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Cloud computing logical diagram
.Cloud computing is Internet-based computing, whereby shared resources, software and information are provided to computers and other devices on-demand, like a public utility.^ It can be a provider of cloud resources and a consumer.” .
  • Cloud Computing for the Mainframe: Will It Ever Cross the Chasm? at Mainframe Executive 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.mainframe-exec.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sounds like cloud computing to me.
  • Virtualization Unlocks Cloud Computing 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC blogs.gartner.com [Source type: General]

^ Cloud computing, grid computing, utility computing - list of top providers .
  • How Cloud & Utility Computing Are Different – GigaOM 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC gigaom.com [Source type: General]

.It is a paradigm shift following the shift from mainframe to client-server that preceded it.^ The center of where the power exists has shifted back and forth between the client side and the server side many times.
  • Larry Ellison Still Hates “Cloud Computing Nonsense” (Video) 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.techcrunchit.com [Source type: General]

^ The architecture she describes is more aptly called client/server architecture or mainframe architecture.
  • Can We Please Define Cloud Computing? 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC mashable.com [Source type: General]

^ I think of cloud computing as the 4th wave of computing—after mainframes, client-servers, and 3-Tier-Web.
  • Bio-IT World 22 September 2009 14:10 UTC www.bio-itworld.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Details are abstracted from the users who no longer have need of, expertise in, or control over the technology infrastructure "in the cloud" that supports them.^ Users need not have knowledge of, expertise in, or control over the technology infrastructure "in the cloud" that supports them.

^ Users need not have knowledge of, expertise in, or control over the technology infrastructure in the "cloud" that supports them.
  • What is cloud computing? 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC ask-leo.com [Source type: General]
  • Cloud computing, Technological Concept - News - Evri 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.evri.com [Source type: News]
  • Savvis Previews Project Spirit - Next-Generation Cloud Infrastructure Platform Powering Virtual Private Data Centers for the Enterprise - Yahoo! Finance 22 September 2009 14:10 UTC finance.yahoo.com [Source type: News]
  • Savvis, Inc. :: Savvis Previews Project Spirit - Next-Generation Cloud Infrastructure Platform Powering Virtual Private Data Centers for the Enterprise 22 September 2009 14:10 UTC sev.prnewswire.com [Source type: News]
  • Savvis Previews Next-Generation Cloud Infrastructure Platform... 22 September 2009 14:10 UTC www.it-director.com [Source type: News]
  • Savvis Previews Project Spirit - Next-Generation Cloud Infrastructure Platform Powering Virtual Private Data Centers for the Enterprise 22 September 2009 14:10 UTC www.itnews.it [Source type: News]
  • SAVVIS PREVIEWS PJT SPIRIT - NEXT-GEN CLOUD INFRA PLATFORM 22 September 2009 14:10 UTC aap.newscentre.com.au [Source type: News]

^ Users need not have knowledge of, expertise in, or control over the technology infrastructure in the “cloud” that supports them.
  • Savvis Previews Project Spirit - Next-Generation Cloud Infrastructure Platform Powering Virtual Private Data Centers for the Enterprise 22 September 2009 14:10 UTC blog.taragana.com [Source type: News]

[1] .Cloud computing describes an new supplement, consumption and delivery model for IT services based on the Internet, and it typically involves the provision of dynamically scalable and often virtualized resources as a service over the Internet.^ Cloud computing is not new.
  • Schneier on Security: Cloud Computing 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.schneier.com [Source type: General]

^ This type of approach to IT relies on the Internet, and usually involves provisioned, scalable, dynamic and virtual solutions.

^ Powered by eZanga Cloud Computing News .

[2][3] .It is a byproduct and consequence of the ease-of-access to remote computing sites provided by the Internet.^ Cloud Computing is a term used to describe a computing paradigm wherein applications, services, and/or data are accessed over a computer network, such as the ▲ Internet .
  • Cloud Computing - Techabulary 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.techabulary.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Typical cloud computing services provide common business applications online that are accessed from a web browser, while the software and data are stored on the servers.” .
  • Cloud Computing, Google Apps, Cloud Storage, Drop Box | Damang Media Group 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC damangmedia.com [Source type: General]

^ The term came into popular use in 2008, though the practice of providing remote access to computing functions through networks dates back to the mainframe time-sharing systems of the 1960s and 1970s.
  • cloud computing (computer science) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

[4]
.The term cloud is used as a metaphor for the Internet, based on the cloud drawing used in the past to represent the telephone network [5], and later to depict the Internet in computer network diagrams as an abstraction of the underlying infrastructure it represents.^ The cloud is essentially an abstraction of the existing Internet infrastructure.
  • Definitions: Cloud Computing | Knowledge Network | ITBusinessEdge.com 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.itbusinessedge.com [Source type: General]

^ About Cloud Computing on Ulitzer Cloud computing is Internet based development and use of computer technology.

^ Use cloud computing to optimize processing.
  • SOA Consortium Insights: Cloud Computing 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC blog.soa-consortium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[6] .Typical cloud computing providers deliver common business applications online which are accessed from a web browser, while the software and data are stored on servers.^ Cloud computing services often provide common business applications online that are accessed from a web browser, while the software and data are stored on the servers.
  • Cloud computing, Technological Concept - News - Evri 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.evri.com [Source type: News]

^ Cloud computing is about how an application or service is deployed and delivered.
  • Cloud Computing: The Last Definition You'll Ever Need 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC devcentral.f5.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Provide scalability to manage applications in the cloud.
  • Nolio - Application Service Automation for Cloud Computer 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.noliosoft.com [Source type: General]

.A technical definition is "a computing capability that provides an abstraction between the computing resource and its underlying technical architecture (e.g., servers, storage, networks), enabling convenient, on-demand network access to a shared pool of configurable computing resources that can be rapidly provisioned and released with minimal management effort or service provider interaction."^ Shared: Services share a pool of resources to build economies of scale.
  • Gartner Highlights Five Attributes of Cloud Computing 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.webwire.com [Source type: News]

^ Cloud computing provides web-based services – applications, networks, servers, and data storage – that are fully managed by outside providers.
  • Cloud Computing | All Things CRM 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.allthingscrm.com [Source type: General]

^ Elasticity is a trait of shared pools of resources.
  • Gartner Highlights Five Attributes of Cloud Computing 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.webwire.com [Source type: News]

[7] .This definition states that clouds have five essential characteristics: on-demand self-service, broad network access, resource pooling, rapid elasticity, and measured service.^ Cloud computing is on-demand access to information technology services.

^ The five defining characteristics of cloud computing .
  • The five defining characteristics of cloud computing | Tech News on ZDNet 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC news.zdnet.com [Source type: General]

^ Broad network access.
  • NIST’s Definition of Cloud Computing – Updated Aug 19 2009 | The Security Blog 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC arielsilverstone.com [Source type: Reference]
  • SITE Blog » Cloud Computing for Education? 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC siteblog.aace.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • NIST’s definition of Cloud Computing. What is Cloud Computing? - Sapientia et Doctrina 22 September 2009 14:10 UTC www.xml-dev.com [Source type: Reference]

[7]
.The majority of cloud computing infrastructure, as of 2009, consists of reliable services delivered through data centers and built on servers.^ Cloud computing is about how an application or service is deployed and delivered.
  • Cloud Computing: The Last Definition You'll Ever Need 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC devcentral.f5.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The virtual data center and a ladder to the cloud .

^ More Info Cloud Computing Services to Grow 21% in 2009.

.Clouds often appear as single points of access for all consumers' computing needs.^ All content about cloud computing .
  • All content about cloud computing « think differently big 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC jots.mypopescu.com [Source type: General]

^ Cloud computing is all the rage.
  • Artikel zum Thema Cloud Computing bei CIO.de | CIO Schwerpunkt 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.cio.de [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Consumer computing on Clouds .
  • Book -- Cloud Computing: Principles and Paradigms 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.manjrasoft.com [Source type: Academic]

.Commercial offerings are generally expected to meet quality of service (QoS) requirements of customers and typically offer SLAs.^ This pool of resources is typically exploited by a pay-per-use model in which guarantees are offered by the Infrastructure Provider by means of customized SLAs."
  • Cloud Computing (Peeyush Tugnawat's Blog) 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC blogs.oracle.com [Source type: General]

^ Today, the general public is accustomed to 24-hour service from private sector institutions, and now they expect the same from government.

^ Sun has worked tirelessly to deliver products and technologies that meet even the most demanding customer's security requirements.
  • Cloud Computing | Sun Microsystems | Open Source Cloud 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.sun.com [Source type: General]

[8]

Contents

Comparisons

Cloud computing derives characteristics from, but should not be confused with:
.
  1. Autonomic computing — "computer systems capable of self-management".[9]
  2. Client-server – Client-server computing refers broadly to any distributed application that distinguishes between service providers (servers) and service requesters (clients).^ Self-Managing distributed applications .

    ^ Remember ASPs application service providers?

    ^ In Cloud Computing there is a single goal too – to build a distributed application to provide a service to their clients.
    • The SalesForce and More Blog » Cloud Computing 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.sfcnmore.com [Source type: General]

    [10]
  3. .
  4. Grid computing — "a form of distributed computing and parallel computing, whereby a 'super and virtual computer' is composed of a cluster of networked, loosely coupled computers acting in concert to perform very large tasks"
  5. Mainframe — powerful computers used mainly by large organizations for critical applications, typically bulk data processing such as census, industry and consumer statistics, enterprise resource planning, and financial transaction processing.^ Use cloud computing to optimize processing.
    • SOA Consortium Insights: Cloud Computing 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC blog.soa-consortium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Multiple applications can run on one computer (virtualization a la VMWare) or multiple computers can be used to run one application (grid computing).
    • Cloud Feed » Cloud Computing 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC cloudfeed.net [Source type: General]
    • How Cloud & Utility Computing Are Different – GigaOM 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC gigaom.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Cloud computing is grid computing, the use of a distributed network of servers, each working in parallel, to accomplish a specific task.
    • But What Exactly "Is" Cloud Computing? - O'Reilly Broadcast 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC broadcast.oreilly.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    [11]
  6. Utility computing — the "packaging of computing resources, such as computation and storage, as a metered service similar to a traditional public utility, such as electricity";[12]

Characteristics

.In general, cloud computing customers do not own the physical infrastructure, instead avoiding capital expenditure by renting usage from a third-party provider.^ A: It avoids capital expenditures.
  • Cloud Computing Poised to Transform Communication | LiveScience 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.livescience.com [Source type: General]

^ This helps to avoid capital expenditures, and the infrastructure is essentially rented from a third party.

^ By leveraging cloud computing services customers do not need to own the physical infrastructure serving to host the software.

.They consume resources as a service and pay only for resources that they use.^ And you pay only for what you use.

^ Cloud computing lets businesses pay only for what they use when they use it.
  • The anatomy of cloud computing 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.niallkennedy.com [Source type: General]

^ This way, scientists only pay for those resources they actually use.
  • Monitis: Cloud Monitoring Blog 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC monitorcloud.com [Source type: General]

.Many cloud-computing offerings employ the utility computing model, which is analogous to how traditional utility services (such as electricity) are consumed, whereas others bill on a subscription basis.^ Other examples of cloud computing include: .
  • The Privacy Implications of Cloud Computing | Privacy Rights Clearinghouse 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.privacyrights.org [Source type: General]

^ Cloud computing is about how an application or service is deployed and delivered.
  • Cloud Computing: The Last Definition You'll Ever Need 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC devcentral.f5.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We are the users, the consumers, of cloud computing services; not our customers or consumers.
  • Cloud Computing: The Last Definition You'll Ever Need 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC devcentral.f5.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Sharing "perishable and intangible" computing power among multiple tenants can improve utilization rates, as servers are not unnecessarily left idle (which can reduce costs significantly while increasing the speed of application development).^ Developer toolkits for cloud computing applications.
  • Force.com Cloud Computing Platform - Fast Application Development - salesforce.com 25 September 2009 0:38 UTC www.salesforce.com [Source type: General]

^ Java Developer / Cloud Computing Engineer to work on cloud computing server applications for...
  • Cloud Computing Jobs | Indeed.com 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.indeed.com [Source type: News]
  • Cloud Computing Jobs | Indeed.com 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.indeed.com [Source type: General]

^ This can improve utilization rates, because servers aren’t typically left idle.

.A side-effect of this approach is that overall computer usage rises dramatically, as customers do not have to engineer for peak load limits.^ TrackBacks One of the interesting side effects of the rapid adoption of Cloud Computing by the enterprise is the impact this adoption will have on the design and delivery of IT service processes.
  • Cloud Computing and ITIL: Service Delivery and Cloud SLAs - Cloud Storage Strategy 22 September 2009 14:10 UTC cloudstoragestrategy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Posted November 9th, 2009 One side effect of cloud computing is increased uncertainty about making the right decisions in IT strategy.
  • Inside A Cloud Computing Data Center « Data Center Knowledge 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.datacenterknowledge.com [Source type: General]

[13] .In addition, "increased high-speed bandwidth" makes it possible to receive the same response times from centralized infrastructure at other sites[14].^ Increased high-speed bandwidth makes it practical to locate infrastructure at other sites and still receive the same response times.
  • Cloud Computing: The Evolution of Software-as-a-Service - Knowledge@W.P. Carey 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC knowledge.wpcarey.asu.edu [Source type: General]

^ The access speed is not fast enough for transaction, fast-response data accesses, such as data marts or other high-IO rate operations.
  • Keeping up with the Zetta Joneses [printer-friendly] • The Register 22 September 2009 14:10 UTC www.theregister.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It changes the game: just as businesses can real-time weigh the cost and benefit of the amount of traffic driven to a site through Google Pay-Per-Click, businesses will be able to weigh the cost and benefit of increasing the speed of their systems real-time in the future.

