Clitoris: Wikis

  
  
  








































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Clitoris
Clitoris anatomy labeled-en.svg
The internal anatomy of the human vulva, with the clitoral hood and labia minora indicated as lines. The clitoris extends from the visible portion to a point below the pubic bone.
Gray's subject #270 1266
Artery Dorsal artery of clitoris, deep artery of clitoris
Vein Superficial dorsal veins of clitoris, deep dorsal vein of clitoris
Nerve Dorsal nerve of clitoris
Precursor Genital tubercle
MeSH Clitoris
Dorlands/Elsevier Clitoris
The clitoris is a sexual organ that is present only in female mammals. In humans, the visible button-like portion is located near the anterior junction of the labia minora, above the opening of the urethra and vagina. Unlike the penis, which is homologous to the clitoris, the clitoris does not contain the distal portion of the urethra. The only known exception to this is in the Spotted Hyena. In this species, the urogenital system is unique in that the female urinates, mates and gives birth via an enlarged, erectile clitoris, known as a pseudo-penis.[1]
In humans, the clitoris is the most sensitive erogenous zone of a woman, the stimulation of which may produce sexual excitement and clitoral erection; its continuing stimulation may produce sexual pleasure in the woman and orgasm.

Contents

Pronunciation and etymology

The word is pronounced /ˈklɪtərɪs/ ( listen) or /klɪˈtɔərɪs/  ( listen). The plural forms are clitorises in English and clitorides in Latin. In slang, it is sometimes abbreviated as clit, which originated in the 1950s. The OED suggests that the pronunciation /ˈklaɪtɒrɪs/) is also used in the UK, and gives the likely etymology as coming from the Greek κλειτορἰς, kleitoris, perhaps derived from the verb κλεἰ-ειν, klei-ein, to shut. The Online Etymology Dictionary maintains that the etymology of this diminutive is still uncertain noting that many sources take Κλειτορίδ, kleitorid, literally from the Greek "little hill”. Other etymological candidates are key or latch, to touch or titillate lasciviously, to tickle, to be inclined (toward pleasure) and slope, from the same root as climax. It has been noted in German as der Kitzler meaning "the tickler". Its Latin genitive is clitoridis, as in "glans clitoridis".

Structure

The head or glans of the clitoris is roughly the size and shape of a pea, although it can be significantly larger or smaller. The clitoral glans is highly sensitive, containing 8,000 nerve endings, double the nerve endings as the analogous organ in males, the glans penis.
Human vulva
Vulva labeled no tags.jpg
Human vulva showing externally-visible features of the clitoris in relation to other components: 1. Clitoral hood (prepuce); 2. Clitoral glans; 3. Urethral orifice; 4. Vulval vestibule; 5. Labia minora; 6. Vaginal opening; 7. Labia majora (hair removed); 8. Perineum
MeSH Vulva
Dorlands/Elsevier vulva
The clitoris is a complex structure, with both external and internal components. Projecting at the front of the labial commissure where the edges of the outer lips (labia majora) meet at the base of the pubic mound is the clitoral hood (prepuce), which in full or part covers the head (clitoral glans). Following from the head back and up along the shaft, it is found that this extends up to several centimeters before reversing direction, branched resulting in a shape like an inverted "V", and extending as a pair of "legs" known as the clitoral crura formed of the corpora cavernosa, which are concealed behind the labia minora, and terminating attached to the pubic arch, according to some,[2] or following interior to the labia minora to meet at the fourchette, according to others.[3]
.Associated are the urethral sponge, clitoral/vestibular bulbs, perineal sponge, a network of nerves and blood vessels, suspensory ligaments, muscles and pelvic diaphragm.^ Its bulbs swell up and fill with blood during sexual arousal, just as the male organ does, and during sexual excitement, the clitoral foreskin retracts, exposing the glans.
  • Where is the clitoris? 19 November 2009 17:57 UTC www.vulvavelvet.org [Source type: Original source]

