather Moscow, Russia weather, Russian weather on RussiansAbroad.com 10 February 2010 13:31 UTC www.russiansabroad.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Climates can be classified according to the average and typical ranges of different variables, most commonly temperature and precipitation.^ Globally whole Montenegro is indexed on the Koppen scale (based on temperature and precipitation) as a Bs Climate.

^ There is a growing scientific consensus that increasing emissions of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere are affecting the temperature and variability of the Earth's climate.

^ Climate refers to longer term trends in average patterns of weather that can affect the entire Earth, typically thirty years or more.
  • The Environmental Literacy Council - Climate 10 February 2010 13:31 UTC www.enviroliteracy.org [Source type: Academic]

.The most commonly used classification scheme is the one originally developed by Wladimir Köppen.^ Originally developed to measure winds over the ocean from space, scatterometer data has proved to be very useful in a variety of studies including polar ice and tropical vegetation.
  • NASA Scatterometer Climate Record Pathfinder (Center for Remote Sensing - BYU) 10 February 2010 13:31 UTC www.scp.byu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Most classification systems used today are based on the one introduced in 1900 by the Russian-German climatologist Wladimir Köppen.

^ The Köppen Climate Classification System is the most widely used for classifying the world's climates.

.The Thornthwaite system,[1] in use since 1948, incorporates evapotranspiration in addition to temperature and precipitation information and is used in studying animal species diversity and potential impacts of climate changes.^ What happens to species as climate changes?

^ Identify impacts of climate change on the Earth system.

^ What is the impact of tourism on climate change and of climate change on tourism?
  • Tourism and Climate Change | Planeta 10 February 2010 13:31 UTC www.planeta.com [Source type: News]

.The Bergeron and Spatial Synoptic Classification systems focus on the origin of air masses defining the climate for certain areas.^ Air-mass thunderstorms - humid areas.
  • Extreme Rain, Probable Maximum Precipitation 16 January 2010 19:19 UTC extremerain.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Koppen climate classification system .
  • climate@Everything2.com 10 February 2010 13:31 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The tropical air masses that move northward across the plains originate on the fairly high plateaus of Mexico and contain little water vapor.
  • Climate - United States - average, crops, annual, temperature 10 February 2010 13:31 UTC www.nationsencyclopedia.com [Source type: Reference]

.Paleoclimatology is the study and description of ancient climates.^ Description: This module provides an overview of climatology, the study of climate.

.Since direct observations of climate are not available before the 19th century, paleoclimates are inferred from proxy variables that include non-biotic evidence such as sediments found in lake beds and ice cores, and biotic evidence such as tree rings and coral.^ Though Bhutan has four distinct seasons, it is hard to generalize the weather since mountain climate varies enormously from one region to another.

^ Glaciers have shrunk, ice on rivers and lakes is breaking up earlier, plant and animal ranges have shifted and trees are flowering sooner.
  • Climate Change: Effects 10 February 2010 13:31 UTC climate.nasa.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Since the middle of the 19th century the importance of the content of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere for the Earth's heat balance has been known.
  • NERI/AU - Climate change 10 February 2010 13:31 UTC www.dmu.dk [Source type: Academic]

.Climate models are mathematical models of past, present and future climates.^ Our goal is to have this website become an important resource for your "virtual" research and information needs on past, present, and future climate variability and change.
  • Texas Climate Initiative 10 February 2010 13:31 UTC texasclimate.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Climate Change Modeling Simulations from global models provide critical information required to attribute past climate change and ameliorate future climate change.
  • Berkeley Lab Earth Sciences Division: Climate Change Program 10 February 2010 13:31 UTC esd.lbl.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Climate model results from global and regional climate models calculated at DKRZ in Hamburg are available from the WDCC. This includes present-day climate, paleo-climate simulations and IPCC-scenario runs for the future.
  • Model & Data: World Data Center for Climate (WDCC) 10 February 2010 13:31 UTC www.mad.zmaw.de [Source type: Academic]

Contents

Definition

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.Climate (from Ancient Greek klima, meaning inclination) is commonly defined as the weather averaged over a long period of time.^ Climate, however, is the average of weather over time and space.
  • NASA - What's the Difference Between Weather and Climate? 10 February 2010 13:31 UTC www.nasa.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Climate Change HEALTH 10 February 2010 13:31 UTC climatechangehealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Climate is the average weather for a particular region over a long time period.
  • Climate Change - What is climate change? 10 February 2010 13:31 UTC www.ecy.wa.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The climate is the weather averaged over a long period of time.

[2] .The standard averaging period is 30 years,[3] but other periods may be used depending on the purpose.^ In a new study released by the United States Geological Survey, results show a trend of lowered water use, particularly within the last 30 years.
  • Cyber-Rain: Smart Sprinkler Controller 16 January 2010 19:19 UTC blog.cyber-rain.com [Source type: General]

^ In popular usage, it represents the synthesis of weather; more formally it is the weather of a locality averaged over some period (usually 30 years) plus statistics of weather extremes.

^ Albeit accurate, this recent 12 month data for each location should be considered statistically unreliable due to its brevity compared with "climate normals" that have typical year-to-year weather variations smoothed over standard periods (commonly 30 years).
  • Global warming: average temperatures in Western Australia 10 February 2010 13:31 UTC waclimate.net [Source type: Academic]

.Climate also includes statistics other than the average, such as the magnitudes of day-to-day or year-to-year variations.^ Climate Normals ( 30 year averages) .
  • CanadaInfoLink is everything you wanted to know about Canada and canadian information about provinces, provincial federal government, native people, maps and statistics 10 February 2010 13:31 UTC www.canadainfolink.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ NC Saxena articulates on the impact of climate change on food security in India that is already under threat due to various other reasons.
  • Climate change and the Indian context 10 February 2010 13:31 UTC southasia.oneworld.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, some atmospheric scientists think that you need more than "average" weather to accurately portray an area's climatic character - variations, patterns, and extremes must also be included.
  • Introduction to Climate: Background Material 10 February 2010 13:31 UTC www.ucar.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) glossary definition is:
.
Climate in a narrow sense is usually defined as the "average weather," or more rigorously, as the statistical description in terms of the mean and variability of relevant quantities over a period of time ranging from months to thousands or millions of years.^ Climate is the average weather usually taken over a 30-year time period for a particular region and time period.
  • Weather Wiz Kids weather information for kids 10 February 2010 13:31 UTC www.weatherwizkids.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Climate, however, is the average of weather over time and space.
  • NASA - What's the Difference Between Weather and Climate? 10 February 2010 13:31 UTC www.nasa.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Weather Data - 48 Year Average .
  • Yellowstone National Park Weather - The Total Yellowstone Weather Page 17 January 2010 8:29 UTC www.yellowstone-natl-park.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The classical period is 30 years, as defined by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO).^ World Meteorological Organization, Geneva Switzerland (issued periodically).
  • NCDC: Locate Weather Observation Station Record 17 January 2010 8:29 UTC www.ncdc.noaa.gov [Source type: Reference]

^ In popular usage, it represents the synthesis of weather; more formally it is the weather of a locality averaged over some period (usually 30 years) plus statistics of weather extremes.

^ Just as the U.S. Constitution mandates a socioeconomic census, the World Meteorological Organization mandates 10-year calculations of Climatic Normals.

.These quantities are most often surface variables such as temperature, precipitation, and wind.^ Average temperatures, precipitation and wind patterns are changing, and non-climate factors -primarily the accumulation of greenhouse gases produced from human activities - are driving this change.
  • Earth Alert: Confronting Climate Change / IPS Inter Press Service 10 February 2010 13:31 UTC ipsnews.net [Source type: News]

^ These include most major branches of the life sciences, and many applied aspects and some pure research topics in the physical and geophysical sciences, such as geology.

^ These impacts will accelerate and worsen as temperature and precipitation patterns, extreme events, and related conditions continue to change.

.Climate in a wider sense is the state, including a statistical description, of the climate system.^ For the moment, such efforts face challenges, including the persistent inability of computer climate simulations to reliably replicate climate patterns at the scale of states and cities.

^ Description: The effective use of climate data and products requires an understanding of what the statistical parameters mean and which parameters best summarize the data for particular climate variables.

^ The presentation included an explanation and demonstration of the model, a user’s testimony of the model by Trevor Houser from the US State Department, as well as an overview of C-Learn and the Climate Scoreboard.

[4]
.The difference between climate and weather is usefully summarized by the popular phrase "Climate is what you expect, weather is what you get."^ Describe similarities and differences between weather and climate models.

^ How is weather different from climate?
  • Climate Change - What is climate change? 10 February 2010 13:31 UTC www.ecy.wa.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The difference between weather and climate is a measure of time.
  • NASA - What's the Difference Between Weather and Climate? 10 February 2010 13:31 UTC www.nasa.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[5] .Over historical time spans there are a number of nearly constant variables that determine climate, including latitude, altitude, proportion of land to water, and proximity to oceans and mountains.^ Though Bhutan has four distinct seasons, it is hard to generalize the weather since mountain climate varies enormously from one region to another.

