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.Climate change is a change in the statistical distribution of weather over periods of time that range from decades to millions of years.^ (November 2009) There is near consensus among the scientific community that CO2 emissions are causing climate change, including increased temperature, precipitation, and variability in weather.
  • Climate Change Predicted to Affect Mortality in Rural India More Than the United States - Population Reference Bureau 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.prb.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A Change in Extreme Weather Events A shift in global climate could bring about a change in the frequency and intensity of drought in already drought-prone regions.
  • climate change 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Time.com: Climate Change in Action in Greenland .
  • Global Climate Change: News & Videos about Global Climate Change - CNN.com 12 September 2009 10:010 UTC topics.edition.cnn.com [Source type: News]

.It can be a change in the average weather or a change in the distribution of weather events around an average (for example, greater or fewer extreme weather events).^ Climate Change & Extreme Events 21.
  • climate change 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A Change in Extreme Weather Events A shift in global climate could bring about a change in the frequency and intensity of drought in already drought-prone regions.
  • climate change 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the developed world, the return period of extreme events may still be substantially greater than the recovery period from the disasters which the events cause.
  • climate change 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Climate change may be limited to a specific region, or may occur across the whole Earth.^ This whole climate change thing is so dumb.
  • 411mania.com: Politics - Good News � Climate Change Not a Big Deal Anymore 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.411mania.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The disadvantage already characterizing resource-dependent rural households may be exacerbated in the face of future changes in regional precipitation and temperature patterns.
  • Climate Change, Rural Vulnerabilities, and Migration - Population Reference Bureau 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.prb.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The Chesapeake Bay region is already experiencing climate changes that stress human development and natural habitats alike.
  • ASWM: Wetland Science: Wetlands and Global Climate Change 12 September 2009 10:010 UTC www.aswm.org [Source type: Academic]

.It can be caused by recurring, often cyclical climate patterns such as El Niño-Southern Oscillation, or come in the form of more singular events such as the Dust Bowl.^ Climate is of course inextricably linked to patterns of land cover and land-use, particularly in a semi-arid region of such variable topography as the Colorado Plateau.
  • Climate as an Agent of Biotic Change on the Colorado Plateau 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.cpluhna.nau.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Global Climate Change Fact Sheet Series: KS4 & A 102 ACE Information Programme aric The formation of El Niño is linked with the cycling of a Pacific Ocean circulation pattern known as the El Niño Southern Oscillation or ENSO. In a normal year, low atmospheric pressure develops over northern Australia and Indonesia, with an anticyclone or high pressure over the equatorial Pacific.
  • climate change 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After an El Niño event, weather conditions usually return back to normal.
  • climate change 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[1]
.In recent usage, especially in the context of environmental policy, climate change usually refers to changes in modern climate.^ If climate change were a small house fire, current policy in the European Union and the United Kingdom would ensure that it would destroy not just the house but the entire suburb.
  • Global Climate Change: News & Videos about Global Climate Change - CNN.com 12 September 2009 10:010 UTC topics.edition.cnn.com [Source type: News]

^ At the regional scale, significant climatic changes have been witnessed, particularly the recent desiccation of the Sahel.
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^ Since the hydrology of these waterbodies is strongly affected by weather patterns (in the short-term) or climate (long-term), they are especially sensitive to climate change.
  • ASWM: Wetland Science: Wetlands and Global Climate Change 12 September 2009 10:010 UTC www.aswm.org [Source type: Academic]

.It may be qualified as anthropogenic climate change, more generally known as "global warming" or "anthropogenic global warming" (AGW).^ Climate Change/Global warming .
  • climate change « ThinkOrSwim (the Climatechange.ie Blog) 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.thinkorswim.ie [Source type: General]

^ Within the media, climate change has been used synonymously with global warming.
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^ Beyond global warming: ecology and global change .
  • Climate as an Agent of Biotic Change on the Colorado Plateau 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.cpluhna.nau.edu [Source type: Academic]

.For information on temperature measurements over various periods, and the data sources available, see temperature record.^ Higher temperatures increase the evaporation rate, thus reducing the level of moisture available for plant growth, although other climatic variables are involved.
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^ Instrumental records of temperature and other climatic variables span only a tiny fraction of the Earth's climatic history, and so provide an inadequate perspective on climatic variation and the evolution of the climate today and in the future.
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^ Such records may reveal information about past surface water temperatures, salinity, dissolved oxygen and nutrient availability.
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.For attribution of climate change over the past century, see attribution of recent climate change.^ Climate Change in the 20th Century 10.
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^ Climate Change in the 21st Century 11.
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^ Saturday, 4th November will see the largest ever global demonstrations against climate change, in around 40 different countries.

Contents

Causes

Factors that can shape climate are climate forcings. .These include such processes as variations in solar radiation, deviations in the Earth's orbit, mountain-building and continental drift, and changes in greenhouse gas concentrations.^ The speed and magnitude of these changes in greenhouse gas concentrations are extraordinary.
  • Magic - Global Climate Change and California Oaks 12 September 2009 10:010 UTC ecomagic.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Such mechanisms include changes in solar output and the enhanced greenhouse effect.
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^ The greenhouse gases allow the shortwave solar radiation to pass through unimpeded, whilst trapping (absorbing) most of the long-wave terrestrial radiation.
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.There are a variety of climate change feedbacks that can either amplify or diminish the initial forcing.^ Climate forcing “forces” the climate to change.
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^ The updated UK Climate Change Programme (2000) contains a variety of new measures to further energy savings from both supply and demand.
  • climate change 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Cloud Feedback Cloud feedback is the term used to encompass effects of changes in cloud and their associated properties with a change of climate.
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.Some parts of the climate system, such as the oceans and ice caps, respond slowly in reaction to climate forcing because of their large mass.^ Some evidence suggests that the cause may be found within the natural climate system, for example a change to the energy transport of the ocean due to a reduction of northward ocean circulation.
  • climate change 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Uttlesford District Council has refused BAA’s planning application for a runway extension at Stanstead Airport, largely because of the climate change impacts.

^ The report, which appears in the January 27 th Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, speaks of irreversible climate change, due in large part to the behavior of the oceans.
  • ASWM: Wetland Science: Wetlands and Global Climate Change 12 September 2009 10:010 UTC www.aswm.org [Source type: Academic]

.Therefore, the climate system can take centuries or longer to fully respond to new external forcings.^ Finally, such GCMs can take account of the time delay between changes in the atmosphere and changes in the climate as a result of the climate system's background inertia.
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^ Climate Forcing Mechanisms Climate forcing can be separated into internal and external types.
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^ Some ecological systems may not reach a new equilibrium for several centuries after the climate achieves a new balance.
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Plate tectonics

.Over the course of millions of years, the motion of tectonic plates reconfigures global land and ocean areas and generates topography.^ The Geosphere Variations in global climate over hundreds of millions of years are due to changes within the interior of the Earth.
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^ Surface Temperatures Variations Combined land and ocean temperatures analyses indicate that during the last decade globally averaged surface temperatures have been higher than in any decade in the past 140 years.
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^ Drylands cover over 40% of the total land area of the world (6,150 million hectares).
  • climate change 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This can affect both global and local patterns of climate and atmosphere-ocean circulation.^ Changes in ocean circulation are also projected to occur as a result of changing global climate.
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^ It forms part of the global ocean circulation.
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^ Global Climate Change Fact Sheet Series: KS4 & A 102 ACE Information Programme aric The formation of El Niño is linked with the cycling of a Pacific Ocean circulation pattern known as the El Niño Southern Oscillation or ENSO. In a normal year, low atmospheric pressure develops over northern Australia and Indonesia, with an anticyclone or high pressure over the equatorial Pacific.
  • climate change 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[2]
.The position of the continents determines the geometry of the oceans and therefore influences patterns of ocean circulation.^ Impacts of Changing Ocean Circulation Patterns The oceans store an immense amount of heat energy, and consequently play a crucial role in the regulation of climatic patterns.
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^ A strong negative or positive condition can powerfully influence weather around the northern half of the globe and the behavior of sea ice on the Arctic Ocean.
  • CLIMATE CHANGE - Dot Earth Blog - NYTimes.com 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC dotearth.blogs.nytimes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ice advances in this period are known to have altered the whole pattern of global atmospheric and ocean circulation.
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.The locations of the seas are important in controlling the transfer of heat and moisture across the globe, and therefore, in determining global climate.^ The cryosphere plays another important role in the regulation of the global climate.
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^ Variations in Atmospheric Circulation The atmospheric circulation is the main control behind regional changes in wind, temperature, precipitation, moisture and other climatic variables.
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^ Return Periods of Extreme Events Global climate change could well affect the frequency, magnitude and location of extreme events.
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.A recent example of tectonic control on ocean circulation is the formation of the Isthmus of Panama about 5 million years ago, which shut off direct mixing between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans.^ But hey, God said the world was made 6000 years ago so let's not worry about what pumping pollution into the air will do to us.
  • 411mania.com: Politics - Good News � Climate Change Not a Big Deal Anymore 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.411mania.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Climate Control Climate Change News You Might Have Missed Recent discoveries and warnings about how climate change might affect people and the planet.
  • Global Climate Change - Associated Content - Topic - associatedcontent.com 12 September 2009 10:010 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: News]

^ The last such period occurred about 60 years ago.
  • Magic - Global Climate Change and California Oaks 12 September 2009 10:010 UTC ecomagic.org [Source type: Academic]

