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RG-59 flexible coaxial cable.
^ RG-6 Coaxial Cable TV Cable 25' .
  • Cables Coax Video CATV, RG-6 Coaxial Cable TV Cable 8' 16 September 2009 21:49 UTC www.dataworlddirect.com [Source type: General]

^ RG-6 Coaxial Cable TV Cable 12' .
  • Cables Coax Video CATV, RG-6 Coaxial Cable TV Cable 8' 16 September 2009 21:49 UTC www.dataworlddirect.com [Source type: General]

^ Cable Clamps For RG-8X or RG-59 .


A: outer plastic sheath
B: woven copper shield
C: inner dielectric insulator
D: copper core
.Coaxial cable, or coax, is an electrical cable with an inner conductor surrounded by a tubular insulating layer typically of a flexible material with a high dielectric constant, all of which are surrounded by a conductive layer called the shield (typically of fine woven wire for flexibility, or of a thin metallic foil), and finally covered with a thin insulating layer on the outside.^ Pull back the shielding and the thin aluminum foil cover.

^ It consists of a central conducting wire surrounded by an insulating layer (dielectric), which in turn is surrounded by a conducting sheath and a further insulating layer.

^ Coaxial Cable - A high capacity cable used in comunications and video, commonly called coax.

.The term coaxial comes from the inner conductor and the outer shield sharing the same geometric axis.^ These specifications are: Impedance Attenuation Outer diameter Cable weight Conductor size is another important criteria that should be considered while selecting coaxial cables and triaxial cables.
  • Coaxial Cables,Electrical Coaxial Cables,Coaxial Cables Exporters,Coaxial Cables Manufacturer 16 September 2009 21:49 UTC www.allelectricalproducts.com [Source type: Reference]

^ By restricting electromagnetic waves to the area between the centre conductor and the shield, coaxial cable protects the signal from unwanted interference caused by external electromagnetic fields.

^ Coaxial - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia In geometry, coaxial means that two or more forms share a common axis; it is the three-dimensional linear analog of "concentric".
  • coax - Search Results - MSN Encarta 16 September 2009 21:49 UTC encarta.msn.com [Source type: General]

Coaxial cable was invented by English engineer and mathematician Oliver Heaviside, who first patented the design in 1880.[1]
.Coaxial cable is used as a transmission line for radio frequency signals, in applications such as connecting radio transmitters and receivers with their antennas, computer network (Internet) connections, and distributing cable television signals.^ It was used in both transmitting applications and antenna networks.
  • Coaxial Cables, Coax Cable Assemblies 16 September 2009 21:49 UTC cables-unlimited-inc.com [Source type: Reference]
  • Coaxial cablesePanorama.net - Circuits</c_title></em> <c_date>25 September 2009 13:12 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.epanorama.net/documents/wiring/coaxcable.html">www.epanorama.net</a> [Source type: Reference]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="127"><a href="#citable__127"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>This is used at the end of the coaxial cable.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>RG58 Coax Cable, Speaker, Serial</c_title></em> <c_date>25 September 2009 13:12 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.cat5s.com/rg58coaxcable.html">www.cat5s.com</a> [Source type: Reference]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="127"><a href="#citable__127"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>It can provide signals for radio antenna connections as well as the electronics used in aviation.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>RG58 Coax Cable, Speaker, Serial</c_title></em> <c_date>25 September 2009 13:12 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.cat5s.com/rg58coaxcable.html">www.cat5s.com</a> [Source type: Reference]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__36" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="36">One advantage of coax over other types of transmission line is that in an ideal coaxial cable the <a href="/Electromagnetic_field" title="Electromagnetic field">electromagnetic field</a> carrying the signal exists only in the space between the inner and outer <a href="/Electrical_conductor" title="Electrical conductor">conductors</a>.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="36"><a href="#citable__36"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The signal is carried between the cable shield and the center conductor.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coaxial Cables, Coax Cable Assemblies</c_title></em> <c_date>16 September 2009 21:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://cables-unlimited-inc.com/coaxial_cables.html">cables-unlimited-inc.com</a> [Source type: Reference]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="36"><a href="#citable__36"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Coaxial cables and systems connected to them are not ideal.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coaxial Cables, Coax Cable Assemblies</c_title></em> <c_date>16 September 2009 21:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://cables-unlimited-inc.com/coaxial_cables.html">cables-unlimited-inc.com</a> [Source type: Reference]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="36"><a href="#citable__36"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Coaxial cable is used as a high-frequency transmission line for carrying a high-frequency or broadband signal.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coaxial Cables,Electrical Coaxial Cables,Coaxial Cables Exporters,Coaxial Cables Manufacturer</c_title></em> <c_date>16 September 2009 21:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.allelectricalproducts.com/coaxial-cables.html">www.allelectricalproducts.com</a> [Source type: Reference]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__17" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="17">This allows coaxial cable runs to be installed next to metal objects such as gutters without the power losses that occur in other transmission lines, and provides protection of the signal from external <a href="/Electromagnetic_interference" title="Electromagnetic interference">electromagnetic interference</a>.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="17"><a href="#citable__17"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>They cover running coaxial cable on p.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>House in Progress Diary: Installing Coaxial Cable</c_title></em> <c_date>25 September 2009 13:12 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.houseinprogress.net/archives/000118.html">www.houseinprogress.net</a> [Source type: General]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="17"><a href="#citable__17"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Coaxial cables exists because we can't run a open-wire line near metallic objects or bury it.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coaxial Cables, Coax Cable Assemblies</c_title></em> <c_date>16 September 2009 21:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://cables-unlimited-inc.com/coaxial_cables.html">cables-unlimited-inc.com</a> [Source type: Reference]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="17"><a href="#citable__17"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Coaxial cable is used as a high-frequency transmission line for carrying a high-frequency or broadband signal.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coaxial Cables,Electrical Coaxial Cables,Coaxial Cables Exporters,Coaxial Cables Manufacturer</c_title></em> <c_date>16 September 2009 21:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.allelectricalproducts.com/coaxial-cables.html">www.allelectricalproducts.com</a> [Source type: Reference]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> </div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__14" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="14">Coaxial cable should not be confused with other <a href="/Shielded_cable" title="Shielded cable">shielded cable</a> used for carrying lower frequency signals such as <a href="/Audio_signal" title="Audio signal">audio signals</a>.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="14"><a href="#citable__14"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>This is used at the end of the coaxial cable.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>RG58 Coax Cable, Speaker, Serial</c_title></em> <c_date>25 September 2009 13:12 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.cat5s.com/rg58coaxcable.html">www.cat5s.com</a> [Source type: Reference]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="14"><a href="#citable__14"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The signal is carried between the cable shield and the center conductor.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coaxial Cables, Coax Cable Assemblies</c_title></em> <c_date>16 September 2009 21:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://cables-unlimited-inc.com/coaxial_cables.html">cables-unlimited-inc.com</a> [Source type: Reference]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="14"><a href="#citable__14"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Coaxial cable is used as a high-frequency transmission line for carrying a high-frequency or broadband signal.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coaxial Cables,Electrical Coaxial Cables,Coaxial Cables Exporters,Coaxial Cables Manufacturer</c_title></em> <c_date>16 September 2009 21:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.allelectricalproducts.com/coaxial-cables.html">www.allelectricalproducts.com</a> [Source type: Reference]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__103" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="103">Shielded cable is similar in that it consists of a central wire or wires surrounded by a tubular shield conductor, but it is not constructed with the precise conductor spacing needed to function efficiently as a radio frequency <a href="/Transmission_line" title="Transmission line">transmission line</a>.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="103"><a href="#citable__103"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Coaxial cable consists of an insulated center conductor which is covered with a shield.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coaxial Cables, Coax Cable Assemblies</c_title></em> <c_date>16 September 2009 21:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://cables-unlimited-inc.com/coaxial_cables.html">cables-unlimited-inc.com</a> [Source type: Reference]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="103"><a href="#citable__103"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Coaxial Dynamics is a USA based (located in Cleveland-Ohio) leading manufacturer for over 30 years of precision equipment for the measurement and termination of Radio Frequency power.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coaxial Dynamics</c_title></em> <c_date>16 September 2009 21:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.asicon.be/GB/coaxial.html">www.asicon.be</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="103"><a href="#citable__103"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Amplification of RF (radio-frequency) signals in the new coaxial transmission cable was actually greater than 3 db (decibels) per meter per meter.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> Skyhighgain Coax </c_title></em> <c_date>16 September 2009 21:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.nrcdxas.org/articles/coax.html">www.nrcdxas.org</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> </div> <table id="wikipedia_toc" class="toc"> <tr> <td> <div id="wikipedia_toctitle"> <h2>Contents</h2> </div> <ul> <li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-1"><a href="#How_it_works"><span class="tocnumber">1</span> <span class="toctext">How it works</span></a></li> <li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-2"><a href="#Description"><span class="tocnumber">2</span> <span class="toctext">Description</span></a></li> <li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-3"><a href="#Signal_propagation"><span class="tocnumber">3</span> <span class="toctext">Signal propagation</span></a></li> <li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-4"><a href="#Connectors"><span class="tocnumber">4</span> <span class="toctext">Connectors</span></a></li> <li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-5"><a href="#Important_parameters"><span class="tocnumber">5</span> <span class="toctext">Important parameters</span></a> <ul> <li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-6"><a href="#Physical_parameters"><span class="tocnumber">5.1</span> <span class="toctext">Physical parameters</span></a></li> <li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-7"><a href="#Fundamental_electrical_parameters"><span class="tocnumber">5.2</span> <span class="toctext">Fundamental electrical parameters</span></a></li> <li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-8"><a href="#Derived_electrical_parameters"><span class="tocnumber">5.3</span> <span class="toctext">Derived electrical parameters</span></a></li> <li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-9"><a href="#Significance_of_impedance"><span class="tocnumber">5.4</span> <span class="toctext">Significance of impedance</span></a></li> </ul> </li> <li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-10"><a href="#Issues"><span class="tocnumber">6</span> <span class="toctext">Issues</span></a> <ul> <li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-11"><a href="#Signal_leakage"><span class="tocnumber">6.1</span> <span class="toctext">Signal leakage</span></a></li> <li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-12"><a href="#Ground_loops"><span class="tocnumber">6.2</span> <span class="toctext">Ground loops</span></a></li> <li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-13"><a href="#Induction"><span class="tocnumber">6.3</span> <span class="toctext">Induction</span></a> <ul> <li class="toclevel-3 tocsection-14"><a href="#Transformer_effect"><span class="tocnumber">6.3.1</span> <span class="toctext">Transformer effect</span></a></li> </ul> </li> <li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-15"><a href="#Common_mode_current_and_radiation"><span class="tocnumber">6.4</span> <span class="toctext">Common mode current and radiation</span></a></li> <li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-16"><a href="#Miscellaneous"><span class="tocnumber">6.5</span> <span class="toctext">Miscellaneous</span></a></li> </ul> </li> <li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-17"><a href="#Standards"><span class="tocnumber">7</span> <span class="toctext">Standards</span></a> <ul> <li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-18"><a href="#References_for_this_section"><span class="tocnumber">7.1</span> <span class="toctext">References for this section</span></a></li> </ul> </li> <li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-19"><a href="#Uses"><span class="tocnumber">8</span> <span class="toctext">Uses</span></a></li> <li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-20"><a href="#Types"><span class="tocnumber">9</span> <span class="toctext">Types</span></a> <ul> <li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-21"><a href="#Hard_line"><span class="tocnumber">9.1</span> <span class="toctext">Hard line</span></a></li> <li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-22"><a href="#Radiating"><span class="tocnumber">9.2</span> <span class="toctext">Radiating</span></a></li> <li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-23"><a href="#RG.2F6"><span class="tocnumber">9.3</span> <span class="toctext">RG/6</span></a></li> <li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-24"><a href="#Triaxial_cable"><span class="tocnumber">9.4</span> <span class="toctext">Triaxial cable</span></a></li> <li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-25"><a href="#Twin-axial_cable"><span class="tocnumber">9.5</span> <span class="toctext">Twin-axial cable</span></a></li> <li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-26"><a href="#Biaxial_cable"><span class="tocnumber">9.6</span> <span class="toctext">Biaxial cable</span></a></li> <li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-27"><a href="#Semi-rigid"><span class="tocnumber">9.7</span> <span class="toctext">Semi-rigid</span></a></li> </ul> </li> <li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-28"><a href="#Interference_and_troubleshooting"><span class="tocnumber">10</span> <span class="toctext">Interference and troubleshooting</span></a></li> <li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-29"><a href="#History"><span class="tocnumber">11</span> <span class="toctext">History</span></a></li> <li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-30"><a href="#See_also"><span class="tocnumber">12</span> <span class="toctext">See also</span></a></li> <li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-31"><a href="#References"><span class="tocnumber">13</span> <span class="toctext">References</span></a></li> </ul> </td> </tr> </table> <script type="text/javascript"> //<![CDATA[ if (window.showTocToggle) { var tocShowText = "show"; var tocHideText = "hide"; showTocToggle(); } //]]> </script> <h2><span class="mw-headline" id="wikipedia_How_it_works">How it works</span></h2> <div class="thumb tright"> <div class="thumbinner" style="width:302px;"><img alt="" src="http://images-mediawiki-sites.thefullwiki.org/03/1/9/5/6022479449135933.png" width="300" height="210" class="thumbimage" /> <div class="thumbcaption"> <div class="magnify"><img src="http://images-mediawiki-sites.thefullwiki.org/09/7/4/4/3695493113783710.png" width="15" height="11" alt="" /></div> Coaxial cable cutaway</div> </div> </div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__51" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="51">Like any electrical power cord, coaxial cable conducts <a href="/AC" title="AC">AC</a> electric current between locations.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="51"><a href="#citable__51"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Coaxial Dynamics is a USA based (located in Cleveland-Ohio) leading manufacturer for over 30 years of precision equipment for the measurement and termination of Radio Frequency power.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coaxial Dynamics</c_title></em> <c_date>16 September 2009 21:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.asicon.be/GB/coaxial.html">www.asicon.be</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="51"><a href="#citable__51"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Coaxial cable is most likely a dead-end cabling scheme for large office environments, although it may occasionally be used for long backbone connections.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coaxial Cable Media (Linktionary term) </c_title></em> <c_date>16 September 2009 21:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.linktionary.com/c/coax.html">www.linktionary.com</a> [Source type: General]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="51"><a href="#citable__51"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The total voltage between the two coaxial conductors is double the single-ended voltage, but the net current in each is the same, so the differential impedance between two coax cable used in a differential configuration would be 100 ohms.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coaxial cables</TITLE<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=iso-8859-1" /><title>ePanorama.net - Circuits</c_title></em> <c_date>25 September 2009 13:12 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.epanorama.net/documents/wiring/coaxcable.html">www.epanorama.net</a> [Source type: Reference]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__71" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="71">Like these other cables, it has two conductors, the central wire and the tubular shield.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="71"><a href="#citable__71"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>These cables are defined by their two cylindrical conductors with a common axis.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coaxial Cables - Mil C M17 Low Loss Coaxial Cables | Thermax</c_title></em> <c_date>16 September 2009 21:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.thermaxcdt.com/coaxial.html">www.thermaxcdt.com</a> [Source type: Reference]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="71"><a href="#citable__71"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>These specifications are: Impedance Attenuation Outer diameter Cable weight Conductor size is another important criteria that should be considered while selecting coaxial cables and triaxial cables.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coaxial Cables,Electrical Coaxial Cables,Coaxial Cables Exporters,Coaxial Cables Manufacturer</c_title></em> <c_date>16 September 2009 21:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.allelectricalproducts.com/coaxial-cables.html">www.allelectricalproducts.com</a> [Source type: Reference]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="71"><a href="#citable__71"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Depending on the carrier technology used and other factors, twisted pair copper wire and optical fiber are alternatives to coaxial cable.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> What is coaxial cable? - Definition from Whatis.com - see also: coax, cable </c_title></em> <c_date>16 September 2009 21:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://searchdatacenter.techtarget.com/sDefinition/0,,sid80_gci211806,00.html">searchdatacenter.techtarget.