^ These elements vary according to the physical terrain (flatlands vs mountain s), latitude , and proximity to ocean s or major waterways.
  • climate@Everything2.com 10 February 2010 13:31 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Warming is expected to be greatest over land and at high northern latitudes and smallest over the Southern Ocean and parts of the North Atlantic Ocean.
  • Scientific Facts on Climate Change 2007 Update 10 February 2010 13:31 UTC www.greenfacts.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.These change only over periods of millions of years due to processes such as plate tectonics.^ A new publication from the World Bank focuses attention on these previously neglected and poorly understood social dimensions of climate change such as equity and vulnerability.
  • The World Bank - Climate Change 10 February 2010 13:31 UTC beta.worldbank.org [Source type: News]
  • The World Bank - Climate Change 10 February 2010 13:31 UTC www.worldbank.org [Source type: News]

^ The PETM was a very weird period around 55 million years ago.

^ The black line shows the annual changes; the red line tracks 5-year periods.
  • Climate Change - What is climate change? 10 February 2010 13:31 UTC www.ecy.wa.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Other climate determinants are more dynamic: for example, the thermohaline circulation of the ocean leads to a 5 °C (9 °F) warming of the northern Atlantic ocean compared to other ocean basins.^ Shutdown of the more superficial thermohaline circulation .
  • The CALVIN BOOKSHELF Climate Collection 10 February 2010 13:31 UTC williamcalvin.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Climate, more than any other factor, determines what will exist in an ecosystem.
  • Parks Canada - Weather 10 February 2010 13:31 UTC www.pc.gc.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ocean circulation was a leading suspect.
  • Ocean Currents and Climate 10 February 2010 13:31 UTC www.aip.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[6] .Other ocean currents redistribute heat between land and water on a more regional scale.^ More regional changes have also been observed, including changes in Arctic temperatures and ice, ocean salinity , wind patterns, droughts, precipitations, frequency of heat waves and intensity of tropical cyclones.
  • Scientific Facts on Climate Change 2007 Update 10 February 2010 13:31 UTC www.greenfacts.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Also, warm ocean currents come farther north and all kinds of tropical fish can be caught in the waters far north along the United States West Coast.
  • Weather Wiz Kids weather information for kids 10 February 2010 13:31 UTC www.weatherwizkids.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Drying of arid lands in the southwestern United States and northern Mexico will have important consequences for water resources, regional development and cross border relations and migration.
  • Transition to a more arid Southwest 10 February 2010 13:31 UTC www.ldeo.columbia.edu [Source type: Academic]

.The density and type of vegetation coverage affects solar heat absorption,[7] water retention, and rainfall on a regional level.^ Climate change will affect rainfall, temperature and water availability for agriculture in vulnerable areas.

^ Density of vegetation - It has long been known that plant growth helps decrease erosion caused by flowing water.
  • Rain, a valuable resource 16 January 2010 19:19 UTC ga.water.usgs.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Microclimate is also affected by topography, adjacent buildings, vegetation, bodies of water (including small creeks) and slope.

.Alterations in the quantity of atmospheric greenhouse gases determines the amount of solar energy retained by the planet, leading to global warming or global cooling.^ "What we are dealing with is not a global warming of the atmosphere or of the oceans."
  • Climate Sense 10 February 2010 13:31 UTC climate-sense.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Volcanoes cause global warming or cause global cooling?

^ Greenhouse gases are produced mainly by the burning of fossil fuels The Earth’s climate is influenced by many factors, mainly by the amount of energy coming from the sun, but also by factors such as the amount of greenhouse gases and aerosols in the atmosphere , and the properties of the Earth’s surface, which determine how much of this solar energy is retained or reflected back to space.
  • Scientific Facts on Climate Change 2007 Update 10 February 2010 13:31 UTC www.greenfacts.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The variables which determine climate are numerous and the interactions complex, but there is general agreement that the broad outlines are understood, at least insofar as the determinants of historical climate change are concerned.^ Why is climate change a concern?
  • Climate Change - What is climate change? 10 February 2010 13:31 UTC www.ecy.wa.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Interactive: Voices from the edge of climate change .
  • Interactive: Voices from the edge of climate change | Environment | guardian.co.uk 10 February 2010 13:31 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

^ Canadian concern over climate change plummeting .

[8]

Climate classification

.There are several ways to classify climates into similar regimes.^ There are several ways to reduce acid rain—more properly called acid deposition—ranging from societal changes to individual action.
  • Reducing Acid Rain | Acid Rain | Clean Air Markets | US EPA 16 January 2010 19:19 UTC www.epa.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There are several dozen hostas and an ornamental weeping Cherry tree in the way.

^ Describe how climate zones are classified and how the classifications can be used to relate similar regimes.

.Originally, climes were defined in Ancient Greece to describe the weather depending upon a location's latitude.^ Climate is defined as statistical weather information that describes the variation of weather at a given place for a specified interval.

.Modern climate classification methods can be broadly divided into genetic methods, which focus on the causes of climate, and empiric methods, which focus on the effects of climate.^ CLIMATIC ZONES The geographical features already mentioned have a significant effect on Alaskas climate, which falls into five major zones.
  • CLIMATE OF ALASKA 10 February 2010 13:31 UTC www.wrcc.dri.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sea Level Rise, Then and Now A warming climate is expected to cause sea level rise, leading to coastal flooding and other undesirable effects.
  • NASA GISS: Science Briefs 10 February 2010 13:31 UTC www.giss.nasa.gov [Source type: General]

^ The points made are backed up by examples which highlight the key causes and effects of climate change.
  • Global Warming – The Facts: Prove It – A Science Museum Exhibition Examining Climate Change 10 February 2010 13:31 UTC climate-change.suite101.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Examples of genetic classification include methods based on the relative frequency of different air mass types or locations within synoptic weather disturbances.^ A shallow band of moist air flowed within a few thousand feet of the ground, said Mike Jurewicz, a meteorologist with the National Weather Service in Binghamton.
  • CNY Weather Forecast, Radar & News - syracuse.com 17 January 2010 8:29 UTC www.syracuse.com [Source type: News]

^ With that size of sink a thermal rearrangement of water in the oceans of relatively small scale could make a large difference in air temperature.
  • RealClimate - Comments on Lindzen and Choi Unraveled 10 February 2010 13:31 UTC www.realclimate.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The weather at one point in the park may be quite different from that of other points relatively near by.
  • Parks Canada - Weather 10 February 2010 13:31 UTC www.pc.gc.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Examples of empiric classifications include climate zones defined by plant hardiness,[9] evapotranspiration,[10] or more generally the Köppen climate classification which was originally designed to identify the climates associated with certain biomes.^ "Global warming" refers to rising global temperatures, while “climate change” includes other more specific kinds of changes, too.
  • Climate Change - What is climate change? 10 February 2010 13:31 UTC www.ecy.wa.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For more information and examples of integrating climate change considerations into the transportation planning process, see the FHWA-funded study Integrating Climate Change into the Transportation Planning Process .
  • Questions and Answers - Climate Change and Transportation - FHWA 10 February 2010 13:31 UTC www.fhwa.dot.gov [Source type: Reference]

^ Identify greenhouse gases and their sources and define their role in climate.

.A common shortcoming of these classification schemes is that they produce distinct boundaries between the zones they define, rather than the gradual transition of climate properties more common in nature.^ Near the tops of clouds, even in summer, most of these little "raindrops" are ice rather than water, because it's so cold at the higher altitudes.
  • Weather 101: All About Wind and Rain | LiveScience 16 January 2010 19:19 UTC www.livescience.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A combination of these effects weakens the trees which means that they can be more easily attacked by diseases and insects or injured by bad weather.
  • Acid Rain :: Environmental Facts :: Young People's Trust for the Environment 16 January 2010 19:19 UTC www.ypte.org.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ January 9, 2010 – 4:32 am One of the more common arguments from skeptics of anthropogenic climate change is that the Earth has experienced periods during which atmospheric carbon dioxide levels were much much higher than they are today — as much as 10 times higher.

Bergeron and Spatial Synoptic

Source regions of global air masses
.The most generic classification is that involving the concept of air masses.^ They generally flow downward so the area is seldom penetrated by air masses that produce rain.

^ In summer, mountain peaks and ranges are effective thunderstorm generators whenever the regional air masses are sufficiently moist.
  • Colorado Climate Center - Climate of Colorado 10 February 2010 13:31 UTC ccc.atmos.colostate.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Even when moisture-laden air masses move into the area, their interaction with the mountains causes most of the moisture to fall on the western slopes.
  • Predicting Weather 17 January 2010 8:29 UTC www.ussartf.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Bergeron classification is the most widely accepted form of air mass classification.^ A cold front forms where a cold air mass moves into a warm air mass.
  • Predicting Weather 17 January 2010 8:29 UTC www.ussartf.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A boundary, or front, forms between the two air masses.
  • Predicting Weather 17 January 2010 8:29 UTC www.ussartf.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Altostratus clouds form when a large lifted air mass is condensed, usually from a frontal system, and can bring rain or snow.form when a large lifted air mass is condensed, usually from a frontal system, and can bring rain or snow.
  • RainCalendar.com - The Free Rain and Weather Database For Farmers, Students, Schools and Weather Watchers - Download it now! 16 January 2010 19:19 UTC www.raincalendar.com [Source type: General]

.Air mass classification involves three letters.^ Three major climate groups show the dominance of special combinations of air-mass source regions.