[4]
.There is considerable variation in how much of the clitoris protrudes from the hood and how much is covered by it, ranging from complete, covered invisibility to full, protruding visibility.^ But women with a hooded clitoris have a thickened membrane that covers the glans, and it may not be retractable.
  • Where is the clitoris? 19 November 2009 17:57 UTC www.vulvavelvet.org [Source type: Original source]

^ All women have a hood of skin which covers their clitoral glans (the smooth end of the clitoris).
  • Where is the clitoris? 19 November 2009 17:57 UTC www.vulvavelvet.org [Source type: Original source]

^ What a relief to know that one man actually understands how to get under the hood, and what to do there.
  • Under the Clitoral Hood | The NoNonsense Man® 19 November 2009 17:57 UTC thenononsenseman.com [Source type: General]

An article published in the Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology in July 1992 states that the average width of the clitoral glans lies within the range of 2.5 to 4.5 millimetres (0.098 to 0.18 in), indicating that the average size is smaller than a pencil-top eraser. There is no identified correlation between the size of a clitoris and a woman's age, height, weight, use of hormonal contraceptives, or being post-menopausal. Those who have given birth tend to have slightly larger measurements.[citation needed]

Sexual stimulation

Masters and Johnson were the first to determine that the clitoral structures surround and extend along and within the labia, determining that all orgasms are of clitoral origin.[5] More recently, Australian urologist Dr Helen O'Connell, using MRI technology, noted a direct relationship between the legs or roots of the clitoris and the erectile tissue of the clitoral bulbs and corpora, and the distal urethra and vagina.[6] .She asserts that this interconnected relationship is the physiological explanation for the conjectured G-spot and experience of vaginal orgasm taking into account the stimulation of the internal parts of the clitoris during vaginal penetration.^ Furthermore, some women like additional vaginal stimulation, while others find it irritating and prefer focusing on the clitoris.
  • clitoral stimulation >> Medical Questions, Weight Loss, Pregnancy, Drugs, Health Insurance 19 November 2009 17:57 UTC www.steadyhealth.com [Source type: General]

^ The clitoris is extremely sensitive after climax, so don't stimulate it as intensely as you were before she orgasmed.

^ The erectile tissue is responsible for the enlargement of the clitoris, two to four-fold as the clitoris engorges with blood during the arousal phase of female sexual stimulation.
  • Device to enchance clitoral stimulation during intravaginal intercourse - Patent 6179775 19 November 2009 17:57 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

[7] Some individuals who experience orgasm from both direct clitoral stimulation of the glans and vaginal access to the internal bodies may distinguish between them in terms of both the physical and general sensations associated with each[citation needed].
.During sexual arousal and during orgasm, the clitoris and the whole of the genitalia engorge and change color as these erectile tissues fill with blood, and the individual experiences vaginal contractions.^ The erectile tissue is responsible for the enlargement of the clitoris, two to four-fold as the clitoris engorges with blood during the arousal phase of female sexual stimulation.
  • Device to enchance clitoral stimulation during intravaginal intercourse - Patent 6179775 19 November 2009 17:57 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Kinsey Confidential All women experience vaginal discharge , though the color, consistency and amount can vary.
  • Clitoris Discharge Clitoris - Crawler.com 19 November 2009 17:57 UTC www.crawler.com [Source type: General]

^ As with the male penis, the clitoris contains both sensory nerves and erectile tissue.
  • Device to enchance clitoral stimulation during intravaginal intercourse - Patent 6179775 19 November 2009 17:57 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

.Masters and Johnson documented the sexual response cycle, which has four phases and is still the clinically accepted definition of the human orgasm.^ The erectile tissue is responsible for the enlargement of the clitoris, two to four-fold as the clitoris engorges with blood during the arousal phase of female sexual stimulation.
  • Device to enchance clitoral stimulation during intravaginal intercourse - Patent 6179775 19 November 2009 17:57 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

