From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
A feature of all modern human societies
is the wearing of clothing
, a category encompassing a wide variety of materials that cover the body. The primary purpose of clothing is functional, as a protection from the elements
. Clothes also enhance safety during hazardous activities such as hiking
, by providing a barrier between the skin and the environment. Further, clothes provide a hygienic
barrier, keeping toxins away from the body and limiting the transmission of germs
Clothing performs important social and cultural
functions. A uniform
, for example, may identify civil authority figures, such as police and army personnel, or it may identify team, group or political affiliations. In many societies, norms about clothing reflect standards of modesty
, and social status
. Clothing may also function as a form of adornment and an expression of personal taste or style.
Throughout history, many materials have been used for clothes. Materials
have ranged from leather and furs, to weaved and woven materials, to elaborate and exotic natural and synthetic fabrics. Recent scientific research estimates that humans have been wearing clothing for as long as 650,000 years.
Others claim that clothing likely originated in the neolithic
Articles carried rather than worn (purses), worn on a single part of the body and easily removed (scarves), worn purely for adornment (jewelery), or those which serve a function other than protection (eyeglasses), are normally considered accessories
rather than clothing.
Functions of clothing
One of the primary purposes of clothing is to keep the wearer comfortable. In hot climates clothing provides protection from sunburn
damage, while in cold climates its thermal insulation properties are generally more important. Shelter usually reduces the functional need for clothing. For example, coats, hats, gloves, shoes, socks, and other superficial layers would normally be removed when entering or once inside a warm home, particularly if one is residing or sleeping there. Similarly, clothing has seasonal and regional aspects, so that thinner materials and fewer layers of clothing are generally worn in warmer seasons and regions than in colder ones.
Clothing can protect against many things that might injure the uncovered human body. Clothes act as protection from the elements, including rain, snow and wind and other weather conditions, as well as from the sun. Clothes also reduce the level of risk during activity, such as work or sport. Clothing at times is worn as protection from specific environmental
hazards, such as insects
, noxious chemicals, weapons
, and contact with abrasive substances. Conversely, clothing may protect the environment from the clothing wearer
, as with doctors wearing medical scrubs
Humans have shown extreme inventiveness in devising clothing solutions to environmental hazards. Some examples include: space suits
, air conditioned clothing
, diving suits
, bee-keeper gear
, motorcycle leathers
, high-visibility clothing
, and other pieces of protective clothing
. Meanwhile, the distinction between clothing and protective equipment is not always clear-cut, since clothes designed to be fashionable will often have some protective value and clothes which are designed to be functional will often consider fashion in their design.
In most cultures, gender differentiation
of clothing is considered appropriate for men and women. The differences are in styles, colors and fabrics.
In Western societies, skirts
and high-heeled shoes
are usually seen as women's clothing, while neckties
are usually seen as men's clothing. Trousers
were once seen as exclusively male clothing, but are nowadays worn by both sexes. Male clothes are often more practical (that is, they can function well under a wide variety of situations), but a wider range of clothing styles are available for females. Males are typically allowed to bare their chests
in a greater variety of public places. It is generally acceptable for a woman to wear traditionally male clothing, while the converse is unusual.
In some cultures, sumptuary laws
regulate what men and women are required to wear. Islam
requires women to wear hijab
, or modest clothing. What qualifies as "modest" varies in different Muslim societies; however, women are usually required to cover more of their bodies than men are. Articles of clothing worn by Muslim women for purposes of modesty range from the headscarf
to the burqa
Men may sometimes choose to wear men's skirts
such as togas
, especially on ceremonial occasions. Such garments were (in previous times) often worn as normal daily clothing by men. Compared to men's clothing, women's clothing tends to be attractive, often intended to be looked at by men.
In modern industrialized nations, women are more likely to wear makeup, jewellery
, and colorful clothing, while in very traditional cultures women are protected from men's gazes by modest dress.
's bemedaled robe
sends a social message about his wealth, status, and power
In some societies, clothing may be used to indicate rank or status
. In ancient Rome
, for example, only senators were permitted to wear garments dyed with Tyrian purple
. In traditional Hawaiian
society only high-ranking chiefs could wear feather cloaks
and palaoa or carved whale
teeth. Under the Travancore
Kingdom of Kerala
), lower caste
women had to pay a tax for the right to cover their upper body. In China
, before the establishment of the republic
, only the emperor could wear yellow
. There are numerous examples throughout history of elaborate systems of sumptuary laws
regulating what people could wear. In societies without such laws, which includes most modern societies, social status is instead signaled by the purchase of high cost, rare, or luxury items, the purchase of which are effectively limited to those with the wealth or status to acquire them. In addition, peer pressure
may influence clothing choice.
usually wear white robes and a cap during prayers
.^ During special occasions Iroquois people might wear older styles of clothing made from leather or cloth.