.The first letter describes its moisture properties, with c used for continental air masses (dry) and m for maritime air masses (moist).^ In the summer, a local continental air mass is dominant.

^ An air mass is a very large body of air that has similar properties.
  • Predicting Weather 17 January 2010 8:29 UTC www.ussartf.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Air masses of arctic origin meet polar continental air masses along the 60th and 70th parallels.

.The second letter describes the thermal characteristic of its source region: T for tropical, P for polar, A for Arctic or Antarctic, M for monsoon, E for equatorial, and S for superior air (dry air formed by significant downward motion in the atmosphere).^ These clouds are essentially above-ground fog formed either through the lifting of morning fog or when cold air moves at low altitudes over a region.
  • RainCalendar.com - The Free Rain and Weather Database For Farmers, Students, Schools and Weather Watchers - Download it now! 16 January 2010 19:19 UTC www.raincalendar.com [Source type: General]

^ Our climate system is based on the location of these hot and cold air-mass regions and the atmospheric circulation created by trade winds and westerlies.

^ Uncertainties Limit Climate Predictions Gaps in our understanding of climate response in the tropics and polar regions limit our ability to predict future climate change impacts in all areas.
  • NASA GISS: Science Briefs 10 February 2010 13:31 UTC www.giss.nasa.gov [Source type: General]

The third letter is used to designate the stability of the atmosphere. If the air mass is colder than the ground below it, it is labeled k. .If the air mass is warmer than the ground below it, it is labeled w.^ Cold air is more dense than warmer air and collects in some of the mountain valleys.
  • Colorado Climate Center - Climate of Colorado 10 February 2010 13:31 UTC ccc.atmos.colostate.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[11] While air mass identification was originally used in weather forecasting during the 1950s, climatologists began to establish synoptic climatologies based on this idea in 1973.[12]
.Based upon the Bergeron classification scheme is the Spatial Synoptic Classification system (SSC).^ Most classification systems used today are based on the one introduced in 1900 by the Russian-German climatologist Wladimir Köppen.

^ Station Type A loose station classification scheme for non-Cooperative network stations based on NWS, Department of Defense (DOD) and NCDC past and present schemes.
  • NCDC: Locate Weather Observation Station Record 17 January 2010 8:29 UTC www.ncdc.noaa.gov [Source type: Reference]

.There are six categories within the SSC scheme: Dry Polar (similar to continental polar), Dry Moderate (similar to maritime superior), Dry Tropical (similar to continental tropical), Moist Polar (similar to maritime polar), Moist Moderate (a hybrid between maritime polar and maritime tropical), and Moist Tropical (similar to maritime tropical, maritime monsoon, or maritime equatorial).^ For some other events such as extra-tropical storms, there is little agreement between current predictive models.
  • Scientific Facts on Climate Change 2001 Assessment 10 February 2010 13:31 UTC www.greenfacts.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Columbia River Gorge, Oregon A transition between the moist habitats along the coast and the dry habitats further inland.
  • Temperate Rainforest 16 January 2010 19:19 UTC www.marietta.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The nearest competitor is Cherrapunji , Meghālaya, with an annual average of 11,430 mm from the moist tropical monsoon.
  • rain (meteorology) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 16 January 2010 19:19 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[13]

Köppen

Monthly average surface temperatures from 1961–1990. This is an example of how climate varies with location and season
.The Köppen classification depends on average monthly values of temperature and precipitation.^ Average temperatures, precipitation and wind patterns are changing, and non-climate factors -primarily the accumulation of greenhouse gases produced from human activities - are driving this change.
  • Earth Alert: Confronting Climate Change / IPS Inter Press Service 10 February 2010 13:31 UTC ipsnews.net [Source type: News]

^ The Köppen system recognizes five major climate types based on the annual and monthly averages of temperature and precipitation.

^ Temperature Range: 31 °C (56 ° F) Average Annual Precipitation: 81 cm (32 in).

.The most commonly used form of the Köppen classification has five primary types labeled A through E. Specifically, the primary types are A, tropical; B, dry; C, mild mid-latitude; D, cold mid-latitude; and E, polar.^ Most classification systems used today are based on the one introduced in 1900 by the Russian-German climatologist Wladimir Köppen.

^ Dry Tropical Climate (BW) desert biome These desert climates are found in low-latitude deserts approximately between 18° to 28° in both hemispheres.

^ The Köppen system recognizes five major climate types based on the annual and monthly averages of temperature and precipitation.

.The five primary classifications can be further divided into secondary classifications such as rain forest, monsoon, tropical savanna, humid subtropical, humid continental, oceanic climate, Mediterranean climate, steppe, subarctic climate, tundra, polar ice cap, and desert.^ Ten climate zones are represented, including tundra, desert, humid subtropical, and others.
  • Teachers' Domain: Climate 10 February 2010 13:31 UTC www.teachersdomain.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Nor do we want melting polar ice caps.
  • Global Climate Change: News & Videos about Global Climate Change - CNN.com 10 February 2010 13:31 UTC topics.cnn.com [Source type: News]

^ Phuket has a tropical monsoon climate.
  • Phuket Weather Forecasts, Thailand Climate and Seasons 10 February 2010 13:31 UTC www.phuket.com [Source type: General]

.Rain forests are characterized by high rainfall, with definitions setting minimum normal annual rainfall between 1,750 millimetres (69 in) and 2,000 millimetres (79 in).^ The temperature in a rain forest rarely gets higher than 93 °F (34 °C) or drops below 68 °F (20 °C); average humidity is between 77 and 88%; rainfall is often more than 100 inches a year.

^ This high altitude region on the slopes of the high Himalayan ranges, inhabited between 3,500 and 5,000 meters, is characterized by harsh climate with continues snow during the winter months from December to mid March.

^ The summer of 1987 had rainfalls between 50 and 70% of normal, causing problems for farmers and keeping the forest fire hazard index high all season.
  • Environment Canada - Atlantic Climate Centre - The Climate of Newfoundland 10 February 2010 13:31 UTC www.ns.ec.gc.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Mean monthly temperatures exceed 18 °C (64 °F) during all months of the year.^ A year or two of an extreme change in temperature or other condition doesn’t mean a climate change trend has been "erased.” .
  • Climate Change - What is climate change? 10 February 2010 13:31 UTC www.ecy.wa.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Southern Cross (elevation 355m, town population 2006 - 708) Pre-1900 vs latest 30 years mean temperature 1895-1899 (4 years surveyed) 64.6 F = 18.1 C 1979-2008 (28 years) = 18.2 C .
  • Global warming: average temperatures in Western Australia 10 February 2010 13:31 UTC waclimate.net [Source type: Academic]

^ Rottnest Island (population 2006 - about 300) Pre-1900 vs latest 30 years mean temperature 1876-1899 (11 years surveyed) 63.9 F = 17.7 C 1979-2008 (30 years) Rottnest Island = 18.8 C .
  • Global warming: average temperatures in Western Australia 10 February 2010 13:31 UTC waclimate.net [Source type: Academic]

[14]
.A monsoon is a seasonal prevailing wind which lasts for several months, ushering in a region's rainy season.^ This includes the region's general pattern of weather conditions, seasons and weather extremes like hurricanes, droughts, or rainy periods.

^ Moderating ocean winds keep the temperatures from being as severe as interior regions.

^ Global warming will have a severe impact on Arab states where water is already scarce, a regional report warned ahead of next month's Copenhagen environment summit.

[15] .Regions within North America, South America.^ The American South, the journal reports, is expected to become North America's leading pellet-producing and exporting region.

^ Latitude Range: found all over the world Global Position: Rocky Mountain Range in North America, the Andean mountain range in South America, the Alps in Europe, Mt.

^ Latitude Range: 15 ° to 25 ° N and S Global Range: India, Indochina, West Africa, southern Africa, South America and the north coast of Australia .

Sub-Saharan Africa, Australia and East Asia are monsoon regimes.[16]
.A tropical savanna is a grassland biome located in semi-arid to semi-humid climate regions of subtropical and tropical latitudes, with average temperatures remain at or above 18 °C (64 °F) year round and rainfall between 750 millimetres (30 in) and 1,270 millimetres (50 in) a year.^ In an average year the climate in a tropical rain forest is very humid because of all the rainfall.