.More recent research has determined that some can experience a sustained intense orgasm through stimulation of the clitoris and remain in the orgasmic phase for much longer than the original studies indicated, evidenced by genital engorgement, color changes, and vaginal contractions.^ Kinsey Confidential All women experience vaginal discharge , though the color, consistency and amount can vary.
  • Clitoris Discharge Clitoris - Crawler.com 19 November 2009 17:57 UTC www.crawler.com [Source type: General]

^ I did find (in my intense research) that with some women smegma can get under the hood, especially if it is really tight over the head or if it is really large and covers the clitoris as well as the shaft.
  • Menopause vaginal itching?? - WrongDiagnosis.com 20 September 2009 6:51 UTC forums.wrongdiagnosis.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ With the orgasms you reach through oral sex your clitoris is probably receiving most of the contact Try positons that place you in a more pelvis to pelvis contact than the standard in and out and Im sure you will find the satisfaction you are looking for Good luck and remember practise makes perfect .
  • orgasam - Women's Health Support Forums 20 September 2009 6:51 UTC www.womens-health.com [Source type: General]

[8]

Embryonic development

During the development of an embryo, at the time of development of the urinary and reproductive organs, the previously undifferentiated genital tubercle develops into either a clitoris or penis, along with all other major organ systems, making them homologous.[4] The clitoris is formed from the same tissues that would have become the glans and upper shaft of a penis if the embryo had been exposed to “male” hormones. .Changes in appearance of male and female embryos begin roughly eight weeks after conception.^ Female Genital Piercing Information ~ The concept behind female genital piercings (as with male genital piercings) is to enhance .
  • Rings of Desire - Female Genital Piercing 20 September 2009 6:51 UTC ringsofdesire.com [Source type: Original source]

By birth, the genital structures have developed into the female reproductive system.[9]
Embryo sex based on external genitalia is apparent to a doctor at the end of the 14th menstrual week, and the sex can usually be identified by an ultrasound after 16 to 18 menstrual weeks.[10] A condition that can develop from naturally occurring or deliberate exposure to higher than average levels of testosterone is clitoromegaly.

Recognition of existence

The clitoris has been rediscovered repeatedly over the centuries (Harvey 2001, Laqueur 1989). .Over a period of more than 2,500 years, some have considered the clitoris and the penis equivalent in all respects except their arrangement.^ In a typically regressive gesture, Bush proposed to hand out cash tax rebates–except to families earning less than $40,000 a year.
  • Barbara's Blog: Clitoral Economics 19 November 2009 17:57 UTC ehrenreich.blogs.com [Source type: General]

^ All of the stimulation is on the dorsal aspect of the clitoris and becomes more pronounced as the clitoris becomes erect and enlarged.
  • Device to enchance clitoral stimulation during intravaginal intercourse - Patent 6179775 19 November 2009 17:57 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

^ It is beleived by some researchers that these women need more sex than the average woman.
  • Are my nipples and clitorus large? FunAdvice.com 20 September 2009 6:51 UTC www.funadvice.com [Source type: General]

[3] Medical literature first recognized the existence of the clitoris in the 16th century[citation needed]. This is the subject of some dispute: Realdo Colombo (also known as Matteo Renaldo Colombo) was a lecturer in surgery at the University of Padua, Italy, and in 1559 he published a book called De re anatomica in which he described the "seat of woman's delight". Colombo concluded, "Since no one has discerned these projections and their workings, if it is permissible to give names to things discovered by me, it should be called the love or sweetness of Venus."
Colombo's claim was disputed by his successor at Padua, Gabriele Falloppio (who discovered the fallopian tube), who claimed that he was the first to discover the clitoris. Caspar Bartholin, a 17th-century Danish anatomist, dismissed both claims, arguing that the clitoris had been widely known to medical science since the second century. Indeed, Hippocrates used the term columella (little pillar). Avicenna named the clitoris the albatra or virga (rod). Albucasis, an Arabic medical authority, named it tentigo (tension). It was also known to the Romans, who named it (vulgar slang) landica.[11]
This cycle of suppression and discovery continued, notably in the work of De Graaf (Tractatus de Virorum Organis Generationi Inservientibus, De Mulierum Organis Generationi Inservientibus Tractatus Novus) in the 17th century and Kobelt (Die männlichen und weiblichen Wollustorgane des Menschen und einiger Säugetiere) in the 19th. De Graaf criticised Columbo's claims for this. (Harvey, Laqueur).
The full extent of the clitoris was alluded to by Masters and Johnson in 1966, but in such a muddled fashion that the significance of their description became obscured. That same year, feminist psychiatrist Mary Jane Sherfey published an article on female sexuality that described in detail the extensive nature of the internal anatomy of the clitoris[citation needed] and in 1981, the Federation of Feminist Women's Health Clinics (FFWHC) continued this process with anatomically precise illustrations.[3] Today, MRI complements these efforts, as it is both a live and multiplanar method of examination.[6]