.This strongly affected the ocean dynamics of what is now the Gulf Stream and may have led to Northern Hemisphere ice cover.^ At present, northern-western Europe, including the UK, is warmed by heat carried polewards by the Gulf Stream.
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^ Gulf Stream A warm surface ocean current which originates in the Gulf of Mexico and flows northeast across the Atlantic.
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^ Because El Niño may influence the mid-latitude northern hemisphere jet stream even the weather in Europe and North America can be influenced.
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[3][4] .Earlier, during the Carboniferous period, plate tectonics may have triggered the large-scale storage of carbon and increased glaciation.^ During the last period of glacial retreat, sustained, globally-averaged warming of a few degrees occurred over thousands of years.
  • Magic - Global Climate Change and California Oaks 12 September 2009 10:010 UTC ecomagic.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Even short periods of extreme heat or cold during critical times may injure or kill.
  • Magic - Global Climate Change and California Oaks 12 September 2009 10:010 UTC ecomagic.org [Source type: Academic]

^ As a consequence of carbon fertilisation, water use efficiency may also increase.
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[5] .Geologic evidence points to a "megamonsoonal" circulation pattern during the time of the supercontinent Pangaea, and climate modeling suggests that the existence of the supercontinent was conducive to the establishment of monsoons.^ Some evidence suggests that the cause may be found within the natural climate system, for example a change to the energy transport of the ocean due to a reduction of northward ocean circulation.
  • climate change 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Impacts of Changing Ocean Circulation Patterns The oceans store an immense amount of heat energy, and consequently play a crucial role in the regulation of climatic patterns.
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^ General circulation model (GCM) A computer model used to simulate human-induced climate change.
  • climate change 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[6]
.More locally, topography can influence climate.^ Road transport affects local air quality, influences the global climate and creates economic inefficiency through daily road congestion.
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^ The effects of desertification are not necessarily restricted to local communities, but may influence populations world-wide as the climatic effects of desertification enhance man-made causes of global warming.
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^ In North American Climate, a More Local Control.

The existence of mountains (as a product of plate tectonics through mountain-building) can cause orographic precipitation. .Humidity generally decreases and diurnal temperature swings generally increase with increasing elevation.^ The resulting decrease in local atmospheric humidity and increase in surface albedo (reflectivity of sunlight) has the potential to further reduce the regional precipitation.
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^ UVb is generally thought to be increasing about 2% for each 1% decrease in ozone, suggesting that it may peak at 20-40% above historic levels (Madronich et al , 1994).
  • Magic - Global Climate Change and California Oaks 12 September 2009 10:010 UTC ecomagic.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Thermal expansion The increase in volume (or decrease in density) of ocean water as a result of increased temperature of the water.
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.Mean temperature and the length of the growing season also decrease with increasing elevation.^ The length of the growing season for grasses and trees would increase by about 15 days per oC rise in mean surface temperature, an increase that could improve the viability of grassland, animal production and forestry in the uplands.
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^ Low temperatures may suppress insects and other organisms which can damage or kill oaks, but they also limit growing season.
  • Magic - Global Climate Change and California Oaks 12 September 2009 10:010 UTC ecomagic.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Production could increase in some regions where temperature is currently limiting to grain growing.
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.This, along with orographic precipitation, is important for the existence of low-latitude alpine glaciers and the varied flora and fauna along at different elevations in montane ecosystems.^ Ecosystem A system of interconnected habitats and their species of flora (plants) and fauna (animals), usually defined by a specific geographical area and/or climatic regime, e.g.
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The size of continents is also important. .Because of the stabilizing effect of the oceans on temperature, yearly temperature variations are generally lower in coastal areas than they are inland.^ That said, most models predict marked changes in land surface temperature (0.5 to 2oC increase by 2050), whilst increases in the temperature of the surface ocean are somewhat lower.
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^ Surface Temperatures Variations Combined land and ocean temperatures analyses indicate that during the last decade globally averaged surface temperatures have been higher than in any decade in the past 140 years.
  • climate change 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Lower North Atlantic ocean temperatures are associated with reduced precipitation.
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.A larger supercontinent will therefore have more area in which climate is strongly seasonal than will several smaller continents and/or island arcs.^ Even if future climate change is less severe than projected, serious impacts are expected, according to the study.

^ But again, you are looking at the last few years, you’re not looking back in time where every temperature change and every climate change has been more rapid and greater than ever we see today.
  • climate change « ThinkOrSwim (the Climatechange.ie Blog) 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.thinkorswim.ie [Source type: General]

^ Therefore, the energy arriving at the top of the Earth's atmosphere is many orders of magnitude smaller than that leaving the Sun.
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Solar output

Variations in solar activity during the last several centuries based on observations of sunspots and beryllium isotopes.
.The sun is the predominant source for energy input to the Earth.^ The Energy Budget of the Atmosphere The Earth receives energy from the Sun in the form of ultra-violet and visible radiation, and emits terrestrial radiation in the form of infra-red energy.
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^ Therefore, the energy arriving at the top of the Earth's atmosphere is many orders of magnitude smaller than that leaving the Sun.
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^ The Energy Budget of the Atmosphere The Earth, however, has an atmosphere, consisting mostly of nitrogen (78%), oxygen (21%) and a number of greenhouse gases, which affect the Sun-Earth energy balance.
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.Both long- and short-term variations in solar intensity are known to affect global climate.^ In the long-term the concept of sustainable development (development today which does not compromise the needs of future generations) will have to be implemented if the Climate Convention's ultimate objective of avoiding dangerous man-made interference with the global climate is to be achieved.
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^ A Change in Extreme Weather Events A shift in global climate could bring about a change in the frequency and intensity of drought in already drought-prone regions.
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^ It is expected that the societies currently experiencing existing social, economic and climatic stresses will be both worst affected and least able to adapt.
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.Early in Earth's history the sun emitted only 70% as much power as it does today.^ The Energy Budget of the Atmosphere The Earth receives energy from the Sun in the form of ultra-violet and visible radiation, and emits terrestrial radiation in the form of infra-red energy.
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^ Instrumental records of temperature and other climatic variables span only a tiny fraction of the Earth's climatic history, and so provide an inadequate perspective on climatic variation and the evolution of the climate today and in the future.
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^ So the history: 4.6 billions years ago, the sun’s output was lower (approx 70% of today’s levels), often referred to as the faint young sun .
  • Serendipity: What has software engineering got to do with climate change? 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.easterbrook.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.With the same atmospheric composition as exists today, liquid water should not have existed on Earth.^ The gaseous composition of Earth's atmosphere was relatively stable from the end of the last ice age, about ten thousand years ago, until the 1800s.
  • Magic - Global Climate Change and California Oaks 12 September 2009 10:010 UTC ecomagic.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Wind Power Air moves around the Earth because of the differences in temperature and atmospheric pressure which exist.
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^ As we have discussed alterations of atmospheric composition, climatological consequences, and impacts on soil and water, we have become progressively less certain of our predictions.
  • Magic - Global Climate Change and California Oaks 12 September 2009 10:010 UTC ecomagic.org [Source type: Academic]

.However, there is evidence for the presence of water on the early Earth, in the Hadean[7][8] and Archean[9][7] eons, leading to what is known as the faint young sun paradox.^ However, undercultivation can also lead to desertification in areas where there are no longer enough people to adequately manage the land.
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^ So the history: 4.6 billions years ago, the sun’s output was lower (approx 70% of today’s levels), often referred to as the faint young sun .
  • Serendipity: What has software engineering got to do with climate change? 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.easterbrook.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There is only limited scientific evidence, however, that this may be the case at the global level.
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[10] .Hypothesized solutions to this paradox include a vastly different atmosphere, with much higher concentrations of greenhouse gases than currently exist[11] Over the following approximately 4 billion years, the energy output of the sun increased and atmospheric composition changed, with the oxygenation of the atmosphere being the most notable alteration.^ In fact, the 1998 atmospheric concentration of CFC-11 was lower than the concentration 5 years earlier.
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^ Changes in the concentrations of greenhouse gases can occur in numerous ways.
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^ The total energy output of the Sun is approximately 64 million Wm-2.
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The luminosity of the sun will continue to increase as it follows the main sequence. .These changes in luminosity, and the sun's ultimate death as it becomes a red giant and then a white dwarf, will have large effects on climate, with the red giant phase possibly ending life on Earth.^ The "greenhouse" effect and climate change.
  • Magic - Global Climate Change and California Oaks 12 September 2009 10:010 UTC ecomagic.org [Source type: Academic]

^ White House report warns of climate change effects .
  • Global Climate Change: News & Videos about Global Climate Change - CNN.com 12 September 2009 10:010 UTC topics.edition.cnn.com [Source type: News]

^ Potential Effects of Climate Change in the UK 13.
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.Solar output also varies on shorter time scales, including the 11-year solar cycle[12] and longer-term modulations.^ But other parameters, including the solar diameter, vary too, and over different time scales.
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^ Ocean sediment records have been used to reconstruct palaeoclimate changes over a range of time scales, from thousands of years to millions and even tens of millions of years in the past.
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^ While the change in solar energy may be greater on longer time scales, this is only a speculative possibility.
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[13] .The 11-year sunspot cycle produces low-latitude warming and high-latitude cooling over limited areas of statistical significance in the stratosphere with an amplitude of approximately 1.5°C. But although "variability associated with the 11-yr solar cycle has a significant influence on stratospheric temperatures.^ With mid-latitude temperatures varying ~1° C per 100 kilometers of north-south travel, a 2-4° C warming corresponds to a 200-400 km poleward shift of thermal zones (Roberts, 1989).
  • Magic - Global Climate Change and California Oaks 12 September 2009 10:010 UTC ecomagic.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Snow covered areas have a high albedo (0.9 or 90%) due to their white colour, whilst vegetation has a low albedo (0.1 or 10%) due to the light absorbed for photosynthesis.
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^ High CO2 explains the warmth (although in this case, the models tend to make it a little too warm at these CO2 levels).
  • Serendipity: What has software engineering got to do with climate change? 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.easterbrook.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