^ The last 50 years have borne witness to a spate of climate-related disasters across the world causing over 800,000 fatalities and $1 trillion in economic losses.
  • Global Climate Change: News & Videos about Global Climate Change - CNN.com 10 February 2010 13:31 UTC topics.cnn.com [Source type: News]

^ Average temperatures, precipitation and wind patterns are changing, and non-climate factors -primarily the accumulation of greenhouse gases produced from human activities - are driving this change.
  • Earth Alert: Confronting Climate Change / IPS Inter Press Service 10 February 2010 13:31 UTC ipsnews.net [Source type: News]

.They are widespread on Africa, and are also found in India, the northern parts of South America, Malaysia, and Australia.^ The central regions of Australia , most of northern and a part of southwest Africa , portions of the intermontane area of the United States , and portions of the west-central coast and southern east coast of South America also have less than 250 mm of rain in the year.
  • Rain@Everything2.com 16 January 2010 19:19 UTC everything2.com [Source type: General]

^ The central regions of Australia, most of northern and a part of southwest Africa, portions of the intermontane area of the United States , and portions of the west-central coast and southern east coast of South America also have less than 250 mm of rain in the year.
  • rain (meteorology) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 16 January 2010 19:19 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At the eleventh hour, US President Barack Obama furnished an agreement with leaders from China, India, Brazil and South Africa.
  • Climate Feedback 10 February 2010 13:31 UTC blogs.nature.com [Source type: News]

[17]
.The humid subtropical climate zone where winter rainfall (and sometimes snowfall) is associated with large storms that the westerlies steer from west to east.^ Westerlies steer storms from west to east across middle latitudes.

^ Ten climate zones are represented, including tundra, desert, humid subtropical, and others.
  • Teachers' Domain: Climate 10 February 2010 13:31 UTC www.teachersdomain.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A very powerful west to east jet stream sagging southward through the Pacific will allow a series of strong storm systems to track into Southern California while maintaining a rich source of subtropical moisture.
  • Los Angeles Weather - latimes.com 17 January 2010 8:29 UTC weather.latimes.com [Source type: News]

.Most summer rainfall occurs during thunderstorms and from occasional tropical cyclones.^ The winters are cool with an average minimum temperature of about 7° C. Most of the rainfall occurs in winter, but due to the topography the rainfall varies quite dramatically.
  • Climate of Cape Town, The Cape Doctor, South Eastern 10 February 2010 13:31 UTC cybercapetown.com [Source type: News]

^ During the summer months, this topographic feature becomes a "thunderstorm machine" as thunderstorms develop almost any day that humidity is sufficiently high.
  • Colorado Climate Center - Climate of Colorado 10 February 2010 13:31 UTC ccc.atmos.colostate.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Solar Variations and Climate Modeling studies show that changes in solar irradiance that occur during the solar cycle have an influence on rainfall patterns, much like weighting the dice.
  • NASA GISS: Science Briefs 10 February 2010 13:31 UTC www.giss.nasa.gov [Source type: General]

[18] .Humid subtropical climates lie on the east side continents, roughly between latitudes 20° and 40° degrees away from the equator.^ Ten climate zones are represented, including tundra, desert, humid subtropical, and others.
  • Teachers' Domain: Climate 10 February 2010 13:31 UTC www.teachersdomain.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Dry Tropical Climate (BW) desert biome These desert climates are found in low-latitude deserts approximately between 18° to 28° in both hemispheres.

^ C - In Humid Middle Latitude Climates land/water differences play a large part.

[19]
.A humid continental climate is marked by variable weather patterns and a large seasonal temperature variance.^ China has a continental and seasonal climate.
  • China Weather Information, China tour, China travel information 17 January 2010 8:29 UTC www.chinatour.com [Source type: News]

^ Though Bhutan has four distinct seasons, it is hard to generalize the weather since mountain climate varies enormously from one region to another.

^ DAILY CLIMATE REPORT - issued daily: Detailed daily weather statistics (usually for yesterday), including temperature, precipitation, degree days, wind, humidity, sunrise/sunset, and record temperature data for the following day.
  • National Weather Service Climate 10 February 2010 13:31 UTC www.weather.gov [Source type: General]
  • National Weather Service Climate National Weather Service Climate National Weather Service Climate 10 February 2010 13:31 UTC www.nws.noaa.gov [Source type: General]
  • National Weather Service Climate 10 February 2010 13:31 UTC www.weather.gov [Source type: General]

.Places with more than three months of average daily temperatures above 10 °C (50 °F) and a coldest month temperature below −3 °C (26.6 °F) and which do not meet the criteria for an arid or semiarid climate, are classified as continental.^ After what had been one of the coldest starts to the month of January in more than a … .
  • Chicago Weather, Weather Report, Forecast, Illinois Weather, Live Doppler Radar, Weather Chat | Fox Chicago News | WFLD Television | myFoxChicago.com 17 January 2010 8:29 UTC www.myfoxchicago.com [Source type: News]

^ Cool, short summers with less than four months over 10°C (50°F) in the C and D climates.

^ The average daily temperature in Central Park is 26.6 degrees so far this month.
  • New York Weather Forecast | NYC Temperature | Manhattan Brooklyn Bronx Queens Staten Island 17 January 2010 8:29 UTC www.myfoxny.com [Source type: News]

[20]
.An oceanic climate is typically found along the west coasts at the middle latitudes of all the world's continents, and in southeastern Australia, and is accompanied by plentiful precipitation year round.^ Though found worldwide, nimbostratus is found more commonly in the middle latitudes.
  • RainCalendar.com - The Free Rain and Weather Database For Farmers, Students, Schools and Weather Watchers - Download it now! 16 January 2010 19:19 UTC www.raincalendar.com [Source type: General]

^ The central regions of Australia, most of northern and a part of southwest Africa, portions of the intermontane area of the United States , and portions of the west-central coast and southern east coast of South America also have less than 250 mm of rain in the year.
  • rain (meteorology) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 16 January 2010 19:19 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Precipitation west of the Continental Divide is more evenly distributed throughout the year than in the eastern plains.
  • Colorado Climate Center - Climate of Colorado 10 February 2010 13:31 UTC ccc.atmos.colostate.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[21]
.The Mediterranean climate regime resembles the climate of the lands in the Mediterranean Basin, parts of western North America, parts of Western and South Australia, in southwestern South Africa and in parts of central Chile.^ The latitude range for my climate is 15° to 25° North and South of the equator.

^ The central regions of Australia, most of northern and a part of southwest Africa, portions of the intermontane area of the United States , and portions of the west-central coast and southern east coast of South America also have less than 250 mm of rain in the year.
  • rain (meteorology) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 16 January 2010 19:19 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Portions of the western coast of Africa, between the Equator and 10° N, a strip of the western coast of India, parts of Assam, a coastal strip of Myanmar (Burma), windward mountain slopes in the temperate latitudes of North and South America, and many isolated tropical stations average more than 2,500 mm of rain in the year.
  • rain (meteorology) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 16 January 2010 19:19 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The climate is characterized by hot, dry summers and cool, wet winters.^ Mediterranean Climate (Cs) chaparral biome This is a wet-winter, dry-summer climate.

^ Summers are warm to hot, but winters are cold.

^ It is hot, humid and rainy in summer, but cool and pleasant in winter.

[22]
.A steppe is a dry grassland with an annual temperature range in the summer of up to 40 °C (104 °F) and during the winter down to −40 °C (−40.0 °F).^ Annual temperatures range widely.

^ The water that enters them during the winter months can filter down into that soil, or else that water is snow, and just sits there until it melts, and then it soaks in.
  • Rain Gardens of West Michigan - News and Announcements 16 January 2010 19:19 UTC www.raingardens.org [Source type: General]

^ Samples pulled up from thousands of feet down had allowed oceanographers to label the main water masses by temperature and salt content.
  • Ocean Currents and Climate 10 February 2010 13:31 UTC www.aip.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[23]
.A subarctic climate has little precipitation,[24] and monthly temperatures which are above 10 °C (50 °F) for one to three months of the year, with continuous permafrost due to the very cold winters.^ Very cold winters with the coldest month below -38°C (-36°F) in the D climate only.