Economics

.Cloud computing users can avoid capital expenditure (CapEx) on hardware, software, and services when they pay a provider only for what they use.^ Providers of Cloud computing services remove that burden from your shoulders.
  • Egnyte Blog: Cloud Computing Services: How Cloud Computing and Local Clouds Work 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC blog.egnyte.com [Source type: General]

^ And you pay only for what you use.

^ Cloud computing lets businesses pay only for what they use when they use it.
  • The anatomy of cloud computing 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.niallkennedy.com [Source type: General]

.Consumption is usually billed on a utility (resources consumed, like electricity) or subscription (time-based, like a newspaper) basis with little or no upfront cost.^ Hey, no time like the present to cut some costs.
  • DailyTech - Cloud Computing’s Future Remains Murky 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.dailytech.com [Source type: General]

^ C. Computing resources that can be accessed on demand, like electricity from a utility .
  • A Wall Street Journal Quiz on Cloud Computing - WSJ.com 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC online.wsj.com [Source type: General]

^ The service is typically billed on a utility computing basis and amount of resources consumed (and therefore the cost) will typically reflect the level of activity.
  • Amitive SCM in the Cloud 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.amitive.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Other benefits of this time sharing-style approach are low barriers to entry, shared infrastructure and costs, low management overhead, and immediate access to a broad range of applications.^ "First is the low cost of entry.
  • Cloud Computing Hosting | Virtual Private Data Center | Virtual Machine Hosting 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.inetservices.com [Source type: General]

^ Cloud computing has a relatively low barrier to entry, a low management overhead, and rapid access to a wide range of application types.

^ Our scalable infrastructure solutions for network computing are the foundation for the Sun Cloud - giving you easy and affordable access to Sun's world-class technologies, with minimal barriers to entry and exit.
  • Cloud Computing | Sun Microsystems | Open Source Cloud 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.sun.com [Source type: General]

.In general, users can terminate the contract at any time (thereby avoiding return on investment risk and uncertainty), and the services are often covered by service level agreements (SLAs) with financial penalties.^ Users will have the option to terminate a contract at any time, avoiding return on investment risk and uncertainty.
  • Cloud Computing - Benefits vs Risks 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.itgovernance.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The cloud lets users contract for services at three levels: .
  • Cloud Computing Explained - PC World Business Center 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.pcworld.com [Source type: General]

^ SLA (Service Level Agreements) negotiation and management .
  • Book -- Cloud Computing: Principles and Paradigms 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.manjrasoft.com [Source type: Academic]

[15][16]
.According to Nicholas Carr, the strategic importance of information technology is diminishing as it becomes standardized and less expensive.^ Once this holistic approach is developed, less importance is placed on which device is actually being used to store or transport sensitive information.
  • Cloud Computing, Cardinal Rules of Security, Voice To Text Revolution, Calendar | Articles & Archives | Mobile Enterprise Magazine 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.mobileenterprisemag.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Many, many technologies that were previously expensive or unavailable are now becoming free to anyone with a web browser.
  • SITE Blog » Cloud Computing for Education? 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC siteblog.aace.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Aligning IT to Business: The Rising Importance of Application Delivery Networks Application Delivery Networking (ADN) will play a vital role in helping enterprises incorporate strategic technologies to achieve business initiatives.
  • QuickStudy: Cloud computing 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.computerworld.com [Source type: General]
  • Stormy weather: 7 gotchas in cloud computing 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.computerworld.com [Source type: General]

.He argues that the cloud computing paradigm shift is similar to the displacement of electricity generators by electricity grids early in the 20th century.^ But it’s just the latest example of a paradigm shift towards cloud computing.
  • What cloud computing means for you | Zeta Press & Media Centre 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.zeta.net [Source type: General]

^ Cloud Computing vs. Grid Computing .
  • Cloud Computing vs. Grid Computing « RightScale Blog 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC blog.rightscale.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During his keynote speech at the Society for Information Management's SIMposium 08 conference in the US, author Nicholas Carr drew an analogy between cloud computing and the transition that manufacturers made from generating their own power to relying on utilities in the early 20th century.
  • Grid & Cloud Computing - Techworld 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.techworld.com.au [Source type: General]

[17]
.Although companies might be able to save on upfront capital expenditures, they might not save much and might actually pay more for operating expenses.^ What cloud computing really offers is the chance to shift from a capital expenditure model of IT spending, where businesses are obliged to make significant upfront investments in software and hardware that they don't always use efficiently, to an operational expenditure model, where they make regular, predictable payments to a provider, based only on what they consume.
  • Cloud computing - a definition - business value & ICT - Telecommunications - Green IT - Orange Business Live blog 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC blogs.orange-business.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Infrastructure as a service (IaaS) IaaS covers the basic 'building blocks' of computing (CPUs, memory, operating systems and so on) and offers companies the opportunity to 'rent' as much (or as little) computer processing and storage as they need, when they need it.
  • Cloud computing - a definition - business value & ICT - Telecommunications - Green IT - Orange Business Live blog 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC blogs.orange-business.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These can account for 35% or more of IT infrastructure and offer immediate opportunities for cost savings because (1) they are often underutilized due to uneven [...
  • Cloud Computing and Virtual Lab Management - Cloudcast 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC blog.skytap.com [Source type: General]

.In situations where the capital expense would be relatively small, or where the organization has more flexibility in their capital budget than their operating budget, the cloud model might not make great fiscal sense.^ The cloud infrastructure is operated solely for an organization.
  • NIST’s Definition of Cloud Computing – Updated Aug 19 2009 | The Security Blog 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC arielsilverstone.com [Source type: Reference]
  • What is Cloud Computing? And Why Should You Care? — MakingITclear® 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC blog.makingitclear.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Home - Kent Langley's Blog on Cloud Computing, Scalability, and Operations 22 September 2009 14:10 UTC www.productionscale.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • NIST’s definition of Cloud Computing. What is Cloud Computing? - Sapientia et Doctrina 22 September 2009 14:10 UTC www.xml-dev.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Support for more of the attributes opens the door to a great value proposition to the consumer, and greater flexibility and potential cost reduction for the provider" .
  • Gartner Highlights Five Attributes of Cloud Computing 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.webwire.com [Source type: News]

^ That these two cloud computing doomsday scenarios were perpetrated, not by some Mom and Pop cloud company, but by two of the largest computing organizations, Apple and Microsoft, makes the situation all that much worse.
  • A Black Eye for Cloud Computing - Network Security News Story 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.daniweb.com [Source type: General]

.Other factors impacting the scale of any potential cost savings include the efficiency of a company’s data center as compared to the cloud vendor’s, the company's existing operating costs, the level of adoption of cloud computing, and the type of functionality being hosted in the cloud.^ But the escalating energy and operational costs of building and maintaining data centers will compel companies to adopt secure cloud computing models.
  • Cloud Computing Conference 2009 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC cloudslam09.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Other examples of cloud computing include: .
  • The Privacy Implications of Cloud Computing | Privacy Rights Clearinghouse 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.privacyrights.org [Source type: General]

^ Is cost saving the only driving force for cloud computing?
  • Cloud Computing Conference 2009 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC cloudslam09.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[18][19]

Architecture

Cloud computing sample architecture
.Cloud architecture,[20] the systems architecture of the software systems involved in the delivery of cloud computing, typically involves multiple cloud components communicating with each other over application programming interfaces, usually web services.^ How do multiple applications communicate, authenticate, and share their information with each other?
  • Schneier on Security: Cloud Computing 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.schneier.com [Source type: General]

^ Novel applications of cloud computing .
  • Book -- Cloud Computing: Principles and Paradigms 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.manjrasoft.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Other examples of cloud computing include: .
  • The Privacy Implications of Cloud Computing | Privacy Rights Clearinghouse 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.privacyrights.org [Source type: General]

[21] .This closely resembles the Unix philosophy of having multiple programs each doing one thing well and working together over universal interfaces.^ Unix philosophy of ' do one thing and do it well ', but which may grow quite complex .
  • Sam Johnston: The Cloud and Cloud Computing consensus definition? 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC samj.net [Source type: General]

^ Anyway in 1988 I was working on one of those old IBM machines trying to do IT automation with LISP and Prolog doing the the latest and greatest "Hype" technology.
  • Rough Type: Nicholas Carr's Blog: Alan Turing, cloud computing and IT's future 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.roughtype.com [Source type: General]

^ Happy to give you an update on the work we are doing to make these things easier though.
  • Tim Anderson’s ITWriting - Tech writing blog » Amazon fails to address interoperability concerns; Flexiscale plans cloud platform 25 September 2009 0:38 UTC www.itwriting.com [Source type: General]

.Complexity is controlled and the resulting systems are more manageable than their monolithic counterparts.^ It’s more than just the savings from server consolidation and more than just greater flexibility in managing planned (VMotion) and unplanned downtime (disaster recovery, high availability) .
  • Transitioning From The Enterprise To The Cloud » Cloud Computing 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC blog.techalpha.com [Source type: General]

^ As your infrastructure becomes more complex, determining whether a managed services infrastructure, a mixed infrastructure, or a cloud infrastructure makes more economic sense becomes significantly more complex.
  • Cloud Computing - an Excerpt from Cloud Application Architectures - O'Reilly FYI Blog 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC fyi.oreilly.com [Source type: General]

^ Instrumentation is even more complex to manage than metering as it has the potential to introduce processing latency.
  • Cloud Computing « The Tech Evangelist 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.jpmorgenthal.com [Source type: General]

History

.The underlying concept of cloud computing dates back to 1960, when John McCarthy opined that "computation may someday be organized as a public utility"; indeed it shares characteristics with service bureaus that date back to the 1960s.^ Verizon debuts cloud computing service .

^ The five defining characteristics of cloud computing .
  • The five defining characteristics of cloud computing | Tech News on ZDNet 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC news.zdnet.com [Source type: General]

^ This year's overhyped IT concept is cloud computing.
  • Schneier on Security: Cloud Computing 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.schneier.com [Source type: General]

.The actual term "cloud" borrows from telephony in that telecommunications companies, who until the 1990s primarily offered dedicated point-to-point data circuits, began offering Virtual Private Network (VPN) services with comparable quality of service but at a much lower cost.^ We can bring up a virtual private data center in the cloud in 2 minutes.
  • James Governor's Monkchips » 15 Ways to Tell Its Not Cloud Computing 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.redmonk.com [Source type: General]

^ Virtualization, private cloud, cloud – that’s the natural evolution.
  • Virtualization Unlocks Cloud Computing 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC blogs.gartner.com [Source type: General]

^ Salesforce to offer social networking for companies .

.By switching traffic to balance utilization as they saw fit they were able to utilise their overall network bandwidth more effectively.^ And more importantly, how do these mini-mights fit into our overall vision of cloud computing, virtualization, remote workers, even Win 7?

^ I'm confident that Google spends more money in a month ensuring the security and stability of their service and their users' data than most businesses spend in a year, and I'm confident they spend that money more effectively.
  • Schneier on Security: Cloud Computing 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.schneier.com [Source type: General]

^ It provides you with visibility into resource utilization, operational performance, and overall demand patterns—including metrics such as CPU utilization, disk reads and writes, and network traffic.
  • Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (Amazon EC2) 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC aws.amazon.com [Source type: General]

.The cloud symbol was used to denote the demarcation point between that which was the responsibility of the provider from that of the user.^ Cloud users to providers: let's keep the data between us.
  • Cloud Computing Gains in Currency - Pew Research Center 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC pewresearch.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Is the provider responsible for regulatory compliance or is the user?
  • Cloud Computing Platform 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC blog.bluelock.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He used the recent Rackspace outage to make his point that customers had better know their providers environment before using their services.
  • Data Center Strategies: Cloud Infrastructure Secrecy: A Competitive Advantage or Disadvantage? 22 September 2009 14:10 UTC dcsblog.burtongroup.com [Source type: General]

.Cloud computing extends this boundary to cover servers as well as the network infrastructure.^ Cloud-Computing-Welle schwappt vorbei .
  • Artikel zum Thema Cloud Computing bei CIO.de | CIO Schwerpunkt 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.cio.de [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Cloud Computing is essentially infrastructure as a service.
  • Cloud Computing - Technology Trends 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.itstrategists.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Preparing the network for a cloud computing implementation .

