Coaching: Wikis


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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

This article refers to the act of coaching people. For other uses of the word, see coach (disambiguation)

Coaching is a method of directing, instructing and training a person or group of people, with the aim to achieve some goal or develop specific skills. There are many ways to coach, types of coaching and methods to coaching. Sessions are typically one-on-one either in-person or over the telephone. Direction may include motivational speaking. Training may include seminars, workshops, and supervised practice.



Today coaching refers to a method of personal development or human resource development (HRD). The field of coaching is becoming a distinct area of practice for individuals and in organizations. Although the role of coach has changed over time, some examples of research papers on business coaching show that between the late 1930s and the late 1960s, some forms of internal coaching in organizations were already present; i.e. managers (or supervisors) also acted as coaches to their staff (cf. Zeus & Skiffington, 2002; Grant, 2003a; 2006). Gorby (1937) specified how older employees were trained to coach new employees regarding methods of waste reduction.

The evolution of this formal discipline has been influenced by and enhanced through the incorporation of pertinent maxims from other fields of study including personal development philosophies, adult education practices, elements of psychology (sports, clinical, developmental, organizational, social and industrial) and other organizational or leadership principles. Since the mid 1970's, coaching has developed into a more independent discipline and has a set of training standards (Davidson & Gasiorowski, 2006).

Today, coaching is a recognized discipline used by many professionals engaged in human development. However, as a distinct profession, it is relatively new and self-regulating. No independent supervisory board evaluates these programs and they are all privately owned. These bodies all accredit various coaching schools as well as individual coaches, except the IAC and ECI which only certify individuals. According to coach credentialing expert, Dr. Rey Carr, in North America the term accreditation only applies to organizations, and certification applies to individuals; whereas in European countries "accreditation" can mean either organizations or individuals.


Instructing, coaching and mentoring differ. Instructors disseminate knowledge. Coaches build skills. Mentors shape mentee attitudes. Alternately, instructors train to immediate tasks, coaches teach to mid-range goals, and mentors provide whole-life shaping.

There are many definitions of coaching, mentoring and various styles of line management and training. The position is complicated by the overlapping between many of these activities. A more succinct definition positions coaching as follows:
Managing is making sure people do what they know how to do.
Training is teaching people to do what they don’t know how to do.
Mentoring is showing people how the people who are really good at doing something do it.
Coaching none of these – it is identifying the skills and capabilities that are within the person, and enabling them to use them to the best of their ability – and by that increasing the independence within the individual, and reducing reliance”.[1]

Life coaching

Life coaching is a future-focused practice with the aim of helping clients determine and achieve personal goals. Life coaches select from among several methods to help clients set and reach goals. Coaches are not therapists nor consultants; psychological intervention and business analysis are outside the scope of their tasking, Life coaching has its roots in executive coaching, which itself drew on techniques developed in management consulting and leadership training.[citation needed] Life coaching also draws inspiration from disciplines including sociology, psychology, positive adult development, career counseling, mentoring and other types of counseling. Contemporary life coaching can also be traced to the teachings of Benjamin Karter, a college football coach turned motivational speaker of the late 1970s and early 1980s.[2] The coach may apply mentoring, values assessment, behavior modification, behavior modeling, goal-setting and other techniques in helping their clients.[citation needed]

Multiple coaching schools and training programs are available, allowing for many options (and sometimes causing confusion) when an individual decides to gain "certification" or a "credential" as they apply to the coaching industry. Multiple certificates and credential designations are available within the industry.[3]

Government bodies have not found it necessary to provide a regulatory standard for life coaching, nor does any state body govern the education or training standard for the life coaching industry; the title of "coach" can be used by any service provider. Some assert that life coaching is akin to psychotherapy without restrictions, oversight or regulation. The State legislature of Colorado, after holding a hearing on such concerns, disagreed,[4] asserting that coaching is unlike therapy because it does not focus on examining nor diagnosing the past. Instead coaching focuses on effecting change in a client's current and future behavior. Additionally, life coaching does not delve into diagnosing mental illness or dysfunction.