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__20" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="20">At any moment the current is traveling outward from the source in one of the conductors, and returning in the other.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="20"><a href="#citable__20"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>I've only seen two commercial source of these switches, one from Array Solutions , the other from Microham .</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Remote Coax Switch</c_title></em> <c_date>16 September 2009 21:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.qsl.net/k5lxp/projects/CoaxSwitch/CoaxSwitch.html">www.qsl.net</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> However, since it is <a href="/Alternating_current" title="Alternating current">alternating current</a>, the current reverses direction many times a second. <a name="citable__85" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="85">Coaxial cable differs from other cable because it is designed to carry <a href="/Radio_frequency" title="Radio frequency">radio frequency</a> current.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="85"><a href="#citable__85"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>This combined signal is carried over a coaxial cable.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>IR Over Coax - HomeTech Solutions</c_title></em> <c_date>16 September 2009 21:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.hometech.com/infrared/coax.html">www.hometech.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="85"><a href="#citable__85"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Amplification of RF (radio-frequency) signals in the new coaxial transmission cable was actually greater than 3 db (decibels) per meter per meter.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> Skyhighgain Coax </c_title></em> <c_date>16 September 2009 21:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.nrcdxas.org/articles/coax.html">www.nrcdxas.org</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="85"><a href="#citable__85"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Coaxial cable is called "coaxial" because it includes one physical channel that carries the signal surrounded (after a layer of insulation) by another concentric physical channel, both running along the same axis.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> What is coaxial cable? - Definition from Whatis.com - see also: coax, cable </c_title></em> <c_date>16 September 2009 21:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://searchdatacenter.techtarget.com/sDefinition/0,,sid80_gci211806,00.html">searchdatacenter.techtarget.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__59" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="59">This has a <a href="/Frequency" title="Frequency">frequency</a> much higher than the 50 or 60 Hz used in <a href="/Mains_(electric_power)" title="Mains (electric power)" class="mw-redirect">mains (electric power)</a> cables, reversing direction millions to billions of times per second.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="59"><a href="#citable__59"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Power Cable and Welding, Hook-up Battery Cable From 10-Gauge to 4/0 Size Prices are per foot, select part, and change quantity in shopping cart!</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coax</c_title></em> <c_date>16 September 2009 21:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.chargercharger.com/Coax.html">www.chargercharger.com</a> [Source type: General]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="59"><a href="#citable__59"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Amplification of RF (radio-frequency) signals in the new coaxial transmission cable was actually greater than 3 db (decibels) per meter per meter.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> Skyhighgain Coax </c_title></em> <c_date>16 September 2009 21:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.nrcdxas.org/articles/coax.html">www.nrcdxas.org</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="59"><a href="#citable__59"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The cable has a characteristic impedance, usually 50 or 75 ohms, so transmitters must be selected to be appropriate to the characteristics of the coax cable being used.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>The FOA Reference For Fiber Optics - Coax Cable in Premises Cabling -</c_title></em> <c_date>16 September 2009 21:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.thefoa.org/tech/ref/premises/coax.html">www.thefoa.org</a> [Source type: Reference]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> Like other types of radio <a href="/Transmission_line" title="Transmission line">transmission line</a>, this requires special construction to prevent power losses:</div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__37" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="37">If an ordinary wire is used to carry high frequency currents, the wire acts as an <a href="/Antenna_(radio)" title="Antenna (radio)">antenna</a>, and the high frequency currents radiate off the wire as <a href="/Radio_wave" title="Radio wave" class="mw-redirect">radio waves</a>, causing power losses.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="37"><a href="#citable__37"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>And here, when I say high power, I mean relative to the frequency in use.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coaxial Coax Cable and moisture and burying</c_title></em> <c_date>16 September 2009 21:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.nr6ca.org/coaxcaution.html">www.nr6ca.org</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="37"><a href="#citable__37"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Coaxial cable is designed to carry high-frequency signals, and to protect those signals against electromagnetic interference (EMI) from external sources.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coaxial Cable FAQs</c_title></em> <c_date>16 September 2009 21:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://cableorganizer.com/articles/coaxial-cable-faqs.html">cableorganizer.com</a> [Source type: General]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="37"><a href="#citable__37"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The higher conductivity of copper is not needed, since the high frequency of TV signals (~100 MHz) causes the signal to remain on the surface of the conductor, called the “skin effect.” Satellite TV however uses the center conductor for power and needs the lower resistance of an all-copper conductor, plus it uses higher frequency cable.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>The FOA Reference For Fiber Optics - Coax Cable in Premises Cabling -</c_title></em> <c_date>16 September 2009 21:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.thefoa.org/tech/ref/premises/coax.html">www.thefoa.org</a> [Source type: Reference]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__63" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="63">To prevent this, in coaxial cable one of the conductors is formed into a tube and encloses the other conductor.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="63"><a href="#citable__63"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>These specifications are: Impedance Attenuation Outer diameter Cable weight Conductor size is another important criteria that should be considered while selecting coaxial cables and triaxial cables.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coaxial Cables,Electrical Coaxial Cables,Coaxial Cables Exporters,Coaxial Cables Manufacturer</c_title></em> <c_date>16 September 2009 21:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.allelectricalproducts.com/coaxial-cables.html">www.allelectricalproducts.com</a> [Source type: Reference]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="63"><a href="#citable__63"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Andrew is one of the most well known manufacturers of low loss, high quality coaxial cables.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Andrew AVA7-50 Heliax Coax Cable</c_title></em> <c_date>25 September 2009 13:12 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.surplusserver.com/products/Antennas-Coax/246/Andrew_AVA7-50_Heliax_Coax_Cable.html">www.surplusserver.com</a> [Source type: General]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="63"><a href="#citable__63"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Depending on the carrier technology used and other factors, twisted pair copper wire and optical fiber are alternatives to coaxial cable.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> What is coaxial cable? - Definition from Whatis.com - see also: coax, cable </c_title></em> <c_date>16 September 2009 21:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://searchdatacenter.techtarget.com/sDefinition/0,,sid80_gci211806,00.html">searchdatacenter.techtarget.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> This confines the radio waves from the central conductor to the space inside the tube. <a name="citable__10" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="10">To prevent the outer conductor, or shield, from radiating, it is connected to <a href="/Electrical_ground" title="Electrical ground" class="mw-redirect">electrical ground</a>, keeping it at a constant potential.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="10"><a href="#citable__10"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The outer channel acts as a shield (or ground).</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coaxial Cables,Electrical Coaxial Cables,Coaxial Cables Exporters,Coaxial Cables Manufacturer</c_title></em> <c_date>16 September 2009 21:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.allelectricalproducts.com/coaxial-cables.html">www.allelectricalproducts.com</a> [Source type: Reference]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="10"><a href="#citable__10"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>About Coax Coax consists of a center wire surrounded by insulation, which is in turn surrounded by an outer conductor of braided wire that serves as a grounded shield, enclosed in an outer jacket of insulation.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>How To & Help - Extending a Coaxial Cable Line</c_title></em> <c_date>16 September 2009 21:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.cornerhardware.com/howto/ht051.html">www.cornerhardware.com</a> [Source type: General]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="10"><a href="#citable__10"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The "First Cut" end cuts the coax outer jacket, shield, and core, but not the center conductor.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coax & PL259s</c_title></em> <c_date>16 September 2009 21:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.k0bg.com/coax.html">www.k0bg.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> </div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block">The dimensions and spacing of the conductors are uniform. <a name="citable__99" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="99">Any abrupt change in the spacing of the two conductors along the cable tends to reflect radio frequency power back toward the source, causing a condition called <a href="/Standing_wave" title="Standing wave">standing waves</a>.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="99"><a href="#citable__99"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Selection depends much on the frequency the cable is to be used for, the length of the cable run and the power level the cable will see.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coaxial cable for ham radio</c_title></em> <c_date>25 September 2009 13:12 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.nr6ca.org/coaxcable.html">www.nr6ca.org</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="99"><a href="#citable__99"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Cutoff frequency: It is the boundary at which energy entering the cable begins to be reflected instead of being transmitted.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coaxial Cables,Electrical Coaxial Cables,Coaxial Cables Exporters,Coaxial Cables Manufacturer</c_title></em> <c_date>16 September 2009 21:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.allelectricalproducts.com/coaxial-cables.html">www.allelectricalproducts.com</a> [Source type: Reference]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="99"><a href="#citable__99"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Keep in mind that the two biggest factors that cause coaxial cable to fail are sun exposure (yes they get sunburnt just like we do) and moisture.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coaxial Coax Cable and moisture and burying</c_title></em> <c_date>16 September 2009 21:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.nr6ca.org/coaxcaution.html">www.nr6ca.org</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> This acts as a bottleneck, reducing the amount of power reaching the destination end of the cable. <a name="citable__64" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="64">To hold the shield at a uniform distance from the central conductor, the space between the two is filled with a semirigid plastic <a href="/Dielectric" title="Dielectric">dielectric</a>.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="64"><a href="#citable__64"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Coaxial cable - or just plain "coax," as it's often nicknamed - is a common type of shielded data transmission cable, which is made up of two conductors that are coaxially oriented, but separated by a layer of dielectric insulation.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coaxial Cable FAQs</c_title></em> <c_date>16 September 2009 21:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://cableorganizer.com/articles/coaxial-cable-faqs.html">cableorganizer.com</a> [Source type: General]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="64"><a href="#citable__64"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The signal is carried between the cable shield and the center conductor.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coaxial Cables, Coax Cable Assemblies</c_title></em> <c_date>16 September 2009 21:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://cables-unlimited-inc.com/coaxial_cables.html">cables-unlimited-inc.com</a> [Source type: Reference]</li><li> <em><c_title>Coaxial cables</TITLE<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=iso-8859-1" /><title>ePanorama.net - Circuits</c_title></em> <c_date>25 September 2009 13:12 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.epanorama.net/documents/wiring/coaxcable.html">www.epanorama.net</a> [Source type: Reference]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="64"><a href="#citable__64"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>This is very similar to coaxial cable except the spacing between center conductor and shield is not carefully controlled during manufacture, resulting in non-constant impedance.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coaxial cables</TITLE<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=iso-8859-1" /><title>ePanorama.net - Circuits</c_title></em> <c_date>25 September 2009 13:12 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.epanorama.net/documents/wiring/coaxcable.html">www.epanorama.net</a> [Source type: Reference]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__4" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="4">Manufacturers specify a minimum bend radius<sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-1"><span>[</span>2<span>]</span></a></sup> to prevent kinks that would cause reflections.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="4"><a href="#citable__4"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>If you use RG8X, remember it's easily crushed, and the minimum bend radius is twice that of RG58.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coax & PL259s</c_title></em> <c_date>16 September 2009 21:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.k0bg.com/coax.html">www.k0bg.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="4"><a href="#citable__4"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>If you just can't help yourself, and you use RG8 type coax, remember the minimum bend radius is about 6 to 8 inches so care must be taken when installing it.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coax & PL259s</c_title></em> <c_date>16 September 2009 21:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.k0bg.com/coax.html">www.k0bg.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__136" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="136">The connectors used with coax are designed to hold the correct spacing through the body of the connector.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="136"><a href="#citable__136"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>This series is designed to ground the outer shield of a triax or coax contact directly to the shell of the connectors.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Sabritec Coax Connectors</c_title></em> <c_date>16 September 2009 21:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.sabritec.com/products/coax.html">www.sabritec.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="136"><a href="#citable__136"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>CRIMP TOOL Designed to be used to crimp "D" sub pins, 22-28 AWG, butt connectors and small solderless...</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>9' MINI 75 OHM COAX CABLE | AllElectronics.com</c_title></em> <c_date>25 September 2009 13:12 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.allelectronics.com/make-a-store/item/MRG-9/9-MINI-75-OHM-COAX-CABLE/-/1.html">www.allelectronics.com</a> [Source type: General]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="136"><a href="#citable__136"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>White, flat, 75 ohm coax used to run through a window area.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Cellular coax cable - 400, 240, RG58</c_title></em> <c_date>16 September 2009 21:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.powerfulsignal.com/Wilson/Coax.html">www.powerfulsignal.com</a> [Source type: Reference]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> </div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__96" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="96">Each type of coaxial cable has a <a href="/Characteristic_impedance" title="Characteristic impedance">characteristic impedance</a> depending on its dimensions and materials used, which is the ratio of the voltage to the current in the cable.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="96"><a href="#citable__96"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Coaxial cable - Various types .</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>50 ohm coaxial cable - Various types</c_title></em> <c_date>16 September 2009 21:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.pcs-electronics.com/coaxial-cable-various-types-p-357.html">www.pcs-electronics.com</a> [Source type: General]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="96"><a href="#citable__96"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Characteristic impedance is not the only detail in cable.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coaxial cables</TITLE<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=iso-8859-1" /><title>ePanorama.net - Circuits</c_title></em> <c_date>25 September 2009 13:12 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.epanorama.net/documents/wiring/coaxcable.html">www.epanorama.net</a> [Source type: Reference]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="96"><a href="#citable__96"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Often used coaxial cable types .</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coaxial cables</TITLE<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=iso-8859-1" /><title>ePanorama.net - Circuits</c_title></em> <c_date>25 September 2009 13:12 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.epanorama.net/documents/wiring/coaxcable.html">www.epanorama.net</a> [Source type: Reference]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__62" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="62">In order to prevent reflections at the destination end of the cable from causing standing waves, any equipment the cable is attached to must present an impedance equal to the characteristic impedance (called 'matching').</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="62"><a href="#citable__62"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Characteristic impedance is not the only detail in cable.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coaxial cables</TITLE<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=iso-8859-1" /><title>ePanorama.net - Circuits</c_title></em> <c_date>25 September 2009 13:12 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.epanorama.net/documents/wiring/coaxcable.html">www.epanorama.net</a> [Source type: Reference]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="62"><a href="#citable__62"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The cable has a characteristic impedance, usually 50 or 75 ohms, so transmitters must be selected to be appropriate to the characteristics of the coax cable being used.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>The FOA Reference For Fiber Optics - Coax Cable in Premises Cabling -</c_title></em> <c_date>16 September 2009 21:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.thefoa.org/tech/ref/premises/coax.html">www.thefoa.org</a> [Source type: Reference]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="62"><a href="#citable__62"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>A cable with a matched termination resistance at the other end appears in all respects resistive, no matter whether it is an inch long or a mile.