^ Albeit accurate, this recent 12 month data for each location should be considered statistically unreliable due to its brevity compared with "climate normals" that have typical year-to-year weather variations smoothed over standard periods (commonly 30 years).
  • Global warming: average temperatures in Western Australia 10 February 2010 13:31 UTC waclimate.net [Source type: Academic]

^ The Climate Prediction Center's forecast for the next 8-14 days (January 25 - February 1) is calling for near-normal to above-normal precipitation, and below-normal temperatures across Colorado.
  • Denver Weather, Denver, Colorado Weather Report & Local Forecast - KMGH Denver's Channel 7 17 January 2010 8:29 UTC www.thedenverchannel.com [Source type: News]

.Winters within subarctic climates include up to six months of temperatures averaging below 0 °C (32 °F).^ Average temperatures, precipitation and wind patterns are changing, and non-climate factors -primarily the accumulation of greenhouse gases produced from human activities - are driving this change.
  • Earth Alert: Confronting Climate Change / IPS Inter Press Service 10 February 2010 13:31 UTC ipsnews.net [Source type: News]

^ The Climate Prediction Center's forecast for the next 8-14 days (January 25 - February 1) is calling for near-normal to above-normal precipitation, and below-normal temperatures across Colorado.
  • Denver Weather, Denver, Colorado Weather Report & Local Forecast - KMGH Denver's Channel 7 17 January 2010 8:29 UTC www.thedenverchannel.com [Source type: News]

^ The winters are cool with an average minimum temperature of about 7° C. Most of the rainfall occurs in winter, but due to the topography the rainfall varies quite dramatically.
  • Climate of Cape Town, The Cape Doctor, South Eastern 10 February 2010 13:31 UTC cybercapetown.com [Source type: News]

[25]
Map of arctic tundra
Tundra occurs in the far Northern Hemisphere, north of the taiga belt, including vast areas of northern Russia and Canada [26].
.A polar ice cap, or polar ice sheet, is a high-latitude region of a planet or moon that is covered in ice.^ Nor do we want melting polar ice caps.
  • Global Climate Change: News & Videos about Global Climate Change - CNN.com 10 February 2010 13:31 UTC topics.cnn.com [Source type: News]

^ Peer-reviewed research has debunked doomsday scenarios about the polar ice caps, hurricanes, malaria, extinctions, rising oceans.
  • The Climate Change Climate Change - WSJ.com 10 February 2010 13:31 UTC online.wsj.com [Source type: News]

^ The ice sheets of Greenland and Antarctica cover close to 10 percent of the Earth's land surface area and contain over 75 percent of the world's fresh water.
  • The CALVIN BOOKSHELF Climate Collection 10 February 2010 13:31 UTC williamcalvin.com [Source type: Academic]

.Ice caps form because high-latitude regions receive less energy in the form of solar radiation from the sun than equatorial regions, resulting in lower surface temperatures.^ Solar power is poised to grow into a reliable alternative energy source, promising lower carbon emissions and decreased dependence on fossil fuels.

^ The marine climate means generally more changeable weather, ample precipitation in a variety of forms (sometimes all at once), higher humidity, lower visibility, more cloud, less sunshine, and stronger winds than a continental climate.
  • Environment Canada - Atlantic Climate Centre - The Climate of Newfoundland 10 February 2010 13:31 UTC www.ns.ec.gc.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Because the immediate surface (lower Boundary Layer) cools much more rapidly during these conditions than the air just above (upper Boundary Layer), a temperature inversion can be created overnight, but typically erodes quickly after sunrise.
  • Glossary - NOAA's National Weather Service 16 January 2010 19:19 UTC nws.noaa.gov [Source type: Reference]

[27]
.A desert is a landscape form or region that receives very little precipitation.^ The Andes Mountains, to the east, receive a lot of precipitation, but it is all gone by the time it gets to the Atacama Desert.
  • The Rain Shadow Effect 16 January 2010 19:19 UTC www.weatherpages.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, large areas in western Canada and Siberia receive very little precipitation and fall into the subhumid or semiarid climate type.

.Deserts usually have a large diurnal and seasonal temperature range, with high daytime temperatures (in summer up to 45 °C or 113 °F), and low night-time temperatures (in winter down to 0 °C; 32 °F) due to extremely low humidity.^ Seasonal changes between summer and winter are very large.

^ Plants have adapted to the extreme difference in rainfall and temperature between winter and summer seasons.

^ There are large seasonal swings in temperature and large day to night changes.
  • Colorado Climate Center - Climate of Colorado 10 February 2010 13:31 UTC ccc.atmos.colostate.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Many deserts are formed by rain shadows, as mountains block the path of moisture and precipitation to the desert.^ There is a long rain shadow area extending for almost the entire length of the coastal plain along the foothills of the Maya Mountain Range.
  • Belize climate weather meteorology weaterh patterns 17 January 2010 8:29 UTC www.belizenet.com [Source type: General]

^ The Andes Mountains, to the east, receive a lot of precipitation, but it is all gone by the time it gets to the Atacama Desert.
  • The Rain Shadow Effect 16 January 2010 19:19 UTC www.weatherpages.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Rain Foot Slang for a horizontal bulging near the surface in a precipitation shaft, forming a foot-shaped prominence.
  • Glossary - NOAA's National Weather Service 16 January 2010 19:19 UTC nws.noaa.gov [Source type: Reference]

[28]

Thornthwaite

Precipitation by month
.Devised by the American climatologist and geographer C. W. Thornthwaite, this climate classification method monitors the soil water budget using the concept of evapotranspiration.^ Great news: water use among Americans as a whole is decreasing!
  • Cyber-Rain: Smart Sprinkler Controller 16 January 2010 19:19 UTC blog.cyber-rain.com [Source type: General]

^ One great way is by monitoring your landscaping water use, which can be easily accomplished with the Cyber-Rain smart sprinkler controller.
  • Cyber-Rain: Smart Sprinkler Controller 16 January 2010 19:19 UTC blog.cyber-rain.com [Source type: General]

^ Ever wanted to understand the basic radiative forcing and feedback physics which climatologists use to assess climate change?

[10] .It monitors the portion of total precipitation used to nourish vegetation over a certain area.^ The National Atmospheric Deposition Program operates an acid rain observing network that is used to monitor the chemistry of precipitation for geographical and temporal long-term trends.
  • Databases and Article Searching - NOAA Central Library 10 February 2010 13:31 UTC www.lib.noaa.gov [Source type: Academic]

[29] .It uses indices such as a humidity index and an aridity index to determine an area's moisture regime based upon its average temperature, average rainfall, and average vegetation type.^ The climate is the primary determinant of what types and amounts of vegetation will exist in an area.
  • Parks Canada - Weather 10 February 2010 13:31 UTC www.pc.gc.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The temperature in a rain forest rarely gets higher than 93 °F (34 °C) or drops below 68 °F (20 °C); average humidity is between 77 and 88%; rainfall is often more than 100 inches a year.

^ The winters are cool with an average minimum temperature of about 7° C. Most of the rainfall occurs in winter, but due to the topography the rainfall varies quite dramatically.
  • Climate of Cape Town, The Cape Doctor, South Eastern 10 February 2010 13:31 UTC cybercapetown.com [Source type: News]

[30] .The lower the value of the index in any given area, the drier the area is.^ Rain or snow that has a pH lower than what is natural for a given area.
  • Acid-Rain 16 January 2010 19:19 UTC perth.uwlax.edu [Source type: Academic]

.The moisture classification includes climatic classes with descriptors such as hyperhumid, humid, subhumid, subarid, semi-arid (values of -20 to -40), and arid (values below -40).^ The numbers don't even include lobbying money from other industries lobbying against climate change, such as the auto industry, U.S. Chamber of Commerce, etc .

^ As such, relative humidity by itself does not directly indicate the actual amount of atmospheric moisture present.
  • Glossary - NOAA's National Weather Service 16 January 2010 19:19 UTC nws.noaa.gov [Source type: Reference]

[31] .Humid regions experience more precipitation than evaporation each year, while arid regions experience greater evaporation than precipitation on an annual basis.^ The annual precipitation of a rain forest is greater than 150 cm.

^ The temperature in a rain forest rarely gets higher than 93 °F (34 °C) or drops below 68 °F (20 °C); average humidity is between 77 and 88%; rainfall is often more than 100 inches a year.

^ The marine climate means generally more changeable weather, ample precipitation in a variety of forms (sometimes all at once), higher humidity, lower visibility, more cloud, less sunshine, and stronger winds than a continental climate.
  • Environment Canada - Atlantic Climate Centre - The Climate of Newfoundland 10 February 2010 13:31 UTC www.ns.ec.gc.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A total of 33 percent of the Earth's landmass is considered either arid of semi-arid, including southwest North America, southwest South America, most of northern and a small part of southern Africa, southwest and portions of eastern Asia, as well as much of Australia.^ Warming is expected to be greatest over land and at high northern latitudes and smallest over the Southern Ocean and parts of the North Atlantic Ocean.
  • Scientific Facts on Climate Change 2007 Update 10 February 2010 13:31 UTC www.greenfacts.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As well as coastal vs inland natural variables, this comparison should create an upward bias on averages because all five towns and cities excluded from the 27 locations are in the coastal southern half of Western Australia, which is much cooler than the northern half and/or inland throughout the year.
  • Global warming: average temperatures in Western Australia 10 February 2010 13:31 UTC waclimate.net [Source type: Academic]

^ Large parts of southern Asia and central Africa are likely to have the warmest year on record.
  • Climate 411 - Blogs & Podcasts - Environmental Defense Fund 10 February 2010 13:31 UTC blogs.edf.org [Source type: News]

[32] .Studies suggest that precipitation effectiveness (PE) within the Thornthwaite moisture index is overestimated in the summer and underestimated in the winter.^ In the alpine and sub-alpine zones (above and just below the treeline), there is more precipitation in the form of snow in the winter than in the summer.
  • Parks Canada - Weather 10 February 2010 13:31 UTC www.pc.gc.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Studies of clay extracted from the seabed, supported by new theoretical ideas, suggested that ocean current patterns might shift within mere thousands of years.
  • Ocean Currents and Climate 10 February 2010 13:31 UTC www.aip.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Precipitation increases with elevation both winter and summer but the elevation effect is greatest in mid winter when winds at mountain top level are typically strongest.
  • Colorado Climate Center - Climate of Colorado 10 February 2010 13:31 UTC ccc.atmos.colostate.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[33] .This index can be effectively used to determine the number of herbivore and mammal species numbers within a given area.^ It's hard for a species used to ever-expanding frontiers, but survival depends on accepting we live within limits .