[22]
.Amazon played a key role in the development of cloud computing by modernizing their data centers after the dot-com bubble, which, like most computer networks, were using as little as 10% of their capacity at any one time just to leave room for occasional spikes.^ One panel I had participated in was the Cloud Computing panel.
  • Cloud Computing - Cisco Blog 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC blogs.cisco.com [Source type: General]

^ Amazon and Cloud Computing - Cloud Computing from eWeek .
  • Amazon and Cloud Computing - Cloud Computing from eWeek 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.eweek.com [Source type: General]

^ IBM Intros IT Cloud Computing - Network Computing Network Computing www.networkcomputing.com .
  • IBM Intros IT Cloud Computing - Network Computing 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.networkcomputing.com [Source type: General]

.Having found that the new cloud architecture resulted in significant internal efficiency improvements whereby small, fast-moving "two-pizza teams" could add new features faster and easier, Amazon started providing access to their systems through Amazon Web Services on a utility computing basis in 2005.^ Cloud computing is an infrastructure paradigm that moves computation to the Web in the form of a Web-based service.

^ Cloud computing is not new.
  • Schneier on Security: Cloud Computing 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.schneier.com [Source type: General]

^ Powered by eZanga Cloud Computing News .

[23]
.In 2007, Google, IBM, and a number of universities embarked on a large scale cloud computing research project.^ The EU Reservoir Research project - advanced Cloud Computing infrastructure .
  • IGT2008 - The World Summit of Cloud Computing 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.cloudcomputing.org.il [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Google and IBM are currently working together on a cloud computing project.
  • Cloud Computing 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.mahalo.com [Source type: General]

^ Microsoft and Google battle with cloud computing .
  • Microsoft and Google battle with cloud computing | The Pitt News 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.pittnews.com [Source type: General]

[24] .By mid-2008, Gartner saw an opportunity for cloud computing "to shape the relationship among consumers of IT services, those who use IT services and those who sell them",[25] and observed that "[o]rganisations are switching from company-owned hardware and software assets to per-use service-based models" so that the "projected shift to cloud computing ...^ However with the cloud computing, they will have to be paying per use or per month to access this software.
  • DailyTech - HP, Intel, Yahoo Team Up in Cloud Computing Effort 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.dailytech.com [Source type: General]

^ "Suddenly, what cloud computing allows is for businesses and individuals to use it as if it were their own.
  • Technology: Understanding ‘Cloud Computing’ - Newsweek.com 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.newsweek.com [Source type: General]

^ We are the users, the consumers, of cloud computing services; not our customers or consumers.
  • Cloud Computing: The Last Definition You'll Ever Need 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC devcentral.f5.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

will result in dramatic growth in .IT products in some areas and in significant reductions in other areas."^ They need to have some access controls that clearly delineate between the software development area, test and quality assurance, and product.

^ I ran across a product the other day doing some research that I found very interesting.
  • Cloud Computing « The Tech Evangelist 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.jpmorgenthal.com [Source type: General]

^ I actually mentioned Atlassian as a "pioneer" in this area, and it looks like the hosted versions of their developer products -- JIRA and Bamboo -- are gaining significant traction.

[26]

Key features

.
  • Agility improves with users' ability to rapidly and inexpensively re-provision technological infrastructure resources.^ Learn more about this middleware layer that pools and dynamically provisions infrastruction application delivery resources to lower costs and improve efficiency.
    • Cloud Computing Blogosphere Takes Enterprise Software out of Context | Blogs | ITBusinessEdge.com 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.itbusinessedge.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Cloud computing is the ability to draw IT resources from an internal or external, third-party source using either Internet-based or local-area infrastructure.
    • Definitions: Cloud Computing | Knowledge Network | ITBusinessEdge.com 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.itbusinessedge.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Organizations can employ cloud computing to meet their IT requirements using a flexible, on demand, and rapidly scalable model that requires neither ownership on their part, nor provision of dedicated resources.

    [27]
  • .
  • Cost is claimed to be greatly reduced and capital expenditure is converted to operational expenditure[28].^ "Beyond cloud as a transformational technology, the CFO and board level are looking at the economics of cloud, specifically converting traditional fixed capital expenditure...spending to variable operating expenditure [or opex] spending."
    • 2010 a Boom Year for Cloud Computing? -- Microsoft Certified Professional Magazine Online 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC mcpmag.com [Source type: General]
    • 2010 a Boom Year for Cloud Computing? -- Redmondmag.com 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC redmondmag.com [Source type: General]

    ^ As we’ve detailed in numerous reports, cloud services have captured customers’ attention because of the IT and business benefits they promise, including variable costs, reduced capital expenditure and access to on-demand, dynamic and virtualized IT resources.
    • Bracing for Change: SIs and Cloud Computing 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC it.tmcnet.com [Source type: News]

    ^ This set of technologies has clear potential to distribute applications across a wider set of devices and greatly reduce the overall cost of computing.
    • 2009 Horizon Report » One Year or Less: Cloud Computing 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC wp.nmc.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .This ostensibly lowers barriers to entry, as infrastructure is typically provided by a third-party and does not need to be purchased for one-time or infrequent intensive computing tasks.^ Ruby on Rails ) which lower the barrier to entry by providing native support .
    • Sam Johnston: The Cloud and Cloud Computing consensus definition? 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC samj.net [Source type: General]

    ^ At the time Microsoft also did not refer to Live Mesh as a "cloud" platform, which has up until now been a term used to refer to services such as Amazon's Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2) , which provides on-demand computing and infrastructure for building and hosting applications without the need for on-premises software.
    • Live Mesh may emerge as Microsoft 'cloud' platform | ITworld 25 September 2009 0:38 UTC wireless.itworld.com [Source type: News]
    • Live Mesh may emerge as Microsoft 'cloud' platform | ITworld 25 September 2009 0:38 UTC www.itworld.com [Source type: News]

    ^ More specifically, cloud computing refers to IT resources and services that are abstracted from the underlying infrastructure and are provided "on demand" and "at scale" in a multitenant environment.

    .Pricing on a utility computing basis is fine-grained with usage-based options and fewer IT skills are required for implementation (in-house).^ A central tenet of the cloud computing model is usage-based pricing.
    • Cloud computing - a definition - business value & ICT - Telecommunications - Green IT - Orange Business Live blog 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC blogs.orange-business.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The service is typically billed on a utility computing basis and amount of resources consumed (and therefore the cost) will typically reflect the level of activity.
    • Amitive SCM in the Cloud 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.amitive.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ While these clouds are the natural evolution of traditional clusters and data centers, they are distinguished by following a utility pricing model where customers are charged based on their utilisation of computational resources, storage and transfer of data.
    • Book -- Cloud Computing: Principles and Paradigms 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.manjrasoft.com [Source type: Academic]

    [29]
  • .
  • Device and location independence[30] enable users to access systems using a web browser regardless of their location or what device they are using (e.g., PC, mobile).^ Web-based for browser access.
    • Cloud Computing for the Mainframe: Will It Ever Cross the Chasm? at Mainframe Executive 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.mainframe-exec.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Employees use a Web browser to access it, and organizations pay by the number of users.
    • Government Remains Skeptical About Cloud Computing 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.govtech.com [Source type: News]

    ^ Cloud computing services often provide common business applications online that are accessed from a web browser, while the software and data are stored on the servers.
    • Cloud computing, Technological Concept - News - Evri 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.evri.com [Source type: News]

    .As infrastructure is off-site (typically provided by a third-party) and accessed via the Internet, users can connect from anywhere.^ Restricted Access > Users can only connect on-site.
    • Cloud Computing Server Virtualization Desktop Virtualization 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.4service.com [Source type: General]

    ^ It is a style of computing in which typically real-time scalable resources are provided “as a service” over the Internet to users who need not have knowledge of, expertise in, or control over the technology infrastructure ("in the cloud") that supports them.

    ^ Out-of-control costs for power, personnel and hardware, limited space in datacentres, and above all, a desire to simplify, have encouraged a significant number of start-ups to move more infrastructure into a third-party provided cloud.
    • Cloud Computing: Tales From The Front - CIO 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.cio.com.au [Source type: General]

    [29]
  • .
  • Multi-tenancy enables sharing of resources and costs across a large pool of users thus allowing for:
    • Centralization of infrastructure in locations with lower costs (such as real estate, electricity, etc.^ What about real estate and electricity?
      • Cloud Computing - an Excerpt from Cloud Application Architectures - O'Reilly FYI Blog 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC fyi.oreilly.com [Source type: General]

      ^ It leverages a shared pool of resources (shared computer processor, shared storage, etc.

      ^ Amazon's is unveiling an eBay-style auction service that will let users bid on unused virtual server capacity, potentially allowing customers to lower the cost of running applications on Amazon's Elastic Compute Cloud.
      • Artikel zum Thema Cloud Computing bei CIO.de | CIO Schwerpunkt 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.cio.de [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      )
    • .
    • Peak-load capacity increases (users need not engineer for highest possible load-levels)
    • Utilization and efficiency improvements for systems that are often only 10–20% utilized.^ Reference: " The only way to do cloud computing efficiently is to share the cloud - to establish a broad, multitenant grid (or a number of them) that balances the loads of many different companies.
      • Cloud Computing Vocabulary (Cloud Computing Wiki) 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sites.google.com [Source type: Reference]

      ^ Virtualization Modernization Expertise Moving beyond a modernization of the physical datacenter, we can help you virtualize systems, to reduce the number of systems you need to manage internally, thus increasing asset utilization.
      • Cloud Computing (SaaS)- Cloud Computing Services, Cloud Computing Applications, Cloud Computing System, London, Seattle, Portland, Sacramento, San Francisco, San Mateo, Los Angeles, San Diego, Phoenix, San Antonio, Austin, Houston, Irving, Chicago, Philadelphia, New York, Boston, Dallas, Texas, India 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.ishir.com [Source type: News]

      ^ Cloud environments allow users to access additional compute resources on-demand in response to increased application loads.
      • Why Cloud Computing? | Appistry 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.appistry.com [Source type: Reference]

      [23]
    • .
  • Reliability improves through the use of multiple redundant sites, which makes cloud computing suitable for business continuity and disaster recovery.^ "Suddenly, what cloud computing allows is for businesses and individuals to use it as if it were their own.
    • Technology: Understanding ‘Cloud Computing’ - Newsweek.com 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.newsweek.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Cloud computing lets businesses pay only for what they use when they use it.
    • The anatomy of cloud computing 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.niallkennedy.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Use cloud computing to optimize processing.
    • SOA Consortium Insights: Cloud Computing 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC blog.soa-consortium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    [31] .Nonetheless, many major cloud computing services have suffered outages, and IT and business managers can at times do little when they are affected.^ Cloud computing lets businesses pay only for what they use when they use it.
    • The anatomy of cloud computing 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.niallkennedy.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Verizon debuts cloud computing service .

    ^ Cloud computing was a long time in the making.

    [32][33]
  • .
  • Scalability via dynamic ("on-demand") provisioning of resources on a fine-grained, self-service basis near real-time, without users having to engineer for peak loads.^ Essential Characteristics: On-demand self-service.
    • SITE Blog » Cloud Computing for Education? 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC siteblog.aace.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Key Characteristics: On-demand self-service .
    • Cloud Computing Platform 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC blog.bluelock.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ This would improve management capabilities and allow resources to be dynamically shifted to meet rising and falling data loads, at once eliminating current silo architectures and the need to over-provision resources to meet peak demand.
    • Definitions: Cloud Computing | Knowledge Network | ITBusinessEdge.com 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.itbusinessedge.com [Source type: General]

    .Performance is monitored, and consistent and loosely-coupled architectures are constructed using web services as the system interface.^ Terremark’s Enterprise Cloud computing architecture delivers the agility, scale and economic benefits of cloud computing to mission-critical enterprise and Web 2.0 applications and its DigitalOps® service platform combines end-to-end systems management workflow with a comprehensive customer portal.
    • Terremark Positioned in Leaders Quadrant of Magic Quadrant for Web Hosting and Cloud Infrastructure Services (On Demand) | FindMyHost Directory 22 September 2009 14:10 UTC directory.findmyhost.com [Source type: General]

    ^ The cloud should enable fundamental IT process improvements based on robust Web Service interfaces, metadata-based customizations, and precisely managed and monitored user interactions with critical information and operations.
    • Government Remains Skeptical About Cloud Computing 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.govtech.com [Source type: News]

    ^ The new storage-on-demand service gives enterprises "control over the storage, distribution and retrieval of their data from any location, anytime, using any Web-enabled device," AT&T said.
    • AT&T, EMC Unveil Cloud Storage Service - www.enterprisestorageforum.com 22 September 2009 14:10 UTC www.enterprisestorageforum.com [Source type: News]

    [29] .One of the most important new methods for overcoming performance bottlenecks for a large class of applications is data parallel programming on a distributed data grid.^ We discuss the benefits and motivations for such a design, including applications like privacy for electronic medical records and systems for scientific publishing of large data sets.
    • 2009 ACM Cloud Computing Security Workshop (CCSW) at CCS 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC crypto.cs.stonybrook.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Grid computing , for example, uses a virtual super computer composed of networked, connected computers that act in concert to perform significantly large tasks.
    • Cloud Computing Basics | Cloud Security Journal 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC cloudsecurity.ulitzer.com [Source type: General]
    • Cloud Computing Basics | Symbian Developer's Journal 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC symbian.sys-con.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Disasters less likely - Most cloud based applications are hosted in data centers with redundant servers, backup, and military grade security.