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coaxial cables</TITLE<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=iso-8859-1" /><title>ePanorama.net - Circuits</c_title></em> <c_date>25 September 2009 13:12 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.epanorama.net/documents/wiring/coaxcable.html">www.epanorama.net</a> [Source type: Reference]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__94" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="94">Thus the equipment "appears" electrically similar to a continuation of the cable, preventing reflections.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="94"><a href="#citable__94"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Attaching a Coaxial Cable Connector Coaxial cable connects to electrical equipment with F-plugs, which clamp onto the stripped cable and screw or slide onto the device or splitter.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>How To & Help - Extending a Coaxial Cable Line</c_title></em> <c_date>16 September 2009 21:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.cornerhardware.com/howto/ht051.html">www.cornerhardware.com</a> [Source type: General]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__125" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="125">Common values of characteristic impedance for coaxial cable are 50 and 75 ohms.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="125"><a href="#citable__125"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The coaxial cables recognized are 75-ohm cables using BNC connectors.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>The FOA Reference For Fiber Optics - Coax Cable in Premises Cabling -</c_title></em> <c_date>16 September 2009 21:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.thefoa.org/tech/ref/premises/coax.html">www.thefoa.org</a> [Source type: Reference]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="125"><a href="#citable__125"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Characteristic impedance is not the only detail in cable.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coaxial cables</TITLE<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=iso-8859-1" /><title>ePanorama.net - Circuits</c_title></em> <c_date>25 September 2009 13:12 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.epanorama.net/documents/wiring/coaxcable.html">www.epanorama.net</a> [Source type: Reference]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="125"><a href="#citable__125"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Video uses 75 ohm cable.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>The FOA Reference For Fiber Optics - Coax Cable in Premises Cabling -</c_title></em> <c_date>16 September 2009 21:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.thefoa.org/tech/ref/premises/coax.html">www.thefoa.org</a> [Source type: Reference]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> </div> <h2><span class="mw-headline" id="wikipedia_Description">Description</span></h2> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__43" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="43">Coaxial cable design choices affect physical size, frequency performance, attenuation, power handling capabilities, flexibility, strength and cost.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="43"><a href="#citable__43"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Coaxial cable is designed to carry high-frequency signals, and to protect those signals against electromagnetic interference (EMI) from external sources.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coaxial Cable FAQs</c_title></em> <c_date>16 September 2009 21:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://cableorganizer.com/articles/coaxial-cable-faqs.html">cableorganizer.com</a> [Source type: General]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="43"><a href="#citable__43"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>These physical differences are what make RG-59 best suited to low-frequency transmissions and short cable runs, and RG-6 the ideal choice to carry high frequency signals over long distances.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coaxial Cable FAQs</c_title></em> <c_date>16 September 2009 21:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://cableorganizer.com/articles/coaxial-cable-faqs.html">cableorganizer.com</a> [Source type: General]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="43"><a href="#citable__43"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>We also offer cable design, cable engineering, cable manufacturing and injection molding services for other Custom Computer Cables, such as: SCSI, USB, Firewire, Cat5E, Coaxial, etc.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Cables Coax LAN Ethernet, Thinnet Coaxial Cable With BNC Connectors 8'</c_title></em> <c_date>16 September 2009 21:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.dataworlddirect.com/thinnet-coax.html">www.dataworlddirect.com</a> [Source type: General]</li><li> <em><c_title>Cables Coax Video CATV, RG-6 Coaxial Cable TV Cable 8'</c_title></em> <c_date>16 September 2009 21:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.dataworlddirect.com/rg6-coax.html">www.dataworlddirect.com</a> [Source type: General]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__53" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="53">The inner conductor might be solid or stranded; stranded is more flexible.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="53"><a href="#citable__53"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The RG214 coaxial cable has bare copper inner conductor,solid polyethylene dielectric and PVC jacket....</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coaxial Cable, Coaxial Cable Manufacturers & Suppliers</c_title></em> <c_date>16 September 2009 21:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.alibaba.com/showroom/Coaxial_Cable.html">www.alibaba.com</a> [Source type: General]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="53"><a href="#citable__53"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Center conductors can be solid or stranded, the dielectric can be solid, foam, and air with the latter not just air.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coax & PL259s</c_title></em> <c_date>16 September 2009 21:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.k0bg.com/coax.html">www.k0bg.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="53"><a href="#citable__53"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The inner conductor is typically a straight wire, either solid or stranded and the outer conductor is typically a shield that might be braided or a foil.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coaxial cables</TITLE<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=iso-8859-1" /><title>ePanorama.net - Circuits</c_title></em> <c_date>25 September 2009 13:12 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.epanorama.net/documents/wiring/coaxcable.html">www.epanorama.net</a> [Source type: Reference]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__133" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="133">To get better high-frequency performance, the inner conductor may be silver plated.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="133"><a href="#citable__133"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>While some manufacturers and A/V enthusiasts will tout the benefits of silver and oxygen-free copper (OFC), the truth is that – used as core conductors – these metals generally don’t perform any better than standard or tinned copper.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coaxial Cable FAQs</c_title></em> <c_date>16 September 2009 21:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://cableorganizer.com/articles/coaxial-cable-faqs.html">cableorganizer.com</a> [Source type: General]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="133"><a href="#citable__133"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Outer conductor: 16/5/0.1, Silver plated annealed copper wire .</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coaxial Cables, RF Cables,RF Coaxial Cables, Coaxial Connector, Mini Coaxial Cables,Antenna Cables,1.13mm, 1.32mm, 1.37, 1.48mm,RG178, RG316, RG174,0.81mm,Manufacturer, Supplier, Factory</c_title></em> <c_date>16 September 2009 21:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.rfcoaxcable.com/coaxial_cables/rf_coaxial_cables.html">www.rfcoaxcable.com</a> [Source type: Reference]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="133"><a href="#citable__133"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Cable Makeup The Inner conductor is made from plain, tinned or Silver plated Copper Single wire Solid or Standard, the very thin inner conductors are made of copper coated steel wire to provide High Tensile Strength.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coaxial Cables</c_title></em> <c_date>16 September 2009 21:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://catalogs.indiamart.com/products/coaxial-cables.html">catalogs.indiamart.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__1" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="1">Sometimes copper-plated iron wire is used as an inner conductor.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="1"><a href="#citable__1"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Outer conductor: 16/3/0.1, Silver plated annealed copper wire .</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coaxial Cables, RF Cables,RF Coaxial Cables, Coaxial Connector, Mini Coaxial Cables,Antenna Cables,1.13mm, 1.32mm, 1.37, 1.48mm,RG178, RG316, RG174,0.81mm,Manufacturer, Supplier, Factory</c_title></em> <c_date>16 September 2009 21:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.rfcoaxcable.com/coaxial_cables/rf_coaxial_cables.html">www.rfcoaxcable.com</a> [Source type: Reference]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="1"><a href="#citable__1"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Outer conductor: 16/5/0.1, Silver plated annealed copper wire .</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coaxial Cables, RF Cables,RF Coaxial Cables, Coaxial Connector, Mini Coaxial Cables,Antenna Cables,1.13mm, 1.32mm, 1.37, 1.48mm,RG178, RG316, RG174,0.81mm,Manufacturer, Supplier, Factory</c_title></em> <c_date>16 September 2009 21:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.rfcoaxcable.com/coaxial_cables/rf_coaxial_cables.html">www.rfcoaxcable.com</a> [Source type: Reference]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="1"><a href="#citable__1"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Any accumulated corrosion on either the inner or outer conductor would not be as good of a conductor as the bare copper further adding to losses.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coaxial Coax Cable and moisture and burying</c_title></em> <c_date>16 September 2009 21:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.nr6ca.org/coaxcaution.html">www.nr6ca.org</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> </div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__8" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="8">The insulator surrounding the inner conductor may be solid plastic, a foam plastic, or may be air with spacers supporting the inner wire.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="8"><a href="#citable__8"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The white insulation surrounding the center copper wire should come flush with the whole in the inside center of the connector.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>How to install coax cable end connector fittings.</c_title></em> <c_date>25 September 2009 13:12 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.dennysantennaservice.com/Coax_cable_end_connector_installation.html">www.dennysantennaservice.com</a> [Source type: General]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="8"><a href="#citable__8"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>About Coax Coax consists of a center wire surrounded by insulation, which is in turn surrounded by an outer conductor of braided wire that serves as a grounded shield, enclosed in an outer jacket of insulation.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>How To & Help - Extending a Coaxial Cable Line</c_title></em> <c_date>16 September 2009 21:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.cornerhardware.com/howto/ht051.html">www.cornerhardware.com</a> [Source type: General]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="8"><a href="#citable__8"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The white insulation will bottom out in the connector, and the inner conductor will protrude through the hole in the end of the plug.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>How To & Help - Extending a Coaxial Cable Line</c_title></em> <c_date>16 September 2009 21:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.cornerhardware.com/howto/ht051.html">www.cornerhardware.com</a> [Source type: General]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__49" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="49">The properties of dielectric control some electrical properties of the cable.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="49"><a href="#citable__49"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>I can't overlook some of the "air" dielectric cables that have come on the market in the last few years.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coaxial Coax Cable and moisture and burying</c_title></em> <c_date>16 September 2009 21:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.nr6ca.org/coaxcaution.html">www.nr6ca.org</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="49"><a href="#citable__49"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>There is also a property of controlled impedance cables known as dispersion, where different frequencies travel at slightly different velocities and with slightly different loss.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coaxial cables</TITLE<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=iso-8859-1" /><title>ePanorama.net - Circuits</c_title></em> <c_date>25 September 2009 13:12 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.epanorama.net/documents/wiring/coaxcable.html">www.epanorama.net</a> [Source type: Reference]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="49"><a href="#citable__49"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Essential properties of coaxial cables are their characteristic impedance and its regularity, their attenuation as well as their behaviour concerning the electrical separation of cable and environment, i.e.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coaxial cables</TITLE<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=iso-8859-1" /><title>ePanorama.net - Circuits</c_title></em> <c_date>25 September 2009 13:12 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.epanorama.net/documents/wiring/coaxcable.html">www.epanorama.net</a> [Source type: Reference]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__15" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="15">A common choice is a solid <a href="/Polyethylene" title="Polyethylene">polyethylene</a> (PE) insulator, used in lower-loss cables.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="15"><a href="#citable__15"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Semirigid Coaxial Cable uses a solid tubular outer conductor, so that all the RF energy is contained within the cable.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coaxial cables</TITLE<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=iso-8859-1" /><title>ePanorama.net - Circuits</c_title></em> <c_date>25 September 2009 13:12 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.epanorama.net/documents/wiring/coaxcable.html">www.epanorama.net</a> [Source type: Reference]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="15"><a href="#citable__15"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Most common coaxial cable impedances in use in various applications are 50 ohms and 75 ohms.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coaxial Cables, Coax Cable Assemblies</c_title></em> <c_date>16 September 2009 21:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://cables-unlimited-inc.com/coaxial_cables.html">cables-unlimited-inc.com</a> [Source type: Reference]</li><li> <em><c_title>Coaxial cables</TITLE<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=iso-8859-1" /><title>ePanorama.net - Circuits</c_title></em> <c_date>25 September 2009 13:12 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.epanorama.net/documents/wiring/coaxcable.html">www.epanorama.net</a> [Source type: Reference]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="15"><a href="#citable__15"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Our cable filling compounds are used for Insulated Conductor Telecom Cables, PIJF/JFTC. They are cost-effective methods for waterproofing copper telephone cable.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coaxial Cables</c_title></em> <c_date>16 September 2009 21:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://catalogs.indiamart.com/products/coaxial-cables.html">catalogs.indiamart.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__48" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="48">Solid <a href="/Teflon" title="Teflon" class="mw-redirect">Teflon</a> (PTFE) is also used as an insulator.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="48"><a href="#citable__48"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>If you must use them, at least get those with Teflon center insulators and preferably silver plated.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coaxial Coax Cable and moisture and burying</c_title></em> <c_date>16 September 2009 21:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.nr6ca.org/coaxcaution.html">www.nr6ca.org</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="48"><a href="#citable__48"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>This product is suitable for the solid PTFE insulated coaxial RF cable transmitting RFsignals in ra ...</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>coaxial cable - Selling Leads for coaxial cable - Manufacturers, Exporters, Suppliers, Traders, Companies, Factories</c_title></em> <c_date>16 September 2009 21:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.ec21.com/offers/coaxial_cable.html">www.ec21.com</a> [Source type: General]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__92" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="92">Some coaxial lines use air (or some other gas) and have spacers to keep the inner conductor from touching the shield.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="92"><a href="#citable__92"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Our coaxial line is used in several integrated avionic, navigation and communication systems, as well as for satellites for military, commercial, space and telecom applications.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Sabritec Coax Connectors</c_title></em> <c_date>16 September 2009 21:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.sabritec.com/products/coax.html">www.sabritec.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="92"><a href="#citable__92"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The best coax you could purchase that would have virtually no loss would be one where the center conductor is suspended in air with the shield not touching the conductor.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Types of Coax</c_title></em> <c_date>16 September 2009 21:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.amsat.org/amsat/articles/houston-net/coax.html">www.amsat.org</a> [Source type: General]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="92"><a href="#citable__92"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>In some communications applications a pair of 50 ohm coaxial cables are used to transmit a differential signal on two non-interacting pieces of 50-ohm coax.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coaxial cables</TITLE<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=iso-8859-1" /><title>ePanorama.net - Circuits</c_title></em> <c_date>25 September 2009 13:12 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.epanorama.net/documents/wiring/coaxcable.html">www.epanorama.net</a> [Source type: Reference]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> </div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__50" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="50">Conventional coaxial cable has braided copper wire forming the shield.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="50"><a href="#citable__50"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Coaxial cables exists because we can't run open-wire line near metallic objects (such as ducting) or bury it.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coaxial cables</TITLE<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=iso-8859-1" /><title>ePanorama.net - Circuits</c_title></em> <c_date>25 September 2009 13:12 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.epanorama.net/documents/wiring/coaxcable.html">www.epanorama.net</a> [Source type: Reference]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="50"><a href="#citable__50"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The quad-shield coax cable has an ad ditional layer of foil tape and braided wire to make it nearly impossible for stray signals to leave or enter the cable.