...there is still no consensus on the exact magnitude and spatial structure".[14] These stratospheric variations are consistent with the idea that excess equatorial heating can drive thermal winds. .In the near-surface troposphere, there is only a small change in temperature (on the order of a tenth of a degree, and only statistically significant in limited areas underneath the peaks in stratospheric zonal wind speed) due to the 11-year solar cycle.^ To place this change in climate in context, the temperature rise that brought the planet out of the most recent ice age was only of the order of 4 to 5oC. Carbon dioxide concentrations in the atmosphere are already higher than at any time during the last 160,000 years.
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^ If any changes to warmer, drier summer conditions occur, this could stimulate an overall increase in tourism in the UK. However, any significant increase in rainfall, wind speed or cloud cover could offset some of the general advantages expected from higher temperatures.
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^ But again, you are looking at the last few years, you’re not looking back in time where every temperature change and every climate change has been more rapid and greater than ever we see today.
  • climate change « ThinkOrSwim (the Climatechange.ie Blog) 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.thinkorswim.ie [Source type: General]

.Solar intensity variations are considered to have been influential in triggering the Little Ice Age,[15] and for some of the warming observed from 1900 to 1950. The cyclical nature of the sun's energy output is not yet fully understood; it differs from the very slow change that is happening within the sun as it ages and evolves, with some studies pointing toward solar radiation increases from cyclical sunspot activity affecting global warming.^ Physical changes within the Sun may alter the intensity or character of the incoming solar energy.
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^ Within the media, climate change has been used synonymously with global warming.
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^ Global warming is a slow, imperceptible process.
  • Global Climate Change: News & Videos about Global Climate Change - CNN.com 12 September 2009 10:010 UTC topics.edition.cnn.com [Source type: News]

[16] [17]

Orbital variations

.Slight variations in Earth's orbit lead to changes in the seasonal distribution of sunlight reaching the Earth's surface and how it is distributed across the globe.^ The Geosphere Variations in global climate over hundreds of millions of years are due to changes within the interior of the Earth.
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^ Orbital Variations On timescales of a millennium and longer, changes in the character of the Earth's orbit around the Sun can significantly affect the seasonal and latitudinal distribution of incoming solar energy.
  • climate change 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The surface ocean currents form part of a wider global ocean circulation system, with deep water currents also transferring energy across the Earth.
  • climate change 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.There is very little change to the area-averaged annually-averaged sunshine; but there can be strong changes in the geographical and seasonal distribution.^ The composition and geographic distribution of unmanaged ecosystems will change as individual species respond to new conditions.
  • climate change 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ First, since the story broke, there have been doubled the normal number of posts on their blog, with some very strong language: “toxic leftist-atheist ideology”.
  • Serendipity: What has software engineering got to do with climate change? 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.easterbrook.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This book has very little to do with the Air Vent and there is no compensation to me – in case you were wondering.

.The three types of orbital variations are variations in Earth's eccentricity, changes in the tilt angle of Earth's axis of rotation, and precession of Earth's axis.^ Change the tilt of the earth’s axis a bit.
  • Serendipity: What has software engineering got to do with climate change? 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.easterbrook.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Geosphere Variations in global climate over hundreds of millions of years are due to changes within the interior of the Earth.
  • climate change 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Orbital Variations On timescales of a millennium and longer, changes in the character of the Earth's orbit around the Sun can significantly affect the seasonal and latitudinal distribution of incoming solar energy.
  • climate change 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Combined together, these produce Milankovitch cycles which have a large impact on climate and are notable for their correlation to glacial and interglacial periods,[18] their correlation with the advance and retreat of the Sahara,[18] and for their appearance in the stratigraphic record.^ These are known as the "Milankovitch Cycles" and are an example of external climate forcing.
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^ At present it is uncertain how these impacts to the hydrological cycle will affect river flows, run-off and groundwater levels.
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^ Temperature and atmospheric carbon dioxide during last glacial-interglacial cycle The Little Ice Age Tree rings and ice cores have been extensively used to reconstruct climate during the last 1,000 years.
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[19]

Volcanism

Volcanism is a process of conveying material from the crust and mantle of the Earth to its surface. .Volcanic eruptions, geysers, and hot springs, are examples of volcanic processes which release gases and/or particulates into the atmosphere.^ Furthermore, aerosols which form in the lower atmosphere as a result of the same processes that release greenhouse gases can cool the Earth, offsetting some of the warming due to the enhanced greenhouse effect.
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^ For example, extensive loss of northern and temperate boreal forests during the next few decades may release tens of billions of tons of additional carbon into the atmosphere.
  • Magic - Global Climate Change and California Oaks 12 September 2009 10:010 UTC ecomagic.org [Source type: Academic]

^ When drained or burned, however, peat decomposes and the stored carbon gets released into the atmosphere.
  • ASWM: Wetland Science: Wetlands and Global Climate Change 12 September 2009 10:010 UTC www.aswm.org [Source type: Academic]

.Eruptions large enough to affect climate occur on average several times per century, and cause cooling (by partially blocking the transmission of solar radiation to the Earth's surface) for a period of a few years.^ This is called climate forcing (or radiative forcing), and causes a temperature rise at the Earth's surface.
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^ This negative forcing can cause climate cooling.
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^ The Earth’s Greenhouse Effect Greenhouse gases like water vapour, carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide trap the infrared radiation emitted by the Earth's surface.
  • climate change 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The eruption of Mount Pinatubo in 1991, the second largest terrestrial eruption of the 20th century[20] (after the 1912 eruption of Novarupta[21]) affected the climate substantially.^ Climate Change in the 20th Century 10.
  • climate change 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The development that has been witnessed during the 20th century has already committed humanity to unforeseen changes to biodiversity, the atmosphere and global climate.
  • climate change 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Climate change may affect reproductive success, vigor, and mortality at many ages (Botkin et al , 1991).
  • Magic - Global Climate Change and California Oaks 12 September 2009 10:010 UTC ecomagic.org [Source type: Academic]

.Global temperatures decreased by about 0.5 °C (0.9 °F).^ Over the whole period, a global temperature increase of about 0.6oC has been observed.
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^ Consistent with the surface and tropospheric temperature measurements is the decrease (by about 10%) in snow cover and extent since the late 1960s.
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^ Most significantly, global average surface temperature has risen by between 0.4 and 0.8oC since about 1860.
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.The eruption of Mount Tambora in 1815 caused the Year Without a Summer.^ An individual eruption may cause a global cooling of up to 0.3oC, with the effects lasting 1 to 2 years.
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^ Large eruptions, such as the Mount Pinatubo (Philippines) eruption in 1991, can bring about a global cooling of up to 0.3oC lasting for up to 2 years.
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[22] .Much larger eruptions, known as large igneous provinces, occur only a few times every hundred million years, but may cause global warming and mass extinctions.^ Global warming should, on average, cause the oceans to warm and expand, thus increasing sea level.
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^ When you consider that 1934 was at one time .5 C higher than 1998 and over the years was repressed until they were equal – this is for the US only 2% of… .

^ The projected future rise in sea-level rise may be only tens of centimetres, but the forecasted rise would put millions of people and millions of square kilometres of land at risk.
  • climate change 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[23]
Volcanoes are also part of the extended carbon cycle. .Over very long (geological) time periods, they release carbon dioxide from the Earth's crust and mantle, counteracting the uptake by sedimentary rocks and other geological carbon dioxide sinks.^ Plants create a very important sink for carbon dioxide.
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^ The Earth’s Greenhouse Effect Greenhouse gases like water vapour, carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide trap the infrared radiation emitted by the Earth's surface.
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^ When these carbohydrates are burned, they turn back into carbon dioxide and water, and release the Sun's energy they contain.
  • climate change 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.According to the US Geological Survey, however, estimates are that human activities generate more than 130 times the amount of carbon dioxide emitted by volcanoes.^ When you consider that 1934 was at one time .5 C higher than 1998 and over the years was repressed until they were equal – this is for the US only 2% of… .