    [34]
  • .
  • Security could improve due to centralization of data[35], increased security-focused resources, etc., but concerns can persist about loss of control over certain sensitive data, and the lack of security for stored kernels[36].^ Google Yahoo Microsoft IBM Amazon Salesforce Sun Microsystems Oracle EMC When users store their data with programs hosted on someone else's hardware, they lose a degree of control over their sensitive information.
    • The Privacy Implications of Cloud Computing | Privacy Rights Clearinghouse 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.privacyrights.org [Source type: General]

    ^ This article shows you how to install OpenVZ on CentOS. OpenVZ is an OS-level virtualisation product that allows you to completely isolate processes from each other, increase security by keeping bits separate, and tightly control resource utilisation.

    ^ I’m often in need of a secure, central place to store files that I can access from anywhere.
    • Cloud Computing | VISI Blog 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC blog.visi.com [Source type: General]

    .Security is often as good as or better than under traditional systems, in part because providers are able to devote resources to solving security issues that many customers cannot afford.^ CherryPal uses 80 percent fewer components than a traditional PC, and because it has no moving parts, it operates without making a sound and will last 10 years or more.
    • Define Cloud Computing « RightScale Blog 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC blog.rightscale.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ However, this 3-to-1 ration in favor of virtualization did not extend to cloud computing an advanced form of virtualization in which the physical location of data and computing resources typically resides outside the corporate campus, often with a third-part service provider at a remote location.
    • DailyTech - Cloud Computing’s Future Remains Murky 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.dailytech.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Many cloud providers have adopted the “ utility computing ” model of delivery in which IT resources are distributed to users much as electricity and telephone service.
    • Definitions: Cloud Computing | Knowledge Network | ITBusinessEdge.com 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.itbusinessedge.com [Source type: General]

    [37] .Providers typically log accesses, but accessing the audit logs themselves can be difficult or impossible.^ At this point, typically you still need to know the endpoint to access the services rather than having the cloud provide you available resources.
    • What is Cloud Computing? | Cloud Computing Journal 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC cloudcomputing.sys-con.com [Source type: General]
    • What is Cloud Computing? | XML Journal 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC xml.sys-con.com [Source type: General]
    • What is Cloud Computing? | Eclipse Developer's Journal 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC eclipse.sys-con.com [Source type: General]

    ^ In the PaaS scenario, developers access a provider's resources over the Internet to create code, without their employers needing to invest in development platforms and tools themselves.
    • Cloud computing - a definition - business value & ICT - Telecommunications - Green IT - Orange Business Live blog 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC blogs.orange-business.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Furthermore, the complexity of security is greatly increased when data is distributed over a wider area and / or number of devices.
  • Maintenance cloud computing applications are easier to maintain, since they don't have to be installed on each user's computer.^ Novel applications of cloud computing .
    • Book -- Cloud Computing: Principles and Paradigms 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.manjrasoft.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Developer toolkits for cloud computing applications.
    • Force.com Cloud Computing Platform - Fast Application Development - salesforce.com 25 September 2009 0:38 UTC www.salesforce.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Google has a number of cloud computing options.
    • Cloud Computing for the Masses: Internet-Based Applications and Storage Are Taking Over 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC internet.suite101.com [Source type: General]

    .They are easier to support and to improve since the changes reach the clients instantly.
  • Metering cloud computing resources usage should be measurable and should be metered per client and application on daily, weekly, monthly, and annual basis.^ Novel applications of cloud computing .
    • Book -- Cloud Computing: Principles and Paradigms 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.manjrasoft.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Cloud computing is changing the way IT resources are utilized.
    • Cloud Computing with VMware Virtualization 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.vmware.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Developer toolkits for cloud computing applications.
    • Force.com Cloud Computing Platform - Fast Application Development - salesforce.com 25 September 2009 0:38 UTC www.salesforce.com [Source type: General]

    This will enable clients on choosing the vendor cloud on cost and reliability (QoS).

Layers

Cloud Computing Stack.svg

Client

See also Category: Cloud clients
.A cloud client consists of computer hardware and/or computer software that relies on cloud computing for application delivery, or that is specifically designed for delivery of cloud services and that, in either case, is essentially useless without it.^ Developer toolkits for cloud computing applications.
  • Force.com Cloud Computing Platform - Fast Application Development - salesforce.com 25 September 2009 0:38 UTC www.salesforce.com [Source type: General]

^ No hardware or software to install: a 100% cloud computing infrastructure.
  • What is Cloud Computing? - salesforce.com 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.salesforce.com [Source type: General]

^ It’s a cloud computing service.

.Examples include some computers, phones and other devices, operating systems and browsers.^ This company also claimed "better application access control by user, group, organizational role, time, date, IP address, subnet browser or operating system."
  • How Safe is Cloud Computing? 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.govtech.com [Source type: News]

^ It may be worth noting however that beyond what some may have shared relative to Google, that recent announcements of course include IBM , Oracle/PeopleSoft and others.

^ Coderoid_ Says: December 19, 2007 at 10:16 am “the browser is the new operating system, believe it or not…”…true, Vinny.

[38][39][40][41][42]

Application

See also Category: Cloud applications
.Cloud application services or "Software as a Service (SaaS)" deliver software as a service over the Internet, eliminating the need to install and run the application on the customer's own computers and simplifying maintenance and support.^ Novel applications of cloud computing .
  • Book -- Cloud Computing: Principles and Paradigms 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.manjrasoft.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Also called software as a service (Saas), cloud computing is when you run software over the internet and access it via a browser.
  • Schneier on Security: Cloud Computing 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.schneier.com [Source type: General]

^ Developer toolkits for cloud computing applications.
  • Force.com Cloud Computing Platform - Fast Application Development - salesforce.com 25 September 2009 0:38 UTC www.salesforce.com [Source type: General]

Key characteristics include:[43]
  • Network-based access to, and management of, commercially available (i.e., not custom) software
  • Activities that are managed from central locations rather than at each customer's site, enabling customers to access applications remotely via the Web
  • Application delivery that typically is closer to a one-to-many model (single instance, multi-tenant architecture) than to a one-to-one model, including architecture, pricing, partnering, and management characteristics
  • Centralized feature updating, which obviates the need for downloadable patches and upgrades.

Platform

See also Category: Cloud platforms
.Cloud platform services or "Platform as a Service (PaaS)" deliver a computing platform and/or solution stack as a service, often consuming cloud infrastructure and sustaining cloud applications.^ Cloud computing is about how an application or service is deployed and delivered.
  • Cloud Computing: The Last Definition You'll Ever Need 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC devcentral.f5.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We are the users, the consumers, of cloud computing services; not our customers or consumers.
  • Cloud Computing: The Last Definition You'll Ever Need 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC devcentral.f5.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Developer toolkits for cloud computing applications.
  • Force.com Cloud Computing Platform - Fast Application Development - salesforce.com 25 September 2009 0:38 UTC www.salesforce.com [Source type: General]

.It facilitates deployment of applications without the cost and complexity of buying and managing the underlying hardware and software layers.^ Virtualized : Applications are decoupled from the underlying hardware.
  • How Cloud & Utility Computing Are Different – GigaOM 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC gigaom.com [Source type: General]

^ Virtualization : Applications are decoupled from the underlying hardware.
  • Cloud Feed » Cloud Computing 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC cloudfeed.net [Source type: General]

^ Learn more about this middleware layer that pools and dynamically provisions infrastruction application delivery resources to lower costs and improve efficiency.
  • Cloud Computing Blogosphere Takes Enterprise Software out of Context | Blogs | ITBusinessEdge.com 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.itbusinessedge.com [Source type: General]

[44][45]

Infrastructure

See also Category: Cloud infrastructure
.Cloud infrastructure services or "Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS)" delivers computer infrastructure, typically a platform virtualization environment, as a service.^ This is the concept known as Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS).
  • Sitting on Cloud Nine: How Cloud Computing Will Change Communications as We Know It - Cloud Computing Blog - TM Forum Online Community 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.tmforum.org [Source type: General]

^ Cloud computing is about how an application or service is deployed and delivered.
  • Cloud Computing: The Last Definition You'll Ever Need 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC devcentral.f5.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Cloud Computing and Virtualization are the next hot hosting platforms.
  • Cloud Computing vs Grid Computing | Linux 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC linux.sys-con.com [Source type: General]

.Rather than purchasing servers, software, data center space or network equipment, clients instead buy those resources as a fully outsourced service.^ Forget about buying servers and software.
  • What is Cloud Computing? - salesforce.com 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.salesforce.com [Source type: General]
  • What is Cloud Computing? - salesforce.com UK 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.salesforce.com [Source type: General]

^ RESOURCE CENTER buy a link » Home .
  • Cloud Computing: Tales from the Front - CIO.com - Business Technology Leadership 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.cio.com [Source type: General]

^ No purchasing of software, servers, data center space, and network equipment is [ continue reading ] .
  • Cloud Computing | All Things CRM 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.allthingscrm.com [Source type: General]

.The service is typically billed on a utility computing basis and amount of resources consumed (and therefore the cost) will typically reflect the level of activity.^ Behind the services are data and compute resources.
  • What is Cloud Computing? | Cloud Computing Journal 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC cloudcomputing.sys-con.com [Source type: General]
  • What is Cloud Computing? | XML Journal 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC xml.sys-con.com [Source type: General]
  • What is Cloud Computing? | Eclipse Developer's Journal 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC eclipse.sys-con.com [Source type: General]

^ Of course, Google Docs isn’t the only aspect to cloud computing for individuals, but it is a good example as it easily illustrates the whole basis of the concept - providing the service without the cost and effort of the infrastructure that creates it.
  • Cloud computing for the confused | OnSoftware 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC en.onsoftware.com [Source type: General]

^ Many cloud computing models are based on the utility concept, allowing companies to pay only for the services used as opposed to the fixed costs of data centers, license fees, surge capacity and disaster recovery, for example.
  • Carriers Should Keep Up with Cloud Computing Advances, Challenges by Insurance & Technology 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.insurancetech.com [Source type: News]

.It is an evolution of virtual private server offerings.^ The private cloud has many of the same load balancing, storage management, and provisioning that virtualization already offers.
  • Windows Virtualization Team Blog 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC blogs.technet.com [Source type: General]

^ After the earlier blog discussing the evolution of IT, I had several discussions on the benefits and challenges of virtualization, private, and public clouds.

^ With the first phase release of InetServices Cloud, Virtual Machine Hosting offers vast savings over traditional dedicated servers without the limitation of resources.
  • Cloud Computing Hosting | Virtual Private Data Center | Virtual Machine Hosting 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.inetservices.com [Source type: General]

[46]

Server

.The servers layer consists of computer hardware and/or computer software products that are specifically designed for the delivery of cloud services, including multi-core processors, cloud-specific operating systems and combined offerings.^ Operating systems and servers .
  • Cloud Topic - Technology – Computer world UK - The latest, breaking technology news, reviews and analysis on google, yahoo, microsoft, servers, storage, ibm, products, oracle 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.computerworlduk.com [Source type: General]

^ System-level impact of cloud computing: .
  • Cloud Computing | The Product Development Agenda Blog 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC blogs.symphonysv.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ No hardware or software to install: a 100% cloud computing infrastructure.
  • What is Cloud Computing? - salesforce.com 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.salesforce.com [Source type: General]

[38][47][48][49]

Deployment models

Cloud computing types

Public cloud

.Public cloud or external cloud describes cloud computing in the traditional mainstream sense, whereby resources are dynamically provisioned on a fine-grained, self-service basis over the Internet, via web applications/web services, from an off-site third-party provider who shares resources and bills on a fine-grained utility computing basis.^ It can be a provider of cloud resources and a consumer.” .
  • Cloud Computing for the Mainframe: Will It Ever Cross the Chasm? at Mainframe Executive 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.mainframe-exec.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ BlueLock is a national provider of full-service cloud computing solutions.
  • Cloud Computing 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC blog.bluelock.com [Source type: General]
  • Cloud Computing Platform 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC blog.bluelock.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Cloud computing, grid computing, utility computing - list of top providers .
  • How Cloud & Utility Computing Are Different – GigaOM 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC gigaom.com [Source type: General]

[29]

Community cloud

.A community cloud may be established where several organizations have similar requirements and seek to share infrastructure so as to realize some of the benefits of cloud computing.^ Characteristic 1: Dynamic computing infrastructure Cloud computing requires a dynamic computing infrastructure.
  • The five defining characteristics of cloud computing | Tech News on ZDNet 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC news.zdnet.com [Source type: General]

^ There are a lot of benefits of cloud computing.
  • Stallman calls cloud computing stupid 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.businessinsider.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The cloud infrastructure is shared by several organizations and supports a specific community that has shared concerns (e.g., mission, security requirements, policy, and compliance considerations).
  • NIST’s Definition of Cloud Computing – Updated Aug 19 2009 | The Security Blog 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC arielsilverstone.com [Source type: Reference]
  • What is Cloud Computing? And Why Should You Care? — MakingITclear® 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC blog.makingitclear.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Cloud Computing Platform 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC blog.bluelock.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Cloud Computing | The Product Development Agenda Blog 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC blogs.symphonysv.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Cloud Computing Nist Paul Pajo 22 September 2009 14:10 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Reference]

.With the costs spread over fewer users than a public cloud (but more than a single tenant) this option is more expensive but may offer a higher level of privacy, security and/or policy compliance.^ Is the cloud more secure?
  • Does Cloud Computing Mean More Risks to Privacy? - Bits Blog - NYTimes.com 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC bits.blogs.nytimes.com [Source type: General]

^ The cloud means higher-level abstraction.
  • Larry Ellison Still Hates “Cloud Computing Nonsense” (Video) 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.techcrunchit.com [Source type: General]

^ Privacy Policy More on PCWorld.com .
  • Tips for Safe Cloud Storage - PC World 22 September 2009 14:10 UTC www.pcworld.com [Source type: General]

Examples of community cloud include Google's "Gov Cloud".[50]

Hybrid cloud

.A hybrid cloud environment consisting of multiple internal and/or external providers[51] "will be typical for most enterprises".[52] By integrating multiple cloud services users may be able to ease the transition to public cloud services while avoiding issues such as PCI compliance.^ Integration – Lots of work needs to be done to integrate cloud providers’ services with enterprise services and make them work together.
  • Government Environment Suited to Cloud Computing -- Government Computer News 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC gcn.com [Source type: News]

^ The hindrances to the adoption of public cloud computing services into enterprise IT...