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Wholesale Coax Cable,Coax Cable, RG 6 Coax Cable, RG6 Coax Cable, RG6 Coax Cables,Reeled RG 6 Coax Cable, Pull Box Coax Cable</c_title></em> <c_date>16 September 2009 21:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.americantechsupply.com/cables_coax.html">www.americantechsupply.com</a> [Source type: General]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="50"><a href="#citable__50"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>It contains an insulated solid or stranded wire surrounded by a solid or braided metallic shield, wrapped in a plastic cover.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coaxial Cables</c_title></em> <c_date>16 September 2009 21:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.majorcustomcable.com/coaxial.html">www.majorcustomcable.com</a> [Source type: General]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__80" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="80">This allows the cable to be flexible, but it also means there are gaps in the shield layer, and the inner dimension of the shield varies slightly because the braid cannot be flat.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="80"><a href="#citable__80"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The quad-shield coax cable has an ad ditional layer of foil tape and braided wire to make it nearly impossible for stray signals to leave or enter the cable.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Wholesale Coax Cable,Coax Cable, RG 6 Coax Cable, RG6 Coax Cable, RG6 Coax Cables,Reeled RG 6 Coax Cable, Pull Box Coax Cable</c_title></em> <c_date>16 September 2009 21:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.americantechsupply.com/cables_coax.html">www.americantechsupply.com</a> [Source type: General]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="80"><a href="#citable__80"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Because the electromagnetic field carrying the signal exists (ideally) only in the space between the inner and outer conductors, it cannot interfere with or suffer interference from external electromagnetic fields.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coaxial Cables</c_title></em> <c_date>16 September 2009 21:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://catalogs.indiamart.com/products/coaxial-cables.html">catalogs.indiamart.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="80"><a href="#citable__80"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>There is also a property of controlled impedance cables known as dispersion, where different frequencies travel at slightly different velocities and with slightly different loss.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coaxial cables</TITLE<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=iso-8859-1" /><title>ePanorama.net - Circuits</c_title></em> <c_date>25 September 2009 13:12 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.epanorama.net/documents/wiring/coaxcable.html">www.epanorama.net</a> [Source type: Reference]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> Sometimes the braid is silver plated. <a name="citable__11" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="11">For better shield performance, some cables have a double-layer shield.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="11"><a href="#citable__11"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The quad-shield coax cable has an ad ditional layer of foil tape and braided wire to make it nearly impossible for stray signals to leave or enter the cable.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Wholesale Coax Cable,Coax Cable, RG 6 Coax Cable, RG6 Coax Cable, RG6 Coax Cables,Reeled RG 6 Coax Cable, Pull Box Coax Cable</c_title></em> <c_date>16 September 2009 21:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.americantechsupply.com/cables_coax.html">www.americantechsupply.com</a> [Source type: General]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="11"><a href="#citable__11"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>It is a very low loss, double shielded, high quality coaxial cable.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coaxial Cable</c_title></em> <c_date>16 September 2009 21:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.radioworks.com/ccoax.html">www.radioworks.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="11"><a href="#citable__11"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Coaxial Cables We offer high quality coaxial cables, giving excellent performance consistently due to superior shielding from interferences.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coaxial Cables</c_title></em> <c_date>16 September 2009 21:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://catalogs.indiamart.com/products/coaxial-cables.html">catalogs.indiamart.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__61" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="61">The shield might be just two braids, but it is more common now to have a thin foil shield covered by a wire braid.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="61"><a href="#citable__61"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Pull back the shielding and the thin aluminum foil cover.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Crimping a coax cable</c_title></em> <c_date>25 September 2009 13:12 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.diy-home-theater-design.com/crimping-cable.html">www.diy-home-theater-design.com</a> [Source type: General]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="61"><a href="#citable__61"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>It contains an insulated solid or stranded wire surrounded by a solid or braided metallic shield, wrapped in a plastic cover.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coaxial Cables</c_title></em> <c_date>16 September 2009 21:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.majorcustomcable.com/coaxial.html">www.majorcustomcable.com</a> [Source type: General]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="61"><a href="#citable__61"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>About Coax Coax consists of a center wire surrounded by insulation, which is in turn surrounded by an outer conductor of braided wire that serves as a grounded shield, enclosed in an outer jacket of insulation.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>How To & Help - Extending a Coaxial Cable Line</c_title></em> <c_date>16 September 2009 21:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.cornerhardware.com/howto/ht051.html">www.cornerhardware.com</a> [Source type: General]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__113" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="113">Some cables may invest in more than two shield layers, such as "quad-shield" which uses four alternating layers of foil and braid.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="113"><a href="#citable__113"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Note that with quad shield cable, there may be two layers of braid and one layer of foil to fold back.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>How Do I...Install Coax Connectors - HomeTech Solutions</c_title></em> <c_date>16 September 2009 21:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.hometech.com/learn/coaxterm.html">www.hometech.com</a> [Source type: General]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="113"><a href="#citable__113"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Here are some of the more common cables currently in use.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>The FOA Reference For Fiber Optics - Coax Cable in Premises Cabling -</c_title></em> <c_date>16 September 2009 21:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.thefoa.org/tech/ref/premises/coax.html">www.thefoa.org</a> [Source type: Reference]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="113"><a href="#citable__113"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The quad-shield coax cable has an ad ditional layer of foil tape and braided wire to make it nearly impossible for stray signals to leave or enter the cable.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Wholesale Coax Cable,Coax Cable, RG 6 Coax Cable, RG6 Coax Cable, RG6 Coax Cables,Reeled RG 6 Coax Cable, Pull Box Coax Cable</c_title></em> <c_date>16 September 2009 21:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.americantechsupply.com/cables_coax.html">www.americantechsupply.com</a> [Source type: General]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__132" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="132">Other shield designs sacrifice flexibility for better performance; some shields are a solid metal tube.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="132"><a href="#citable__132"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Some coax cables are designed for direct burial and others are not.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coaxial Coax Cable and moisture and burying</c_title></em> <c_date>16 September 2009 21:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.nr6ca.org/coaxcaution.html">www.nr6ca.org</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="132"><a href="#citable__132"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>In some high frequency flexible coaxial cables the outer shield consists if normal braids and an extra aluminium foil shield to give better high frequency shielding.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coaxial cables</TITLE<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=iso-8859-1" /><title>ePanorama.net - Circuits</c_title></em> <c_date>25 September 2009 13:12 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.epanorama.net/documents/wiring/coaxcable.html">www.epanorama.net</a> [Source type: Reference]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__145" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="145">Those cables cannot take sharp bends, as the shield will kink, causing losses in the cable.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="145"><a href="#citable__145"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>This changes the characteristic impedance of the cable causing VSWR increases and additional signal losses.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coaxial Coax Cable and moisture and burying</c_title></em> <c_date>16 September 2009 21:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.nr6ca.org/coaxcaution.html">www.nr6ca.org</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="145"><a href="#citable__145"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>It is a very low loss, double shielded, high quality coaxial cable.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coaxial Cable</c_title></em> <c_date>16 September 2009 21:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.radioworks.com/ccoax.html">www.radioworks.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="145"><a href="#citable__145"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Like all cables, coax cables need to be installed carefully, as overstressing by pulling by too much tension or kinking the cable can cause transmission problems.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>The FOA Reference For Fiber Optics - Coax Cable in Premises Cabling -</c_title></em> <c_date>16 September 2009 21:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.thefoa.org/tech/ref/premises/coax.html">www.thefoa.org</a> [Source type: Reference]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> </div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__57" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="57">Coaxial cables require an internal structure of an insulating (dielectric) material to maintain the spacing between the center conductor and shield.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="57"><a href="#citable__57"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The signal is carried between the cable shield and the center conductor.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coaxial cables</TITLE<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=iso-8859-1" /><title>ePanorama.net - Circuits</c_title></em> <c_date>25 September 2009 13:12 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.epanorama.net/documents/wiring/coaxcable.html">www.epanorama.net</a> [Source type: Reference]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="57"><a href="#citable__57"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Coaxial cable consists of an insulated ceter conductor which is covered with a shield.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coaxial cables</TITLE<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=iso-8859-1" /><title>ePanorama.net - Circuits</c_title></em> <c_date>25 September 2009 13:12 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.epanorama.net/documents/wiring/coaxcable.html">www.epanorama.net</a> [Source type: Reference]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="57"><a href="#citable__57"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The dielectric of a coaxial cable serves but one purpose - to maintain physical support and a constant spacing between the inner conductor and the outer shield.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coaxial cables</TITLE<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=iso-8859-1" /><title>ePanorama.net - Circuits</c_title></em> <c_date>25 September 2009 13:12 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.epanorama.net/documents/wiring/coaxcable.html">www.epanorama.net</a> [Source type: Reference]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__126" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="126">The <a href="/Dielectric" title="Dielectric">dielectric</a> losses increase in this order: Ideal dielectric (no loss), vacuum, air, <a href="/Polytetrafluoroethylene" title="Polytetrafluoroethylene">Polytetrafluoroethylene</a> (PTFE), polyethylene foam, and solid polyethylene.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="126"><a href="#citable__126"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>It features a solid center conductor and a tough foamed-polyethylene dielectric.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coaxial Cable</c_title></em> <c_date>16 September 2009 21:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.radioworks.com/ccoax.html">www.radioworks.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="126"><a href="#citable__126"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The best coax you could purchase that would have virtually no loss would be one where the center conductor is suspended in air with the shield not touching the conductor.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Types of Coax</c_title></em> <c_date>16 September 2009 21:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.amsat.org/amsat/articles/houston-net/coax.html">www.amsat.org</a> [Source type: General]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="126"><a href="#citable__126"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The RG214 coaxial cable has bare copper inner conductor,solid polyethylene dielectric and PVC jacket....</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coaxial Cable, Coaxial Cable Manufacturers & Suppliers</c_title></em> <c_date>16 September 2009 21:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.alibaba.com/showroom/Coaxial_Cable.html">www.alibaba.com</a> [Source type: General]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> A low relative permittivity allows for higher frequency usage. An inhomogeneous dielectric needs to be compensated by a non-circular conductor to avoid current hot-spots.</div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__74" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="74">Most cables have a solid dielectric; others have a foam dielectric which contains as much air as possible to reduce the losses.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="74"><a href="#citable__74"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>I can't overlook some of the "air" dielectric cables that have come on the market in the last few years.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coaxial Coax Cable and moisture and burying</c_title></em> <c_date>16 September 2009 21:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.nr6ca.org/coaxcaution.html">www.nr6ca.org</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="74"><a href="#citable__74"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The RG214 coaxial cable has bare copper inner conductor,solid polyethylene dielectric and PVC jacket....</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coaxial Cable, Coaxial Cable Manufacturers & Suppliers</c_title></em> <c_date>16 September 2009 21:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.alibaba.com/showroom/Coaxial_Cable.html">www.alibaba.com</a> [Source type: General]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="74"><a href="#citable__74"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>It is possible to build cables at other impedances, but those mentioned earlier are the standard ones that are easy to get.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coaxial cables</TITLE<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=iso-8859-1" /><title>ePanorama.net - Circuits</c_title></em> <c_date>25 September 2009 13:12 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.epanorama.net/documents/wiring/coaxcable.html">www.epanorama.net</a> [Source type: Reference]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__86" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="86">Foam coax will have about 15% less attenuation but can absorb moisture—especially at its many surfaces—in humid environments, increasing the loss.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="86"><a href="#citable__86"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>What about moisture absorption in coax cable?</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coaxial Coax Cable and moisture and burying</c_title></em> <c_date>16 September 2009 21:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.nr6ca.org/coaxcaution.html">www.nr6ca.org</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="86"><a href="#citable__86"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Wilson 15' RG58 Low Loss Foam Coax 951103 .</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Wilson 15' RG58 Low Loss Foam Coax 951103 - Free Shipping.</c_title></em> <c_date>16 September 2009 21:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.accessorygeeks.com/wilson15coax.html">www.accessorygeeks.com</a> [Source type: General]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="86"><a href="#citable__86"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Wilson 400 (LMR-400 equivalent) coax cable is lighter (less expensive to ship) and more flexible than the Wilson 9913 cable while having close to the same loss.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coaxial Cable Connectors, Coaxial Connectors, Coaxial Cable Tools</c_title></em> <c_date>25 September 2009 13:12 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.alternativewireless.com/cellular-antennas/adapters.html">www.alternativewireless.com</a> [Source type: General]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> Stars or spokes are even better but more expensive. <a name="citable__56" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="56">Still more expensive were the air spaced coaxials used for some inter-city communications in the middle 20th Century.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="56"><a href="#citable__56"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>In some communications applications a pair of 50 ohm coaxial cables are used to transmit a differential signal on two non-interacting pieces of 50-ohm coax.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coaxial cables</TITLE<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=iso-8859-1" /><title>ePanorama.net - Circuits</c_title></em> <c_date>25 September 2009 13:12 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.epanorama.net/documents/wiring/coaxcable.html">www.epanorama.net</a> [Source type: Reference]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="56"><a href="#citable__56"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Coaxial Cables The Coaxial Cables are referred to as “coax” which are not only the most used cables but the least expensive one in the market.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coaxial Cables</c_title></em> <c_date>16 September 2009 21:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://catalogs.indiamart.com/products/coaxial-cables.html">catalogs.indiamart.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="56"><a href="#citable__56"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Some of the key features of our R.F and coaxial wires are as follows: more...</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coaxial Cables</c_title></em> <c_date>16 September 2009 21:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://catalogs.indiamart.com/products/coaxial-cables.html">catalogs.indiamart.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> The center conductor was suspended by polyethylene discs every few centimeters. <a name="citable__27" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="27">In a miniature coaxial cable such as an RG-62 type, the inner conductor is supported by a spiral strand of polyethylene, so that an air space exists between most of the conductor and the inside of the jacket.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="27"><a href="#citable__27"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Coaxial cable - Various types .</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>50 ohm coaxial cable - Various types</c_title></em> <c_date>16 September 2009 21:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.pcs-electronics.com/coaxial-cable-various-types-p-357.html">www.pcs-electronics.com</a> [Source type: General]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="27"><a href="#citable__27"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The RG214 coaxial cable has bare copper inner conductor,solid polyethylene dielectric and PVC jacket....