^ Lucas (p.172) suggested that it seemed possible that the fused ashes of special plants, or natron, might have been employed for some such purpose as washing clothes or the person...
- Ancient Egypt: Clothing 10 February 2010 13:33 UTC www.reshafim.org.il [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
.^ It is usually white and worn during religious ceremonies.
^ As the most visually brutal of all Marine armour, it is sometimes worn by ceremonial guards.
- Power Armour - Lexicanum 2 February 2010 13:32 UTC wh40k.lexicanum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ Shawls were sometimes worn during the New Kingdom.
- Ancient Egypt: Clothing 10 February 2010 13:33 UTC www.reshafim.org.il [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
.^ Elaborate head-dresses are mentioned in the sagas, which may have been worn like jewelry on special occasions.
- Hurstwic: Clothing in the Norse Era 10 February 2010 13:33 UTC www.valhs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
- Hurstwic: Clothing in the Norse Era 6 February 2010 10:50 UTC www.hurstwic.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ However, in some countries outside of the United States body armor may not be imported or worn by civilians.
- Spymall - Armor 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.spymall.com [Source type: General]
For example, Jains
wear unstitched cloth pieces when performing religious ceremonies. .^ There are no supposedly one-hand snaps to undo, no layers of cloth to fumble through, no complicated wraps that suddenly fall apart.
^ And as always, MySears Community experts are on hand to dish about their favorite Sears clothing and get you looking fab in no time.
- Clothing - Shop for Clothing - MySears Community 6 February 2010 10:50 UTC www.mysears.com [Source type: General]
^ Second hand clothing or pre-loved clothing as they are called now, are good buys if you have no money or cannot afford to buy new clothes.
Sikhs wear a turban as it is a part of their religion.
The cleanliness of religious dresses in Eastern Religions like Hinduism
is of paramount importance, since it indicates purity.
Clothing figures prominently in the Bible
where it appears in numerous contexts, the more prominent ones being: the story of Adam and Eve, Joseph's cloak, Judah and Tamar, Mordechai and Esther. Furthermore the priests officiating in the Temple had very specific garments, the lack of which would make one liable to death.
Jewish ritual also requires rending of one's upper garment as a sign of mourning. This practice is found in the Bible when Jacob hears of the apparent death of his son Joseph.
Origin and history of clothing
First recorded use
According to archaeologists and anthropologists, the earliest clothing likely consisted of fur
, leaves or grass which were draped, wrapped or tied around the body. Knowledge of such clothing remains inferential, since clothing materials deteriorate quickly compared to stone, bone, shell and metal artifacts. Archeologists have identified very early sewing needles
of bone and ivory from about 30,000 BC, found near Kostenki
in 1988.
fibers that could have been used in clothing have been found in a prehistoric cave in the Republic of Georgia
that date back to 36,000 BP
Scientists are still debating when people started wearing clothes. Ralf Kittler, Manfred Kayser and Mark Stoneking, anthropologists
at the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology
, have conducted a genetic analysis of human body lice
that suggests clothing originated quite recently, around 107,000 years ago. Body lice is an indicator of clothes-wearing, since most humans have sparse body hair, and lice thus require human clothing to survive. Their research suggests the invention of clothing may have coincided with the northward migration of modern Homo sapiens
away from the warm climate
, thought to have begun between 50,000 and 100,000 years ago. However, a second group of researchers using similar genetic methods estimate that clothing originated around 540,000 years ago (Reed et al. 2004. PLoS Biology 2(11): e340). For now, the date of the origin of clothing remains unresolved.
Some human cultures, such as the various people of the Arctic Circle
, make their clothing entirely of prepared and decorated furs and skins. Other cultures have supplemented or replaced leather and skins with cloth: woven, knitted, or twined from various animal and vegetable fibers.
Although modern consumers may take the production of clothing for granted, making fabric by hand is a tedious and labor intensive process. That the textile
industry was the first to be mechanized — with the powered loom
— during the Industrial Revolution
attests to this fact.