^ The Earth’s Greenhouse Effect Greenhouse gases like water vapour, carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide trap the infrared radiation emitted by the Earth's surface.
  • climate change 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Therefore, any reduction in carbon dioxide emissions will be dependent on 1) using less carbon intensive fuels; 2) improving the production and delivery of energy; and 3) utilising our energy more efficiently.
  • climate change 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[24]

Ocean variability

A schematic of modern thermohaline circulation
.The ocean is a fundamental part of the climate system.^ The report, which appears in the January 27 th Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, speaks of irreversible climate change, due in large part to the behavior of the oceans.
  • ASWM: Wetland Science: Wetlands and Global Climate Change 12 September 2009 10:010 UTC www.aswm.org [Source type: Academic]

^ An atmospheric sink is a point or location where the gas is removed from the atmosphere, either by chemical reaction or absorption into other parts of the climate system, including the oceans, ice sheets and land.
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^ The surface ocean currents form part of a wider global ocean circulation system, with deep water currents also transferring energy across the Earth.
  • climate change 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Short-term fluctuations (years to a few decades) such as the El Niño–Southern Oscillation, the Pacific decadal oscillation, the North Atlantic oscillation, and the Arctic oscillation, represent climate variability rather than climate change.^ Gases Climate Change Affecting Arctic Species Extinction of Polar Bears, Seals and Caribou Thinning sea ice is projected to shrink by 50 percent by the end of the century, affecting Arctic species such as polar bears, seals and caribou according to the Arctic Climate Impact Assessment.
  • Global Climate Change - Associated Content - Topic - associatedcontent.com 12 September 2009 10:010 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: News]

^ Global Climate Change Fact Sheet Series: KS4 & A 102 ACE Information Programme aric The formation of El Niño is linked with the cycling of a Pacific Ocean circulation pattern known as the El Niño Southern Oscillation or ENSO. In a normal year, low atmospheric pressure develops over northern Australia and Indonesia, with an anticyclone or high pressure over the equatorial Pacific.
  • climate change 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Tags: albedo , Arctic , climate change , Greenland , ice , iceberg , melting , Oil Posted in Global Warming , Habitat/species loss , Sustainability , climate sceptics .
  • climate change « ThinkOrSwim (the Climatechange.ie Blog) 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.thinkorswim.ie [Source type: General]

.On longer time scales, alterations to ocean processes such as thermohaline circulation play a key role in redistributing heat by carrying out a very slow and extremely deep movement of water, and the long-term redistribution of heat in the world's oceans.^ Impacts of Changing Ocean Circulation Patterns The oceans store an immense amount of heat energy, and consequently play a crucial role in the regulation of climatic patterns.
  • climate change 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The report notes that the oceans, slow to warm, have absorbed a lot of the heat of the atmosphere, and about 80 percent of carbon emissions .
  • ASWM: Wetland Science: Wetlands and Global Climate Change 12 September 2009 10:010 UTC www.aswm.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Deforestation Those practices or processes that result in the long-term change in land-use to non-forest uses.
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Human influences

.Anthropogenic factors are human activities that change the environment.^ Instances of change need to be related directly to human activity.
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^ The interesting thing about figure 8 is that many respondents wrote in an additional response mode (”caused by both human activities and natural changes”) which wasn’t in the questionnaire.
  • Serendipity: What has software engineering got to do with climate change? 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.easterbrook.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In some cases the chain of causality of human influence on the climate is direct and unambiguous (for example, the effects of irrigation on local humidity), while in other instances it is less clear.^ Lots of local effects on regional climate.
  • Serendipity: What has software engineering got to do with climate change? 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.easterbrook.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Of all aspects of climate variability, extreme events are likely to have greatest effect on human well-being in the decades to come.
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^ The principal gas produced is carbon dioxide which, although a greenhouse gas, is less potent then other gases at absorbing infra-red radiation and enhancing the natural greenhouse effect.
  • climate change 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Various hypotheses for human-induced climate change have been argued for many years.^ Climate Change & Human Health 17.
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^ The Chesapeake Bay region is already experiencing climate changes that stress human development and natural habitats alike.
  • ASWM: Wetland Science: Wetlands and Global Climate Change 12 September 2009 10:010 UTC www.aswm.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Of all aspects of climate variability, extreme events are likely to have greatest effect on human well-being in the decades to come.
  • climate change 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Presently the scientific consensus on climate change is that human activity is very likely the cause for the rapid increase in global average temperatures over the past several decades.^ Causes of Climate Change 03.
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^ Climate Change & Human Health 17.
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^ Climate Change/Global warming .
  • climate change « ThinkOrSwim (the Climatechange.ie Blog) 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.thinkorswim.ie [Source type: General]

[25] .Consequently, the debate has largely shifted onto ways to reduce further human impact and to find ways to adapt to change that has already occurred.^ The Chesapeake Bay region is already experiencing climate changes that stress human development and natural habitats alike.
  • ASWM: Wetland Science: Wetlands and Global Climate Change 12 September 2009 10:010 UTC www.aswm.org [Source type: Academic]

^ A Change in Extreme Weather Events A shift in global climate could bring about a change in the frequency and intensity of drought in already drought-prone regions.
  • climate change 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The development that has been witnessed during the 20th century has already committed humanity to unforeseen changes to biodiversity, the atmosphere and global climate.
  • climate change 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[26]
.Of most concern in these anthropogenic factors is the increase in CO2 levels due to emissions from fossil fuel combustion, followed by aerosols (particulate matter in the atmosphere) and cement manufacture.^ Anthropogenic or manmade sources of CO2 include fossil fuel combustion, land use changes (primarily deforestation), biomass burning and the manufacture of cement.
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^ Models estimate that huge cuts in greenhouse gas emissions would be required to stabilise greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at their present levels.
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^ Emissions of CO 2 were highest from peat incubated in the localized permafrost feature, suggesting that slow organic matter accumulation rates are due, at least in part, to rapid decomposition in surface permafrost peat.
  • ASWM: Wetland Science: Wetlands and Global Climate Change 12 September 2009 10:010 UTC www.aswm.org [Source type: Academic]

.Other factors, including land use, ozone depletion, animal agriculture[27] and deforestation, are also of concern in the roles they play - both separately and in conjunction with other factors - in affecting climate, microclimate, and measures of climate variables.^ She presented some evaluations of the success of these workshop, including a climate literacy test they have developed.
  • Serendipity: What has software engineering got to do with climate change? 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.easterbrook.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The loss of organic matter due to changing climate would affect the stability of soil structure, ecological habitats nationally, and agricultural use in southern England.
  • climate change 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Impacts of Changing Ocean Circulation Patterns The oceans store an immense amount of heat energy, and consequently play a crucial role in the regulation of climatic patterns.
  • climate change 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Physical evidence for climatic change

.Evidence for climatic change is taken from a variety of sources that can be used to reconstruct past climates.^ Evidence from Past Climates 09.
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^ Though there are many grounds to assert that oaks will survive the next century, there is mounting evidence that they will be sorely tested by human-generated climate change.
  • Magic - Global Climate Change and California Oaks 12 September 2009 10:010 UTC ecomagic.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The loss of organic matter due to changing climate would affect the stability of soil structure, ecological habitats nationally, and agricultural use in southern England.
  • climate change 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Reasonably complete global records of surface temperature are available beginning from the mid-late 1800s.^ Surface Temperatures Variations Combined land and ocean temperatures analyses indicate that during the last decade globally averaged surface temperatures have been higher than in any decade in the past 140 years.
  • climate change 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Such records may reveal information about past surface water temperatures, salinity, dissolved oxygen and nutrient availability.
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^ Ice age Periods in the history of the Earth characterised by a growth of the ice caps towards the equator and a general lowering of global surface temperatures, especially in temperate mid-latitudes.
  • climate change 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.For earlier periods, most of the evidence is indirect—climatic changes are inferred from changes in proxies, indicators that reflect climate, such as vegetation, ice cores,[28] dendrochronology, sea level change, and glacial geology.^ Climate Change & Waste Management 28.
  • climate change 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Gases Climate Change Affecting Arctic Species Extinction of Polar Bears, Seals and Caribou Thinning sea ice is projected to shrink by 50 percent by the end of the century, affecting Arctic species such as polar bears, seals and caribou according to the Arctic Climate Impact Assessment.
  • Global Climate Change - Associated Content - Topic - associatedcontent.com 12 September 2009 10:010 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: News]

^ Tags: albedo , Arctic , climate change , Greenland , ice , iceberg , melting , Oil Posted in Global Warming , Habitat/species loss , Sustainability , climate sceptics .
  • climate change « ThinkOrSwim (the Climatechange.ie Blog) 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.thinkorswim.ie [Source type: General]

Historical and archaeological evidence

.Climate change in the recent past may be detected by corresponding changes in settlement and agricultural patterns.^ Climate Change & Agriculture 14.
  • climate change 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The loss of organic matter due to changing climate would affect the stability of soil structure, ecological habitats nationally, and agricultural use in southern England.
  • climate change 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Impacts of Changing Ocean Circulation Patterns The oceans store an immense amount of heat energy, and consequently play a crucial role in the regulation of climatic patterns.
  • climate change 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[29] .Archaeological evidence, oral history and historical documents can offer insights into past changes in the climate.^ U.N.: Climate deal could change history .
  • Global Climate Change: News & Videos about Global Climate Change - CNN.com 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC topics.cnn.com [Source type: News]

^ Evidence from Past Climates 09.
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^ Though there are many grounds to assert that oaks will survive the next century, there is mounting evidence that they will be sorely tested by human-generated climate change.
  • Magic - Global Climate Change and California Oaks 12 September 2009 10:010 UTC ecomagic.org [Source type: Academic]

.Climate change effects have been linked to the collapse of various civilisations.^ By now, we have a fairly good understanding of the effects of global warming and climate change, but what caused it all?
  • Global Climate Change - Associated Content - Topic - associatedcontent.com 12 September 2009 10:010 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: News]

^ Of all aspects of climate variability, extreme events are likely to have greatest effect on human well-being in the decades to come.
  • climate change 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Potential Effects of Climate Change in the UK 13.
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[30]