^ There are private clouds and public clouds and hybrid clouds .
  • 85 Cloud Computing Vendors Shaping the Emerging Cloud — Datamation.com 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC itmanagement.earthweb.com [Source type: General]

[53]
.
Another perspective on deploying a web application in the cloud is using Hybrid Web Hosting, where the hosting infrastructure is a mix between Cloud Hosting for the web server, and Managed dedicated server for the database server.
^ The cloud infrastructure and platforms must be reliable and available to the applications that are using them.
  • Cloud Feed » Cloud Computing 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC cloudfeed.net [Source type: General]

^ The capability provided to the consumer is to use the provider’s applications running on a cloud infrastructure.
  • What is Cloud Computing? And Why Should You Care? — MakingITclear® 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC blog.makingitclear.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They will also have to manage application lifecycle in the cloud.
  • The iTKO LISA Soapbox: Modern Application Testing, Validation & Virtualization: Cloud Computing 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC blog.itko.com [Source type: General]

[54]

Private cloud

.Private cloud and internal cloud are neologisms that some vendors have recently used to describe offerings that emulate cloud computing on private networks.^ Joyent's Blog : Cloud computing vendor.
  • High Scalability - High Scalability - Useful Cloud Computing Blogs 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC highscalability.com [Source type: General]

^ Educational Video on use of Cloud Computing .
  • SITE Blog » Cloud Computing for Education? 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC siteblog.aace.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some clouds also offer systems management.
  • Cloud Computing Defined | Linux 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC linux.sys-con.com [Source type: General]

.These (typically virtualisation automation) products claim to "deliver some benefits of cloud computing without the pitfalls", capitalising on data security, corporate governance, and reliability concerns.^ There are a lot of benefits of cloud computing.
  • Stallman calls cloud computing stupid 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.businessinsider.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Cloud computing has some serious vulnerabilities.
  • Schneier on Security: Cloud Computing 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.schneier.com [Source type: General]

^ Security : The ability to secure the data and access to the cloud.
  • Cloud Feed » Cloud Computing 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC cloudfeed.net [Source type: General]

They have been criticized on the basis that users "still have to buy, build, and manage them" and as such do not benefit from lower up-front capital costs and less hands-on management[52], essentially "[lacking] the economic model that makes cloud computing such an intriguing concept".[55][56]
.The term has also been used in the logical rather than physical sense, for example in reference to platform as a service offerings[57], though such offerings including Microsoft's Azure Services Platform are not available for on-premises deployment.^ Deploying non-microsoft applications on Azure .

^ The term has also been used in the logical rather than physical sense, for example in reference to platform as a service offerings.
  • Cloud Computing Types: Public Cloud, Hybrid Cloud, Private Cloud 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.circleid.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ That’s because many players, including industry darling Salesforce.com Inc., don’t offer official SLAs (Service Level Agreements).
  • Let's Make a Deal: Basic Steps for Switching to Cloud Computing - Web Hosting Unleashed 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.webhostingunleashed.com [Source type: General]

[58]

Issues

Privacy

.The Cloud model has been criticized by privacy advocates for the greater ease in which the companies hosting the Cloud services control, and thus, can monitor at will, lawfully or unlawfully, the communication and data stored between the user and the host company.^ Launch of our cloud monitoring service .
  • Monitis: Cloud Monitoring Blog 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC monitorcloud.com [Source type: General]

^ Cloud services and major providers Data centres and privacy .
  • cloud computing (computer science) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ We will look at the work Amazon S2, NetApps, IBM, HP, EMC among others have done to build cloud storage infrastructure, how these services differ and the legal, and security implications of storing data this way.
  • cloud storage | Tags | ComputerWeekly.com 22 September 2009 14:10 UTC www.computerweekly.com [Source type: News]

.Instances such as the secret NSA program, working with AT&T, Verizon and BellSouth, which recorded over 10 million phone calls between American citizens, causes uncertainty among privacy advocates, and the greater powers it gives to telecommunication companies to monitor user activity.^ Approximately 10 million users and 1 million customer companies.

^ Stallman, who is a staunch privacy advocate, advised users to stay local and stick with their own computers.
  • Cloud computing is a trap, warns GNU founder | Technology | guardian.co.uk 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

^ Cloud Computing is empowering users like never before, giving them access to massive amounts of compute power and storage capacity, on- demand and in real time.
  • Conference Sessions | Cloud Computing Europe 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.cloudexpo-europe.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[59] While there have been efforts (such as US-EU Safe Harbor) to "harmonise" the legal environment, providers such as Amazon still cater to major markets (typically the United States and the European Union) by deploying local infrastructure and allowing customers to select "availability zones."[60]

Compliance

.In order to obtain compliance with regulations including FISMA, HIPAA and SOX in the US, the Data Protection Directive in the EU and the credit card industry's PCI DSS, users may have to adopt community or hybrid deployment modes which are typically more expensive and may offer restricted benefits.^ Featured Analytics Cloud Governance, Risk, And Compliance Cloud computing adds abstraction, interdependency, and uncertainty about where data goes and how its protected.

^ We also offer the industry’s only globally dispersed platform, so customers can choose to store their data in close proximity to their users, no matter where they are located around the world.

^ At the same time, security and compliance concerns are at the forefront of issues potentially holding large enterprises back from capitalizing on the benefits that cloud computing has to offer.
  • Cloud Computing - CIO.com - Business Technology Leadership 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.cio.com [Source type: General]

.This is how Google are able to "manage and meet additional government policy requirements beyond FISMA"[61][62] and Rackspace Cloud are able to claim PCI compliance.^ It added: "As a result, the new platform will not only address cloud provider requirements around security and isolation, but will also meet next-generation user requirements for security, availability, performance, isolation, and manage between on-premise and off-premise infrastructures."
  • Xen.org to build open-standards cloud platform | Business Tech - CNET News 25 September 2009 0:38 UTC sfgate-cnet.com.com [Source type: General]

^ With the addition of these new innovative and enhanced capabilities, Data ONTAP 8 provides customers with a platform that meets their stringent cloud requirements and addresses their challenges in deploying a cloud storage infrastructure, including: .
  • NetApp Ushers in New Era, Delivers Cloud Infrastructure for the Enterprise - Yahoo! Finance 22 September 2009 14:10 UTC finance.yahoo.com [Source type: General]

^ He goes on to say that we should focus the cloud debate on how to "tackle security and compliance, how to manage hybrid solutions, how to provide reliability and scalability, how to prevent latency, and many other important topics.
  • The iTKO LISA Soapbox: Modern Application Testing, Validation & Virtualization: Cloud Computing 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC blog.itko.com [Source type: General]

[63]
.Many providers also obtain SAS 70 Type II certification (e.g.^ Look for SAS-70 Type II certification.
  • cloud computing « i365 Blog 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC blogs.i365.com [Source type: General]

^ The company operates SAS 70 Type II Certified facilities in Boston MA, Charlotte NC, Raleigh NC, and Cary NC, providing best-of-breed data center operations with hardened physical infrastructure, the highest level of security, and a complete managed services portfolio.
  • Hosted Solutions Introduces “Stratus Trusted Cloud” Platform | FindMyHost Directory 25 September 2009 0:38 UTC directory.findmyhost.com [Source type: General]

^ Finally, is it important that your service provider undergo regular audits to achieve SAS 70 certification ?
  • cloud computing « i365 Blog 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC blogs.i365.com [Source type: General]

.Amazon[64], Google[65] and Microsoft[66]), but this has been criticised on the grounds that the hand-picked set of goals and standards determined by the auditor and the auditee are often not disclosed and can vary widely.^ The technological hype has started already but the commercial breakthrough will come in 2009 - driven by providers including Amazon, Google, HP, IBM, Intel and Microsoft.
  • Hello to 2009, The Year of Cloud Computing | .NET Developer's Journal 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC dotnet.sys-con.com [Source type: General]

^ Look at the United outage over the weekend which grounded all United flights in the US. Look at the Amazon EC2/S3 outages, the Google AppEngine outages, etc., etc.
  • Schneier on Security: Terrorist Risk of Cloud Computing 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.schneier.com [Source type: General]

^ Cloud computing is being driven by providers including Amazon, Google, HP, IBM, Intel and Microsoft.
  • Hello to 2009, The Year of Cloud Computing | .NET Developer's Journal 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC dotnet.sys-con.com [Source type: General]

[67] .Providers typically make this information available on request, under non-disclosure agreement.^ As part of the agreement, CRL will make available to researchers one of the world's top...
  • cloud computing Resources | BNET 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC resources.bnet.com [Source type: General]

^ At this point, typically you still need to know the endpoint to access the services rather than having the cloud provide you available resources.
  • What is Cloud Computing? | Cloud Computing Journal 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC cloudcomputing.sys-con.com [Source type: General]
  • What is Cloud Computing? | XML Journal 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC xml.sys-con.com [Source type: General]
  • What is Cloud Computing? | Eclipse Developer's Journal 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC eclipse.sys-con.com [Source type: General]

^ The older software providers typically have rigid products, which make it tough to make even basic changes to features, reports or anything else.

[68]

Legal

.In March 2007, Dell applied to trademark the term "cloud computing" (U.S. Trademark 77,139,082) in the United States.^ The term "cloud computing" is a metaphor that originated in what?
  • A Wall Street Journal Quiz on Cloud Computing - WSJ.com 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC online.wsj.com [Source type: General]

^ Cloud computing is admittedly a broad term.
  • Can We Please Define Cloud Computing? 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC mashable.com [Source type: General]

^ Deciphering the term “Cloud Computing” .
  • How Cloud & Utility Computing Are Different – GigaOM 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC gigaom.com [Source type: General]

.The "Notice of Allowance" the company received in July 2008 was cancelled in August, resulting in a formal rejection of the trademark application less than a week later.^ Company: IBM Date: July 2008 .

^ Hosted, open source applications that are less functionally rich than Microsoft, Google or Zoho offerings.

^ Last week, I wrote that an "application war is brewing in the cloud," a war that VMware, more than any other company, is set to launch with its acquisition of Zimbra.
  • Cloud computing posts - Webware - CNET 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC news.cnet.com [Source type: General]

Open source

.Open standards are critical to the growth of cloud computing, and open source software has provided the foundation for many cloud computing implementations.^ Open Source and Cloud Computing : thanks...
  • Open Source and Cloud Computing - O'Reilly Radar 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC radar.oreilly.com [Source type: General]

^ Ares on Open Source and Cloud Computing : awesome idea.
  • Open Source and Cloud Computing - O'Reilly Radar 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC radar.oreilly.com [Source type: General]

^ Open Source and Cloud Computing : thank you...
  • Open Source and Cloud Computing - O'Reilly Radar 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC radar.oreilly.com [Source type: General]

[69] .In November 2007, the Free Software Foundation released the Affero General Public License, a version of GPLv3 intended to close a perceived legal loophole associated with free software designed to be run over a network.^ Public clouds are run by third party service providers and applications from different customers are likely to be mixed together on the cloud’s servers, storage systems, and networks.
  • Cloud Computing - an Excerpt from Cloud Application Architectures - O'Reilly FYI Blog 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC fyi.oreilly.com [Source type: General]

^ Open source was the free person's alternative to restrictive closed source software.
  • Cloud Computing: Good or Bad for Open Source? | Linux Journal 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.linuxjournal.com [Source type: General]

^ The apps storefront, which is run by the General Services Administration , includes an array of business applications, productivity software, services like storage and Web hosting and social applications.
  • CLOUD COMPUTING - Bits Blog - NYTimes.com 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC bits.blogs.nytimes.com [Source type: News]

[70]

Open standards

See also Category: Cloud standards
.Most cloud providers expose APIs which are typically well-documented (often under a Creative Commons license[71]) however also unique to their implementation and thus not interoperable.^ Mike9Alive under Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 Generic license .
  • James Governor's Monkchips » 15 Ways to Tell Its Not Cloud Computing 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.redmonk.com [Source type: General]

^ This work is licenced under a Creative Commons Licence .
  • business value & ICT - Telecommunications - Green IT - Orange Business Live blog - Search Results : cloud computing 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC blogs.orange-business.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 2.5 License .
  • Cloud Computing in Institutions 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC docs.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Some vendors have adopted others' APIs[72] and there are a number of open standards under development, including the OGF's Open Cloud Computing Interface.^ Also, some organisations are developing open standards for cloud computing, which could inspire participating vendors to compete on openness rather than lock-in.
  • Cloud Computing in Institutions 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC docs.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In other words, some people trust the cloud here, but not there, or for this, but not that.
  • In Cloud We Trust? - ReadWriteEnterprise 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.readwriteweb.com [Source type: General]

^ This is a good step towards the standardization of cloud computing, including standardizing terminologies.
  • Can You Describe an Elephant? How about Cloud Computing? | Tek Tips Whitepaper Library 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC tek-tips.nethawk.net [Source type: General]

Security

.The relative security of cloud computing services is a contentious issue which may be delaying its adoption.^ The fundamental issue I have with cloud computing is credentials.
  • Schneier on Security: Cloud Computing 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.schneier.com [Source type: General]

^ It’s a cloud computing service.