Different cultures have evolved various ways of creating clothes out of cloth. One approach simply involves draping the cloth. Many people wore, and still wear, garments consisting of rectangles of cloth wrapped to fit — for example, the dhoti
for men and the sari
for women in the Indian subcontinent
, the Scottish kilt
or the Javanese sarong
. The clothes may simply be tied up, as is the case of the first two garments; or pins or belts hold the garments in place, as in the case of the latter two. The precious cloth remains uncut, and people of various sizes
or the same person at different sizes can wear the garment.
Another approach involves cutting and sewing the cloth, but using every bit of the cloth rectangle in constructing the clothing. The tailor may cut triangular pieces from one corner of the cloth, and then add them elsewhere as gussets. Traditional European patterns for men's shirts
and women's chemises
take this approach.
Modern European fashion
treats cloth much less conservatively, typically cutting in such a way as to leave various odd-shaped cloth remnants. Industrial sewing operations sell these as waste; home sewers may turn them into quilts
In the thousands of years that humans have spent constructing clothing, they have created an astonishing array of styles, many of which have been reconstructed from surviving garments, photos
, etc., as well as from written descriptions. Costume history serves as a source of inspiration to current fashion designers
, as well as a topic of professional
interest to costumers constructing for plays
, and historical reenactment
Spread of western styles
By the early years of the 21st century, western clothing styles had, to some extent, become international styles. This process began hundreds of years earlier, as Europeans established colonies
all over the world. The process of cultural dissemination has perpetuated over the centuries as Western media corporations have penetrated markets throughout the world, spreading Western culture and styles. Fast fashion
clothing has also become a global phenomenon. These garments are less expensive, mass-produced Western clothing. Donated used
clothing from Western countries are also delivered to people in poor countries by charity organizations. It is not uncommon to see a photograph of a Kenyan child who lives on pennies a day, wearing someone's hand-me-down Coca-Cola t-shirt from their childhood.
Ethnic and cultural heritage
People may wear ethnic or national dress
on special occasions or in certain roles or occupations. For example, most Korean men and women have adopted Western-style dress for daily wear, but will still wear traditional hanboks on special occasions, like weddings and cultural holidays. Items of Western dress may also appear worn or accessorized in distinctive, non-Western ways. A Tongan man may combine a used T-shirt
with a Tongan wrapped skirt, or tupenu
Sport and activity
.^ Our range of stylish and practical golf clothing will enable you to keep you comfortable whatever the weather.
- Golf Clothing � Buy Discount Golf Equipment Online, Cheap Golf Clothing On Sale, Online Golf Shop � Direct Golf UK 10 February 2010 13:33 UTC www.direct-golf.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ FITNESS CLOTHING! Smart season-specific pieces and the latest design influences in fashion and fitness -- workout wear never looked so good and felt so comfortable!
- Clothing in styles for Men, Women, Children, Professionals, Work Clothes, Uniforms, Outdoor Clothing 6 February 2010 10:50 UTC clothingaccess.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ Klum notes that she experienced some fashion challenges during pregnancy and wanted to design maternity clothes that were practical and comfortable as well as stylish.
garments include short pants
, tennis shirts
, and trainers
. Specialized garments include wet suits
) and leotards
). Also, spandex
materials are often used as base layers to soak up sweat. Spandex is also preferable for active sports that require form fitting garments, such as wrestling, track & field
, dance, gymnastics and swimming.
The world of clothing is always changing, as new cultural influences meet technological innovations. Researchers in scientific labs have been developing prototypes for fabrics that can serve functional purposes well beyond their traditional roles, for example, clothes that can automatically adjust their temperature, repel bullets, project images, and generate electricity. Some practical advances already available to consumers are bullet-resistant garments made with kevlar
and stain-resistant fabrics that are coated with chemical mixtures which reduce the absorption of liquids.
Though mechanization transformed most aspects of human industry by the mid 20th century, garment workers have continued to labor under challenging conditions which demand repetitive manual labor. Mass-produced clothing is often made in what are considered by some to be sweatshops
, typified by long work hours, lack of benefits, and lack of worker representation. While most examples of such conditions are found in developing countries, clothes made in industrialized nations may also be manufactured similarly, often staffed by undocumented immigrants.
Coalitions of NGOs
, designers (Katharine Hamnett, American Apparel
, eVocal, Edun,...) and campaign groups like the Clean Clothes Campaign
(CCC) have sought to improve these conditions as much as possible by sponsoring awareness-raising events, which draw the attention of both the media and the general public to the workers.
production to low wage countries like Bangladesh
and Sri Lanka
became possible when the Multi Fibre Agreement
(MFA) was abolished. The MFA was deemed a protectionist measure which placed quotas on the exports of textiles. Globalization
is often quoted as the single most contributing factor to the poor working conditions
of garment workers. Although many countries recognize treaties like the International Labor Organization, which attempt to set standards for worker safety and rights, many countries have made exceptions to certain parts of the treaties or failed to thoroughly enforce them. India for example has not ratified sections 87 and 92 of the treaty.