</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coaxial Cable, Coaxial Cable Manufacturers & Suppliers</c_title></em> <c_date>16 September 2009 21:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.alibaba.com/showroom/Coaxial_Cable.html">www.alibaba.com</a> [Source type: General]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="27"><a href="#citable__27"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Often used coaxial cable types .</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coaxial cables</TITLE<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=iso-8859-1" /><title>ePanorama.net - Circuits</c_title></em> <c_date>25 September 2009 13:12 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.epanorama.net/documents/wiring/coaxcable.html">www.epanorama.net</a> [Source type: Reference]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__89" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="89">The lower <a href="/Permittivity" title="Permittivity">dielectric constant</a> of air allows for a greater inner diameter at the same impedance and a greater outer diameter at the same cutoff frequency, lowering <a href="/Ohms_law" title="Ohms law" class="mw-redirect">ohmic losses</a>.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="89"><a href="#citable__89"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The characteristic impedance of a coaxial cable is determined by the relation of outer conductor diameter to inner conductor diameter and by the dielectric constant of the insulation.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coaxial cables</TITLE<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=iso-8859-1" /><title>ePanorama.net - Circuits</c_title></em> <c_date>25 September 2009 13:12 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.epanorama.net/documents/wiring/coaxcable.html">www.epanorama.net</a> [Source type: Reference]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="89"><a href="#citable__89"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>BNC connector has much lower cutoff frequency and higher loss than the N connector.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coaxial cables</TITLE<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=iso-8859-1" /><title>ePanorama.net - Circuits</c_title></em> <c_date>25 September 2009 13:12 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.epanorama.net/documents/wiring/coaxcable.html">www.epanorama.net</a> [Source type: Reference]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="89"><a href="#citable__89"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>There is also a property of controlled impedance cables known as dispersion, where different frequencies travel at slightly different velocities and with slightly different loss.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coaxial cables</TITLE<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=iso-8859-1" /><title>ePanorama.net - Circuits</c_title></em> <c_date>25 September 2009 13:12 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.epanorama.net/documents/wiring/coaxcable.html">www.epanorama.net</a> [Source type: Reference]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__39" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="39">Inner conductors are sometimes silver plated to smooth the surface and reduce losses due to <a href="/Skin_effect" title="Skin effect">skin effect</a>.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="39"><a href="#citable__39"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Any accumulated corrosion on either the inner or outer conductor would not be as good of a conductor as the bare copper further adding to losses.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coaxial Coax Cable and moisture and burying</c_title></em> <c_date>16 September 2009 21:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.nr6ca.org/coaxcaution.html">www.nr6ca.org</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="39"><a href="#citable__39"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Outer conductor: 16/5/0.1, Silver plated annealed copper wire .</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coaxial Cables, RF Cables,RF Coaxial Cables, Coaxial Connector, Mini Coaxial Cables,Antenna Cables,1.13mm, 1.32mm, 1.37, 1.48mm,RG178, RG316, RG174,0.81mm,Manufacturer, Supplier, Factory</c_title></em> <c_date>16 September 2009 21:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.rfcoaxcable.com/coaxial_cables/rf_coaxial_cables.html">www.rfcoaxcable.com</a> [Source type: Reference]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="39"><a href="#citable__39"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Cable Makeup The Inner conductor is made from plain, tinned or Silver plated Copper Single wire Solid or Standard, the very thin inner conductors are made of copper coated steel wire to provide High Tensile Strength.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coaxial Cables</c_title></em> <c_date>16 September 2009 21:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://catalogs.indiamart.com/products/coaxial-cables.html">catalogs.indiamart.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> A rough surface prolongs the path for the current and concentrates the current at peaks and thus increases ohmic losses.</div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__28" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="28">The insulating jacket can be made from many materials.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="28"><a href="#citable__28"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Jacket (Insulation) Material .</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>COAX CABLE RG179 B/U 75 OHM - 9179B BR002</c_title></em> <c_date>25 September 2009 13:12 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://parts.digikey.com/1/parts/34994-coax-cable-rg179-b-u-75-ohm-9179b-br002.html">parts.digikey.com</a> [Source type: Reference]</li><li> <em><c_title>COAX CABLE RG179 B/U 75 OHM - 9179B BR005</c_title></em> <c_date>25 September 2009 13:12 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://parts.digikey.com/1/parts/34993-coax-cable-rg179-b-u-75-ohm-9179b-br005.html">parts.digikey.com</a> [Source type: Reference]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> A common choice is <a href="/PVC" title="PVC" class="mw-redirect">PVC</a>, but some applications may require fire-resistant materials. Outdoor applications may require the jacket to resist <a href="/Ultraviolet_light" title="Ultraviolet light" class="mw-redirect">ultraviolet light</a> and <a href="/Oxidation" title="Oxidation" class="mw-redirect">oxidation</a>. For internal chassis connections the insulating jacket may be omitted.</div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__83" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="83">The ends of coaxial cables are usually made with <a href="/RF_connector" title="RF connector">RF connectors</a>.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="83"><a href="#citable__83"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>RG6 coaxial cable with F connector...</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>F Coaxial, F Coaxial Manufacturers & Suppliers</c_title></em> <c_date>16 September 2009 21:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.alibaba.com/showroom/F_Coaxial.html">www.alibaba.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="83"><a href="#citable__83"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Coax cable end connector installation .</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coax Cable - TV Antenna </c_title></em> <c_date>16 September 2009 21:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.dennysantennaservice.com/1693437.html">www.dennysantennaservice.com</a> [Source type: General]</li><li> <em><c_title>How to install coax cable end connector fittings.</c_title></em> <c_date>25 September 2009 13:12 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.dennysantennaservice.com/Coax_cable_end_connector_installation.html">www.dennysantennaservice.com</a> [Source type: General]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="83"><a href="#citable__83"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>This high quality RG6 coax cable is quad shielded and 75 ohm and comes with an F Male connector on each end.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coaxial Cable Connectors, Coaxial Connectors, Coaxial Cable Tools</c_title></em> <c_date>25 September 2009 13:12 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.alternativewireless.com/cellular-antennas/adapters.html">www.alternativewireless.com</a> [Source type: General]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> </div> <h2><span class="mw-headline" id="wikipedia_Signal_propagation">Signal propagation</span></h2> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__76" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="76">Open wire <a href="/Transmission_lines" title="Transmission lines" class="mw-redirect">transmission lines</a> have the property that the <a href="/Electromagnetic_wave" title="Electromagnetic wave" class="mw-redirect">electromagnetic wave</a> propagating down the line extends into the space surrounding the parallel wires.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="76"><a href="#citable__76"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Coaxial cables exists because we can't run open-wire line near metallic objects (such as ducting) or bury it.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coaxial cables</TITLE<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=iso-8859-1" /><title>ePanorama.net - Circuits</c_title></em> <c_date>25 September 2009 13:12 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.epanorama.net/documents/wiring/coaxcable.html">www.epanorama.net</a> [Source type: Reference]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="76"><a href="#citable__76"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Cable filling Compounds Offering CTC gel which is a tacky water repelling petroleum wax compound with good insulation properties for filling into Coaxial Cable Wires & Telecommunication Cables .</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coaxial Cables</c_title></em> <c_date>16 September 2009 21:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://catalogs.indiamart.com/products/coaxial-cables.html">catalogs.indiamart.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> These lines have low loss, but also have undesirable characteristics. <a name="citable__98" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="98">They cannot be bent, twisted or otherwise shaped without changing their <a href="/Characteristic_impedance" title="Characteristic impedance">characteristic impedance</a>, causing reflection of the signal back toward the source.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="98"><a href="#citable__98"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>If this frequency-dependent change in impedance is large enough, the cable will be impedance-matched to the load and source at some frequencies, and mismatched at others.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coaxial cables</TITLE<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=iso-8859-1" /><title>ePanorama.net - Circuits</c_title></em> <c_date>25 September 2009 13:12 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.epanorama.net/documents/wiring/coaxcable.html">www.epanorama.net</a> [Source type: Reference]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="98"><a href="#citable__98"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>There exist an effect that characteristic impedance of a cable if changed with frequency.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coaxial cables</TITLE<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=iso-8859-1" /><title>ePanorama.net - Circuits</c_title></em> <c_date>25 September 2009 13:12 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.epanorama.net/documents/wiring/coaxcable.html">www.epanorama.net</a> [Source type: Reference]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__26" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="26">They also cannot be run along or attached to anything <a href="/Conductive" title="Conductive" class="mw-redirect">conductive</a>, as the extended fields will induce currents in the nearby conductors causing unwanted <a href="/Radiation" title="Radiation">radiation</a> and detuning of the line.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="26"><a href="#citable__26"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Common mode currents can play havoc with automatic controllers , and can cause some radios to shut down especially when they're remoted.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coax & PL259s</c_title></em> <c_date>16 September 2009 21:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.k0bg.com/coax.html">www.k0bg.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__52" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="52">Coaxial lines solve this problem by confining the electromagnetic wave to the area inside the cable, between the center conductor and the shield.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="52"><a href="#citable__52"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The signal is carried between the cable shield and the center conductor.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coaxial cables</TITLE<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=iso-8859-1" /><title>ePanorama.net - Circuits</c_title></em> <c_date>25 September 2009 13:12 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.epanorama.net/documents/wiring/coaxcable.html">www.epanorama.net</a> [Source type: Reference]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="52"><a href="#citable__52"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Coaxial cable consists of an insulated ceter conductor which is covered with a shield.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coaxial cables</TITLE<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=iso-8859-1" /><title>ePanorama.net - Circuits</c_title></em> <c_date>25 September 2009 13:12 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.epanorama.net/documents/wiring/coaxcable.html">www.epanorama.net</a> [Source type: Reference]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="52"><a href="#citable__52"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Coaxial cables exists because we can't run open-wire line near metallic objects (such as ducting) or bury it.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coaxial cables</TITLE<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=iso-8859-1" /><title>ePanorama.net - Circuits</c_title></em> <c_date>25 September 2009 13:12 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.epanorama.net/documents/wiring/coaxcable.html">www.epanorama.net</a> [Source type: Reference]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__105" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="105">The transmission of energy in the line occurs totally through the <a href="/Dielectric" title="Dielectric">dielectric</a> inside the cable between the conductors.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="105"><a href="#citable__105"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The total voltage between the two coaxial conductors is double the single-ended voltage, but the net current in each is the same, so the differential impedance between two coax cable used in a differential configuration would be 100 ohms.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coaxial cables</TITLE<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=iso-8859-1" /><title>ePanorama.net - Circuits</c_title></em> <c_date>25 September 2009 13:12 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.epanorama.net/documents/wiring/coaxcable.html">www.epanorama.net</a> [Source type: Reference]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="105"><a href="#citable__105"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The RG214 coaxial cable has bare copper inner conductor,solid polyethylene dielectric and PVC jacket....</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coaxial Cable, Coaxial Cable Manufacturers & Suppliers</c_title></em> <c_date>16 September 2009 21:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.alibaba.com/showroom/Coaxial_Cable.html">www.alibaba.com</a> [Source type: General]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="105"><a href="#citable__105"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Our standard cables have an 18-gauge solid copper center conductor surrounded by a premium foam dielectric.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Wholesale Coax Cable,Coax Cable, RG 6 Coax Cable, RG6 Coax Cable, RG6 Coax Cables,Reeled RG 6 Coax Cable, Pull Box Coax Cable</c_title></em> <c_date>16 September 2009 21:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.americantechsupply.com/cables_coax.html">www.americantechsupply.com</a> [Source type: General]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__46" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="46">Coaxial lines can therefore be bent and moderately twisted without negative effects, and they can be strapped to conductive supports without inducing unwanted currents in them.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="46"><a href="#citable__46"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Even the best of mobile installations will have some common mode currents flowing on the coaxial feed line.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coax & PL259s</c_title></em> <c_date>16 September 2009 21:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.k0bg.com/coax.html">www.k0bg.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__82" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="82">In radio-frequency applications up to a few <a href="/Gigahertz" title="Gigahertz" class="mw-redirect">gigahertz</a>, the wave propagates primarily in the <a href="/Transverse_electric_and_magnetic_mode" title="Transverse electric and magnetic mode" class="mw-redirect">transverse electric magnetic (TEM) mode</a>, which means that the electric and magnetic fields are both perpendicular to the direction of propagation.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="82"><a href="#citable__82"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Coaxial Cable The co-axial cables are designed the transmit radio frequency electrical energy from one point to electronic system equipments.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coaxial Cables</c_title></em> <c_date>16 September 2009 21:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://catalogs.indiamart.com/products/coaxial-cables.html">catalogs.indiamart.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> However, above a certain <a href="/Cutoff_frequency" title="Cutoff frequency">cutoff frequency</a>, transverse electric (TE) and/or transverse magnetic (TM) modes can also propagate, as they do in a <a href="/Waveguide" title="Waveguide">waveguide</a>. <a name="citable__13" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="13">It is usually undesirable to transmit signals above the cutoff frequency, since it may cause multiple modes with different <a href="/Phase_velocity" title="Phase velocity">phase velocities</a> to propagate, <a href="/Wave_interference" title="Wave interference" class="mw-redirect">interfering</a> with each other.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="13"><a href="#citable__13"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>RF Coaxial Cables High frequency transmition of signals in computer complexes, industrial electronics & maintenance is being done with the help of Co-axial cables.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coaxial Cables</c_title></em> <c_date>16 September 2009 21:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://catalogs.indiamart.com/products/coaxial-cables.html">catalogs.indiamart.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="13"><a href="#citable__13"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>This usually yields better results than splitting the line at each device, which may weaken the signal.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>How To & Help - Extending a Coaxial Cable Line</c_title></em> <c_date>16 September 2009 21:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.cornerhardware.com/howto/ht051.html">www.cornerhardware.com</a> [Source type: General]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="13"><a href="#citable__13"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>There is also a property of controlled impedance cables known as dispersion, where different frequencies travel at slightly different velocities and with slightly different loss.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coaxial cables</TITLE<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=iso-8859-1" /><title>ePanorama.net - Circuits</c_title></em> <c_date>25 September 2009 13:12 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.epanorama.net/documents/wiring/coaxcable.html">www.epanorama.net</a> [Source type: Reference]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> The outer diameter is roughly inversely proportional to the <a href="/Cutoff_frequency" title="Cutoff frequency">cutoff frequency</a>. <a name="citable__142" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="142">A propagating surface-wave mode that does not involve or require the outer shield but only a <a href="/Single-wire_transmission_line" title="Single-wire transmission line">single central conductor</a> also exists in coax but this mode is effectively suppressed in coax of conventional geometry and common impedance.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="142"><a href="#citable__142"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>About Coax Coax consists of a center wire surrounded by insulation, which is in turn surrounded by an outer conductor of braided wire that serves as a grounded shield, enclosed in an outer jacket of insulation.