^ When an acre of topical rainforest is lost, the impact on the number of plant and animal species lost and their possible uses is staggering.
  • Rainforest Facts 16 January 2010 19:19 UTC www.rain-tree.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By 55,000 years ago, still several millennia before humans arrived in the area, only four large mammal species remained.
  • Climate | Wired Science | Wired.com 10 February 2010 13:31 UTC www.wired.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[34] .The index is also used in studies of climate change.^ Identify ways in which climate and climate change are studied.

^ It worries me that climate change science comes down to a matter of “belief”, but we need to be able to accept that this is so and use belief to change behaviour and ultimately influence public policy.

^ In a new report, scientists used seven different climate models to assess the influence of human induced land cover change on climate.

[33]
Thermal classifications within the Thornthwaite scheme include microthermal, mesothermal, and megathermal regimes. .A microthermal climate is one of low annual mean temperatures, generally between 0 °C (32 °F) and 14 °C (57 °F) which experiences short summers and has a potential evaporation between 14 centimetres (5.5 in) and 43 centimetres (17 in).^ Though Bhutan has four distinct seasons, it is hard to generalize the weather since mountain climate varies enormously from one region to another.

^ He is stunned that not only have temperatures not warmed as predicted, but the temperatures have actually hit historic lows in his area, contradicting the supposedly authoritative pronouncements of the climate cartel.
  • Climate 
“Teacup Tempest”? 10 February 2010 13:31 UTC www.thenewamerican.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Global distribution of mean annual rainfall (in centimetres).
  • rain (meteorology) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 16 January 2010 19:19 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[35] .A mesothermal climate lacks persistent heat or persistent cold, with potential evaporation between 57 centimetres (22 in) and 114 centimetres (45 in).^ Flashback: Europe fears Obama going cold on climate battle -- 'shows a lack of ambition' .

[36] .A megathermal climate is one with persistent high temperatures and abundant rainfall, with potential evaporation in excess of 114 centimetres (45 in).^ One frequently overlooked potential casualty of accelerating climate change may be our tradition of democracy (corrupted as it already is).

^ CLIMATE OF THE EASTERN PLAINS The climate of the plains is comparatively uniform from place to place, with characteristic features of low relative humidity, abundant sunshine, infrequent rains and snow, moderate to high wind movement, and a large daily and seasonal range in temperature.
  • Colorado Climate Center - Climate of Colorado 10 February 2010 13:31 UTC ccc.atmos.colostate.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Scientists increasingly consider ocean acidification to be as potentially catastrophic for the globe as any temperature rise associated with climate disruption ...

[37]

Record

Modern

Instrumental temperature record of the last 150 years
.Details of the modern climate record are known through the taking of measurements from such weather instruments as thermometers, barometers, and anemometers during the past few centuries.^ Climate change is making itself felt in terms of day-to-day weather in the USA. High temp records are now being broken twice as often as low temp records ...

^ But for a long time, discussions of climate change did not take the oceans fully into account, simply because very little was known about them.
  • Ocean Currents and Climate 10 February 2010 13:31 UTC www.aip.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Humans need to adapt to the impacts of climate change , for instance through technological solutions such as coastal defences and changes in consumption habits.
  • Scientific Facts on Climate Change 2007 Update 10 February 2010 13:31 UTC www.greenfacts.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The instruments used to study weather conditions over the modern time scale, their known error, their immediate environment, and their exposure have changed over the years, which must be considered when studying the climate of centuries past.^ How is climate changing and how has it changed in the past?
  • Scientific Facts on Climate Change 2007 Update 10 February 2010 13:31 UTC www.greenfacts.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Identify ways in which climate and climate change are studied.

^ Climate change: The next ten years .

[38]

Paleoclimatology

.Paleoclimatology is the study of past climate over a great period of the Earth's history.^ A new study in the journal Science shows that all of the climate modeling results of the past are erroneous , because the figures used for greenhouse gas forcings are incorrect ...

^ Global Climate Change: Understanding the Greenhouse Effect Students study past climate change, explore the effect of greenhouse gases on Earth's atmosphere today, and consider human impact on global warming.
  • Teachers' Domain: Climate 10 February 2010 13:31 UTC www.teachersdomain.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During the last glacial period, Earth's climate underwent frequent large and abrupt global changes.
  • The CALVIN BOOKSHELF Climate Collection 10 February 2010 13:31 UTC williamcalvin.com [Source type: Academic]

.It uses evidence from ice sheets, tree rings, sediments, coral, and rocks to determine the past state of the climate.^ Link to additional information: Colorado State University Cooperative Extension Fact Sheet on Colorado's Water Situation (Western water rights & using gray water (PDF).

^ A new study in the journal Science shows that all of the climate modeling results of the past are erroneous , because the figures used for greenhouse gas forcings are incorrect ...

^ The ice sheets remain a major source of uncertainty in accounting for past changes in sea level because of insufficient data about them over the last 100 years.
  • Global Climate Change~ Major Scientific and Policy Issues - Encyclopedia of Earth 10 February 2010 13:31 UTC www.eoearth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It demonstrates periods of stability and periods of change and can indicate whether changes follow patterns such as regular cycles.^ America's War on Itself George Monbiot: Bush's wrecking tactics over climate change follow an established pattern of self-destruction.
  • Climate Change 10 February 2010 13:31 UTC www.buzzle.com [Source type: News]

^ Such cold temperatures are rare but demonstrate the extremes that mountain weather patterns can produce.
  • Colorado Climate Center - Climate of Colorado 10 February 2010 13:31 UTC ccc.atmos.colostate.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Now, climate change is altering weather and climate patterns that previously have been relatively stable.

[39]

Climate change

Variations in CO2, temperature and dust from the Vostok ice core over the past 450,000 years
.Climate change is the variation in global or regional climates over time.^ 'It's time to go to war on climate change.

^ Though Bhutan has four distinct seasons, it is hard to generalize the weather since mountain climate varies enormously from one region to another.

^ The drumbeat rousing world leaders to action on climate change is fading out as delegates get down to the business of negotiating a global deal at climate talks in Copenhagen.
  • Global Climate Change: News & Videos about Global Climate Change - CNN.com 10 February 2010 13:31 UTC topics.cnn.com [Source type: News]

.It reflects changes in the variability or average state of the atmosphere over time scales ranging from decades to millions of years.^ Fox News averaged 2.187 million total viewers in primetime for the year [2009], up 7% from 2008 and enough to place 3rd among all cable channels.
  • Climate Shifts » John Bruno 10 February 2010 13:31 UTC www.climateshifts.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ And among all the widely varying models, a few did sometimes show abrupt ocean circulation shifts that brought severe climate change in the space of a few decades.
  • Ocean Currents and Climate 10 February 2010 13:31 UTC www.aip.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Regardless of the mechanism, the transition was a 50-year period during which wind speeds, precipitation, temperatures, and sea ice were changing throughout the Northern Hemisphere on subdecadal time scales."
  • The CALVIN BOOKSHELF Climate Collection 10 February 2010 13:31 UTC williamcalvin.com [Source type: Academic]

.These changes can be caused by processes internal to the Earth, external forces (e.g.^ Causes of Climate Change High levels of industrial pollution and a number of man-induced processes have resulted in climate change.
  • Climate Change 10 February 2010 13:31 UTC www.buzzle.com [Source type: News]

variations in sunlight intensity) or, more recently, human activities.[40]
.In recent usage, especially in the context of environmental policy, the term "climate change" often refers only to changes in modern climate, including the rise in average surface temperature known as global warming.^ Blogging the science and policy of global warming .
  • Climate 411 - Blogs & Podcasts - Environmental Defense Fund 10 February 2010 13:31 UTC blogs.edf.org [Source type: News]

^ Global warming: average temperatures in Western Australia .
  • Global warming: average temperatures in Western Australia 10 February 2010 13:31 UTC waclimate.net [Source type: Academic]

^ Daily temperatures also change often.

.In some cases, the term is also used with a presumption of human causation, as in the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC).^ United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change * http://unfccc.int/2860.php .
  • Databases and Article Searching - NOAA Central Library 10 February 2010 13:31 UTC www.lib.noaa.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Kyoto Protocol * - final authentic text of the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change.
  • Databases and Article Searching - NOAA Central Library 10 February 2010 13:31 UTC www.lib.noaa.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ It worries me that climate change science comes down to a matter of “belief”, but we need to be able to accept that this is so and use belief to change behaviour and ultimately influence public policy.

.The UNFCCC uses "climate variability" for non-human caused variations.^ In a new report, scientists used seven different climate models to assess the influence of human induced land cover change on climate.

^ Given the scale of climate variability in the recent and geological past, there's an element of hubris in the inclination to attribute present climate change to a human cause ...