Glaciers

Variations in CO2, temperature and dust from the Vostok ice core over the last 450,000 years
.Glaciers are considered among the most sensitive indicators of climate change,[31] advancing when climate cools (for example, during the period known as the Little Ice Age) and retreating when climate warms.^ Climate Change/Global warming .
  • climate change « ThinkOrSwim (the Climatechange.ie Blog) 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.thinkorswim.ie [Source type: General]

^ Although Global Climate Change Fact Sheet Series: KS4 & A 40 ACE Information Programme aric many regions of the world experienced cooling during the period 1450 to 1890 A.D., its use has been criticised because it could not conclusively be considered an event of global significance There is considerable evidence that the Little Ice Age consisted of two main cold stages of about a century's length.
  • climate change 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Tags: albedo , Arctic , climate change , Greenland , ice , iceberg , melting , Oil Posted in Global Warming , Habitat/species loss , Sustainability , climate sceptics .
  • climate change « ThinkOrSwim (the Climatechange.ie Blog) 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.thinkorswim.ie [Source type: General]

.Glaciers grow and shrink, both contributing to natural variability and amplifying externally forced changes.^ A growing recognition of the importance of their contributions represents a major culture change in the climate modeling community over the last decade.
  • Serendipity: What has software engineering got to do with climate change? 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.easterbrook.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Global Climate Change Fact Sheet Series: KS4 & A 149 ACE Information Programme aric Climate sensitivity The natural variation in climate in response to a change in radiative forcing, for example, the enhancement of the greenhouse effect.
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^ External forcing operates from outside the Earth's climate system, and includes changes in the global energy balance due to variations in the Earth’s orbit around the Sun, and changes in the amount of energy coming from the Sun.
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A world glacier inventory has been compiled since the 1970s. .Initially based mainly on aerial photographs and maps, this compilation has resulted in a detailed inventory of more than 100,000 glaciers covering a total area of approximately 240,000 km2 and, in preliminary estimates, for the recording of the remaining ice cover estimated to be around 445,000 km2.^ So far the oldest ice core record is 800,000 years, although we only have one record this old.
  • Serendipity: What has software engineering got to do with climate change? 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.easterbrook.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Drylands cover over 40% of the total land area of the world (6,150 million hectares).
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^ Glacial layers are always covered from above by carbonate rocks, showing that increased carbonation (as the earth warmed) follows periods of icing.
  • Serendipity: What has software engineering got to do with climate change? 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.easterbrook.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The World Glacier Monitoring Service collects data annually on glacier retreat and glacier mass balance From this data, glaciers worldwide have been found to be shrinking significantly, with strong glacier retreats in the 1940s, stable or growing conditions during the 1920s and 1970s, and again retreating from the mid 1980s to present.^ During the last period of glacial retreat, sustained, globally-averaged warming of a few degrees occurred over thousands of years.
  • Magic - Global Climate Change and California Oaks 12 September 2009 10:010 UTC ecomagic.org [Source type: Academic]

^ An example of this is the devastating drought that affected the Sahel in northern Africa during the 1970s and 1980s.
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^ Both hemispheres had relatively stable temperatures from the 1940s to the 1970s, although there is some evidence of cooling in the Northern Hemisphere during the 1960s.
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[32] Mass balance data indicate 17 consecutive years of negative glacier mass balance.
Percentage of advancing glaciers in the Alps in the last 80 years
.The most significant climate processes since the middle to late Pliocene (approximately 3 million years ago) are the glacial and interglacial cycles.^ Temperature and atmospheric carbon dioxide during last glacial-interglacial cycle The Little Ice Age Tree rings and ice cores have been extensively used to reconstruct climate during the last 1,000 years.
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^ Approximately 45% of the world's population presently lives in the climate zone where mosquitoes transmit malaria; models predict that this will increase to about 60% by the year 2070.
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^ This is process is probably what has kept the planet in the right range for liquid water and life for most of the last 4 billion years.
  • Serendipity: What has software engineering got to do with climate change? 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.easterbrook.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The present interglacial period (the Holocene) has lasted about 11,700 years.^ The last such period occurred about 60 years ago.
  • Magic - Global Climate Change and California Oaks 12 September 2009 10:010 UTC ecomagic.org [Source type: Academic]

^ During the last period of glacial retreat, sustained, globally-averaged warming of a few degrees occurred over thousands of years.
  • Magic - Global Climate Change and California Oaks 12 September 2009 10:010 UTC ecomagic.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Approximately 45% of the world's population presently lives in the climate zone where mosquitoes transmit malaria; models predict that this will increase to about 60% by the year 2070.
  • climate change 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[33] .Shaped by orbital variations, responses such as the rise and fall of continental ice sheets and significant sea-level changes helped create the climate.^ Results in sea level rise.
  • climate change 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Gases Climate Change Affecting Arctic Species Extinction of Polar Bears, Seals and Caribou Thinning sea ice is projected to shrink by 50 percent by the end of the century, affecting Arctic species such as polar bears, seals and caribou according to the Arctic Climate Impact Assessment.
  • Global Climate Change - Associated Content - Topic - associatedcontent.com 12 September 2009 10:010 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: News]

^ Global Climate Change Fact Sheet Series: KS4 & A 44 ACE Information Programme aric Variations in the Cryosphere Variations in cryospheric variables, such as snow, ice and glacial extent occur in response to changes in temperature, sunshine, precipitation, and for sea-ice changes in wind.
  • climate change 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Other changes, including Heinrich events, Dansgaard–Oeschger events and the Younger Dryas, however, illustrate how glacial variations may also influence climate without the forcing effect of orbital changes.^ Climate Change & Extreme Events 21.
  • climate change 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The "greenhouse" effect and climate change.
  • Magic - Global Climate Change and California Oaks 12 September 2009 10:010 UTC ecomagic.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Climate forcing “forces” the climate to change.
  • climate change 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Glaciers leave behind moraines that contain a wealth of material - including organic matter that may be accurately dated - recording the periods in which a glacier advanced and retreated.^ The process deals only with biodegradable matter; plastic, metal, glass and all other non-organic materials have to be separated from the organic matter before treatment.
  • climate change 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Glacial A period of global frigidity (cold) during which glaciers and ice sheets advance towards the lower latitudes.
  • climate change 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Similarly, by tephrochronological techniques, the lack of glacier cover can be identified by the presence of soil or volcanic tephra horizons whose date of deposit may also be precisely ascertained.^ Loss of plant cover may reinforce these trends, and soil depth may be altered in many places (Botkin et al , 1991).
  • Magic - Global Climate Change and California Oaks 12 September 2009 10:010 UTC ecomagic.org [Source type: Academic]

Vegetation

.A change in the type, distribution and coverage of vegetation may occur given a change in the climate; this much is obvious.^ This may involve gradual evolution if the change is slow enough, or shifting habitats if it occurs quickly.
  • climate change 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These pests have less difficulty in migrating with their climatic zones than vegetation and may damage tree species with lower immunity.
  • climate change 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Recent Climate Change & Variability in Africa Annual mean surface temperature in Africa has increased 0.53oC since 1895, with the greatest warming occurring during the Northern Hemisphere Spring (March to May) and summer (June to August).
  • climate change 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In any given scenario, a mild change in climate may result in increased precipitation and warmth, resulting in improved plant growth and the subsequent sequestration of airborne CO2.^ The resulting decrease in local atmospheric humidity and increase in surface albedo (reflectivity of sunlight) has the potential to further reduce the regional precipitation.
  • climate change 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A change in global climate would be accompanied by shifts in climatic zones, thereby altering the suitability of a region for the growth of distinctive species.
  • climate change 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ To assess whether the two are associated requires the use of computer model simulations of the likely climatic effects of the changing atmospheric composition, and the comparison of the results with observations.
  • climate change 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Larger, faster or more radical changes, however, may well result in vegetation stress, rapid plant loss and desertification in certain circumstances.^ The change in energy receipt can amount to 10% or more in certain locations.
  • climate change 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But again, you are looking at the last few years, you’re not looking back in time where every temperature change and every climate change has been more rapid and greater than ever we see today.
  • climate change « ThinkOrSwim (the Climatechange.ie Blog) 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.thinkorswim.ie [Source type: General]

^ In the longer term, however, the indirect effects may be more important.
  • climate change 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[34]

Ice cores

.Analysis of ice in a core drilled from a ice sheet such as the Antarctic ice sheet, can be used to show a link between temperature and global sea level variations.^ Points on the thermometer can then be used to show impacts at that level of global warming.
  • Serendipity: What has software engineering got to do with climate change? 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.easterbrook.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Global warming should, on average, cause the oceans to warm and expand, thus increasing sea level.
  • climate change 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Temperature and atmospheric carbon dioxide during last glacial-interglacial cycle The Little Ice Age Tree rings and ice cores have been extensively used to reconstruct climate during the last 1,000 years.
  • climate change 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The air trapped in bubbles in the ice can also reveal the CO2 variations of the atmosphere from the distant past, well before modern environmental influences.^ These involve the analysis of: a) the (isotopic) composition of the water in the ice; b) dissolved and particulate matter in the ice; and c) the physical characteristics of the firn and ice, and of air bubbles trapped in the ice.
  • climate change 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The study of these ice cores has been a significant indicator of the changes in CO2 over many millennia, and continues to provide valuable information about the differences between ancient and modern atmospheric conditions.^ By contrast, the nature and abundance of terrigenous materials provides information about continental humidity-aridity variations, and the intensities and directions of winds.
  • climate change 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Information concerning these conditions can be extracted from ice and snow that has survived the summer melt by physical and chemical means.
  • climate change 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ And there is no significant reaction to reports about sea ice minima (despite a number of scientists regarding this as a crucial early warning signal).
  • Serendipity: What has software engineering got to do with climate change? 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.easterbrook.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Dendroclimatology