^ Thats web services not cloud computing.
  • Larry Ellison Still Hates “Cloud Computing Nonsense” (Video) 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.techcrunchit.com [Source type: General]

[73] .Some argue that customer data is more secure when managed internally, while others argue that cloud providers have a strong incentive to maintain trust and as such employ a higher level of security.^ In other words, some people trust the cloud here, but not there, or for this, but not that.
  • In Cloud We Trust? - ReadWriteEnterprise 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.readwriteweb.com [Source type: General]

^ Is the cloud more secure?
  • Does Cloud Computing Mean More Risks to Privacy? - Bits Blog - NYTimes.com 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC bits.blogs.nytimes.com [Source type: General]

^ Security : The ability to secure the data and access to the cloud.
  • Cloud Feed » Cloud Computing 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC cloudfeed.net [Source type: General]

[74]

Sustainability

.Although cloud computing is often assumed to be a form of "green computing", there is as of yet no published study to substantiate this assumption.^ Cloud computing's green paradox .

^ There are a lot of benefits of cloud computing.
  • Stallman calls cloud computing stupid 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.businessinsider.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Or any other such form of Cloud Computing.
  • Economist Debates: Cloud Computing: Statements 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.economist.com [Source type: General]

[75]

Research

.A number of universities, vendors and government organizations are investing in research around the topic of cloud computing.^ Joyent's Blog : Cloud computing vendor.
  • High Scalability - High Scalability - Useful Cloud Computing Blogs 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC highscalability.com [Source type: General]

^ Here is the government definition of cloud computing .
  • SITE Blog » Cloud Computing for Education? 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC siteblog.aace.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ How are vendors defining Cloud Computing?
  • Conference Sessions | Cloud Computing Expo 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC cloudcomputingexpo.com [Source type: General]
  • Cloud Computing Conference 2010 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC cloudslam10.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[76] .Academic institutions include University of Melbourne (Australia), Georgia Tech, Yale, Wayne State, Virginia Tech, University of Wisconsin Madison, Boston University, Carnegie Mellon, MIT, Indiana University, University of Massachusetts, North Carolina State, Purdue, University of California, University of Washington, University of Virginia, University of Utah, University of Minnesota, among others.^ Data of 9 Maryland residents names, DOB and SSN were exposed", with similar reports filed in North Carolina, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, and more.
  • Economist Debates: Cloud Computing: Statements 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.economist.com [Source type: General]

^ University, IBM join in cloud-computing project -- from eCampusNews.com Program aims to revolutionize computing for North Carolina students; N.C. State promises to give underlying code to schools elsewhere .
  • Cloud Computing 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.calvin.edu [Source type: General]

^ Virtual Computing Lab at North Carolina State University http://vcl.ncsu.edu/ North Carolina State University offers an online system for requesting and reserving a virtual computer, complete with any of a number of applications, that can be accessed from anywhere.
  • 2009 Horizon Report » One Year or Less: Cloud Computing 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC wp.nmc.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[77]
.Joint government, academic and vendor collaborative research projects include the IBM/Google Academic Cloud Computing Initiative (ACCI).^ Joyent's Blog : Cloud computing vendor.
  • High Scalability - High Scalability - Useful Cloud Computing Blogs 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC highscalability.com [Source type: General]

^ IBM has devoted 200 researchers to its cloud computing project.
  • Understanding "Clouded" Terms of Cloud Computing | Web 2.0 Journal 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC web2.sys-con.com [Source type: General]

^ How are vendors defining Cloud Computing?
  • Conference Sessions | Cloud Computing Expo 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC cloudcomputingexpo.com [Source type: General]
  • Cloud Computing Conference 2010 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC cloudslam10.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In October 2007 IBM and Google announced the multi- university project designed to enhance students’ technical knowledge to address the challenges of cloud computing.^ Cloud Computing can in fact enhance performance.

^ IBM has devoted 200 researchers to its cloud computing project.
  • Understanding "Clouded" Terms of Cloud Computing | Web 2.0 Journal 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC web2.sys-con.com [Source type: General]

^ Elastic IP Addresses – Elastic IP addresses are static IP addresses designed for dynamic cloud computing.
  • Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (Amazon EC2) 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC aws.amazon.com [Source type: General]

[78] .In April 2009, the National Science Foundation joined the ACCI and awarded approximately $5 million in grants to 14 academic institutions.^ Indiana University has received a $1.5 million grant from the National Institutes of Health to develop a software infrastructure and use cloud computing for a variety of life sciences and genomics data applications, IU said today.

^ The Gates Foundation is making $38 million in grants for experiments promoting small savings accounts by the poor in developing countries.
  • Does Cloud Computing Mean More Risks to Privacy? - Bits Blog - NYTimes.com 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC bits.blogs.nytimes.com [Source type: General]

^ April 16th, 2009 at 2:14 pm PDT this is so true; cloud computing is just ‘tards in the valley trying to create hype so they can get a job.
  • McKinsey’s Cloud Computing Report Is Partly Cloudy 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.techcrunch.com [Source type: General]

[79]
.In July 2008, HP, Intel Corporation and Yahoo!^ Yahoo!, HP, Intel meet in the cloud .
  • Cheat Sheet: Cloud computing | CEO Essentials | silicon.com 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.silicon.com [Source type: General]

^ HP, Intel and Yahoo!
  • Cheat Sheet: Cloud computing | CEO Essentials | silicon.com 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.silicon.com [Source type: General]

announced the creation of a global, multi-data center, open source test bed, called .Open Cirrus[80], designed to encourage research into all aspects of cloud computing, service and datacenter management.^ Open Source and Cloud Computing : thanks...
  • Open Source and Cloud Computing - O'Reilly Radar 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC radar.oreilly.com [Source type: General]

^ Cloud computing is all the rage.
  • Artikel zum Thema Cloud Computing bei CIO.de | CIO Schwerpunkt 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.cio.de [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But 2009 will be all about Cloud Computing.
  • Hello to 2009, The Year of Cloud Computing | .NET Developer's Journal 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC dotnet.sys-con.com [Source type: General]

[81] .Open Cirrus partners include the NSF, the University of Illinois (UIUC), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, the Infocomm Development Authority (IDA) of Singapore, the Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute (ETRI), the Malaysian Institute for Microelectronic Systems(MIMOS), and the Institute for System Programming at the Russian Academy of Sciences (ISPRAS).^ The Xen Cloud Platform will combine the mobility and openness attributes of the Xen virtualization platform with innovative storage, security and network virtualization technologies already under development as part of Xen.org.
  • Xen Project Launches New Open Cloud Initiative - Yahoo! Finance 25 September 2009 0:38 UTC biz.yahoo.com [Source type: News]

^ The Conference is the world's premier cloud computing event, covering technology, business models, industry experiences, legal aspects, research, development and innovations in the world of cloud computing.
  • Cloud Computing Conference 2009 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC cloudslam09.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Cloud Computing Conference 2010 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC cloudslam10.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Cloud Computing Conference 2009 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC cloudslam09.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The NSF developed a new domain name management system to deal with the growing number of computers on the Internet.
  • EPIC - Cloud Computing 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC epic.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[82]
.The Enabling Grids for E-sciencE (EGEE) project provides the world's largest production grid infrastructure for applications for use by more than 10,000 researchers from 50 countries, according to the European Union EGEE Web site.^ The capability provided to the consumer is to use the provider’s applications running on a cloud infrastructure.
  • What is Cloud Computing? And Why Should You Care? — MakingITclear® 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC blog.makingitclear.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This will be no different than with using web sites.
  • Cloud Computing Streak Marks 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.feld.com [Source type: General]

^ CherryPal uses 80 percent fewer components than a traditional PC, and because it has no moving parts, it operates without making a sound and will last 10 years or more.
  • Define Cloud Computing « RightScale Blog 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC blog.rightscale.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[83]
.The IEEE Technical Committee on Services Computing [84] in IEEE Computer Society sponsors the IEEE International Conference on Cloud Computing (CLOUD)[85].^ Interop > New York > Education > Conference: Cloud Computing Track Conference: Cloud Computing Track .
  • Cloud Computing Conference Track at Interop New York 2010 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.interop.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Posted on March 31, 2008 at 06:00 AM in Cloud Computing , Innovation , Society and Culture , Technology and Strategy .
  • Irving Wladawsky-Berger: Cloud Computing 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC blog.irvingwb.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Government 2.0 Summit in Washington as the public launch of one-stop shop for cloud computing services.
  • Japan to build massive cloud infrastructure for e-government « DailyCloud 22 September 2009 14:10 UTC the.dailycloud.net [Source type: General]

.CLOUD 2010 will be held on July 5-10, 2010 in Miami, Florida.^ Cloud Computing among Top 10 Strategic Technology Areas for 2010 .

^ Cloud Slam '10 March 23, 2010 - March 25, 2010 Cloud Slam '10 is the 2nd annual virtual conference on cloud computing.

^ Comments » Gartner's Top 10 Strategic Technologies for 2010: Cloud Computing on Top .

Criticism of the term

.Notable industry critics of the term include Oracle Corporation CEO Larry Ellison and Forrester Research VP Frank Gillett.^ Analyst Frank Gillett of Forrester Research, which doesn't currently measure the cloud market, says makers of existing technologies -- "grid computing," "virtualization" -- are attempting to co-opt the word.
  • The Internet Industry Is on a Cloud -- Whatever That May Mean - WSJ.com 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC online.wsj.com [Source type: News]

^ El fundador de Oracle Larry Ellison, señala que el cloud computing es vaporware .
  • Larry Ellison Still Hates “Cloud Computing Nonsense” (Video) 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.techcrunchit.com [Source type: General]

^ Stallman's comments follow those of Oracle (ORCL) CEO Larry Ellison a few days ago, who called cloud computing hype "complete gibberish" and "insane."
  • Stallman calls cloud computing stupid 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.businessinsider.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Larry Ellison has stated that cloud computing has been defined as "everything that we currently do" and that it will have no effect except to "change the wording on some of our ads"[86][87].^ Cloud computing “nonsense and water vapor”, Larry Ellison .
  • Larry Ellison Still Hates “Cloud Computing Nonsense” (Video) 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.techcrunchit.com [Source type: General]

^ Cloud computing has some serious vulnerabilities.
  • Schneier on Security: Cloud Computing 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.schneier.com [Source type: General]

^ How are vendors defining Cloud Computing?
  • Conference Sessions | Cloud Computing Expo 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC cloudcomputingexpo.com [Source type: General]
  • Cloud Computing Conference 2010 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC cloudslam10.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Frank Gillett expresses similar criticism [88][89].
.Oracle Corporation is now launching a cloud computing tour [90].^ In order to successful launch an enterprise cloud computing initiative, organizations should carefully consider some of the following area: .
  • Cloud Computing | The Product Development Agenda Blog 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC blogs.symphonysv.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But now, with the news of a grant specifically dedicated to cloud computing, IU should be making some big leaps in the arena.

^ Government 2.0 Summit in Washington as the public launch of one-stop shop for cloud computing services.
  • Japan to build massive cloud infrastructure for e-government « DailyCloud 22 September 2009 14:10 UTC the.dailycloud.net [Source type: General]

.In opposition to Larry Ellison, Forrester Research Principal Analyst John Rymer dismisses his remarks by stating that Ellison's cloud "comments are complete nonsense and he knows it" [91].^ It's time to get started, say three Forrester Research analysts.
  • Cloud Computing News 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.dabcc.com [Source type: General]

^ Analyst Frank Gillett of Forrester Research, which doesn't currently measure the cloud market, says makers of existing technologies -- "grid computing," "virtualization" -- are attempting to co-opt the word.
  • The Internet Industry Is on a Cloud -- Whatever That May Mean - WSJ.com 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC online.wsj.com [Source type: News]

^ That is the view of Theresa Lanowitz, a former Gartner Group research analyst and the founder of voke, a research firm focused on breakthrough technologies, such as cloud computing.

