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Clostridium
SEM micrograph of Clostridium difficile colonies from a stool sample.
Scientific classification
Domain: Bacteria
Phylum: Firmicutes
Class: Clostridia
Order: Clostridiales
Family: Clostridiaceae
Genus: Clostridium
Prazmowski 1880
Species

C. acetobutylicum
C. aerotolerans
C. baratii
C. beijerinckii
C. bifermentans
C. botulinum
C. butyricum
C. cadaveris
C. chauvoei
C. clostridioforme
C. colicanis
C. difficile
C. fallax
C. feseri
C. formicaceticum
C. histolyticum
C. innocuum
C. kluyveri
C. ljungdahlii
C. laramie
C. lavalense
C. nigrificans
C. novyi
C. oedematiens
C. paraputrificum
C. perfringens
C. phytofermentans
C. piliforme
C. ramosum
C. scatologenes
C. septicum
C. sordellii
C. sporogenes
C. tertium
C. tetani
C. thermocellum
C. tyrobutyricum

Clostridium is a genus of Gram-positive bacteria, belonging to the Firmicutes. They are obligate anaerobes capable of producing endospores.[1][2] Individual cells are rod-shaped, which gives them their name, from the Greek kloster (κλωστήρ) or spindle. These characteristics traditionally defined the genus, however many species originally classified as Clostridium have been reclassified in other genera.

Contents

Pathology

ClostridiumPronunciation (coslisiam) consists of around 100 species[3] that include common free-living bacteria as well as important pathogens.[4] There are four main species responsible for disease in humans:

  • C. botulinum, an organism producing a toxin in food/wound that causes botulism.[5] Honey sometimes contains spores of Clostridium botulinum, which may cause infant botulism in humans one year old and younger. The bacteria produce botulinum toxin, which eventually paralyzes the infant's breathing muscles.[6] Adults and older children can eat honey safely, because the clostridia do not compete well with the other rapidly growing bacteria present in the GI (Gastrointestinal) tract.
  • C. sordellii has been linked to the deaths of more than a dozen women after childbirth.[citation needed]

Clostridium is sometimes found in raw swiftlet birds' nests, a Chinese delicacy. Nests are washed in a sulfite solution to kill the bacteria before being imported to the U.S. [10]

Neurotoxin production is the unifying feature of the species C. botulinum. Seven types of toxins have been identified and allocated a letter (A-G). Most strains produce one type of neurotoxin but strains producing multiple toxins have been described. C. botulinum producing B and F toxin types have been isolated from human botulism cases in New Mexico and California. The toxin type has been designated Bf as the type B toxin was found in excess to the type F. Similarly, strains producing Ab and Af toxins have been reported. Organisms genetically identified as other Clostridium species have caused human botulism; Clostridium butyricum producing type E toxin and Clostridium baratii producing type F toxin. The ability of C. botulinum to naturally transfer neurotoxin genes to other clostridia is concerning, especially in the food industry where preservation systems are designed to destroy or inhibit only C. botulinum but not other Clostridium species.

Commercial uses

C. thermocellum can utilize lignocellulosic waste and generate ethanol, thus making it a possible candidate for use in ethanol production. It also has no oxygen requirement and is thermophilic, reducing cooling cost.

C. acetobutylicum, also known as the Weizmann organism, was first used by Chaim Weizmann to produce acetone and biobutanol from starch in 1916 for the production of gunpowder and TNT.

The anaerobic bacterium C. ljungdahlii, recently discovered in commercial chicken wastes, can produce ethanol from single-carbon sources including synthesis gas, a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen that can be generated from the partial combustion of either fossil fuels or biomass. Use of these bacteria to produce ethanol from synthesis gas has progressed to the pilot plant stage at the BRI Energy facility in Fayetteville, Arkansas.[11]

Fatty acids are converted by yeasts to long-chain dicarboxylic acids and then to 1,3-propanediol using Clostridium diolis.[citation needed]

Genes from C. thermocellum have been inserted into transgenic mice to allow the production of endoglucanase. The experiment was intended to learn more about how the digestive capacity of monogastric animals could be improved. Hall et al. published their findings in 1993.