Female genital modification

The external part of the clitoris may be partially or totally removed during female genital cutting, also known as a clitoridectomy, female circumcision, or female genital mutilation (FGM); this may be a voluntary or involuntary procedure. .The topic is highly controversial with many countries condemning the traditions that give rise to involuntary procedures, and with some countries outlawing even voluntary procedures.^ I have had many women travel in from out of state and even out of the country to get this particular piercing.
  • Rings of Desire - Female Genital Piercing 20 September 2009 6:51 UTC ringsofdesire.com [Source type: Original source]

Amnesty International estimates that over 2 million involuntary female circumcisions are being performed every year, mainly in African countries.[citation needed]
In various cultures, the clitoris is sometimes pierced directly. .In U.S. body modification culture, it is actually extremely rare for the clitoral shaft itself to be pierced, as of the already few people who desire the piercing, only a small percentage are anatomically suited for it; furthermore, most piercing artists are reluctant to attempt such a delicate procedure.^ As for unemployment benefits: They last just 25 weeks in most states and end up covering only a third of people who are laid off.
  • Barbara's Blog: Clitoral Economics 19 November 2009 17:57 UTC ehrenreich.blogs.com [Source type: General]

^ Of the women who request an actual clitoris piercing, and know what they are asking, approximately 90-95% are not suitably built.
  • Rings of Desire - Female Genital Piercing 20 September 2009 6:51 UTC ringsofdesire.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Home » Piercing Types, Places on Body » Female piercing, genital piercing, sexual piercing, adult piercing, xxx piercing » Vertical clitoral hood piercings .
  • Vertical clitoral hood piercings | Body Piercings Jewelry 19 November 2009 17:57 UTC www.piercings-body.com [Source type: General]

Some styles, such as the Isabella, do pass through the clitoris but are placed deep at the base, where they provide unique stimulation; they still require the proper genital build, but are more common than shaft piercings. Additionally, what is (erroneously) referred to as a "clit piercing" is almost always the much more common (and much less complicated) clitoral hood piercing.
Enlargement may be intentional or unintentional. Those taking hormones and/or other medications as part of female-to-male transition usually experience dramatic clitoral growth; individual desires (and the difficulties of surgical phalloplasty) often result in the retention of the original genitalia, the enlarged clitoris analogous to a penis as part of the transition. However, the clitoris never completely adapts to the masculinization of its owner and will never be able to ejaculate or urinate and is small in comparison to the genitalia of a natural-born male. On the other hand, use of anabolic steroids by bodybuilders and other athletes can result in significant enlargement of the clitoris in concert with other masculinizing effects on their bodies. Temporary engorgement results from suction pumping, practiced to enhance sexual pleasure or for aesthetic purposes.