.Richard Stallman, founder of the Free Software Foundation and creator of the computer operating system GNU, said that cloud computing was simply a trap aimed at forcing more people to buy into locked, proprietary systems that would cost them more and more over time.^ Is cost saving the only driving force for cloud computing?
  • Cloud Computing Conference 2009 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC cloudslam09.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Cloud computing and proprietary desktop software simply don't mix.
  • Cloud Computing - an Excerpt from Cloud Application Architectures - O'Reilly FYI Blog 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC fyi.oreilly.com [Source type: General]

^ System-level impact of cloud computing: .
  • Cloud Computing | The Product Development Agenda Blog 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC blogs.symphonysv.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

"It's stupidity. .It's worse than stupidity: it's a marketing hype campaign," he told The Guardian.^ It's worse than stupidity: it's a marketing hype campaign," he told The Guardian.
  • Cloud Computing: Good or Bad for Open Source? | Linux Journal 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.linuxjournal.com [Source type: General]

^ It's worse than stupidity: it's a marketing hype campaign," ..."
  • Cloud Computing: Good or Bad for Open Source? | Linux Journal 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.linuxjournal.com [Source type: General]

."Somebody is saying this is inevitable – and whenever you hear somebody saying that, it's very likely to be a set of businesses campaigning to make it true."^ "Somebody is saying this is inevitable – and whenever you hear somebody saying that, it's very likely to be a set of businesses campaigning to make it true."
  • Cloud Computing: Good or Bad for Open Source? | Linux Journal 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.linuxjournal.com [Source type: General]

^ You want something that looks enough like the cloud for your test purposes,” Chris says.
  • The iTKO LISA Soapbox: Modern Application Testing, Validation & Virtualization: Cloud Computing 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC blog.itko.com [Source type: General]

^ It's hard to say which ideas will win, be you can be certain that speed and agility in deploying new business models will be key ingredients to success in SaaS virtualization innovation.

."The interesting thing about cloud computing is that we've redefined cloud computing to include everything that we already do," he said.^ You are interested in cloud computing, but where do you start?
  • Conference Sessions | Cloud Computing Expo 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC cloudcomputingexpo.com [Source type: General]

^ "We've redefined cloud computing to include everything that we already do," Mr. Ellison said at the analyst conference in September.
  • The Internet Industry Is on a Cloud -- Whatever That May Mean - WSJ.com 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC online.wsj.com [Source type: News]

^ How about “cloud computing”?
  • Data Management Strategies: cloud computing 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC dmsblog.burtongroup.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

"[92]

References

  1. ^ Distinguishing Cloud Computing from Utility Computing
  2. ^ Gartner Says Cloud Computing Will Be As Influential As E-business
  3. ^ Gruman, Galen (2008-04-07). "What cloud computing really means". InfoWorld. http://www.infoworld.com/d/cloud-computing/what-cloud-computing-really-means-031. Retrieved 2009-06-02. 
  4. ^ "Cloud Computing: Clash of the clouds". The Economist. 2009-10-15. http://www.economist.com/displaystory.cfm?story_id=14637206. Retrieved 2009-11-03. 
  5. ^ http://www.sellsbrothers.com/writing/intro2tapi/default.aspx?content=pstn.htm
  6. ^ The Internet Cloud
  7. ^ a b Cloud Computing Definition, National Insitute of Standards and Technology, Version 15
  8. ^ Buyya, Rajkumar; Chee Shin Yeo, Srikumar Venugopal (PDF). Market-Oriented Cloud Computing: Vision, Hype, and Reality for Delivering IT Services as Computing Utilities. Department of Computer Science and Software Engineering, The University of Melbourne, Australia. pp. 9. http://www.gridbus.org/~raj/papers/hpcc2008_keynote_cloudcomputing.pdf. Retrieved 2008-07-31. 
  9. ^ What's In A Name? Utility vs. Cloud vs Grid
  10. ^ "Distributed Application Architecture". Sun Microsystem. http://java.sun.com/developer/Books/jdbc/ch07.pdf. Retrieved 2009-06-16. 
  11. ^ Sun CTO: Cloud computing is like the mainframe
  12. ^ "It's probable that you’ve misunderstood 'Cloud Computing' until now". TechPluto. http://portal.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=1496091.1496100&coll=&dl=ACM&CFID=21518680&CFTOKEN=18800807. 
  13. ^ Cloud Computing: The Evolution of Software-as-a-Service
  14. ^ Needs Reference
  15. ^ Forrester's Advice to CFOs: Embrace Cloud Computing to Cut Costs
  16. ^ Five cloud computing questions
  17. ^ Nicholas Carr on 'The Big Switch' to cloud computing
  18. ^ 1 Midsize Organization Busts 5 Cloud Computing Myths
  19. ^ Cloud Computing Savings - Real or Imaginary?
  20. ^ Building GrepTheWeb in the Cloud, Part 1: Cloud Architectures
  21. ^ Cloud Maturity is Accelerating: More Than Just Reaction To The Hype?
  22. ^ July, 1993 meeting report from the IP over ATM working group of the IETF
  23. ^ a b Jeff Bezos' Risky Bet.
  24. ^ Google and I.B.M. Join in ‘Cloud Computing’ Research
  25. ^ Keep an eye on cloud computing, Amy Schurr, Network World, 2008-07-08, citing the Gartner report, “Cloud Computing Confusion Leads to Opportunity”. Retrieved 2009-09-11.
  26. ^ Gartner Says Worldwide IT Spending On Pace to Surpass $3.4 Trillion in 2008, Gartner, 2008-08-18. Retrieved 2009-09-11.
  27. ^ Infrastructure Agility: Cloud Computing as a Best Practice
  28. ^ Recession Is Good For Cloud Computing – Microsoft Agrees
  29. ^ a b c d Defining “Cloud Services” and “Cloud Computing”
  30. ^ The new geek chic: Data centers
  31. ^ Cloud Computing: Small Companies Take Flight
  32. ^ Google Apps Admins Jittery About Gmail, Hopeful About Future
  33. ^ New Resource, Born of a Cloud Feud
  34. ^ Scaling Storage and Analysis of Data Using Distributed Data Grids
  35. ^ Exari: Death By Laptop
  36. ^ Encrypted Storage and Key Management for the cloud
  37. ^ Cloud computing security forecast: Clear skies
  38. ^ a b Nimbus Cloud Guide
  39. ^ Microsoft’s cloud operating system, Windows Azure, to go live in January
  40. ^ Google Reveals Nexus One 'Super Phone'
  41. ^ What Makes a Cloud Computer?
  42. ^ The Cloud's Chrome Lining
  43. ^ 2005 Software as a Service Taxonomy and Research Guide
  44. ^ Google angles for business users with 'platform as a service'
  45. ^ The Emerging Cloud Service Architecture
  46. ^ EMC buys Pi and forms a cloud computing group
  47. ^ Intel puts cloud on single megachip
  48. ^ Cisco unveils cloud computing platform for service providers
  49. ^ Microsoft Plans ‘Cloud’ Operating System
  50. ^ Google's "Gov Cloud" Wins $7.2 Million Los Angeles Contract
  51. ^ IBM Embraces Juniper For Its Smart 'Hybrid Cloud', Disses Cisco (IBM)
  52. ^ a b Private Clouds Take Shape
  53. ^ Forecast for 2010: The Rise of Hybrid Clouds
  54. ^ Hybrid Hosting: Using the Best of Managed and Cloud
  55. ^ Just don't call them private clouds
  56. ^ There's No Such Thing As A Private Cloud
  57. ^ Google opens private cloud to coders
  58. ^ Microsoft Nixes Private Azure Clouds
  59. ^ NSA has massive database of Americans' phone calls
  60. ^ Feature Guide: Amazon EC2 Availability Zones
  61. ^ FISMA compliance for federal cloud computing on the horizon in 2010
  62. ^ Google Apps and Government
  63. ^ Cloud Hosting is Secure for Take-off: Mosso Enables The Spreadsheet Store, an Online Merchant, to become PCI Compliant
  64. ^ AWS Completes SAS70 Type II Audit
  65. ^ SAS 70 Type II for Google Apps
  66. ^ Securing Microsoft’s Cloud Infrastructure
  67. ^ Amazon gets SAS 70 Type II audit stamp, but analysts not satisfied
  68. ^ Assessing Cloud Computing Agreements and Controls
  69. ^ Open source fuels growth of cloud computing, software-as-a-service
  70. ^ AGPL: Open Source Licensing in a Networked Age
  71. ^ GoGrid Moves API Specification to Creative Commons
  72. ^ Eucalyptus Completes Amazon Web Services Specs with Latest Release
  73. ^ Are security issues delaying adoption of cloud computing?
  74. ^ Security of virtualization, cloud computing divides IT and security pros
  75. ^ James Urquhart (January 7, 2010). "Cloud computing's green paradox". CNET News. http://news.cnet.com/8301-19413_3-10428065-240.html. Retrieved March 12, 2010. "...there is some significant evidence that the cloud is encouraging more compute consumption" 
  76. ^ Cloud Net Directory. Retrieved 2010-03-01.
  77. ^ National Science Foundation Press Release 09-082. ”National Science Foundation Awards Millions to Fourteen Universities for Cloud Computing Research.”
  78. ^ IBM press release from ibm.com. Retrieved 2010-03-02.
  79. ^ National Science Foundation press release. Retrieved 2010-03-01.
  80. ^ HP News Release
  81. ^ HP News Release
  82. ^ Open Cirrus: the Open Cloud Computing Research Testbed
  83. ^ EGEE Web site. Retrieved 2010-03002.
  84. ^ IEEE Technical Committee on Services Computing
  85. ^ IEEE International Conference on Cloud Computing (CLOUD)
  86. ^ Larry Ellison - What The Hell Is Cloud Computing?
  87. ^ Oracle's Ellison nails cloud computing
  88. ^ Cloud Computing is Hyped and Overblown, Forrester's
  89. ^ Cloud Computing is Hyped and Overblown, Forrester's Frank Gillett.....Big Tech Companies Have "Cloud Envy"
  90. ^ Oracle launches worldwide cloud-computing tour
  91. ^ Oracle desperately seeking cloud cred
  92. ^ Cloud computing is a trap, warns GNU founder Richard Stallman The Guardian, Monday 29 September 2008 14.11 BST

Simple English

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In Computer science, Cloud computing is a systems architecture model for Internet-based computing. It is the development and use of computer technology on the Internet. The cloud is a metaphor for the Internet based on how the internet is described in computer network diagrams; which means it is an abstraction hiding the complex infrastructure of the internet.[1] It is a style of computing in which IT-related capabilities are provided “as a service”,[2] allowing users to access technology-enabled services from the Internet ("in the cloud")[3] without knowledge of, or control over the technologies behind these servers.[4]

According to a paper published by IEEE Internet Computing in 2008 "Cloud Computing is a paradigm in which information is permanently stored in servers on the Internet and cached temporarily on clients that include computers, laptops, handhelds, sensors, etc."[5]

Cloud computing is a general concept that utilizes software as a service (SaaS), such as Web 2.0 and other technology trends, all of which depend on the Internet for satisfying users' needs. For example, Google Apps provides common business applications online that are accessed from a web browser, while the software and data are stored on the Internet servers.

Contents

Brief

Comparisons

Cloud computing is often confused with grid computing (a form of distributed computing whereby a "super and virtual computer" is composed of a cluster of networked, loosely-coupled computers, working together to perform very large tasks), utility computing (the packaging of computing resources, such as computation and storage are provided as a measured service that have to be paid similar to a traditional public utility such as electricity)[6] and autonomic computing (computer systems capable of self-management).[7]

Many cloud computing deployments are today powered by grids, have autonomic characteristics and are billed like utilities, but cloud computing can be seen as a natural next step from the grid-utility model.[8] Some successful cloud architectures have little or no centralised infrastructure or billing systems at all including peer-to-peer networks like BitTorrent and Skype.[9]

Architecture

The majority of cloud computing infrastructure currently consists of reliable services delivered through data centers that are built on computer and storage virtualization technologies. The services are accessible anywhere in the world, with The Cloud appearing as a single point of access for all the computing needs of consumers. Commercial offerings need to meet the quality of service requirements of customers and typically offer service level agreements.[10] Open standards and open source software are also critical to the growth of cloud computing.[11]

Characteristics

As customers generally do not own the infrastructure or know all details about it, mainly they are accessing or renting, so they can consume resources as a service, may be paying for what they do not need instead for what they actually need to use. Many cloud computing providers have adopted the utility computing model which is analogous to how traditional public utilities like electricity are consumed, while others are billed on a subscription basis. By sharing consumable and "intangible" computing power between multiple "tenants", utilization rates can be improved (as servers are not left idle) which can reduce costs significantly while increasing the speed of application development. A side effect of this approach is that "computer capacity rises dramatically" as customers do not have to engineer for peak loads.[12] Adoption has been enabled by "increased high-speed bandwidth" which makes it possible to receive the same response times from centralized infrastructure at other sites.

