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Close back rounded vowel: Wikis

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Where symbols appear in pairs, the one to the right represents
a rounded vowel. Vowel length is indicated by appending  
ː
IPA – number 308
IPA – text u
IPA – image {{{imagesize}}}
Entity u
X-SAMPA u
Kirshenbaum u
About this sound Sound sample

The close back rounded vowel is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is u, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is u.

In most languages this rounded vowel is pronounced with protruded lips ('endolabial'). However, in a few cases the lips are compressed ('exolabial').

Contents

Close back protruded vowel

In most languages, closed back rounded vowels are pronounced with protruded lips.

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Features

  • Its vowel height is close, which means the tongue is positioned as close as possible to the roof of the mouth without creating a constriction that would be classified as a consonant.
  • Its vowel backness is back, which means the tongue is positioned as far back as possible in the mouth without creating a constriction that would be classified as a consonant.
  • Its roundedness is protruded, which means that the corners of the lips are drawn together, and the inner surfaces exposed.

Occurrence

Note: Since back rounded vowels are assumed to have protrusion, and few descriptions cover the distinction, some of the following may actually have compression.

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Arabic Standard جنوب [dʒæˈnuːb] 'south' See Arabic phonology
Catalan[1] suc [suk] 'juice' See Catalan phonology
Chinese Cantonese /gu1 [ɡuː] 'mushroom' See Standard Cantonese
Mandarin /kū [kʰu˥] 'to cry' See Standard Mandarin
Croatian u [u] 'in'
Czech u [u] 'at'
Dutch[2] voet [vuːt] 'foot' See Dutch phonology
English GA boot [bu̟ːˀt] 'boot' Typically more front than cardinal [u]. See English phonology
RP[3]
Faroese ur [uːr] '(wrist-)watch'
Finnish[4] kukka [ˈkukːɑ] 'flower' See Finnish phonology
French[5] Où.ogg [u] 'where' See French phonology
Georgian[6] და [ɡudɑ] 'leather bag'
German Fuß [fuːs] 'foot' See German phonology
Greek ουρανός [ˌuraˈno̞s̠] 'sky' See Modern Greek phonology
Hebrew תמונה [tmuna] 'image' Hebrew vowels are not shown in the script, see Niqqud and Hebrew phonology
Hungarian[7] unalmas [unɒlmɒʃ] 'boring' See Hungarian phonology
Irish gasúr [ˈɡasˠuːɾˠ] 'boy' See Irish phonology
Italian[8] tutta [ˈtutta] 'all' (fem.) See Italian phonology
Malay {{lang|ms|bulan [bulan] 'moon'
Mongolian[9] ? [uːɾɘ̆] 'nest'
Polish[10] buk Pl-buk.ogg [buk] 'beech tree' Also represented by <ó>. See Polish phonology
Portuguese European[11] urso [ˈuɾsu] 'bear' See Portuguese phonology
Brazilian[12] [ˈuɾsʊ]
Romanian unu [ˈunu] 'one' See Romanian phonology
Russian[13] узкий [ˈuskʲɪj] 'narrow' See Russian phonology
Scottish Gaelic gu [ɡu] 'to'
Serbian жут/žut [ʒut] 'yellow'
Slovak u [u] 'at'
Spanish[14] curable [kuˈɾaβle] 'curable' See Spanish phonology
Thai[15] ? [sùt] 'rearmost'
Turkish uçak [utʃak] 'airplane' See Turkish phonology
Udmurt[16] ? [urete] 'to divide'
Vietnamese tu [tū] 'to mediate' See Vietnamese phonology
Zapotec Tilquiapan[17] gdu [ɡdu] 'all'

Close back compressed vowel

Some languages, such as Japanese About this sound listen and Swedish,[18] are found with a close back vowel that has a distinct type of rounding, called compressed or exolabial. No language is known to contrast this with the more typical protruded (endolabial) close back vowel.

As there is no official diacritic for compression in the IPA, the spread-lip diacritic [  ͍ ] will be used here with the rounded vowel [u] as an ad hoc symbol. Other possible transcriptions are [ɯ͡β̞] (simultaneous [ɯ] and labial compression) and β] ([ɯ] modified with labial compression).

Features

  • Its vowel height is close, which means the tongue is positioned as close as possible to the roof of the mouth without creating a constriction that would be classified as a consonant.
  • Its vowel backness is back, which means the tongue is positioned as far back as possible in the mouth without creating a constriction that would be classified as a consonant.
  • Its roundedness is compressed, which means that the margins of the lips approach one another, so that the inner surfaces are not exposed.

Occurrence

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Japanese 空気 kuuki [ku͍ːki] 'air' See Japanese phonology
Swedish oro Sv-oro.ogg [ù͍β̞ru͍β̞] 'unease' Contrasts with a close central and close front compressed vowel. See Swedish phonology
Danish du [d̥u͍] 'you' See Danish phonology
Norwegian mot [mu͍ːt] 'courage' See Norwegian phonology

See also

References

Bibliography

  • Barbosa, Plínio A.; Albano, Eleonora C. (2004), "Brazilian Portuguese", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 34 (2): 227–232  
  • Carbonell, Joan F.; Llisterri, Joaquim (1992), "Catalan", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 22 (1-2): 53–56  
  • Cruz-Ferreira, Madalena (1995), "European Portuguese", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 25 (2): 90–94  
  • Gussenhoven, Carlos (1992), "Dutch", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 22 (2): 45–47  
  • Fougeron, Cecile; Smith, Caroline L (1993), "Illustrations of the IPA:French", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 23 (2): 73–76  
  • Iivonen, Antti; Harnud, Huhe (2005), "Acoustical comparison of the monophthong systems in Finnish, Mongolian and Udmurt", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 35 (1): 59–71  
  • Jassem, Wiktor (2003), "Polish", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 33 (1): 103–107  
  • Jones, Daniel; Dennis, Ward (1969). The Phonetics of Russian. Cambridge University Press.  
  • Martínez-Celdrán, Eugenio; Fernández-Planas, Ana Ma.; Carrera-Sabaté, Josefina (2003), "Castilian Spanish", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 33 (2): 255–259  
  • Merrill, Elizabeth (2008), "Tilquipan Zapotec", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 38 (1): 107–114  
  • Roach, Peter (2004), "British English: Received Pronunciation", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 34 (2): 239–245  
  • Rogers, Derek; d'Arcangeli, Luciana (2004), "Italian", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 34 (1): 117–121  
  • Shosted, Ryan K.; Vakhtang, Chikovani (2006), "Standard Georgian", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 36 (2): 255–264  
  • Szende, Tamás (1994), "Illustrations of the IPA:Hungarian", Journal of the International Phonetic Alphabet 24 (2): 91–94  
  • Thelwall, Robin (1990), "Illustrations of the IPA: Arabic", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 20 (2): 37–41  

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