^ Description: The effective use of climate data and products requires an understanding of what the statistical parameters mean and which parameters best summarize the data for particular climate variables.

[41]
.Earth has undergone periodic climate shifts in the past, including four major ice ages.^ Solar Magnetism This video segment adapted from NOVA describes how the Sun's magnetism can have an effect here on Earth, from dramatic auroras to a mini-Ice Age in the 1600s.
  • Teachers' Domain: Climate 10 February 2010 13:31 UTC www.teachersdomain.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The ice sheets remain a major source of uncertainty in accounting for past changes in sea level because of insufficient data about them over the last 100 years.
  • Global Climate Change~ Major Scientific and Policy Issues - Encyclopedia of Earth 10 February 2010 13:31 UTC www.eoearth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For tens of thousands of years, ice accumulating in Greenland has preserved details of the earth's climate and atmosphere.
  • The CALVIN BOOKSHELF Climate Collection 10 February 2010 13:31 UTC williamcalvin.com [Source type: Academic]

.These consisting of glacial periods where conditions are colder than normal, separated by interglacial periods.^ These lakes had consistently lower pH and ANC, and higher concentrations of aluminum than lakes that contained one or more species of fish.
  • Acid rain - Encyclopedia of Earth 16 January 2010 19:19 UTC www.eoearth.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Seas were nearly 10 metres higher than now in previous interglacial period .

.The accumulation of snow and ice during a glacial period increases the surface albedo, reflecting more of the Sun's energy into space and maintaining a lower atmospheric temperature.^ Because the immediate surface (lower Boundary Layer) cools much more rapidly during these conditions than the air just above (upper Boundary Layer), a temperature inversion can be created overnight, but typically erodes quickly after sunrise.
  • Glossary - NOAA's National Weather Service 16 January 2010 19:19 UTC nws.noaa.gov [Source type: Reference]

^ Reflectivity Factor The result of a mathematical equation (called the Weather Radar Equation) that converts the analog power (in Watts) received by the radar antenna into a more usable quantity.
  • Glossary - NOAA's National Weather Service 16 January 2010 19:19 UTC nws.noaa.gov [Source type: Reference]

^ Regardless of the mechanism, the transition was a 50-year period during which wind speeds, precipitation, temperatures, and sea ice were changing throughout the Northern Hemisphere on subdecadal time scales."
  • The CALVIN BOOKSHELF Climate Collection 10 February 2010 13:31 UTC williamcalvin.com [Source type: Academic]

.Increases in greenhouse gases, such as by volcanic activity, can increase the global temperature and produce an interglacial.^ The measurable increase in average global temperatures, termed “ global warming ” and linked to increases in “greenhouse” gases in the Earth’s atmosphere, has led to international efforts to achieve reductions of emissions of those gases from human activities, as well as domestic debates in the United States concerning the appropriate policies to address related concerns.
  • Global Climate Change~ Major Scientific and Policy Issues - Encyclopedia of Earth 10 February 2010 13:31 UTC www.eoearth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Climatologist slams AP for 'making up' global warming claims -- 'significant minority of climate scientists do not consider greenhouse gases as the primary cause for global warming' .

^ The meeting was billed as an attempt to jump-start negotiations in advance of a December summit in Copenhagen at which a global treaty governing greenhouse gas emissions is to be produced .

.Suggested causes of ice age periods include the positions of the continents, variations in the Earth's orbit, changes in the solar output, and vulcanism.^ Scientists have long suspected that changes in solar output may have triggered the Little Ice Age .

^ Why was there an ice age in the Late Ordovician Period, when greenhouse gas levels were nearly 12 times higher then they are today ?

^ The models gave reasonably correct pictures of how sea temperatures changed when perturbed by a great volcanic eruption or even an ice age.
  • Ocean Currents and Climate 10 February 2010 13:31 UTC www.aip.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[42]

Climate models

.Climate models use quantitative methods to simulate the interactions of the atmosphere,[43] oceans, land surface and ice.^ I also am aware of the separation of the ocean modeling and the atmospheric modeling work, with perhaps not enough interaction.
  • RealClimate - Comments on Lindzen and Choi Unraveled 10 February 2010 13:31 UTC www.realclimate.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In a new report, scientists used seven different climate models to assess the influence of human induced land cover change on climate.

^ The module contains five scenarios that model using the Climate Analysis Process (CAP).

.They are used for a variety of purposes from study of the dynamics of the weather and climate system to projections of future climate.^ Skeptics of the global warming theory have called into question the reliability of the computer climate models and their output used to make projections of future warming that supported Kyoto Protocol negotiations.
  • Global Climate Change~ Major Scientific and Policy Issues - Encyclopedia of Earth 10 February 2010 13:31 UTC www.eoearth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Our 6 year old uses these for fishing in all kinds of weather and they are absolutely terrific boots.
  • Bogs Classic High Insulated Rain Boots - Kids' at REI.com 16 January 2010 19:19 UTC www.rei.com [Source type: General]

^ IGY believed that the role of the oceans in climate change was something they should gather data on, if only for the benefit of future researchers.
  • Ocean Currents and Climate 10 February 2010 13:31 UTC www.aip.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.All climate models balance, or very nearly balance, incoming energy as short wave (including visible) electromagnetic radiation to the earth with outgoing energy as long wave (infrared) electromagnetic radiation from the earth.^ Radiation Energy transport through electromagnetic waves.
  • Glossary - NOAA's National Weather Service 16 January 2010 19:19 UTC nws.noaa.gov [Source type: Reference]

^ Sam Bell (Sam Rockwell) is nearing the completion of his 3-year-long contract with Lunar Industries, mining Earth's primary source of energy on the dark side of the moon.
  • Rain City Video | 20 Years of Great Movies | Welcome to Our Store! 16 January 2010 19:19 UTC www.raincityvideo.com [Source type: General]

^ And among all the widely varying models, a few did sometimes show abrupt ocean circulation shifts that brought severe climate change in the space of a few decades.
  • Ocean Currents and Climate 10 February 2010 13:31 UTC www.aip.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Any imbalance results in a change in the average temperature of the earth.^ To end the political stalemate over climate change Dr. Ross McKitrick proposes that each side call the other side's bluff, with a carbon tax set by the earth ' s temperature ...

^ Averaged across the whole planet, there is presumably close to zero average diurnal temperature change, because there’s close to zero change in total average incoming sunlight.
  • RealClimate - Comments on Lindzen and Choi Unraveled 10 February 2010 13:31 UTC www.realclimate.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Global Warming: The Physics of the Greenhouse Effect This video segment adapted from NOVA/FRONTLINE examines the greenhouse effect, its role in keeping Earth habitable, and the industrial changes that have led to an increase in the planet's average temperature.
  • Teachers' Domain: Climate 10 February 2010 13:31 UTC www.teachersdomain.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The most talked-about models of recent years have been those used to infer the consequences of increasing greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, primarily carbon dioxide (see greenhouse gas).^ By pulling carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and carrying it to the deep sea, those microorganisms provide Earth’s largest carbon sink.
  • Climate | Wired Science | Wired.com 10 February 2010 13:31 UTC www.wired.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ And the Wall Street Journal just reported “ In the last two years, China has built nearly 20 plants that convert coal into a gas that can be used to make such things as plastic and pharmaceuticals .” 2007 may be the year China passed this country in total carbon dioxide emissions.
  • Top 10 global warming stories of 2007 « Climate Progress 10 February 2010 13:31 UTC climateprogress.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is not hard to imagine a state of emergency morphing into a much longer state of siege, especially since heat-trapping carbon dioxide stays in the atmosphere for about 100 years.

.These models predict an upward trend in the global mean surface temperature, with the most rapid increase in temperature being projected for the higher latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere.^ The expert lecture is divided into five sections, which give a short overview of the phenomenon, discuss its relationship with sea surface temperatures, compares composite MJO events to individual occurrences, and touches on the ability of models to predict MJO events.

^ As the sun goes down, these wispy clouds in the northern latitudes appear to glow as the ice particles in the clouds reflect the sun’s rays.
  • Climate | Wired Science | Wired.com 10 February 2010 13:31 UTC www.wired.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For a normally distributed variable such as temperature, a small increase in its long-term mean, variance or both can produce substantial changes in the probability of occurrence of extreme heat.

