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Kolkata
Climate chart (explanation)
J F M A M J J A S O N D
 
 
17
 
27
14
 
 
23
 
30
17
 
 
33
 
34
22
 
 
48
 
36
25
 
 
102
 
36
26
 
 
260
 
34
27
 
 
332
 
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329
 
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296
 
32
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151
 
32
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17
 
30
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7.4
 
27
14
average max. and min. temperatures in °C
precipitation totals in mm
source: IMD

Kolkata has a Tropical wet-and-dry climate (Koppen climate classification Aw). The annual mean temperature is 26.8 °C (80 °F); monthly mean temperatures range from 19 °C to 30 °C (67 °F to 86 °F).[1] Summers are hot and humid with temperatures in the low 30's and during dry spells the maximum temperatures often exceed 40 °C (104 °F) during May and June.[1] Winter tends to last for only about two and a half months, with seasonal lows dipping to 12 °C – 14 °C (54 °F – 57 °F) between December and January. The highest recorded temperature is 49 °C (113 °F) and the lowest is 5 °C (41 °F).[1] Often during early summer, dusty squalls followed by spells of thunderstorm and heavy rains lash the city, bringing relief from the humid heat. These thunderstorms are convective in nature, and is locally known as Kal baisakhi (কালবৈশাখী, Nor'westers).[2]

Rains brought by the Bay of Bengal branch of South-West monsoon[3] lash the city between June and September and supplies the city with most of its annual rainfall of 1,582 mm (62.3 inches). The highest rainfall occurs during the monsoon in August (306 mm). The city receives 2,528 hours of sunshine per annum, with the maximum sunlight occurring in March.[4] Pollution is a major concern in Kolkata, and the Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM) level is high when compared to other major cities of India,[5][6] leading to regular smog and haze. Severe air pollution in the city has caused rise in pollution-related respiratory ailments such as lung cancer.[7]

References

  1. ^ a b c "Weatherbase entry for Kolkata". Canty and Associates LLC. http://www.weatherbase.com/weather/weatherall.php3?s=090824&refer=&units=metric. Retrieved 2006-04-26. 
  2. ^ "kal Baisakhi". Glossary of Meteorology. American Meteorological Society. http://amsglossary.allenpress.com/glossary/search?id=kal-baisakhi1. Retrieved 2006-09-05. 
  3. ^ Khichar, M.L.; Ram Niwas (July 14, 2003). "Know your monsoon". Agriculture Tribune, The Tribune. The Tribune Trust. http://www.tribuneindia.com/2003/20030714/agro.htm#2. Retrieved 2007-06-09. 
  4. ^ "Calcutta: Not 'The City of Joy'". Gaia: Environmental Information System. http://www.ess.co.at/GAIA/CASES/IND/CAL/CALmain.html. Retrieved 2006-04-26. 
  5. ^ Central Pollution Control Board. "Ambient Air Quality in Seven Major Cities During 2002". Ministry of Environment & Forests, Govt of India. http://www.cpcb.nic.in/mcity/m2002.htm. Retrieved 2006-04-26. 
  6. ^ Central Pollution Control Board. "Air quality in major cities on 16–17 March, 2006". Ministry of Environment & Forests, Govt of India. http://www.cpcb.nic.in/mcity/2006/16_1703/16_1703.htm. Retrieved 2006-04-26. 
  7. ^ Bhaumik, Subir (17 May 2007). "Oxygen supplies for India police". South Asia (BBC). http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/6665803.stm. Retrieved 2007-06-23. 
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