Non-pathogenic strains of clostridia may help in the treatment of diseases such as cancer. Research shows that clostridia can selectively target cancer cells. Some strains can enter and replicate within solid tumours. Clostridia could, therefore, be used to deliver therapeutic proteins to tumours. This use of Clostridia has been demonstrated in a variety of preclinical models.[12]

References

  1. ^ Ryan KJ, Ray CG (editors) (2004). Sherris Medical Microbiology (4th ed.). McGraw Hill. ISBN 0-8385-8529-9. 
  2. ^ Bruggemann H, Gottschalk G (editors). (2009). Clostridia: Molecular Biology in the Post-genomic Era. Caister Academic Press. ISBN 978-1-904455-38-7. 
  3. ^ Evaluations and Standards Laboratory (July 14, 2008). "Identification of Clostridium Species". pp. 14. http://www.hpa-standardmethods.org.uk/documents/bsopid/pdf/bsopid8.pdf. Retrieved June 22, 2009. 
  4. ^ Wells CL, Wilkins TD (1996). Clostridia: Sporeforming Anaerobic Bacilli in: Baron's Medical Microbiology (Baron S et al., eds.) (4th ed.). Univ of Texas Medical Branch. ISBN 0-9631172-1-1. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/bv.fcgi?rid=mmed.section.1050. 
  5. ^ Wells CL, Wilkins TD (1996). Botulism and Clostridium botulinum in: Baron's Medical Microbiology (Baron S et al., eds.) (4th ed.). Univ of Texas Medical Branch. ISBN 0-9631172-1-1. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/bv.fcgi?rid=mmed.section.1108. 
  6. ^ Tanzi MG, Gabay MP (2002). "Association between honey consumption and infant botulism". Pharmacotherapy 22 (11): 1479–83. doi:10.1592/phco.22.16.1479.33696. PMID 12432974. 
  7. ^ Wells CL, Wilkins TD (1996). Antibiotic-Associated Diarrhea, Pseudomembranous Colitis, and Clostridium difficile in: Baron's Medical Microbiology (Baron S et al., eds.) (4th ed.). Univ of Texas Medical Branch. ISBN 0-9631172-1-1. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/bv.fcgi?rid=mmed.section.1122. 
  8. ^ Wells CL, Wilkins TD (1996). Other Pathogenic Clostridia Food Poisoning and Clostridium perfringens in: Baron's Medical Microbiology (Baron S et al., eds.) (4th ed.). Univ of Texas Medical Branch. ISBN 0963117211. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/bv.fcgi?rid=mmed.section.1131. 
  9. ^ Wells CL, Wilkins TD (1996). Tetanus and Clostribium tetani in: Baron's Medical Microbiology (Baron S et al., eds.) (4th ed.). Univ of Texas Medical Branch. ISBN 0-9631172-1-1. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/bv.fcgi?rid=mmed.section.1099. 
  10. ^ Valli, Eric and Diane Summers (January 1990). "The Nest Gatherers of Tiger Cave" in National Geographic.
  11. ^ "Providing for a Sustainable Energy Future". Bioengineering Resources, inc. http://www.brienergy.com/. Retrieved 21 May 2007. 
  12. ^ Mengesha et al. (2009). "Clostridia in Anti-tumor Therapy". Clostridia: Molecular Biology in the Post-genomic Era. Caister Academic Press. ISBN 978-1-904455-38-7. 

External links

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Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

Contents

Translingual

Etymology

Proper noun

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Wikipedia

Clostridium

  1. a taxonomic genus, within family Clostridiaceae - the clostridium bacteria
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Wikispecies

See also

  • See Wikipedia for species

Wikispecies

Up to date as of January 23, 2010

From Wikispecies

Taxonavigation

Main Page
Superregnum: Bacteria
Regnum: Bacteria
Phylum: Firmicutes
Classis: Clostridia
Ordo: Clostridiales
Familia: Clostridiaceae
Genus: Clostridium
Species: C. aceticum - C. acetobutylicum - C. botulinum - C. butyricum - C. carnis - C. chauvoei - C. denitrificans - C. difficile - C. fervidus - C. formicoaceticum - C. novyi - C. pasteurianum - C. perfringens - C. septicum - C. sporogenes - C. tetani - C. thermoaceticum - C. thermocellum - C. thermosacchrolyticum - C. tyrobutyricum - C. welchii

Name

Clostridium Prazmowski, 1880

Vernacular names

Deutsch: Clostridien
Español: Clostridios
中文: 梭菌屬

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