Additional images

See also

References

Notes

  1. ^ Baskina, Laurence S. et al. (January 2006). "A Neuroanatomical Comparison of Humans and Spotted Hyena, a Natural Animal Model for Common Urogenital Sinus: Clinical Reflections on Feminizing Genitoplasty". Journal of Urology 175 (1): 276–83. doi:10.1016/S0022-5347(05)00014-5. 
  2. ^ Vulva on MedicaLook Human Anatomy
  3. ^ a b c Chalker, Rebecca (2000). The Clitoral Truth. Seven Seas Press. pp. 1. ISBN 1-58322-473-4. http://www.sevenstories.com/Book/index.cfm?GCOI=58322100427350. 
  4. ^ a b Francoeur, Robert T. (2000). The Complete Dictionary of Sexology. The Continuum Publishing Company. pp. 180. ISBN 0-82640-672-6. 
  5. ^ Federation of Feminist Women’s Health Centers (1991). A New View of a Woman’s Body. Feminist Heath Press. pp. 46. ISBN 0-929945-0-2. 
  6. ^ a b O'Connell, et al. (October 2005). "Anatomy of the Clitoris". Journal of Urology 174: 1189–95. doi:10.1097/01.ju.0000173639.38898.cd. 
  7. ^ BBC News Online (June 2006). "Time for Rethink on the Clitoris". http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/health/5013866.stm. Retrieved January 2, 2010. 
  8. ^ Bodansky, Vera & Steve (2002). The Illustrated Guide to Extended Massive Orgasm. Hunter House. ISBN 0897933621. 
  9. ^ Reinisch, Beasley, June and Ruth (1990). The Kinsey Institute New Report on Sex. St. Martin’s Press. ISBN 0312063865. 
  10. ^ Heffner, Linda (2001). Human Reproduction at a Glance. Blackwell Sciences, Ltd. ISBN 0632054611. 
  11. ^ J.N. Adams (1982). The Latin Sexual Vocabulary. Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 97–98. 

Bibliography

External links


Simple English

The clitoris is a female genital organ that includes erectile tissue, glands, muscles and ligaments, nerves, and blood vessels. Although the parts are placed differently, the clitoris is matching to the male penis. The clitoris functions to cause sexual pleasure and create orgasms as well as make a woman aroused.

During sexual arousal, the clitoris grows as its erectile tissue fills with blood until orgasm happens. Also during arousal, touching the clitoris and other sensitive areas of the female genitals makes a woman's vagina change shape and release a lubricant. The lubricant and change of shape makes it easier for a man to enter a woman and for sex to occur. Most of the clitoris is hidden inside the body and only a small part can be seen from the outside. Adding the outside and inside parts, the clitoris is similar in size to the penis. The clitoris and penis grow out of the same tissue in the womb. They share many similar parts.

Visible parts of the clitoris


The parts of the clitoris that can be seen from the outside stretch from the clitoral junction, the point where the outer lips meet at the base of the pubic mound, to the fork, where the lower edges of the inner lips meet below the vaginal opening.[1] The outside parts include

  • the glans: the head or tip. Filled with nerve endings, the sole purpose of the glans is to produce pleasurable feelings and increase a woman's sexual response.
  • the hood: the fold of skin formed by the outer edges of the inner lips that covers the glans and is the same as the male foreskin.
  • the inner lips, which are hairless and very sensitive to touch.

Hidden parts of the clitoris

File:Clitoris inner anatomy.gif
The parts of the clitoris inside the body
The parts of the clitoris hidden inside the body include erectile tissue, glands, muscles, blood vessels, and nerves. In both the clitoris and the penis, there are two types of erectile tissue: body of caverns (corpus cavernosum) and spongy body (corpus spongiosum), which fill with blood during sexual response, causing an erection. The clitoral shaft is attached to the glans, just underneath the surface of the skin. The shaft is a round segment of spongy erectile tissue and is very sensitive like the glans. It feels like a hard ridge about one-half to one inch long, and it rises toward the pubic mound for a short distance, then bends sharply and divides, forming two slender legs which are also made of spongy tissue. The legs flare out like the wishbone of a chicken. In both women and men, the urethra (the tube through which we urinate), is surrounded by a ring of sponge.

References

bjn:Cingit

Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 08, 2010

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