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Close central unrounded vowel: Wikis

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See also: IPA, Consonants
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i · y
ɨ · ʉ
ɯ · u
ɪ · ʏ
ɪ̈ · ʊ̈
e · ø
ɘ · ɵ
ɤ · o
ɛ · œ
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Where symbols appear in pairs, the one to the right represents
a rounded vowel. Vowel length is indicated by appending  
ː
IPA – number 317
IPA – text ɨ
IPA – image {{{imagesize}}}
Entity ɨ
X-SAMPA 1
Kirshenbaum i"
About this sound Sound sample

The close central unrounded vowel is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ɨ, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is 1. The IPA symbol is the letter i with a horizontal bar. Both the symbol and the sound are commonly referred to as "barred-i".

There is also a near-close central unrounded vowel in some languages.

Contents

Features

Occurrence

/ɨ/ is rare as a phoneme in most Indo-European languages. However, it is very common as a separate phoneme in the indigenous languages of the Americas and is often in phonemic contrast with other close vowels such as /i/ and /u/ both in modern living languages as well as reconstructed proto-languages (e.g. proto-Uto-Aztecan). Campbell, Kaufman & Smith-Stark (1986) identify the presence of this vowel phoneme as an areal feature of a Mesoamerican Sprachbund (although this is not a defining feature of the entire area).

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Acehnese tupeue [tupɨʔɛ] 'to know Asyik[1] and Al-Ahmadi Al-Harbi[2] describe this sound as such while Durie[3] describes it as closer to [ɯ]
Amharic ሥር [sɨr] 'root' Often transcribed as <ə>
Angor hüfı [xɨβə] 'hot'
English roses [ˈɹoʊzɨz] 'roses' Reduced vowel in some dialects; corresponds to unstressed [ɪ] in other dialects. See English phonology.
Guaraní yvy [ɨʋɨ] 'earth'
Irish saol [sɨɫ] 'life' See Irish phonology
Kaingang fy [ɸɨ] 'seed'
Mapudungun trukür [tʴuˈkɨɹ] 'fog' See Mapudungun phonology
Mongolian[4] ? [xutʃʰɨɾɘ̆] 'difficult'
Muisca Hycha[5] hycha [hɨʂa] 'I'
Polish[6] mysz Mysz.ogg [mɨʂ] 'mouse' See Polish phonology
Romanian înot [ɨˈnot] 'I swim' See Romanian phonology
Russian[7] ты [tɨ] 'you' (singular) Occurs only after unpalatalized consonants. See Russian phonology
Sahaptin[8] [kʼsɨt] 'cold' Epenthetic; no lengthened equivalent.
Sirionó[9] [eˈsɨ] 'dry wood'
Swedish bi [bɨː] 'bee' Found in dialects in Närke and Bohuslän and in sociolects in Stockholm and Gothenburg.
Tupi yby [ɨβɨ] 'earth'
Udmurt[10] ? [ɨrete] 'to growl'
Võro sysar [sɨsarʲ] 'sister'
Welsh Northern dialects[11] llun [ɬɨːn] 'picture' See Welsh phonology
Zapotec Tilquiapan[12] nɨ [nɨ] 'be sour'

References

Bibliography

  • Al-Ahmadi Al-Harbi, Awwad Ahmad (2003), "Acehnese coda condition: An optimality-theoretic account", Umm Al-Qura University Journal of Educational and Social Sciences and Humanities 15: 9–21, http://roa.rutgers.edu/files/594-0403/594-0403-AL-HARBI-0-0  
  • Ball, Martin J. (1984), "Phonetics for phonology", in Ball, Martin J.; Jones, G.E, Welsh Phonology, Cardiff: University of Wales Press, ISBN 0-7083-0861-9  
  • Campbell, Lyle; Kaufman, Terrence; Smith-Stark, Thomas C (1986), "Meso-America as a linguistic area", Language 62 (3): 530–570  
  • Firestone, Homer L. (1965), "Description and classification of Sirionó: A Tupí-Guaraní language.", Janua linguarum, Series Practica, London: Mouton & Co  
  • Gómez, Paula. (1999). Huichol de San Andrés Cohamiata, Jalisco. Archivo de lenguas indígenas de México. México: El Colegio de México, Centro de Estudios.
  • Hargus, Sharon; Beavert, Virginia (2002), "Predictable versus Underlying Vocalism in Yakima Sahaptin", International Journal of American Linguistics 68 (3): 316  
  • Iivonen, Antti; Harnud, Huhe (2005), "Acoustical comparison of the monophthong systems in Finnish, Mongolian and Udmurt", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 35 (1): 59–71  
  • Jassem, Wiktor (2003), "Polish", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 33 (1): 103–107  
  • Jones, Daniel; Dennis, Ward (1969). The Phonetics of Russian. Cambridge University Press.  
  • Koehn, Edward; & Koehn, Sally. (1986). Apalai. In D. C. Derbyshire & G. K. Pullum (Eds.), Handbook of Amazonian linguistics (Vol. 1, pp. 33-127). Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
  • Merrill, Elizabeth (2008), "Tilquipan Zapotec", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 38 (1): 107–114  
  • Payne, Doris L.; & Payne, Thomas E. (1990). Yagua. In D. C. Derbyshire & G. K. Pullum (Eds.), Handbook of Amazonian linguistics (Vol. 2, pp. 252-474). Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
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