.Dendroclimatology is the analysis of tree ring growth patterns to determine past climate variations.^ Dendroclimatology The study of relationships between annual tree growth and climate.
  • climate change 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Whenever tree growth is limited directly or indirectly by some climate variable, usually temperature or rainfall, and that limitation can be quantified and dated, dendroclimatology can be used to reconstruct some information about past environmental conditions.
  • climate change 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Higher temperatures increase the evaporation rate, thus reducing the level of moisture available for plant growth, although other climatic variables are involved.
  • climate change 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Wide and thick rings indicate a fertile, well-watered growing period, whilst thin, narrow rings indicate a time of lower rainfall and less-than-ideal growing conditions.^ These pests have less difficulty in migrating with their climatic zones than vegetation and may damage tree species with lower immunity.
  • climate change 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Cold, salty water is heavier than warmer, less saline water and will sink into the deep ocean, e.g.
  • climate change 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He also argued that less than twenty years from the first IPCC report, the science is well-developed and accepted by the majority of non-scientists.
  • Serendipity: What has software engineering got to do with climate change? 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.easterbrook.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Pollen analysis

Palynology is the study of contemporary and fossil palynomorphs, including pollen. .Palynology is used to infer the geographical distribution of plant species, which vary under different climate conditions.^ The composition and geographic distribution of unmanaged ecosystems will change as individual species respond to new conditions.
  • climate change 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Third, most aerosols have short lifetimes (days to weeks) and therefore their geographical distribution is highly variable and strongly related to their sources.
  • climate change 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Relatively small increases in precipitation variability can significantly affect wetland plants and animals at different stages of their life cycle (Keddy, 2000).
  • ASWM: Wetland Science: Wetlands and Global Climate Change 12 September 2009 10:010 UTC www.aswm.org [Source type: Academic]

.Different groups of plants have pollen with distinctive shapes and surface textures, and since the outer surface of pollen is composed of a very resilient material, they resist decay.^ They are formed by the reaction of gases in the atmosphere, or by the dispersal of material at the surface.
  • climate change 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Changes in the type of pollen found in different sedimentation levels in lakes, bogs or river deltas indicate changes in plant communities; which are dependent on climate conditions.^ Impacts of Future Climate Change in Africa How Africa responds to future climate change will depend upon the sensitivities of her ecosystems, natural resources and national economies.
  • climate change 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Video: How climate change is shrinking the river Nile.

^ It’s a very varied geography (glaciers, tundra, forest, smoking hills, hot springs, river deltas, lakes, etc).
  • Serendipity: What has software engineering got to do with climate change? 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.easterbrook.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[35][36]

Insects

Remains of beetles are common in freshwater and land sediments. .Different species of beetles tend to be found under different climatic conditions.^ A reduction in the frequency, severity and duration of winter freeze would be likely under conditions associated with climate change and could be beneficial.
  • climate change 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Given the extensive lineage of beetles whose genetic makeup has not altered significantly over the millennia, knowledge of the present climatic range of the different species, and the age of the sediments in which remains are found, past climatic conditions may be inferred.^ A change in global climate would be accompanied by shifts in climatic zones, thereby altering the suitability of a region for the growth of distinctive species.
  • climate change 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Climate change may affect reproductive success, vigor, and mortality at many ages (Botkin et al , 1991).
  • Magic - Global Climate Change and California Oaks 12 September 2009 10:010 UTC ecomagic.org [Source type: Academic]

^ These pests have less difficulty in migrating with their climatic zones than vegetation and may damage tree species with lower immunity.
  • climate change 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[37]

Sea level change

.Global sea level change for much of the last century has generally been estimated using tide gauge measurements collated over long periods of time to give a long-term average.^ Central Intelligence Agency Major U.S. Climate Change Science Program Report Issued The report gives us a new and long term world wide reference point for stabilizing greenhouse gases and to also get a comprehensive evaluation of just how the plans are developed and used.
  • Global Climate Change - Associated Content - Topic - associatedcontent.com 12 September 2009 10:010 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: News]

^ In the long-term the concept of sustainable development (development today which does not compromise the needs of future generations) will have to be implemented if the Climate Convention's ultimate objective of avoiding dangerous man-made interference with the global climate is to be achieved.
  • climate change 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Global warming should, on average, cause the oceans to warm and expand, thus increasing sea level.
  • climate change 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.More recently, altimeter measurements — in combination with accurately determined satellite orbits — have provided an improved measurement of global sea level change.^ Global warming should, on average, cause the oceans to warm and expand, thus increasing sea level.
  • climate change 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Whilst scientists believe this to reflect mostly regional changes in climate, the recent disintegration of the Larsen Ice Shelf has renewed speculation that climatic changes in the high latitudes have the potential to cause severe impacts via a rise in global sea level over the next 100 to 200 years.
  • climate change 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Measuring past and current changes in sea level, however, is extremely difficult.
  • climate change 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[38]

See also

General
Climate of the deep past
Climate of the last 500 million years
Climate of recent glaciations
Recent climate

References

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  26. ^ See for example emissions trading, cap and share, personal carbon trading, UNFCCC
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  29. ^ Demenocal, P. B. (2001). "Cultural Responses to Climate Change During the Late Holocene". Science 292: 667. doi:10.1126/science.1059827. http://www.ldeo.columbia.edu/~peter/Resources/Publications/deMenocal.2001.pdf.  edit
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Further reading

  • Emanuel K (August 2005). ."Increasing destructiveness of tropical cyclones over the past 30 years" (PDF).^ Greenhouse Modelling versus Observation Global average temperature has increased by around 0.4 to 0.8oC over the past 100 years.
    • climate change 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ In the UK glass recycling has increased in popularity over the past 15 years.
    • climate change 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Nature 436 (7051): 686–8. doi:10.1038/nature03906. PMID 16056221. .ftp://texmex.mit.edu/pub/emanuel/PAPERS/NATURE03906.pdf. 
  • IPCC. (2007) Climate change 2007: the physical science basis (summary for policy makers), IPCC.
  • Edwards, Paul Geoffrey; Miller, Clark A. (2001).^ Climate Changes Climate Change - IPCC Findings Are Challenged Intergovernmental panel on climate change (IPCC) reports are contradicted by environmentalists.
    • Global Climate Change - Associated Content - Topic - associatedcontent.com 12 September 2009 10:010 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: News]

    ^ By Stefanie Cragun   |  Published 5/21/2007 More topics: Global Climate Change .
    • Global Climate Change - Associated Content - Topic - associatedcontent.com 12 September 2009 10:010 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: News]

    ^ Habitats The Global Warming Issue: The National Association of Evangelicals Adopt a Do-Nothing Policy The National Association of Evangelicals, like so many other Global warming skeptics, accept misrepresented and fraudulent summaries of the original Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change reports and of the IPCC's "Summary for Policymakers."
    • Global Climate Change - Associated Content - Topic - associatedcontent.com 12 September 2009 10:010 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: News]

    .Changing the atmosphere: expert knowledge and environmental governance.^ Climate change crops up a lot, most notably in the sessions on atmospheric sciences and global environmental change, but also in sessions on the cryosphere, ocean sciences, biogeosciences, paleoclimatology, and hydrology.
    • Serendipity: What has software engineering got to do with climate change? 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.easterbrook.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press. ISBN 0-262-63219-5. 
  • Ruddiman, W. F. (2003). ."The anthropogenic greenhouse era began thousands of years ago". Climate Change 61 (3): 261–293. doi:10.1023/B:CLIM.0000004577.17928.fa. 
  • William F. Ruddiman (2005).^ UK Programme The UK programme of greenhouse gas emission monitoring and control as demanded by the Framework Convention on Climate Change.
    • climate change 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Ford's Actions Speak to Climate Change PositionHuffington Post (blog)The policy debate surrounding climate change intensified in 2009, particularly at the end of the year.

    ^ Global Climate Change Fact Sheet Series: KS4 & A 37 ACE Information Programme aric Historical Records Historical records have been used to reconstruct climates dating back several thousands of years.
    • climate change 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Plows, plagues, and petroleum: how humans took control of climate.^ Climate Control Climate Change News You Might Have Missed Recent discoveries and warnings about how climate change might affect people and the planet.
    • Global Climate Change - Associated Content - Topic - associatedcontent.com 12 September 2009 10:010 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: News]

    ^ Marsupial Human Contribution to Global Warming A look at how much humans impact climate change By Kjersti Wasiak   |  Published 2/5/2007 More topics: Antarctic .
    • Global Climate Change - Associated Content - Topic - associatedcontent.com 12 September 2009 10:010 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: News]

    ^ Together, they describe what climate change is, how it occurs, mankind’s influence, its impacts, and ways to control or prevent it.
    • climate change 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Princeton, N.J: Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-13398-0. 
  • Ruddiman, W. F., Vavrus, S. J. and Kutzbach, J. E. (2005). "A test of the overdue-glaciation hypothesis". Quaternary Science Review 24 (11). 
  • Schmidt, G. A., Shindel, D. T. and Harder, S. (2004). "A note of the relationship between ice core methane concentrations and insolation". Geophys. Res. Lett. 31: L23206. doi:10.1029/2004GL021083. http://www.agu.org/pubs/crossref/2004/2004GL021083.shtml. 