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>How To & Help - Extending a Coaxial Cable Line</c_title></em> <c_date>16 September 2009 21:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.cornerhardware.com/howto/ht051.html">www.cornerhardware.com</a> [Source type: General]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="142"><a href="#citable__142"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The total voltage between the two coaxial conductors is double the single-ended voltage, but the net current in each is the same, so the differential impedance between two coax cable used in a differential configuration would be 100 ohms.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coaxial cables</TITLE<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=iso-8859-1" /><title>ePanorama.net - Circuits</c_title></em> <c_date>25 September 2009 13:12 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.epanorama.net/documents/wiring/coaxcable.html">www.epanorama.net</a> [Source type: Reference]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="142"><a href="#citable__142"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Normally this does not present a problem; however, if a higher degree of shielding is required, semirigid coaxial cable is recommended.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coaxial cables</TITLE<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=iso-8859-1" /><title>ePanorama.net - Circuits</c_title></em> <c_date>25 September 2009 13:12 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.epanorama.net/documents/wiring/coaxcable.html">www.epanorama.net</a> [Source type: Reference]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__123" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="123">Electric field lines for this <a href="http://www.corridor.biz/FullArticle.pdf" class="external text" rel="nofollow">TM</a> mode have a longitudinal component and require line lengths of a half-wavelength or longer.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="123"><a href="#citable__123"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>This factor affects the overall electrical performance of the coax and thus needs to be accounted for when determining the true half wave length .</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>The Defpom coax length page</c_title></em> <c_date>16 September 2009 21:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.radiomods.co.nz/coaxlength.html">www.radiomods.co.nz</a> [Source type: General]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> </div> <h2><span class="mw-headline" id="wikipedia_Connectors">Connectors</span></h2> <div class="thumb tright"> <div class="thumbinner" style="width:222px;"><img alt="" src="http://images-mediawiki-sites.thefullwiki.org/08/1/6/8/45861562204841401.jpg" width="220" height="231" class="thumbimage" /> <div class="thumbcaption"> <div class="magnify"><img src="http://images-mediawiki-sites.thefullwiki.org/09/7/4/4/3695493113783710.png" width="15" height="11" alt="" /></div> A coaxial connector (male <a href="/N_connector" title="N connector">N-type</a>).</div> </div> </div> <div class="rellink relarticle mainarticle">Main article: <a href="/RF_connector" title="RF connector">RF connector</a></div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__65" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="65">Coaxial connectors are designed to maintain a coaxial form across the connection and have the same well-defined impedance as the attached cable.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="65"><a href="#citable__65"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>RG6 coaxial cable with F connector...</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>F Coaxial, F Coaxial Manufacturers & Suppliers</c_title></em> <c_date>16 September 2009 21:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.alibaba.com/showroom/F_Coaxial.html">www.alibaba.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="65"><a href="#citable__65"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Coaxial cables and systems connected to them are not ideal.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coaxial cables</TITLE<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=iso-8859-1" /><title>ePanorama.net - Circuits</c_title></em> <c_date>25 September 2009 13:12 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.epanorama.net/documents/wiring/coaxcable.html">www.epanorama.net</a> [Source type: Reference]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="65"><a href="#citable__65"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The length has nothing to do with a coaxial cable impedance.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coaxial cables</TITLE<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=iso-8859-1" /><title>ePanorama.net - Circuits</c_title></em> <c_date>25 September 2009 13:12 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.epanorama.net/documents/wiring/coaxcable.html">www.epanorama.net</a> [Source type: Reference]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__138" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="138">Connectors are often plated with high-conductivity metals such as silver or gold.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="138"><a href="#citable__138"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>F connector male twist on Material:Zinc base alloy or Cu plate:gold or Nickel....</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>F Coaxial, F Coaxial Manufacturers & Suppliers</c_title></em> <c_date>16 September 2009 21:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.alibaba.com/showroom/F_Coaxial.html">www.alibaba.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="138"><a href="#citable__138"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>RG59 Coaxial F male to F male Cable Gold-plated connectors ensure long lasting, corrosion-free connections....</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>F Coaxial, F Coaxial Manufacturers & Suppliers</c_title></em> <c_date>16 September 2009 21:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.alibaba.com/showroom/F_Coaxial.html">www.alibaba.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="138"><a href="#citable__138"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>PL259 Connector Regular - $2.00 Silver Plated Heavy Duty - $3.00 CX- 04 .</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coax</c_title></em> <c_date>16 September 2009 21:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.chargercharger.com/Coax.html">www.chargercharger.com</a> [Source type: General]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__130" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="130">Due to the skin effect, the RF signal is only carried by the plating and does not penetrate to the connector body.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="130"><a href="#citable__130"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Because the electromagnetic field carrying the signal exists (ideally) only in the space between the inner and outer conductors, it cannot interfere with or suffer interference from external electromagnetic fields.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coaxial Cables</c_title></em> <c_date>16 September 2009 21:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://catalogs.indiamart.com/products/coaxial-cables.html">catalogs.indiamart.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="130"><a href="#citable__130"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>RF coax(ial) connectors are a vital link in the system which uses coaxial cables and high frequency signals.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coaxial cables</TITLE<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=iso-8859-1" /><title>ePanorama.net - Circuits</c_title></em> <c_date>25 September 2009 13:12 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.epanorama.net/documents/wiring/coaxcable.html">www.epanorama.net</a> [Source type: Reference]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="130"><a href="#citable__130"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>In other words, using a long run of coax will reduce the total amount of signal at the antenna, but only because of loss due to resistance and NOT because of standing waves.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>The Defpom coax length page</c_title></em> <c_date>16 September 2009 21:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.radiomods.co.nz/coaxlength.html">www.radiomods.co.nz</a> [Source type: General]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> Although silver oxidizes quickly, the silver oxide that is produced is still conductive. While this may pose a cosmetic issue, it does not degrade performance.</div> <h2><span class="mw-headline" id="wikipedia_Important_parameters">Important parameters</span></h2> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__120" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="120">Coaxial cable is a particular kind of <a href="/Transmission_line" title="Transmission line">transmission line</a>, so the circuit models developed for general transmission lines are appropriate.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="120"><a href="#citable__120"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>General coaxial cable details .</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coaxial cables</TITLE<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=iso-8859-1" /><title>ePanorama.net - Circuits</c_title></em> <c_date>25 September 2009 13:12 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.epanorama.net/documents/wiring/coaxcable.html">www.epanorama.net</a> [Source type: Reference]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="120"><a href="#citable__120"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Coaxial cables exists because we can't run open-wire line near metallic objects (such as ducting) or bury it.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coaxial cables</TITLE<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=iso-8859-1" /><title>ePanorama.net - Circuits</c_title></em> <c_date>25 September 2009 13:12 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.epanorama.net/documents/wiring/coaxcable.html">www.epanorama.net</a> [Source type: Reference]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="120"><a href="#citable__120"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Typical coaxial cable constructions are: Flexible (Braided) Coaxial Cable is by far the most common type of closed transmission line because of its flexibility.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coaxial cables</TITLE<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=iso-8859-1" /><title>ePanorama.net - Circuits</c_title></em> <c_date>25 September 2009 13:12 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.epanorama.net/documents/wiring/coaxcable.html">www.epanorama.net</a> [Source type: Reference]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> See <a href="/Telegrapher%27s_equation" title="Telegrapher's equation" class="mw-redirect">Telegrapher's equation</a>.</div> <div class="thumb tright"> <div class="thumbinner" style="width:222px;"><img alt="" src="http://images-mediawiki-sites.thefullwiki.org/03/6/4/1/5186711373774790.png" width="220" height="134" class="thumbimage" /> <div class="thumbcaption"> <div class="magnify"><img src="http://images-mediawiki-sites.thefullwiki.org/09/7/4/4/3695493113783710.png" width="15" height="11" alt="" /></div> Schematic representation of the elementary components of a transmission line.</div> </div> </div> <div class="thumb tright"> <div class="thumbinner" style="width:222px;"><img alt="" src="http://images-mediawiki-sites.thefullwiki.org/08/3/4/8/735348898519064.png" width="220" height="73" class="thumbimage" /> <div class="thumbcaption"> <div class="magnify"><img src="http://images-mediawiki-sites.thefullwiki.org/09/7/4/4/3695493113783710.png" width="15" height="11" alt="" /></div> Schematic representation of a coaxial transmission line, showing the characteristic impedance <span class="texhtml"><em>Z</em><sub>0</sub></span>.</div> </div> </div> <div style="display:table-cell;clear:both;"></div><h3><span class="mw-headline" id="wikipedia_Physical_parameters">Physical parameters</span></h3> <a name="citable__91" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="91"><ul> <li>Outside diameter of <em>inner</em> conductor, <span class="texhtml"><em>d</em></span>.</li> <li>Inside diameter of <em>outer</em> shield, <span class="texhtml"><em>D</em></span>.</li> <li><a href="/Dielectric_constant" title="Dielectric constant" class="mw-redirect">Dielectric constant</a> of the insulator, <span class="texhtml">ε</span>.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="91"><a href="#citable__91"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The characteristic impedance of a coaxial cable is determined by the relation of outer conductor diameter to inner conductor diameter and by the dielectric constant of the insulation.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coaxial cables</TITLE<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=iso-8859-1" /><title>ePanorama.net - Circuits</c_title></em> <c_date>25 September 2009 13:12 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.epanorama.net/documents/wiring/coaxcable.html">www.epanorama.net</a> [Source type: Reference]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="91"><a href="#citable__91"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The characteristic impedance of a cable (Zo) is determined by the formula 138 log b/a, where b represents the inside diameter of the outer conductor (read: shield or braid), and a represents the outside diameter of the inner conductor.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coaxial cables</TITLE<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=iso-8859-1" /><title>ePanorama.net - Circuits</c_title></em> <c_date>25 September 2009 13:12 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.epanorama.net/documents/wiring/coaxcable.html">www.epanorama.net</a> [Source type: Reference]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="91"><a href="#citable__91"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The dielectric of a coaxial cable serves but one purpose - to maintain physical support and a constant spacing between the inner conductor and the outer shield.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coaxial cables</TITLE<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=iso-8859-1" /><title>ePanorama.net - Circuits</c_title></em> <c_date>25 September 2009 13:12 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.epanorama.net/documents/wiring/coaxcable.html">www.epanorama.net</a> [Source type: Reference]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__60" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="60">The dielectric constant is often quoted as the relative dielectric constant <span class="texhtml">ε<sub><em>r</em></sub></span> referred to the dielectric constant of free space <span class="texhtml">ε<sub>0</sub></span>: <span class="texhtml">ε = ε<sub><em>r</em></sub>ε<sub>0</sub></span>.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="60"><a href="#citable__60"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The dielectric of a coaxial cable serves but one purpose - to maintain physical support and a constant spacing between the inner conductor and the outer shield.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coaxial cables</TITLE<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=iso-8859-1" /><title>ePanorama.net - Circuits</c_title></em> <c_date>25 September 2009 13:12 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.epanorama.net/documents/wiring/coaxcable.html">www.epanorama.net</a> [Source type: Reference]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__119" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="119">When the insulator is a mixture of different dielectric materials (e.g., polyethylene foam is a mixture of polyethylene and air), then the term effective dielectric constant <span class="texhtml">ε<sub><em>e</em><em>f</em><em>f</em></sub></span> is often used.</li> <li><a href="/Magnetic_permeability" title="Magnetic permeability" class="mw-redirect">Magnetic permeability</a> of the insulator.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="119"><a href="#citable__119"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>NOTE: Several of cables mentioned above are available with foam insulation material.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coaxial cables</TITLE<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=iso-8859-1" /><title>ePanorama.net - Circuits</c_title></em> <c_date>25 September 2009 13:12 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.epanorama.net/documents/wiring/coaxcable.html">www.epanorama.net</a> [Source type: Reference]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="119"><a href="#citable__119"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>In terms of efficiency, there is no better dielectric material than air.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coaxial cables</TITLE<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=iso-8859-1" /><title>ePanorama.net - Circuits</c_title></em> <c_date>25 September 2009 13:12 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.epanorama.net/documents/wiring/coaxcable.html">www.epanorama.net</a> [Source type: Reference]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="119"><a href="#citable__119"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Center conductors can be solid or stranded, the dielectric can be solid, foam, and air with the latter not just air.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coax & PL259s</c_title></em> <c_date>16 September 2009 21:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.k0bg.com/coax.html">www.k0bg.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="texhtml">μ</span> Permeability is often quoted as the relative permeability <span class="texhtml">μ<sub><em>r</em></sub></span> referred to the permeability of free space <span class="texhtml">μ<sub>0</sub></span>: <span class="texhtml">μ = μ<sub><em>r</em></sub>μ<sub>0</sub></span>. The relative permeability will almost always be 1.</li> </ul> <div style="display:table-cell;clear:both;"></div><h3><span class="mw-headline" id="wikipedia_Fundamental_electrical_parameters">Fundamental electrical parameters</span></h3> <ul> <li>Shunt <a href="/Capacitance" title="Capacitance">capacitance</a> per unit length, in <a href="/Farad" title="Farad">farads</a> per <a href="/Metre" title="Metre">metre</a>.</li> </ul> <dl> <dd> <dl> <dd><img class="tex" alt="C = {2 \pi \epsilon \over \ln(D/d)}= {2 \pi \epsilon_0 \epsilon_r \over \ln(D/d)}" src="http://images-mediawiki-sites.thefullwiki.org/03/2/5/8/06921991254674093.png" /></dd> </dl> </dd> </dl> <ul> <li>Series <a href="/Inductance" title="Inductance">inductance</a> per unit length, in <a href="/Henry_(unit)" title="Henry (unit)">henrys</a> per <a href="/Metre" title="Metre">metre</a>.</li> </ul> <dl> <dd> <dl> <dd><img class="tex" alt="L = {\mu \over 2 \pi} \ln(D/d)= {\mu_0 \mu_r \over 2 \pi} \ln(D/d)" src="http://images-mediawiki-sites.thefullwiki.org/02/2/4/8/709434844821435.png" /></dd> </dl> </dd> </dl> <ul> <li>Series <a href="/Electrical_resistance" title="Electrical resistance">resistance</a> per unit length, in ohms per metre. <a name="citable__122" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="122">The resistance per unit length is just the resistance of inner conductor and the shield at low frequencies.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="122"><a href="#citable__122"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The characteristic impedance of a cable (Zo) is determined by the formula 138 log b/a, where b represents the inside diameter of the outer conductor (read: shield or braid), and a represents the outside diameter of the inner conductor.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coaxial cables</TITLE<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=iso-8859-1" /><title>ePanorama.net - Circuits</c_title></em> <c_date>25 September 2009 13:12 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.epanorama.net/documents/wiring/coaxcable.html">www.epanorama.net</a> [Source type: Reference]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="122"><a href="#citable__122"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The inner conductor is typically a straight wire, either solid or stranded and the outer conductor is typically a shield that might be braided or a foil.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coaxial cables</TITLE<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=iso-8859-1" /><title>ePanorama.net - Circuits</c_title></em> <c_date>25 September 2009 13:12 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.epanorama.net/documents/wiring/coaxcable.html">www.epanorama.net</a> [Source type: Reference]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="122"><a href="#citable__122"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>For ordinary coaxial cable used at reasonable frequency, the characteristic impedance depends on the dimensions of the inner and outer conductors.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coaxial cables</TITLE<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=iso-8859-1" /><title>ePanorama.net - Circuits</c_title></em> <c_date>25 September 2009 13:12 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.epanorama.net/documents/wiring/coaxcable.html">www.epanorama.net</a> [Source type: Reference]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__6" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="6">At higher frequencies, <a href="/Skin_effect" title="Skin effect">skin effect</a> increases the effective resistance by confining the conduction to a thin layer of each conductor.