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A Close-in weapon system (CIWS) is a naval shipboard point-defense weapon for detecting and destroying incoming anti-ship missiles and enemy aircraft at short range (the threat(s) having penetrated the fleet's available outer defenses). Typically, the acronym is pronounced sea-whiz.

Nearly all classes of modern warship are equipped with some kind of CIWS device.

Contents

Gun systems

A gun based CIWS usually consists of a combination of radars, computers, and multiple rapid-fire medium-calibre guns placed on a rotating gun mount. Examples of gun based CIWS products in operation are:

Missile systems

Some platforms use missile systems instead of guns, because guns have certain limitations:

  • Short range: The maximum effective range of 30-mm gun systems is about 4500 m; systems with lighter projectiles have even shorter range. The expected real-world kill-distance of an incoming anti-ship missile is about 500 m or less, still close enough to possibly cause damage on the ship's sensor or communication arrays. Also the timeframe for interception is relatively short; for supersonic missiles moving at 1500 m/s it is approximately one-third of a second.
  • Limited kill probability: Even if the missile is hit and damaged, it may not be enough to destroy it or change its course enough, to prevent it or fragments of it from hitting its intended target (short interception distance, see above). This is especially true if the gun fires kinetic-energy-only projectiles).
  • Guns can only fire at one target at a time and switching targets may take up to one second for training the gun.
  • For a gun hitting a target traveling at high speed, it has to predict its course and aim ahead of it since mid-course corrections of projectiles are not possible. Modern anti-ship missiles make erratic moves before impact, reducing the probability of being hit.

Because of their greater range, a missile-CIWS can also be dual-used as a short-ranged area-defense anti-air weapon, eliminating the need of a second mount for this role.

A RAM launcher of the German Navy

After an inertial guidance phase CIWS missile relies on infra-red, passive radar/ESM or semi-active radar terminal guidance or a combination of these. The ESM-mode is particularly useful since most long-range anti-ship missiles use radar to home in on their targets. Some systems allow the launch platform to send course-correction commands to the missile in the inertial guidance phase.

Examples include:

  • Crotale-NG
  • RIM-116 Rolling Airframe Missile - SeaRAM is a companion to the Phalanx, using Phalanx' sensor suite and an 11-missile RAM launcher
  • Sadral, using a version of the Mistral missile
  • Sea-Sprint, using the ADATS missile
  • Modernized Sea Wolf
  • Sea Sparrow Block 1, Missile used by the Nimitz class carriers, and other USN ships, as a short to medium range anti-aircraft weapon.
  • Evolved Sea Sparrow missile, used aboard all Sea Sparrow-capable warships, plus other warships of the Netherlands, Canadian, Spanish, Japanese, Turkish and Australian navies.
  • SA-N-11 Grisom missile, used by the Russian and Chinese navies as part of the CADS-N-1 system.
  • HQ-7 missile, a Chinese missile system, standard for all ships.
  • Barak SAM, an Israeli point defence missile system also used by Indian Navy.

Land based CIWS

CIWs are also used in a land based anti-mortar and missile defense role to protect fixed and temporary bases and other facilities. [4] [5]

On a smaller scale, active protection systems are used in some tanks, and several are in development. The Drozd system was deployed on Soviet Naval Infantry tanks in the early 1980s, but later replaced by explosive reactive armour. Other systems are available or being developed in Russia (Arena), Israel (Trophy), USA (Quick Kill), India and China.

References

See also

External links

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A close-in weapon system (CIWS) is a naval shipboard point-defense weapon for detecting and destroying incoming anti-ship missiles and enemy aircraft at short range (the threat(s) having penetrated the fleet's available outer defenses). Typically, the acronym is pronounced sea-whiz.

Nearly all classes of modern warship are equipped with some kind of CIWS device.

Contents

Gun systems

A gun based CIWS usually consists of a combination of radars, computers, and multiple rapid-fire medium-calibre guns placed on a rotating gun mount. Examples of gun based CIWS products in operation are:

Missile systems

Some platforms use missile systems instead of guns, because guns have certain limitations:

  • Short range: The maximum effective range of 30-mm gun systems is about 4500 m; systems with lighter projectiles have even shorter range. The expected real-world kill-distance of an incoming anti-ship missile is about 500 m or less,[citation needed] still close enough to possibly cause damage on the ship's sensor or communication arrays. Also the timeframe for interception is relatively short; for supersonic missiles moving at 1500 m/s it is approximately one-third of a second.
  • Limited kill probability: Even if the missile is hit and damaged, it may not be enough to destroy it or change its course enough, to prevent it or fragments of it from hitting its intended target (short interception distance, see above). This is especially true if the gun fires kinetic-energy-only projectiles.
  • Guns can only fire at one target at a time and switching targets may take up to one second for training the gun.
  • For a gun hitting a target traveling at high speed, it has to predict its course and aim ahead of it since mid-course corrections of projectiles are not possible. Modern anti-ship missiles make erratic moves before impact, reducing the probability of being hit.

Because of their greater range, a missile-CIWS can also be dual-used as a short-ranged area-defense anti-air weapon, eliminating the need of a second mount for this role.

After an inertial guidance phase CIWS missile relies on infra-red, passive radar/ESM or semi-active radar terminal guidance or a combination of these. The ESM-mode is particularly useful since most long-range anti-ship missiles use radar to home in on their targets. Some systems allow the launch platform to send course-correction commands to the missile in the inertial guidance phase.

Examples include:

  • 9K33 Osa (SA-N-4 Gecko) missile, used by the Russian Navy is stored and fired from TELARs(Transporter erector launcher and radar) on various Russian ships.
  • 9K331 (SA-N-9 Gauntlet) missile, used by the Russian Navy, it is stored and fired from Vertical launching systems of various ships. It along with the Tor missile system is the first air-defense system designed from ground up to intercept precision guided munitions like the AGM-86 ALCM[4]
  • 9M311 (SA-N-11 Grisom) missile, used by the Russian and Chinese navies as part of the Kashtan gun-missile system.
  • Barak SAM, an Israeli point defence missile system also used by Indian Navy.
  • Crotale-NG
  • Evolved Sea Sparrow missile, used aboard all Sea Sparrow-capable warships, plus other warships of the Netherlands, Canadian, Spanish, Japanese, Turkish and Australian navies.
  • HQ-7 missile, a Chinese missile system, standard for all ships.
  • RIM-116 Rolling Airframe Missile - SeaRAM is a companion to the Phalanx, using Phalanx' sensor suite and an 11-missile RAM launcher
  • Sadral, using a version of the Mistral missile
  • Sea Sparrow Block 1, Missile used by the Nimitz class carriers, and other USN ships, as a short to medium range anti-aircraft weapon.
  • Sea-Sprint, using the ADATS missile
  • Modernized Sea Wolf

Land based CIWS

CIWS are also used in a land based anti-mortar and missile defense role to protect fixed and temporary bases and other facilities.[5][6]

On a smaller scale, active protection systems are used in some tanks, and several are in development. The Drozd system was deployed on Soviet Naval Infantry tanks in the early 1980s, but later replaced by explosive reactive armour. Other systems are available or being developed in Russia (Arena), Israel (Trophy), USA (Quick Kill), India and China.

See also

References

External links


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