External links

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Study guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiversity

Contents

Introduction

Aim of the project:

This learning project aims to support participants in their response to climate change through the collective identification, remixing, creation and use of learning resources on this topic.

Outcomes for the project (provisional)

.Please add any outcomes you would like this project to achieve.^ Climatologist Lonnie Thompson explains, " Global warming is not as controversial as some people would like you to think.
  • Straight Talk About Climate Change 12 September 2009 10:010 UTC www.irregulartimes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If you would like to contribute to future issues, please visit http://www.choicesmagazine.org/submissions.htm .
  • ASWM: Wetland Science: Wetlands and Global Climate Change 12 September 2009 10:010 UTC www.aswm.org [Source type: Academic]

^ If you would like posters or fliers, please email your details to aberdeen_climatechange@yahoo.co.uk.

.Also use the talk page to discuss these outcomes.^ I gave my talk yesterday on the Hadley study , and it led to some fascinating discussions about software practices used for model building.
  • Serendipity: What has software engineering got to do with climate change? 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.easterbrook.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For us Pacific peoples, the discussion on climate change is not just a theoretical issue that we talk about when we come to these global meetings!
  • CLIMATE CHANGE 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

  • Find participants for the project
  • Discus and select approaches to organise and implement the project
  • Work collectively to set the aims and objectives of the project
  • Negotiate a provisional outline of how these objective might be achieved
  • Collectively identify, locate, remix, edit and create learning activities and resources that will fulfil participants individual objectives.
  • Participate in the learning activities
  • Reflect on and evaluate these learning experiences
  • Refine the process and repeat

Participants

.If you would like to get involved in this project please introduce yourself in this section.^ Climatologist Lonnie Thompson explains, " Global warming is not as controversial as some people would like you to think.
  • Straight Talk About Climate Change 12 September 2009 10:010 UTC www.irregulartimes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If you would like posters or fliers, please email your details to aberdeen_climatechange@yahoo.co.uk.

^ You're probably not thinking about what you would like for Christmas yet.
  • Global Climate Change: News & Videos about Global Climate Change - CNN.com 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC topics.cnn.com [Source type: News]
  • Global Climate Change: News & Videos about Global Climate Change - CNN.com 12 September 2009 10:010 UTC topics.edition.cnn.com [Source type: News]

Why do you want to take part in this project?

.I feel that I should be doing something to help avoid climate change.^ The world mostly agrees that something needs to be done about global warming and climate change.
  • Climate Change and Global Warming — Global Issues 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.globalissues.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By Steven Solomon Those committed to doing the planet's serious business should stay focused on one, often overlooked but trackable key factor of climate change--the pivotal role of water.
  • Climate change - Boxxet 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.boxxet.com [Source type: News]

^ Roads, services, utilities, and infrastructures have shifted 8 inland to avoid disastrous effects of climate change.
  • CLIMATE CHANGE 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

I realise that my actions alone will not have much of an effect. .I've joined this project because I think this will be much more effective if I do it as part of a group.^ Reducing deforestation is a much more effective way for countries to reduce climate change while also meeting their obligations to protect biodiversity.'"
  • Climate change - BioenergyWiki 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.bioenergywiki.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If we're to have confidence in a prediction of the weather based on climate change at any time in the next century, it will have to be because we have much more confidence in our models than we now have.
  • Global Climate Change 12 September 2009 10:010 UTC www.flame.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This is because people in many parts of the world are being forced to live in more exposed and marginal areas.
  • climate change 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Mystictim 17:46, 10 January 2010 (UTC)

What do you hope to achieve by participating in this project?

.At present I have a basic understanding of the science behind climate change and some idea of the economic and social consequences of this.^ Introduced are some of the effects of climate change.
  • Climate Change and Global Warming — Global Issues 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.globalissues.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ She presented some evaluations of the success of these workshop, including a climate literacy test they have developed.
  • Serendipity: What has software engineering got to do with climate change? 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.easterbrook.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Presenting the basic science and predictions of temperature change are irrelevant to most people – its the impacts that matter (His key quote: “It’s the impacts, stupid!”).
  • Serendipity: What has software engineering got to do with climate change? 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.easterbrook.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.As I have a scientific background I would like to get a much clearer grasp of the science.^ If it had been, it’s likely that more people would have selected this response, and it’s arguably the most accurate scientifically, if you take a broad view of earth system processes: .
  • Serendipity: What has software engineering got to do with climate change? 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.easterbrook.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However what I want to spend most of my time on is finding out what effective actions can be taken to avoid climate change and how these can be implemented.^ Time.com: Climate Change in Action in Greenland .
  • Global Climate Change: News & Videos about Global Climate Change - CNN.com 12 September 2009 10:010 UTC topics.edition.cnn.com [Source type: News]

^ How To: get moving on climate change .
  • Climate change - Boxxet 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.boxxet.com [Source type: News]

^ How fast is climate changing?

.As a starting point I want to get a better understanding of the social and economic consequences of climate change.^ Is this what Climate Change supporters want to be associated with?
  • D Glover - Activist, Geologist, Climate Change Expert? - In The News - Comcast.net Community 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC community.comcast.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Climate Dangerous Climate Change is Only 1 Degree Celsius Away Human-made greenhouse gases are starting to take it's toll as the Earth's climate is starting to reach a dangerous level that is already beginning to set off consequences.
  • Global Climate Change - Associated Content - Topic - associatedcontent.com 12 September 2009 10:010 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: News]

^ By now, we have a fairly good understanding of the effects of global warming and climate change, but what caused it all?
  • Global Climate Change - Associated Content - Topic - associatedcontent.com 12 September 2009 10:010 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: News]

.I'm unsure what actions people could take to avoid climate change and hope this project will help identify what can be done.^ U.N.: Climate deal could change history .
  • Global Climate Change: News & Videos about Global Climate Change - CNN.com 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC topics.cnn.com [Source type: News]

^ U.S., China vow action on climate change .
  • Global Climate Change: News & Videos about Global Climate Change - CNN.com 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC topics.cnn.com [Source type: News]

^ The drumbeat rousing world leaders to action on climate change is fading out as delegates get down to the business of negotiating a global deal at climate talks in Copenhagen.
  • Global Climate Change: News & Videos about Global Climate Change - CNN.com 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC topics.cnn.com [Source type: News]

Mystictim 17:46, 10 January 2010 (UTC)

Processes used in this project

.This section will contain details of the various processes or methods used in this project in producing the stated outcomes.^ Anaerobic Digestion is an additional method that creates energy from waste without the use of a combustion process.
  • climate change 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) Synthetically produced compounds containing varying amounts of hydrogen, chlorine, fluorine and carbon.
  • climate change 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) Synthetically produced compounds containing varying amounts of hydrogen, fluorine and carbon.
  • climate change 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.At the moment this is just a random list of some possible approaches.^ Some of us just think that with the possible reprucutions of GLOBAL TREATIES and TAXES and the possible justification (for those who would use it) for MASS GOVERNMENT CONTROL .
  • 411mania.com: Politics - Good News � Climate Change Not a Big Deal Anymore 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.411mania.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Please add your own suggestions or links to established approaches.^ Please add your comment below.
  • 411mania.com: Politics - Good News � Climate Change Not a Big Deal Anymore 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.411mania.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Participation and ownership

The nature of wikis encourages joint ownership of all the participants. The experience of other wiki projects can be used as a guide to encouraging participation.

Learning methods

Webquests

.A webquest is an enquiry based learning activity were participants use the Internet to locate the resources they need to resolve the problem posed by the webquest.^ To eliminate the problem altogether, and achieve a sustainable energy future, we need to use renewable sources of energy, like the wind, the sun, rivers, and oceans.
  • climate change 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sometimes called "ecotourism," nature-based tourism is a sustainable economic activity that relies on an appreciation of natural and cultural resources.
  • Climate change and S.C. tourism | Cover Story | Charleston City Paper 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.charlestoncitypaper.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Such activities lead to sustainable communities, prudent land use, and the sound management and conservation of natural resources.
  • Global Climate Change | NRCS Soils 12 September 2009 10:010 UTC soils.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

webquest.org

Reflective diary

.This project encourages people to take a personal approach to the subject of climate change.^ Even if future climate change is less severe than projected, serious impacts are expected, according to the study.

^ An opening panel was moderated by Anna Lappé, founder of Take a Bite out of Climate Change .

^ Nature (U.K.) – March 2009 Global efforts to mitigate climate change are guided by projections of future temperatures 1 .
  • ASWM: Wetland Science: Wetlands and Global Climate Change 12 September 2009 10:010 UTC www.aswm.org [Source type: Academic]

Peoples feelings and emotions play a key part in any learning. .One approach to paying attention to your feelings is to keep a reflective learning diary.^ There’s an awful lot for us to learn if we start paying more and better attention.