Despite the strong reactions that "sweatshops" evoked among critics of globalization, the production of textiles has functioned as a consistent industry for developing nations providing work and wages, whether construed as exploitative or not, to thousands of people.
Main article: Fur clothing
The use of animal fur in clothing dates to prehistoric times. It is currently associated in developed countries with expensive, designer clothing, although fur is still used by indigenous people in arctic zones and higher elevations for its warmth and protection. Once uncontroversial, it has recently been the focus of campaigns on the grounds that campaigners consider it cruel and unnecessary. PETA
, along with other animal rights
and animal liberation
groups have called attention to fur farming
and other practices they consider cruel.
The life cycle of clothing
Clothing suffers assault both from within and without. The human body sheds skin cells and body oils, and exudes sweat, urine, and feces. From the outside, sun damage, moisture, abrasion and dirt assault garments. Fleas and lice may hide in seams. Worn clothing, if not cleaned and refurbished, will itch, look scruffy, and lose functionality (as when buttons
fall off and zippers
In some cases, people wear an item of clothing until it falls apart. Cleaning leather presents difficulties, and bark cloth (tapa) cannot be washed without dissolving it. Owners may patch tears and rips, and brush off surface dirt, but old leather and bark clothing will always look old.
But most clothing consists of cloth, and most cloth can be laundered
and mended (patching, darning
, but compare felt
Laundry, ironing, storage
Humans have developed many specialized methods for laundering, ranging from early methods of pounding clothes against rocks in running streams, to the latest in electronic washing machines
and dry cleaning
(dissolving dirt in solvents
other than water). Hot water washing (boiling), chemical cleaning and ironing are all traditional methods of sterilizing
fabrics for hygiene
Many kinds of clothing are designed to be ironed
before they are worn to remove wrinkles. Most modern formal and semi-formal clothing is in this category (for example, dress shirts
). Ironed clothes are believed to look clean, fresh, and neat. Much contemporary casual clothing is made of knit materials that do not readily wrinkle, and do not require ironing. Some clothing is permanent press
, having been treated with a coating (such as polytetrafluoroethylene
) that suppresses wrinkles and creates a smooth appearance without ironing.
Once clothes have been laundered and possibly ironed, they are usually hung on clothes hangers
or folded, to keep them fresh until they are worn. Clothes are folded
to allow them to be stored compactly, to prevent creasing
, to preserve creases or to present them in a more pleasing manner, for instance when they are put on sale in stores.
Many kinds of clothes are folded before they are put in suitcases
as preparation for travel. .^ More lower internal organ coverage than any other suit.
^ More lower internal organ coverage than any other suit ....
Many people use their clothing as packing material around fragile items that might otherwise break in transit.
In past times, mending was an art. A meticulous tailor
could mend rips with thread raveled from hems
and seam edges so skillfully that the darn was practically invisible. When the raw material — cloth — was worth more than labor, it made sense to expend labor in saving it. Today clothing is considered a consumable item. Mass-manufactured clothing is less expensive than the labor required to repair it. Many people will buy a new piece of clothing rather than expend time mending. The thrifty still replace zippers
and sew up ripped hems.
There are many concerns about the life cycle of synthetics which come primarily from petrochemicals. Unlike natural fibers, their source is not renewable (in less than millions of years) and they are not biodegradable.
- ^ John Travis (2003-08-23) ( – Scholar search). The naked truth? Lice hint at a recent origin of clothing. 164. Science News. pp. 118. http://www.sciencenews.org/articles/20030823/fob7.asp.
- ^ The Pursuit of Attention, 2000
- ^ http://www.divreinavon.com/pdf/BegedSimlaJBQ.pdf
- ^ Balter M. (2009). Clothes Make the (Hu) Man. Science,325(5946):1329.doi:10.1126/science.325_1329a
- ^ Kvavadze E, Bar-Yosef O, Belfer-Cohen A, Boaretto E,Jakeli N, Matskevich Z, Meshveliani T. (2009).30,000-Year-Old Wild Flax Fibers. Science, 325(5946):1359. doi:10.1126/science.1175404 Supporting Online Material