Business coaching

Business coaching is the practice of providing positive support and positive feedback while offering occasional advice to an individual or group in order to help them recognize ways in which they can improve the effectiveness of their business. Coaching is an excellent way to attain a certain work behavior that will improve leadership, employee accountability, teamwork, sales, communication, goal setting, strategic planning and more. It can be provided in a number of ways, including one-on-one, group coaching sessions and large scale [seminars]. Many corporations are instilling the practice of 360 degree coaching, which permits employees to utilize their own life or professional experiences in a positive way to create team participation attitudes even with superiors. Professional Business Coaches are often called in when a business is perceived to be performing badly, however many businesses recognize the benefits of business coaching even when the organization is successful. Business coaches often specialize in different practice areas such as executive coaching, corporate coaching and leadership coaching.

At least two organizations, the International Coaching Council (ICC) and the Worldwide Association of Business Coaches (WABC) provide a membership-based association for professionals involved in business coaching. The ICC and WABC also provide an accrediting system for business coach training programs. The ICC currently has over 1,500 members from over 50 countries. WABC has created the only international accreditation programs for business coach training providers and international certification programs for business coaches that are designed exclusively for business coach trainers and coaches, built around business coaching competencies and conferred by a business coach association.

Business coaching is not the same as mentoring. Mentoring involves a developmental relationship between a more experienced "mentor" and a less experienced partner, and typically involves sharing of advice. A business coach can act as a mentor given that he or she has adequate expertise and experience. However, mentoring is not a form of business coaching. A good business coach need not have specific business expertise and experience in the same field as the person receiving the coaching in order to provide quality business coaching services. Business coaching needs to be more structured and formal than mentoring.[citation needed]

Business coaches often help businesses grow by creating and following a structured, strategic plan to achieve agreed upon goals. Multiple organizations train professionals to offer business coaching to business owners who may not be able to afford large coaching firm prices.[5]

Coaching is not a practice restricted to external experts. Many organizations expect their senior leaders and middle managers to coach their team members toward higher levels of performance, increased job satisfaction, personal growth, and career development. Those that do back up their expectations with training in coaching skills, access to feedback tools, and/or specific coaching behaviors described in their leadership competency models. Few link coaching activities to compensation, however, resulting in less coaching by managers.[6]

Personal coaching

Personal coaching is a relationship which is designed and defined in a relationship agreement between a client and a coach. It is based on the client's expressed interests, goals and objectives.

A professional coach may use inquiry, reflection, requests and discussion to help clients identify personal and/or business and/or relationship goals, develop strategies, relationships and action plans intended to achieve those goals. A coach provides a place for clients to be held accountable to themselves by monitoring the clients' progress towards implementation of their action plans. Together they evolve and modify the plan to best suit the client's needs and environmental relationships. Coaches often act as human mirrors for clients by sharing outside and unbiased perspectives. Coaches may teach specific insights and skills to empower the client toward their goals.[citation needed]

Clients are responsible for their own achievements and success.[citation needed] The client takes action, and the coach may assist, but never leads or does more than the client. Therefore, a coach cannot and does not promise that a client will take any specific action or attain specific goals.[citation needed]

Professional coaching is not counseling, therapy or consulting.[citation needed] These different skill sets and approaches to change may be adjunct skills and professions.

Health coaching

In the world of health and wellness, a health coach is an emerging new role. Health coaching is becoming recognized as a new way to help individuals "manage" their illnesses and conditions, especially those of a chronic nature. In both sports and health, a "coach" is a person who observes, gives objective feedback, teaches, helps to develop a plan of action and holds another responsible for their actions and commitments. The coach will use special techniques, personal experience, expertise and encouragement to assist the coachee in bringing his/her behavioral changes about.

Sports coaching

In sports, a coach or manager is an individual involved in the direction, instruction and training of the operations of a sports team or of individual sportspeople. This type of coach gets involved in all the aspects of the sport, including physical and mental player development. Sports coaches train, develop and mentor their athletes to become better at the physical components of the game. The coach is assumed to know more about the sport, and have more previous experience and knowledge. The coach’s job is to transfer as much of this knowledge and experience to the players to develop the most skilled athletes.[7] Combining these aspects of the sport, the coach is accountable for the overall performance and results of the team or player.

Dating coaching

Dating coaches are coaches whose job is to direct and train people to improve their success in dating and relationships.A dating coach directs and trains his/her clients on various aspects of meeting and attracting long-term partners and meeting more compatible prospects. The focus of most programs is on confident and congruent communication. Dating coaches may focus on topics important to the art of dating: interpersonal skills, flirting, psychology, sociology, compatibility, fashion and recreational activities. Neil Strauss in The Game: Penetrating the Secret Society of Pickup Artists also focuses on neuro-linguistic programming (NLP), theories of persuasion, history and evolutionary biology, body language, humor and street smarts. Dating coaches typically charge rates similar to that of other professional counselors (e.g. $75–125/hour).[8] Seminars involving multiple audience members typically charge less than one-on-one meetings, however.

