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Coagulopathy
Classification and external resources
ICD-10 D65.-D68.
ICD-9 286
DiseasesDB 29158
MeSH D001778

Coagulopathy (also called clotting disorder and bleeding disorder) is a defect in the body's mechanism for blood clotting, causing bleeding diathesis.

Contents

Causes

While there are several possible causes, they generally result in excessive bleeding and a lack of clotting.

Acquired

Acquired causes of coagulopathy include anticoagulation with warfarin, liver failure, Vitamin K deficiency and disseminated intravascular coagulation.

Additionally, the haemotoxic venom from certain species of snakes can cause this condition e.g. Bothrops, rattlesnakes and other species of viper. Viral hemorrhagic fevers include dengue hemorrhagic fever and Dengue Shock Syndrome

Leukemia may also cause coagulopathy.

Autoimmune causes of acquired coagulation disorders

There are autoimmune causes of coagulation disorders. They include acquired antibodies to coagulation factors; termed inhibitors of coagulation. The main inhibitor is directed against Factor VIII Another example is antiphospholipid syndrome.

Genetic

Some people lack genes that typically produce the protein coagulation factors that allow normal clotting. Various types of Hemophilia and von Willebrand disease are the major genetic disorders associated with coagulopathy.

Rare examples are Bernard-Soulier syndrome, Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome and [[Glanzmann's thrombasthenia]

Symptoms

Symptom Disorders
Petechiae (red spots)
Purpura and ecchymoses
  • Acute leukemia[2]
  • Chronic leukemia[2]
  • Vitamin K deficiency[3]
Blood in stool
  • Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome, especially in infancy[1]
  • Acute leukemia[2]
Bleeding gingiva (gums)
  • Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome[1]
  • Acute leukemia[2]
  • Chronic leukemia[2]
Prolonged nose bleeds
  • Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome[1]

Complications

Following are some complications of coagulopathies, some of them caused by their treatments:

Complication Disorders
Soft tissue bleeding, e.g. deep-muscle bleeding, leading to swelling, numbness or pain of a limb.
Joint damage, potentially with severe pain and even destruction of the joint and development of arthritis
Retinal bleeding
  • Acute leukemia[2]
Transfusion transmitted infection, from blood transfusions that are given as treatment.
  • Hemophilia[4]
Adverse reactions to clotting factor treatment.
  • Hemophilia[4]
Anemia
Exsanguination (bleeding to death)
Cerebral hemorrhage

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d e Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome The International Patient Organisation for Primary Immunodeficiencies (IPOPI).
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i Disorders of thrombosis and hemostasis: clinical and laboratory practice. Page Rodger L. Bick. Edition 3, illustrated. ISBN: 0397516908, 9780397516902. 446 pages
  3. ^ a b c Vitamin K Deficiency eMedicine. Author: Pankaj Patel, MD. Coauthor(s): Mageda Mikhail, MD, Assistant Professor. Updated: Dec 18, 2008
  4. ^ a b c d Hemophilia Complications By Mayo Clinic staff. May 16, 2009
  5. ^ a b c d Von Willebrand disease --> Complications By Mayo Clinic staff. Feb. 7, 2009







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