Models can range from relatively simple to quite complex:
.
  • Simple radiant heat transfer model that treats the earth as a single point and averages outgoing energy
  • this can be expanded vertically (radiative-convective models), or horizontally
  • finally, (coupled) atmosphere–ocean–sea ice global climate models discretise and solve the full equations for mass and energy transfer and radiant exchange.^ Simple models <= Climate cycles .
    • Ocean Currents and Climate 10 February 2010 13:31 UTC www.aip.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Not in the Earth's tenuous atmosphere, but in the oceans.
    • Ocean Currents and Climate 10 February 2010 13:31 UTC www.aip.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Full discussion in <= Simple models .
    • Ocean Currents and Climate 10 February 2010 13:31 UTC www.aip.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    [44]

See also

References

  1. ^ C. W. Thornthwaite, "An Approach Toward a Rational Classification of Climate", Geographical Review, 38:55-94, 1948
  2. ^ "Climate". Glossary of Meteorology. American Meteorological Society. http://amsglossary.allenpress.com/glossary/search?id=climate1. Retrieved 2008-05-14. 
  3. ^ "Climate averages". Met Office. http://www.metoffice.gov.uk/climate/uk/averages. Retrieved 2008-05-17. 
  4. ^ Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Appendix I: Glossary. Retrieved on 2007-06-01.
  5. ^ National Weather Service Office Tucson, Arizona. Main page. Retrieved on 2007-06-01.
  6. ^ Stefan Rahmstorf. The Thermohaline Ocean Circulation: A Brief Fact Sheet. Retrieved on 2008-05-02.
  7. ^ Gertjan de Werk and Karel Mulder. Heat Absorption Cooling For Sustainable Air Conditioning of Households. Retrieved on 2008-05-02.
  8. ^ Ledley, T.S.; Sundquist, E. T.; Schwartz, S. E.; Hall, D. K.; Fellows, J. D.; Killeen, T. L. (1999). "Climate change and greenhouse gases". EOS 80 (39): 453. doi:10.1029/99EO00325. http://www.agu.org/eos_elec/99148e.html. Retrieved 2008-05-17. 
  9. ^ United States National Arboretum. USDA Plant Hardiness Zone Map. Retrieved on 2008-03-09
  10. ^ a b "Thornethwaite Moisture Index". Glossary of Meteorology. American Meteorological Society. http://amsglossary.allenpress.com/glossary/search?p=1&query=Thornthwaite&submit=Search. Retrieved 2008-05-21. 
  11. ^ "Airmass Classification". Glossary of Meteorology. American Meteorological Society. http://amsglossary.allenpress.com/glossary/search?id=airmass-classification1. Retrieved 2008-05-22. 
  12. ^ Schwartz, M.D. (1995). "Detecting Structural Climate Change: An Air Mass-Based Approach in the North Central United States, 1958-1992". Annals of the Association of American Geographers 85 (3): 553–568. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8306.1995.tb01812.x. 
  13. ^ Robert E. Davis, L. Sitka, D. M. Hondula, S. Gawtry, D. Knight, T. Lee, and J. Stenger. J1.10 A preliminary back-trajectory and air mass climatology for the Shenandoah Valley (Formerly J3.16 for Applied Climatology). Retrieved on 2008-05-21.
  14. ^ Susan Woodward. Tropical Broadleaf Evergreen Forest: The Rainforest. Retrieved on 2008-03-14.
  15. ^ "Monsoon". Glossary of Meteorology. American Meteorological Society. http://amsglossary.allenpress.com/glossary/search?p=1&query=monsoon. Retrieved 2008-05-14. 
  16. ^ International Committee of the Third Workshop on Monsoons. The Global Monsoon System: Research and Forecast. Retrieved on 2008-03-16.
  17. ^ Susan Woodward. Tropical Savannas. Retrieved on 2008-03-16.
  18. ^ "Humid subtropical climate". Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. 2008. http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-53358/climate. Retrieved 2008-05-14. 
  19. ^ Michael Ritter. Humid Subtropical Climate. Retrieved on 2008-03-16.
  20. ^ Peel, M. C. and Finlayson, B. L. and McMahon, T. A. (2007). "Updated world map of the Köppen-Geiger climate classification". Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. 11: 1633–1644. ISSN 1027-5606. http://www.hydrol-earth-syst-sci.net/11/1633/2007/hess-11-1633-2007.html. 
  21. ^ Climate. Oceanic Climate. Retrieved on 2008-04-15.
  22. ^ Michael Ritter. Mediterranean or Dry Summer Subtropical Climate. Retrieved on 2008-04-15.
  23. ^ Blue Planet Biomes. Steppe Climate. Retrieved on 2008-04-15.
  24. ^ Michael Ritter. Subarctic Climate. Retrieved on 2008-04-16.
  25. ^ Susan Woodward. Taiga or Boreal Forest. Retrieved on 2008-06-06.
  26. ^ "The Tundra Biome". The World's Biomes. http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/glossary/gloss5/biome/tundra.html. Retrieved 2006-03-05. 
  27. ^ Michael Ritter. Ice Cap Climate. Retrieved on 2008-03-16.
  28. ^ San Diego State University. Introduction to Arid Regions: A Self-Paced Tutorial. Retrieved on 2008-04-16.
  29. ^ "Moisture Index". Glossary of Meteorology. American Meteorological Society. http://amsglossary.allenpress.com/glossary/search?id=moisture-index1. Retrieved 2008-05-21. 
  30. ^ Eric Green. Foundations of Expansive Clay Soil. Retrieved on 2008-05-21.
  31. ^ Istituto Agronomico per l'Otremare. 3 Land Resources. Retrieved on 2008-05-21.
  32. ^ Fredlund, D.G.; Rahardjo, H. (1993) (pdf). Soil Mechanics for Unsaturated Soils. Wiley-Interscience. ISBN 978-0471850083. OCLC 26543184. http://www.soilvision.com/subdomains/unsaturatedsoil.com/Docs/chapter1UST.pdf. Retrieved 2008-05-21. 
  33. ^ a b Gregory J. McCabe and David M. Wolock. Trends and temperature sensitivity of moisture conditions in the conterminous United States. Retrieved on 2008-05-21.
  34. ^ Hawkins, B.A.; Pausas, Juli G. (2004). "Does plant richness influence animal richness?: the mammals of Catalonia (NE Spain)". Diversity & Distributions 10 (4): 247–252. doi:10.1111/j.1366-9516.2004.00085.x. http://repositories.cdlib.org/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1741&context=postprints. Retrieved 2008-05-21. 
  35. ^ "Microthermal Climate". Glossary of Meteorology. American Meteorological Society. http://amsglossary.allenpress.com/glossary/search?id=microthermal-climate1. Retrieved 2008-05-21. 
  36. ^ "Mesothermal Climate". Glossary of Meteorology. American Meteorological Society. http://amsglossary.allenpress.com/glossary/search?id=mesothermal-climate1. Retrieved 2008-05-21. 
  37. ^ "Megathermal Climate". Glossary of Meteorology. American Meteorological Society. http://amsglossary.allenpress.com/glossary/search?id=megathermal-climate1. Retrieved 2008-05-21. 
  38. ^ Spencer Weart. The Modern Temperature Trend. Retrieved on 2007-06-01.
  39. ^ National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. NOAA Paleoclimatology. Retrieved on 2007-06-01.
  40. ^ Arctic Climatology and Meteorology. Climate change. Retrieved on 2008-05-19.
  41. ^ "Glossary". Climate Change 2001: The Scientific Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. 2001-01-20. http://www.grida.no/climate/ipcc_tar/wg1/518.htm. Retrieved 2008-05-22. 
  42. ^ Illinois State Museum (2002). Ice Ages. Retrieved on 2007-05-15.
  43. ^ Eric Maisonnave. Climate Variability. Retrieved on 2008-05-02.
  44. ^ Climateprediction.net. Modelling the climate. Retrieved on 2008-05-02.

External links

.

Simple English

Climates mean the usual condition of the temperature, humidity, atmospheric pressure, wind, rainfall, and other meteorological elements around a part of the earth's surface for a long time. Climate is different from weather. Weather is the condition of these elements right now, for shorter periods of time that are up to two weeks.

The latitude, ground, and height can change the climate of a location. It is also important to note if there are large bodies of water nearby. Climates are most commonly classified by temperature and precipitation. The most commonly used classification was first made by Wladimir Köppen. The Thornthwaite system,[1] which was used from 1948, not only uses temperature and precipitation information, evapotranspiration too. This is why it is used in studying how many different kinds of animal species there are, and about the things that could happen when climates change. The Bergeron and Spatial Synoptic Classification systems focus more on where the air masses which help make climates come from.

Climates can change after a long time. Recently, the world may be becoming warmer, as is discussed in global warming.

The climate of a place is given names such as Temperate, Arid, Cold, Dry, Tundra, Tropical, Equatorial, Mediterranean, Savanna, etc.

Contents

Subarctic

Regions having a subarctic climate (also called boreal climate) are characterized by long, usually very cold winters, and brief, warm summers.

Temperate

Temperate climates have four seasons. Some of the countries which have a temperate climate are: Turkey, and most of the European countries.

Arid

Arid climates are hot climates, like deserts. They just have one or two seasons such as: Saudi Arabia and most of the African countries.

Tropical

Tropical climates have warm temperature and only two seasons; Wet and Dry

Mediterranean

The Mediterranean climate is usually hot and dry in summer, and is cool and wet in winter.

Savanna

The savannas' climate is often tropical wet and dry. See also: Köppen's climate classification scheme

References

  1. C. W. Thornthwaite, "An Approach Toward a Rational Classification of Climate", Geographical Review, 38:55-94, 1948
krc:Климат


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 29, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Climate, which are similar to those in the above article.








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