Conflict coaching

Conflict coaching may be used in an organizational context, for matrimonial and other relationship matters and is one of many conflict management tools for helping people improve their conflict management skills and abilities. Like many other techniques of this nature, it is premised on the view that conflict provides an opportunity to improve relationships, to create mutually satisfactory solutions and attain other positive outcomes when differences arise between and among people.

Transformational coaching

A transformational life coach incorporates many modalities available in meeting the needs of the client, from business best practices or better household financial management to personal growth and spiritual matters. This help may increase awareness and success in transforming one's life. The new millennium has brought massive economic shifts for many people, creating a need for redefining their lives. People in transition often want to address deeper convictions about what they want out of life; they want more self-awareness and self-improvement. A transformational coach aims to bring together and highlight all the possibilities that will help mold and shape the visioneering process for clients as they create a plan and execute the daily, weekly, monthly and yearly details.

ADHD coaching

ADHD coaching is a specialized type of life coaching that uses specific techniques geared toward working with the unique brain wiring of individuals with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Professional coaching is not a substitute for traditional, multimodal treatment for ADHD such as medication, diet, exercise, and other therapy.[citation needed] Coaches work with clients to help them better manage time, organize, set goals and complete projects. In addition to helping clients understand the impact ADHD has had on their lives, coaches can help clients develop "work-arounds" strategies to deal with specific challenges, and determine and use individual strengths. Coaches also help clients get a better grasp of what reasonable expectations are for them as individuals, since people with ADHD "brain wiring" often seem to need external mirrors for accurate self-awareness about their potential despite their impairment.[citation needed]

Victimisation coaching

Victimisation Coaching is a type of life coaching that educates people who consider themselves as victims of crime or those who fear victimisation. Coaches work with groups of people to assist them on how to identify and approach potentially hazardous situations.

Coaching ethics and standards

One of the challenges in the field of coaching is upholding levels of professionalism, standards and ethics. To this end, many of the coaching bodies and organisations have codes of ethics and member standards and criteria according to which they hold their members accountable in order to protect coaching clients' interests.

See also


  1. ^ Rixon, Nick, UK Coaching Academy CD "Goals and Motivations". 
  2. ^ Williams, Patrick (2007), "The history and evolution of life coaching", Therapist as life coach, an introduction for counselors and other helping professionals, W.W. Norton & Co. (New York), 
  3. ^ Peer Resources - A Guide to Credentials in Coaching
  4. ^ [1] Digest of Bills - 2004, Professions and Occupations Retrieved April 3, 2006
  5. ^ Lorber, Laura (10 April 2008). "Executive Coaching – Worth the Money?". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 12 November 2008. 
  6. ^ "The Coaching Conundrum Report 2009". BlessingWhite. 2009. Retrieved 22 January 2009. 
  7. ^ Turman, PD (2001), " Situational Coaching Styles," University of Northern Iowa, Iowa
  8. ^ The Dating Coach Is In ($125/Hour) - New York Times

Brock, Vikki G (2008), “Grounded Theory of the Roots and Emergence of Coaching ([2]). ”, unpublished dissertation.

External links


Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiquote

Coaching is the directing and training of people. Direction may include motivational speaking. Training may include seminars, workshops, and supervised practice. There are many types of coaching including Sports, Personal Development, and Business Coaching.


  • "Coaching is a co-creative relationship which allows a client to find their inner power and use their unique strengths to propel them toward their goals."
    • Chuck Franks, PCC, LCSW[1]
  • Probably my best quality as a coach is that I ask a lot of challenging questions and let the person come up with the answer.
    • Phil Dixon
  • A good coach will make his players see what they can be rather than what they are.
    • Ara Parasheghian
  • A coach is someone who can give correction without causing resentment
    • John Wooden
  • God determines how fast you're going to run; I can only help with the mechanics
  • The test of a good coach is that when they leave, others will carry on successfully.
    • unknown
  • A coach communicates in an empowering way so that their clients stay closer to who they are and what they want.
    • Jo Monson
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