</li> <li>Shunt <a href="/Conductance" title="Conductance">conductance</a> per unit length, in <a href="/Siemens_(unit)" title="Siemens (unit)">siemens</a> per <a href="/Metre" title="Metre">metre</a>.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="6"><a href="#citable__6"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>One of the draw-backs of braided cable is that the shielding is not 100% effective, especially at higher frequencies.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coaxial cables</TITLE<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=iso-8859-1" /><title>ePanorama.net - Circuits</c_title></em> <c_date>25 September 2009 13:12 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.epanorama.net/documents/wiring/coaxcable.html">www.epanorama.net</a> [Source type: Reference]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__24" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="24">The shunt conductance is usually very small because insulators with good dielectric properties are used (a very low <a href="/Loss_tangent" title="Loss tangent">loss tangent</a>).</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="24"><a href="#citable__24"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The very small sizes with PTFE as dielectric and sheath are primarily intended for use within equipments where termination in connectors, or a terminal, is by soldering and for which polythene may be unsuitable because of its tendency to flow during the soldering operation.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coaxial Cables</c_title></em> <c_date>16 September 2009 21:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://catalogs.indiamart.com/products/coaxial-cables.html">catalogs.indiamart.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="24"><a href="#citable__24"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Also RF video signal systems like antenna signal distribution networks in houses and cable TV systems are built from 75 ohms coaxial cable (those applications use very low loss cable types).</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coaxial cables</TITLE<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=iso-8859-1" /><title>ePanorama.net - Circuits</c_title></em> <c_date>25 September 2009 13:12 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.epanorama.net/documents/wiring/coaxcable.html">www.epanorama.net</a> [Source type: Reference]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="24"><a href="#citable__24"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>In other words, using a long run of coax will reduce the total amount of signal at the antenna, but only because of loss due to resistance and NOT because of standing waves.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>The Defpom coax length page</c_title></em> <c_date>16 September 2009 21:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.radiomods.co.nz/coaxlength.html">www.radiomods.co.nz</a> [Source type: General]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> At high frequencies, a dielectric can have a significant resistive loss.</li> </ul> <div style="display:table-cell;clear:both;"></div><h3><span class="mw-headline" id="wikipedia_Derived_electrical_parameters">Derived electrical parameters</span></h3> <a name="citable__18" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="18"><ul> <li><a href="/Characteristic_impedance" title="Characteristic impedance">Characteristic impedance</a> in ohms (Ω).</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="18"><a href="#citable__18"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The characteristic impedance 75 ohms is an international standard, based on optimizing the design of long distance coaxial cables.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coaxial cables</TITLE<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=iso-8859-1" /><title>ePanorama.net - Circuits</c_title></em> <c_date>25 September 2009 13:12 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.epanorama.net/documents/wiring/coaxcable.html">www.epanorama.net</a> [Source type: Reference]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__112" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="112">Neglecting resistance per unit length for most coaxial cables, the characteristic impedance is determined from the capacitance per unit length (<span class="texhtml"><em>C</em></span>) and the inductance per unit length (<span class="texhtml"><em>L</em></span>).</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="112"><a href="#citable__112"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Characteristic impedance is not the only detail in cable.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coaxial cables</TITLE<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=iso-8859-1" /><title>ePanorama.net - Circuits</c_title></em> <c_date>25 September 2009 13:12 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.epanorama.net/documents/wiring/coaxcable.html">www.epanorama.net</a> [Source type: Reference]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="112"><a href="#citable__112"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The length has nothing to do with a coaxial cable impedance.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coaxial cables</TITLE<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=iso-8859-1" /><title>ePanorama.net - Circuits</c_title></em> <c_date>25 September 2009 13:12 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.epanorama.net/documents/wiring/coaxcable.html">www.epanorama.net</a> [Source type: Reference]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="112"><a href="#citable__112"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>It is practically very hard to find any coaxial cables with impedance much higher than that.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coaxial cables</TITLE<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=iso-8859-1" /><title>ePanorama.net - Circuits</c_title></em> <c_date>25 September 2009 13:12 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.epanorama.net/documents/wiring/coaxcable.html">www.epanorama.net</a> [Source type: Reference]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> The simplified expression is (<img class="tex" alt="Z_0 = \sqrt{L/C}" src="http://images-mediawiki-sites.thefullwiki.org/06/4/0/4/44151223414100899.png" />). <a name="citable__95" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="95">Those parameters are determined from the ratio of the inner (d) and outer (D) diameters and the <a href="/Dielectric_constant" title="Dielectric constant" class="mw-redirect">dielectric constant</a> (<span class="texhtml">ε</span>).</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="95"><a href="#citable__95"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The characteristic impedance of a coaxial cable is determined by the relation of outer conductor diameter to inner conductor diameter and by the dielectric constant of the insulation.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coaxial cables</TITLE<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=iso-8859-1" /><title>ePanorama.net - Circuits</c_title></em> <c_date>25 September 2009 13:12 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.epanorama.net/documents/wiring/coaxcable.html">www.epanorama.net</a> [Source type: Reference]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="95"><a href="#citable__95"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The characteristic impedance of a cable (Zo) is determined by the formula 138 log b/a, where b represents the inside diameter of the outer conductor (read: shield or braid), and a represents the outside diameter of the inner conductor.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coaxial cables</TITLE<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=iso-8859-1" /><title>ePanorama.net - Circuits</c_title></em> <c_date>25 September 2009 13:12 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.epanorama.net/documents/wiring/coaxcable.html">www.epanorama.net</a> [Source type: Reference]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="95"><a href="#citable__95"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The dielectric of a coaxial cable serves but one purpose - to maintain physical support and a constant spacing between the inner conductor and the outer shield.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coaxial cables</TITLE<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=iso-8859-1" /><title>ePanorama.net - Circuits</c_title></em> <c_date>25 September 2009 13:12 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.epanorama.net/documents/wiring/coaxcable.html">www.epanorama.net</a> [Source type: Reference]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> The characteristic impedance is given by<sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_2" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-2"><span>[</span>3<span>]</span></a></sup></li> </ul> <dl> <dd> <dl> <dd><img class="tex" alt="Z_0=\frac{1}{2\pi}\sqrt{\frac{\mu}{\epsilon}}\ln\frac{D}{d}\approx\frac {138 \Omega}{\sqrt{\epsilon_r}}\log_{10}\frac {D} {d}" src="http://images-mediawiki-sites.thefullwiki.org/02/1/1/7/13080741179324351.png" /></dd> </dl> </dd> <dd>Assuming the dielectric properties of the material inside the cable do not vary appreciably over the operating range of the cable, this impedance is frequency independent above about five times the shield cutoff frequency. For typical coaxial cables, the shield cutoff frequency is 600 (RG-6A) to 2,000 Hz (RG-58C).<sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_3" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-3"><span>[</span>4<span>]</span></a></sup></dd> </dl> <ul> <li>Attenuation (loss) per unit length, in <a href="/Decibel" title="Decibel">decibels</a> per meter. <a name="citable__104" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="104">This is dependent on the loss in the dielectric material filling the cable, and resistive losses in the center conductor and outer shield.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="104"><a href="#citable__104"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The signal is carried between the cable shield and the center conductor.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coaxial cables</TITLE<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=iso-8859-1" /><title>ePanorama.net - Circuits</c_title></em> <c_date>25 September 2009 13:12 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.epanorama.net/documents/wiring/coaxcable.html">www.epanorama.net</a> [Source type: Reference]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="104"><a href="#citable__104"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The RG214 coaxial cable has bare copper inner conductor,solid polyethylene dielectric and PVC jacket....</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coaxial Cable, Coaxial Cable Manufacturers & Suppliers</c_title></em> <c_date>16 September 2009 21:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.alibaba.com/showroom/Coaxial_Cable.html">www.alibaba.com</a> [Source type: General]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="104"><a href="#citable__104"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>These materials have excellent dielectric properties and are resistant to oxidative breakdown.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coaxial Cables</c_title></em> <c_date>16 September 2009 21:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://catalogs.indiamart.com/products/coaxial-cables.html">catalogs.indiamart.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__47" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="47">These losses are frequency dependent, the losses becoming higher as the frequency increases.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="47"><a href="#citable__47"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>BNC connector has much lower cutoff frequency and higher loss than the N connector.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coaxial cables</TITLE<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=iso-8859-1" /><title>ePanorama.net - Circuits</c_title></em> <c_date>25 September 2009 13:12 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.epanorama.net/documents/wiring/coaxcable.html">www.epanorama.net</a> [Source type: Reference]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="47"><a href="#citable__47"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>There is such a thing as frequency-dependent losses in the cable.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coaxial cables</TITLE<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=iso-8859-1" /><title>ePanorama.net - Circuits</c_title></em> <c_date>25 September 2009 13:12 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.epanorama.net/documents/wiring/coaxcable.html">www.epanorama.net</a> [Source type: Reference]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__141" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="141">Skin effect losses in the conductors can be reduced by increasing the diameter of the cable.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="141"><a href="#citable__141"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The characteristic impedance of a cable (Zo) is determined by the formula 138 log b/a, where b represents the inside diameter of the outer conductor (read: shield or braid), and a represents the outside diameter of the inner conductor.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coaxial cables</TITLE<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=iso-8859-1" /><title>ePanorama.net - Circuits</c_title></em> <c_date>25 September 2009 13:12 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.epanorama.net/documents/wiring/coaxcable.html">www.epanorama.net</a> [Source type: Reference]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="141"><a href="#citable__141"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The characteristic impedance of a coaxial cable is determined by the relation of outer conductor diameter to inner conductor diameter and by the dielectric constant of the insulation.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coaxial cables</TITLE<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=iso-8859-1" /><title>ePanorama.net - Circuits</c_title></em> <c_date>25 September 2009 13:12 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.epanorama.net/documents/wiring/coaxcable.html">www.epanorama.net</a> [Source type: Reference]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> A cable with twice the diameter will have half the skin effect resistance. <a name="citable__41" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="41">Ignoring dielectric and other losses, the larger cable would halve the dB/meter loss.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="41"><a href="#citable__41"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Wilson makes a very good, low loss coax cable for their antennas as well as any other cell phone antenna.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coaxial Cable Connectors, Coaxial Connectors, Coaxial Cable Tools</c_title></em> <c_date>25 September 2009 13:12 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.alternativewireless.com/cellular-antennas/adapters.html">www.alternativewireless.com</a> [Source type: General]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__31" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="31">In designing a system, engineers consider not only the loss in the cable, but also the loss in the connectors.</li> <li><a href="/Velocity_of_propagation" title="Velocity of propagation" class="mw-redirect">Velocity of propagation</a>, in meters per second.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="31"><a href="#citable__31"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Coaxial cable connector Used as a distribution cable for indoor CATV, CCTV systems and as a connection cable for satellite...</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coaxial Cable, Coaxial Cable Manufacturers & Suppliers</c_title></em> <c_date>16 September 2009 21:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.alibaba.com/showroom/Coaxial_Cable.html">www.alibaba.com</a> [Source type: General]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="31"><a href="#citable__31"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>For example, with RG-58 cable you can estimate about .16db loss per foot and .1db loss per connector.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coaxial Cable Connectors, Coaxial Connectors, Coaxial Cable Tools</c_title></em> <c_date>25 September 2009 13:12 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.alternativewireless.com/cellular-antennas/adapters.html">www.alternativewireless.com</a> [Source type: General]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="31"><a href="#citable__31"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>RG-8X Coax Cable Extension $34.95 50 feet of low loss RG-8X Cable with TNC Male connector at both ends.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coaxial Cable Connectors, Coaxial Connectors, Coaxial Cable Tools</c_title></em> <c_date>25 September 2009 13:12 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.alternativewireless.com/cellular-antennas/adapters.html">www.alternativewireless.com</a> [Source type: General]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> The velocity of propagation depends on the dielectric constant and permeability (which is usually 1).</li> </ul> <dl> <dd> <dl> <dd><img class="tex" alt="v={1 \over \sqrt{\epsilon \mu}} = {c \over \sqrt{\epsilon_r \mu_r}}" src="http://images-mediawiki-sites.thefullwiki.org/01/9/0/9/8343852215793870.png" /></dd> </dl> </dd> <a name="citable__2" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="2"></dl> <ul> <li><a href="/Cutoff_frequency" title="Cutoff frequency">Cutoff frequency</a> is determined by the possibility of exciting other propagation modes in the coaxial cable.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="2"><a href="#citable__2"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The characteristic impedance of a coaxial cable is determined by the relation of outer conductor diameter to inner conductor diameter and by the dielectric constant of the insulation.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coaxial cables</TITLE<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=iso-8859-1" /><title>ePanorama.net - Circuits</c_title></em> <c_date>25 September 2009 13:12 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.epanorama.net/documents/wiring/coaxcable.html">www.epanorama.net</a> [Source type: Reference]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="2"><a href="#citable__2"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Ribbon Coaxial Cable consists of many tiny coaxial cables placed physically on the side of each other to form a flat cable.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coaxial cables</TITLE<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=iso-8859-1" /><title>ePanorama.net - Circuits</c_title></em> <c_date>25 September 2009 13:12 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.epanorama.net/documents/wiring/coaxcable.html">www.epanorama.net</a> [Source type: Reference]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="2"><a href="#citable__2"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>For ordinary coaxial cable used at reasonable frequency, the characteristic impedance depends on the dimensions of the inner and outer conductors.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coaxial cables</TITLE<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=iso-8859-1" /><title>ePanorama.net - Circuits</c_title></em> <c_date>25 September 2009 13:12 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.epanorama.net/documents/wiring/coaxcable.html">www.epanorama.net</a> [Source type: Reference]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> The average circumference of the insulator is <span class="texhtml">π(<em>D</em> + <em>d</em>) / 2</span>. Make that length equal to 1 wavelength in the dielectric. The TE01 cutoff frequency is therefore</li> </ul> <dl> <dd> <dl> <dd><img class="tex" alt="f_c = {1 \over \pi ({D + d \over 2}) \sqrt{\mu \epsilon} }= {c \over \pi ({D + d \over 2}) \sqrt{\mu_r \epsilon_r} }" src="http://images-mediawiki-sites.thefullwiki.org/08/1/5/0/9597704333602783.png" />.</dd> </dl> </dd> </dl> <ul> <li>Peak Voltage</li> </ul> <div style="display:table-cell;clear:both;"></div><h3><span class="mw-headline" id="wikipedia_Significance_of_impedance">Significance of impedance</span></h3> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__106" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="106">The best coaxial cable impedances in high-power, high-voltage, and low-attenuation applications were experimentally determined in 1929 at <a href="/Bell_Laboratories" title="Bell Laboratories" class="mw-redirect">Bell Laboratories</a> to be 30, 60, and 77 Ω respectively.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="106"><a href="#citable__106"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Coaxial Cables' Features: 1) High physical foaming 2) Low loss in attenuation...</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coaxial Cable, Coaxial Cable Manufacturers & Suppliers</c_title></em> <c_date>16 September 2009 21:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.alibaba.com/showroom/Coaxial_Cable.html">www.alibaba.com</a> [Source type: General]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="106"><a href="#citable__106"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The length has nothing to do with a coaxial cable impedance.