.In this you can record your immediate feelings about some aspect of your learning.^ In any case, if everyone agrees about some aspect of consensus science - that is, the concept is universally accepted - then that part of the science is effectively dead .
  • Global Climate Change 12 September 2009 10:010 UTC www.flame.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "There is some evidence that it is happening already, but we have a lot more to learn about the climate system.
  • Climate change and S.C. tourism | Cover Story | Charleston City Paper 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.charlestoncitypaper.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Later you can reflect on these feelings and see how they effected your learning.^ These hollywood liberals need to learn that nobody cares what they think, and playing a role in a movie does not make you an expert, on anything, frequently not even on being a good actor.
  • D Glover - Activist, Geologist, Climate Change Expert? - In The News - Comcast.net Community 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC community.comcast.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "As you depart for Copenhagen, we wanted to provide an assessment of where we see the debate heading in the United States Senate," they wrote.
  • Climate change and S.C. tourism | Cover Story | Charleston City Paper 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.charlestoncitypaper.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These changes may have natural causes or they may be a manifestation of the man-made enhancement of the greenhouse effect.
  • climate change 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.If you wanted to share your reflective learning diary you could set up a page on your Wikiversity home page and add entries there.^ My best bet is if you want something to buy and grab ahold of pick up the Bible that will get you alot farther than what they want you to think and believe.
  • Global Climate Change - NWCN Blog 12 September 2009 10:010 UTC blogs.nwcn.com [Source type: News]

^ You’ve been told your carbon footprint could lead to skyrocketing temperatures, melting ice caps, dying polar bears and “superstorms.” But there is another side to the story, and you can see it on KUSI this Thursday night.

^ A simple demonstration of the point can be made by setting up a photometer (can you find one of those old meters cameras used to need?
  • TRACKING GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE: Microfossil Record of the Planetary Heat Pump 12 September 2009 10:010 UTC www.ucmp.berkeley.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Alternatively you could setup a reflective learning blog and which can be either private or public.^ Ideas to reduce CO2 emissions from private transport •= As an alternative to driving the car, walk, cycle or use public transport where it is suitable and safe for you to do so, particularly for short trips where using the car is not really necessary and an alternative exists.
  • climate change 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Learning resources

Please add links to suitable learning resources in this section. Ideally these should be licensed under a creative commons or equivalent licence.

Essentials

.This section contains links and references to key information about climate change.^ So what about global climate change?
  • Global Climate Change 12 September 2009 10:010 UTC www.flame.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A Change in Extreme Weather Events A shift in global climate could bring about a change in the frequency and intensity of drought in already drought-prone regions.
  • climate change 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Global Climate Change Fact Sheet Series: KS4 & A 123 ACE Information Programme aric A catalytic converter is a unit about the size of a small shoe-box which fits into the exhaust system of a car.
  • climate change 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Please only add items to this list that you feel are essential to understanding climate change.^ By now, we have a fairly good understanding of the effects of global warming and climate change, but what caused it all?
  • Global Climate Change - Associated Content - Topic - associatedcontent.com 12 September 2009 10:010 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: News]

^ Why are we and others only slowly acknowledging and rising to the challenge of anthropogenic climate change, one of the greatest threats to our own and our descendents well-being?
  • Magic - Global Climate Change and California Oaks 12 September 2009 10:010 UTC ecomagic.org [Source type: Academic]

^ It's only when the balance is disturbed does the climate change - in the absence of changes, it should remain more or less constant.
  • Global Climate Change 12 September 2009 10:010 UTC www.flame.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Reading

Websites

  • The IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) is the lead organisation for the international investigation into global warming and climate change.
  • The Copenhagen Diagnosis website synthesizes the most policy-relevant climate science published since the close-off of material for the last IPCC report
  • Real Climate is a blog by scientists working in climate science and an invaluable source for those who are scientifically inclined.

Introduction to the science

Short courses

  • Openlearn's global warming course provides a structured introduction to the science behind the debate from the people who brought you the Open University.
  • Global warming is a series of videos lectures by David Archer covering a 10-week course for non-science majors focuses on a single problem: assessing the risk of human-caused climate change.

Wikiversity projects

These are a list of existing projects on Wikiversity that relate to this project. .If you find any other projects please add them.^ Those of you who send me news stories please add justin@iloveco2.org to your list.

A description or summary of each project would also be useful.

Wikibooks

Up to date as of January 23, 2010
(Redirected to Climate Change article)

From Wikibooks, the open-content textbooks collection

.This Wikibook deals with climate change and global warming.^ So what about global climate change?
  • Global Climate Change 12 September 2009 10:010 UTC www.flame.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ What does this have to do with global climate change?
  • Global Climate Change 12 September 2009 10:010 UTC www.flame.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A great deal of research into global climate change has been done, and continues to be done.
  • Straight Talk About Climate Change 12 September 2009 10:010 UTC www.irregulartimes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.If you care to share your knowledge of this topic, please contribute.^ Guidelines: You share in the USA TODAY community, so please keep your comments smart and civil.
  • Deal on climate change is elusive - USATODAY.com 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.usatoday.com [Source type: News]

^ If you would like to contribute to future issues, please visit http://www.choicesmagazine.org/submissions.htm .
  • ASWM: Wetland Science: Wetlands and Global Climate Change 12 September 2009 10:010 UTC www.aswm.org [Source type: Academic]

^ If you are ready, you can Enter Your Own Research Proposal or Discussion Topic NOW .

Although this book is still in a very preliminary state, we seem to be moving toward a cohesive structure. .The book is really two parts: first, a primer on the science of climate change, and second, a study of societal implications of climate change.^ First, he denied that global climate change is really taking place.
  • Straight Talk About Climate Change 12 September 2009 10:010 UTC www.irregulartimes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The U.N .'s Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change published a report two years ago saying the odds are better than 90% that global warming is caused by humans.
  • Deal on climate change is elusive - USATODAY.com 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.usatoday.com [Source type: News]
  • Deal on Climate Change is Elusive | News10.net | Sacramento, California | World News 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.news10.net [Source type: News]

^ Worldwide, sea levels are expected to rise between 0.6 feet and two feet in the next century, according to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change.
  • Climate change and S.C. tourism | Cover Story | Charleston City Paper 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.charlestoncitypaper.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The first part deals with much more concrete, physically based principles.^ If we're to have confidence in a prediction of the weather based on climate change at any time in the next century, it will have to be because we have much more confidence in our models than we now have.
  • Global Climate Change 12 September 2009 10:010 UTC www.flame.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Proof of Principle: First developments towards trading of emission certificates based on the "offset-mechanism" taken up in Clean Air Act in 1977.
  • Climate Change 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC climatecleanup.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

As such, it can be developed more easily. .The second part is potentially more controversial, but not necessarily so; for the early stages of development, the second part should probably be limited to generalities and external links.^ This is of particular importance in the construction industry, where an effective risk management strategy should form part of any development proposal prior to construction.
  • climate change 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "The current generation of biofuels is leading to a new stage of cellulosic biofuel development that will not only minimize land use changes , but will actually enhance the environment ...."
  • Climate change - BioenergyWiki 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.bioenergywiki.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ What’s more, the generation of CO2 from these activities is intimately linked to economic growth, which compounds the problem of making sure that emissions are accurately reported.
  • Climate Change: Blogs 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC climate.nasa.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Table of Contents

Appendices

External Links

.

Simple English

[[File:|thumb|right|Variations in CO2, temperature and dust from the Vostok ice core over the last 400,000 years]]

Climate change means the variation in the Earth's global climate or in regional climates over time.

It describes changes in the state of the atmosphere over time scales ranging from decades to millions of years. These changes can be caused by processes inside the Earth, forces from outside (e.g. variations in sunlight intensity) or, more recently, human activities.

Climate change is any significant long-term change in the expected patterns of average weather of a region (or the whole Earth) over a significant period of time. Climate change is about non-normal variations to the climate, and the effects of these variations on other parts of the Earth. Examples include melting of the ice caps at the South Pole and North Pole. These changes may take tens, hundreds or perhaps millions of years.

In recent usage, especially in the context of environmental policy, climate change usually refers to changes in modern climate (see global warming). For information on temperature measurements over various periods, and the data sources available, see temperature record. For attribution of climate change over the past century, see attribution of recent climate change.

Contents

Other pages

References

  • Emanuel, K. A. (2005) Increasing destructiveness of tropical cyclones over the past 30 years., Nature, 436; 686-688
  • IPCC. (2007) Climate change 2007: the physical science basis (summary for policy makers), IPCC.
  • Jones, C. Climate Change: Facts and Impacts [online]. Available from: What effects are we seeing now and what is still to come?
  • Miller, C. and Edwards, P. N. (ed.)(2001) Changing the Atmosphere: Expert Knowledge and Environmental Governance, MIT Press
  • Ruddiman, W. F. (2003) The anthropogenic greenhouse era began thousands of years ago, Climate Change 61 (3): 261-293
  • Ruddiman, W. F. (2005) Plows, Plagues and Petroleum: How Humans Took Control of Climate, Princeton University Press
  • Ruddiman, W. F., Vavrus, S. J. and Kutzbach, J. E. (2005) A test of the overdue-glaciation hypothesis, Quaternary Science Review, 24:11
  • Schmidt, G. A., Shindel, D. T. and Harder, S. (2004) A note of the relationship between ice core methane concentrations and insolation GRL v31 L23206

Other websites

Find more information on climate change by searching one of Wikipedia's sister projects:

Dictionary definitions from Wiktionary
Textbooks from Wikibooks
Quotations from Wikiquote
Source texts from Wikisource

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Images and media from Commons

News stories from Wikinews

Climate change travel guide from Wikitravel

Public administrations and organizations

Other links

BBC articles


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 12, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Climate change, which are similar to those in the above article.








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