Providers

Cloud computing is being driven by providers including Google, Amazon.com, and Yahoo! as well as traditional vendors including IBM, Intel[13], Microsoft[14] and SAP[15]. It is adopted from individual users through large enterprises as General Electric.[16][17].

History

The Cloud[18] is a metaphor for the Internet,[19] or more generally components and services which are managed by others.[20]

The underlying concept dates back to 1960 when John McCarthy expressed his opinion that "computation may someday be organized as a public utility" and the term Cloud was already in commercial use in the early 1990s to refer to large ATM networks.[21] By the turn of the 21st century, cloud computing solutions had started to appear on the market,[22] though most of the focus at this time was on Software as a service.

Amazon.com played a key role in the development of cloud computing when upgrading their data centers after the dot-com bubble and providing access to their systems by way of Amazon Web Services in 2002 on a utility computing basis. They found the new cloud architecture resulted in significant internal efficiency improvements.[23]

2007 observed increased activity, including Google, IBM and a number of universities starting large scale cloud computing research project,[24] around the time the term started gaining popularity in the mainstream press. It was a hot topic by mid-2008 and numerous cloud computing events had been scheduled.[25]

In August 2008 Gartner observed that "organisations are switching from company-owned hardware and software assets to per-use service-based models" and that the "projected shift to cloud computing will result in dramatic growth in IT products in some areas and in significant reductions in other areas".[26]

Political issues

Clouds cross many countries borders and "may be the ultimate form of globalisation"[27]. As such it is the subject of complex geopolitical issues, whereby providers must satisfy many legal restrictions in order to deliver service to a global market. This dates back to the early days of the Internet, where libertarian thinkers felt that "cyberspace was a distinct place calling for laws and legal institutions of its own"; author Neal Stephenson envisaged this as a tiny island data haven called Kinakuta in his science-fiction classic novel Cryptonomicon[27].

Although there have been efforts to match the legal environment (such as US-EU Safe Harbor), providers like Amazon Web Services are currently dealing with international markets (typically the United States and European Union) by deploying local infrastructure and allowing customers to select their countries[28]. However there are still concerns about security and privacy from individual through governmental level, (for example the USA PATRIOT Act and use of national security letters and title II of the Electronic Communications Privacy Act, the Stored Communications Act).

Legal issues

In March 2007, Dell applied to trademark the term '"cloud computing" in the United States. It received a "Notice of Allowance" in July 2008 which was subsequently canceled on August 6, resulting in a formal rejection of the trademark application in less than a week later.

In November 2007, the Free Software Foundation released the Affero General Public License (abbreviated as Affero GPL and AGPL), a version of GPLv3 designed to close a perceived legal loophole associated with Free software designed to be run over a network, particularly software as a service. According to the AGPL license application service providers are required to release any changes they make to an AGPL open source code.

Architecture

[[File:|thumb|right]] Cloud architecture[29] is the systems architecture of the software systems involved in the delivery of cloud computing (eg hardware, software) as designed by a cloud architect who typically works for a cloud integrator. It typically involves multiple cloud components communicating with each other over application programming interfaces (usually web services).[30]

This is very similar to the Unix philosophy of having multiple programs doing one thing well and working together over universal interfaces. Complexity is controlled and the resulting systems are more manageable than their monolithic counterparts.

Cloud architecture extends to the client where web browsers and/or software applications are used to access cloud applications.

Cloud storage architecture is loosely coupled where metadata operations are centralized enabling the data nodes to scale into the hundreds, each independently delivering data to applications or users.

Key characteristics

  • Capital expenditure minimized, therefore low barrier to entry as infrastructure is owned by the provider and does not need to be purchased for one-time or infrequent intensive computing tasks. Services are typically being available to or specifically targeting retail consumers and small businesses.
  • Device and location independence[31] which enables users to access systems regardless of location or what device they are using (for example PC, mobile,... etc).
  • Multitenancy enabling sharing of resources (and costs) among a large pool of users, allowing for:
    • Centralization of infrastructure in areas with lower costs (eg real estate, electricity)
    • Peak-load capacity increases (users need not engineer for highest possible load levels)
    • Utilization and efficiency improvements for systems that are often only 10-20% utilised.[23]
  • Performance is monitored and consistent but can be affected by insufficient bandwidth or high network load.
  • Reliability by way of multiple redundant sites, which makes it suitable for business continuity and disaster recovery,[32] however IT and business managers are able to do little when an outage hits them.[33] Historical data on cloud outages is tracked in the Cloud Computing Incidents Database.[34]
  • Scalability which meets changing user demands quickly, without having to engineer for peak loads. Massive scalability and large user bases are common but not an absolute requirement.
  • Security which typically improves due to centralization of data, increased security-focused resources, etc. but which raises concerns about loss of control over certain sensitive data. Accesses are typically logged but accessing the audit logs themselves can be difficult or impossible.
  • Sustainability through improved resource utilisation, more efficient systems and carbon neutrality.[35]

Components

[[File:|250px|right]]

Application

A cloud application influences The Cloud model of software architecture, often eliminating the need to install and run the application on the customer's own computer, thus reducing software maintenance, ongoing operations, and support. For example:

  • Peer-to-peer/volunteer computing (Bittorrent, SETI@home, Skype)
  • Web application (Facebook)
  • Software as a service (Google Apps, Salesforce)
  • Software plus services (Microsoft Online Services)

Client

A cloud client is computer hardware and/or computer software which relies on The Cloud for application delivery, or which is specifically designed for delivery of cloud services, and which is in either case essentially useless without a Cloud.[36] For example:

Infrastructure

Cloud infrastructure (e.g. Infrastructure as a service) is the delivery of computer infrastructure (typically a platform virtualization environment) as a service.[44] For example:

  • Full virtualization (GoGrid, Skytap)
  • Grid computing (Sun Grid)
  • Management (RightScale)
  • Paravirtualization (Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud)

Platform

A cloud platform (eg Platform as a service) (the delivery of a computing platform and/or solution stack as a service) facilitates deployment of applications without the cost and complexity of buying and managing the underlying hardware and software layers.[45] For example:

  • Web application frameworks
    • Python Django (Google App Engine)
    • Ruby on Rails (Heroku)
  • Web hosting (Mosso)
  • Proprietary (Azure, Force.com)

Service

A cloud service (eg Web Service) is "software system[s] designed to support interoperable machine-to-machine interaction over a network"[46] which may be accessed by other cloud computing components, software (eg Software plus services) or end users directly.[47] For example:

Storage

Cloud storage is the delivery of data storage as a service (including database-like services), often billed on a utility computing basis (eg per gigabyte per month).[48] For example:

  • Database (Amazon SimpleDB, Google App Engine's BigTable datastore)
  • Network attached storage (MobileMe iDisk component, Nirvanix CloudNAS)
  • Synchronisation (Live Mesh Live Desktop component, MobileMe push functions)
  • Web service (Amazon Simple Storage Service, Nirvanix SDN)

Traditional storage vendors have recently begun to offer their own flavor of cloud storage, sometimes in conjunction with their existing software products (e.g. Symantec's Online Storage for Backup Exec). Others focus on providing a new kind of back-end storage optimally designed for delivering cloud storage (EMC's Atmos), categorically known as Cloud Optimized Storage.

Roles

Provider

A cloud computing provider or cloud computing service provider owns and operates cloud computing systems to deliver service to third parties. Usually this requires significant resources and expertise in building and managing the next generation of data centers. Some organisations are realising a subset of the benefits of cloud computing by becoming "internal" cloud providers and servicing themselves, though they do not benefit from the same economies of scale and still have to engineer for peak loads. The barrier to entry is also significantly higher with capital expenditure required and billing and management creates some overhead. However, significant operational efficiency and quickness advantages can be achieved even by small organisations and server consolidation and virtualization rollouts are already in progress.[49] Amazon.com was the first such provider, modernising its data centers which, like most computer networks were using as little as 10% of its capacity at any one time just to leave room for occasional spikes. This allowed small, fast-moving groups to add new features faster and easier, and they went on to open it up to outsiders as Amazon Web Services in 2002 on a utility computing basis.[23]

The companies listed in the Components section are providers.

User

A user is a consumer of cloud computing.[36] The privacy of users in cloud computing has become of increasing concern.[50][51] The rights of users is also an issue, which is being addressed via a community effort to create a bill of rights (currently in draft).[52][53]

Vendor

A vendor sells products and services that facilitate the delivery, adoption and use of cloud computing.[54] For example:

Standards

A cloud standard is one of a number of existing (typically lightweight) open standards that have facilitated the growth of cloud computing, including:[59]

References

  1. The Internet Cloud
  2. Gartner Says Cloud Computing Will Be As Influential As E-business
  3. What's the difference Between Cloud Computing and SaaS?
  4. Distinguishing Cloud Computing from Utility Computing
  5. ORGs for Scalable, Robust, Privacy-Friendly Client Cloud Computing
  6. "It’s probable that you’ve misunderstood “Cloud Computing” till now". TechPluto. http://www.techpluto.com/cloud-computing-meaning/. 
  7. What's In A Name? Utility vs. Cloud vs Grid
  8. I.B.M. to Push ‘Cloud Computing,’ Using Data From Afar
  9. ACM Ubiquity: Emergence of The Academic Computing Cloud
  10. Rajkumar Buyya1, Chee Shin Yeo1, Srikumar Venugopal1. "Market-Oriented Cloud Computing: Vision, Hype, and Reality for Delivering IT Services as Computing Utilities" (PDF). Department of Computer Science and Software Engineering, The University of Melbourne, Australia. Retrieved on 31 July 2008.
  11. Open source fuels growth of cloud computing, software-as-a-service
  12. Cloud Computing: The Evolution of Software-as-a-Service
  13. With Their Heads in the Clouds
  14. Microsoft Fueling Cloud Computing Initiatives
  15. http://www.informationweek.com/news/services/saas/showArticle.jhtml?articleID=207601148
  16. Google Apps makes its way into big business
  17. Google, Inc. Q2 2008 Earnings Call
  18. Cloud Computing: When Computers Really Do Rule
  19. What cloud computing really means
  20. The Internet Cloud
  21. July, 1993 meeting report from the IP over ATM working group of the IETF
  22. Internet Critic Takes on Microsoft
  23. 23.0 23.1 23.2 Jeff Bezos' Risky Bet
  24. Google and I.B.M. Join in ‘Cloud Computing’ Research
  25. Keep an eye on cloud computing
  26. Gartner Says Worldwide IT Spending On Pace to Surpass $3.4 Trillion in 2008
  27. 27.0 27.1 Computers without borders
  28. Feature Guide: Amazon EC2 Availability Zones
  29. Building GrepTheWeb in the Cloud, Part 1: Cloud Architectures
  30. Cloud Maturity Is Accelerating: More Than Just Reaction To The Hype?
  31. The new geek chic: Data centers
  32. Cloud Computing: Small Companies Take Flight
  33. Google Apps Admins Jittery About Gmail, Hopeful About Future
  34. A New Resource, Born of a Cloud Feud
  35. Google to go carbon neutral by 2008
  36. 36.0 36.1 Nimbus Cloud Guide
  37. Google's Open Source Android OS Will Free the Wireless Web
  38. In Sync to Pierce the Cloud
  39. Microsoft demos mobile cloud sync client
  40. CherryPal brings cloud computing to the masses
  41. Zonbu has alluring features, price
  42. GOS cloud computing
  43. Google Chrome Aims to Break Microsoft Windows
  44. EMC buys Pi and forms a cloud computing group
  45. Google angles for business users with 'platform as a service'
  46. "Web Services Glossary". http://www.w3.org/TR/ws-gloss/. 
  47. The Emerging Cloud Service Architecture
  48. Google, Microsoft and Apple building online storage havens: you win
  49. ACM Queue - Beyond Server Consolidation
  50. ORGs for Scalable, Robust, Privacy-Friendly Client Cloud Computing
  51. Google Privacy Practices Worse Than ISP Snooping, AT&T Charges
  52. Draft Cloud Computing: Bill of Rights Now Available
  53. Johnston, Sam; Urquhart, James; Wellner, Rich (2008-09-16). "Cloud Computing:Bill of rights". http://wiki.cloudcommunity.org/wiki/CloudComputing:Bill_of_Rights. Retrieved 2008-09-16. 
  54. List of Cloud Platforms, Providers and Enablers
  55. http://blogs.zdnet.com/igeneration/?p=500
  56. http://www.itpro.co.uk/606705/ballmer-microsoft-to-launch-cloud-os
  57. "About - What is the Azure Services Platform". Microsoft. http://www.microsoft.com/azure/whatisazure.mspx. Retrieved 2008-11-03. 
  58. Red Hat chief: 'The clouds will all run Linux'
  59. The Cloud and Standards
  60. Lock-in, security loom as dark side of Compute Cloud
  61. LinuxWorld/Next Generation Data Center attendees get schooled in cloud computing

Other websites


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 05, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Cloud computing, which are similar to those in the above article.








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