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coaxial cables</TITLE<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=iso-8859-1" /><title>ePanorama.net - Circuits</c_title></em> <c_date>25 September 2009 13:12 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.epanorama.net/documents/wiring/coaxcable.html">www.epanorama.net</a> [Source type: Reference]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="106"><a href="#citable__106"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The total voltage between the two coaxial conductors is double the single-ended voltage, but the net current in each is the same, so the differential impedance between two coax cable used in a differential configuration would be 100 ohms.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coaxial cables</TITLE<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=iso-8859-1" /><title>ePanorama.net - Circuits</c_title></em> <c_date>25 September 2009 13:12 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.epanorama.net/documents/wiring/coaxcable.html">www.epanorama.net</a> [Source type: Reference]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__84" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="84">For an air dielectric coaxial cable with a diameter of 10 mm the attenuation is lowest at 77 ohms when calculated for 10 GHz.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="84"><a href="#citable__84"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Order: 10 Kilometer 7/8" coaxial cable .</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coaxial Cable, Coaxial Cable Manufacturers & Suppliers</c_title></em> <c_date>16 September 2009 21:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.alibaba.com/showroom/Coaxial_Cable.html">www.alibaba.com</a> [Source type: General]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="84"><a href="#citable__84"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Top 75 Ohm Coaxial Cables .</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Lex Tec - Coaxial, Twinaxial and Low Loss RF Antenna Cables</c_title></em> <c_date>16 September 2009 21:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.lextec.com/cab_coax.html">www.lextec.com</a> [Source type: General]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="84"><a href="#citable__84"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Ohm Coaxial cables .</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Lex Tec - Coaxial, Twinaxial and Low Loss RF Antenna Cables</c_title></em> <c_date>16 September 2009 21:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.lextec.com/cab_coax.html">www.lextec.com</a> [Source type: General]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a href="http://www.microwaves101.com/encyclopedia/why50ohms.cfm" class="external autonumber" rel="nofollow">[1]</a> The curve showing the power handling maxima at 30 ohms can be found here:<a href="http://www.microwaves101.com/encyclopedia/coax_power.cfm" class="external autonumber" rel="nofollow">[2]</a></div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__90" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="90"><a href="/Cable_television" title="Cable television">CATV</a> systems were one of the first applications for very large quantities of coaxial cable.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="90"><a href="#citable__90"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Coaxial cables and systems connected to them are not ideal.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coaxial cables</TITLE<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=iso-8859-1" /><title>ePanorama.net - Circuits</c_title></em> <c_date>25 September 2009 13:12 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.epanorama.net/documents/wiring/coaxcable.html">www.epanorama.net</a> [Source type: Reference]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="90"><a href="#citable__90"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Also RF video signal systems like antenna signal distribution networks in houses and cable TV systems are built from 75 ohms coaxial cable (those applications use very low loss cable types).</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coaxial cables</TITLE<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=iso-8859-1" /><title>ePanorama.net - Circuits</c_title></em> <c_date>25 September 2009 13:12 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.epanorama.net/documents/wiring/coaxcable.html">www.epanorama.net</a> [Source type: Reference]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="90"><a href="#citable__90"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>RF Coaxial Cables We are one of the reputed names in the industry for developing a reckoned range of RF coaxial cables that are constructed to perfection using superior quality material.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coaxial Cables</c_title></em> <c_date>16 September 2009 21:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://catalogs.indiamart.com/products/coaxial-cables.html">catalogs.indiamart.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__81" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="81">CATV is typically using such low levels of RF power that power handling and high voltage breakdown characteristics were totally unimportant when compared to attenuation.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="81"><a href="#citable__81"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>"IEC antenna connector": This is a very low-cost high volume 75 ohm connector used for TV and radio antenna connections around Europe.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coaxial cables</TITLE<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=iso-8859-1" /><title>ePanorama.net - Circuits</c_title></em> <c_date>25 September 2009 13:12 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.epanorama.net/documents/wiring/coaxcable.html">www.epanorama.net</a> [Source type: Reference]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="81"><a href="#citable__81"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>It is used here because it matches nicely to many common transmitter antenna types, can quite easily handle high transmitter power and is traditionally used in this type of applications (transmitters are generally matched to 50 ohms impedance).</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coaxial cables</TITLE<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=iso-8859-1" /><title>ePanorama.net - Circuits</c_title></em> <c_date>25 September 2009 13:12 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.epanorama.net/documents/wiring/coaxcable.html">www.epanorama.net</a> [Source type: Reference]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="81"><a href="#citable__81"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The general application of PTFE Coaxial cables includes high ambient temperature conditions or low ambient temperature with higher power ratings.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coaxial Cables</c_title></em> <c_date>16 September 2009 21:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://catalogs.indiamart.com/products/coaxial-cables.html">catalogs.indiamart.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__146" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="146">Moreover, many CATV headends used 300 ohm folded <a href="/Dipole_antenna" title="Dipole antenna">dipole antennas</a> to receive off the air TV signals.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="146"><a href="#citable__146"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>TV antenna signals and digital audio signals.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coaxial cables</TITLE<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=iso-8859-1" /><title>ePanorama.net - Circuits</c_title></em> <c_date>25 September 2009 13:12 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.epanorama.net/documents/wiring/coaxcable.html">www.epanorama.net</a> [Source type: Reference]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="146"><a href="#citable__146"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Do not use with 50 ohm amplifiers or antennas.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coaxial Cable Connectors, Coaxial Connectors, Coaxial Cable Tools</c_title></em> <c_date>25 September 2009 13:12 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.alternativewireless.com/cellular-antennas/adapters.html">www.alternativewireless.com</a> [Source type: General]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="146"><a href="#citable__146"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Also RF video signal systems like antenna signal distribution networks in houses and cable TV systems are built from 75 ohms coaxial cable (those applications use very low loss cable types).</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coaxial cables</TITLE<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=iso-8859-1" /><title>ePanorama.net - Circuits</c_title></em> <c_date>25 September 2009 13:12 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.epanorama.net/documents/wiring/coaxcable.html">www.epanorama.net</a> [Source type: Reference]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__78" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="78">75 ohm coax made a nice 4:1 <a href="/Balun" title="Balun">balun</a> transformer for these antennas as well as presented a nice attenuation specification.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="78"><a href="#citable__78"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Further these also feature better attenuation, return loss properties as well as highly reliable performance.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coaxial Cables</c_title></em> <c_date>16 September 2009 21:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://catalogs.indiamart.com/products/coaxial-cables.html">catalogs.indiamart.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="78"><a href="#citable__78"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>"IEC antenna connector": This is a very low-cost high volume 75 ohm connector used for TV and radio antenna connections around Europe.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coaxial cables</TITLE<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=iso-8859-1" /><title>ePanorama.net - Circuits</c_title></em> <c_date>25 September 2009 13:12 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.epanorama.net/documents/wiring/coaxcable.html">www.epanorama.net</a> [Source type: Reference]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="78"><a href="#citable__78"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>With a few exceptions, most coax is well made and will provide years of service if you follow a few basic rules.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coax & PL259s</c_title></em> <c_date>16 September 2009 21:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.k0bg.com/coax.html">www.k0bg.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__69" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="69">But this is a bit of a red herring, when normal dielectrics are added to the equation the best loss impedance drops down to values between 64 and 52 ohms.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="69"><a href="#citable__69"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Impedance somewhere around 77 Ohms gives the lowest loss in a dielectric filled line.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coaxial cables</TITLE<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=iso-8859-1" /><title>ePanorama.net - Circuits</c_title></em> <c_date>25 September 2009 13:12 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.epanorama.net/documents/wiring/coaxcable.html">www.epanorama.net</a> [Source type: Reference]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="69"><a href="#citable__69"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>If the cable impedance is critical enough to worry about correctly choosing between 50 and 75 Ohms, then the capacitance will not matter.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coaxial cables</TITLE<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=iso-8859-1" /><title>ePanorama.net - Circuits</c_title></em> <c_date>25 September 2009 13:12 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.epanorama.net/documents/wiring/coaxcable.html">www.epanorama.net</a> [Source type: Reference]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__109" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="109">Details and a graph showing this effect can be found here: <a href="http://www.microwaves101.com/encyclopedia/why50ohms.cfm" class="external autonumber" rel="nofollow">[3]</a><sup class="Template-Fact" title="This claim needs references to reliable sources from June 2007" style="white-space:nowrap;">[<em>citation needed</em>]</sup> 30 Ω cable is more difficult to manufacture due to the much larger center conductor and the stiffness and weight it adds.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="109"><a href="#citable__109"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Cable Filling Compound We are the First company to manufacture Cable Jelly in India, after which we have been biggest manufacturersof Cable Jelly for more than 25years.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coaxial Cables</c_title></em> <c_date>16 September 2009 21:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://catalogs.indiamart.com/products/coaxial-cables.html">catalogs.indiamart.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="109"><a href="#citable__109"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Poor cable return loss can show cable manufacturing defects and installation defects (cable damaged on installation).</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coaxial cables</TITLE<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=iso-8859-1" /><title>ePanorama.net - Circuits</c_title></em> <c_date>25 September 2009 13:12 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.epanorama.net/documents/wiring/coaxcable.html">www.epanorama.net</a> [Source type: Reference]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="109"><a href="#citable__109"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Our standard cables have an 18-gauge solid copper center conductor surrounded by a premium foam dielectric.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Wholesale Coax Cable,Coax Cable, RG 6 Coax Cable, RG6 Coax Cable, RG6 Coax Cables,Reeled RG 6 Coax Cable, Pull Box Coax Cable</c_title></em> <c_date>16 September 2009 21:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.americantechsupply.com/cables_coax.html">www.americantechsupply.com</a> [Source type: General]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> </div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__55" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="55">The <a href="/Arithmetic_mean" title="Arithmetic mean">arithmetic mean</a> between 30 ohms and 77 ohms is 53.5, the <a href="/Geometric_mean" title="Geometric mean">geometric mean</a> is 48 ohms.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="55"><a href="#citable__55"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>For maximum power handling, somewhere between 30 and 44 Ohms is the optimum.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coaxial cables</TITLE<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=iso-8859-1" /><title>ePanorama.net - Circuits</c_title></em> <c_date>25 September 2009 13:12 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.epanorama.net/documents/wiring/coaxcable.html">www.epanorama.net</a> [Source type: Reference]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__100" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="100">The selection of 50 ohms as a compromise between power handling capability and attenuation is generally cited as the reason for the number.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="100"><a href="#citable__100"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>It is used here because it matches nicely to many common transmitter antenna types, can quite easily handle high transmitter power and is traditionally used in this type of applications (transmitters are generally matched to 50 ohms impedance).</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coaxial cables</TITLE<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=iso-8859-1" /><title>ePanorama.net - Circuits</c_title></em> <c_date>25 September 2009 13:12 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.epanorama.net/documents/wiring/coaxcable.html">www.epanorama.net</a> [Source type: Reference]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="100"><a href="#citable__100"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>If the cable impedance is critical enough to worry about correctly choosing between 50 and 75 Ohms, then the capacitance will not matter.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coaxial cables</TITLE<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=iso-8859-1" /><title>ePanorama.net - Circuits</c_title></em> <c_date>25 September 2009 13:12 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.epanorama.net/documents/wiring/coaxcable.html">www.epanorama.net</a> [Source type: Reference]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="100"><a href="#citable__100"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>For maximum power handling, somewhere between 30 and 44 Ohms is the optimum.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coaxial cables</TITLE<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=iso-8859-1" /><title>ePanorama.net - Circuits</c_title></em> <c_date>25 September 2009 13:12 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.epanorama.net/documents/wiring/coaxcable.html">www.epanorama.net</a> [Source type: Reference]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> </div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block">One reference to a paper presented by Bird Electronic Corp as to why 50 ohms was chosen can be found here: <a href="http://www.epanorama.net/documents/wiring/cable_impedance.html" class="external autonumber" rel="nofollow">[4]</a></div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__134" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="134">50 Ohms works out well for other reasons such as it corresponds very closely to the drive impedance of a half wave dipole antenna in real environments, and provides an acceptable match to the drive impedance of quarter wave monopoles as well.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="134"><a href="#citable__134"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Here is a quick overview of common coaxial cable impedances and their main uses: 50 ohms: 50 ohms coaxial cable is very widely used with radio transmitter applications.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coaxial cables</TITLE<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=iso-8859-1" /><title>ePanorama.net - Circuits</c_title></em> <c_date>25 September 2009 13:12 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.epanorama.net/documents/wiring/coaxcable.html">www.epanorama.net</a> [Source type: Reference]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="134"><a href="#citable__134"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Generally all baseband video applications that use coaxial cable (both analogue and digital) are matched for 75 ohm impedance cable.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coaxial cables</TITLE<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=iso-8859-1" /><title>ePanorama.net - Circuits</c_title></em> <c_date>25 September 2009 13:12 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.epanorama.net/documents/wiring/coaxcable.html">www.epanorama.net</a> [Source type: Reference]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="134"><a href="#citable__134"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The use of this cable has been pretty much phased out, and nowdays RF system in Europe use either 50 ohms or 75 ohms cable depending on the application.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coaxial cables</TITLE<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=iso-8859-1" /><title>ePanorama.net - Circuits</c_title></em> <c_date>25 September 2009 13:12 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.epanorama.net/documents/wiring/coaxcable.html">www.epanorama.net</a> [Source type: Reference]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__3" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="3">73 Ω is an exact match for a centre fed dipole aerial/antenna in free space (approximated by very high dipoles without ground reflections).</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="3"><a href="#citable__3"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>"IEC antenna connector": This is a very low-cost high volume 75 ohm connector used for TV and radio antenna connections around Europe.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coaxial cables</TITLE<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=iso-8859-1" /><title>ePanorama.net - Circuits</c_title></em> <c_date>25 September 2009 13:12 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.epanorama.net/documents/wiring/coaxcable.html">www.epanorama.net</a> [Source type: Reference]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> </div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__88" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="88">RG-62 is a 93 ohm coaxial cable.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="88"><a href="#citable__88"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>In some communications applications a pair of 50 ohm coaxial cables are used to transmit a differential signal on two non-interacting pieces of 50-ohm coax.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coaxial cables</TITLE<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=iso-8859-1" /><title>ePanorama.net - Circuits</c_title></em> <c_date>25 September 2009 13:12 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.epanorama.net/documents/wiring/coaxcable.html">www.epanorama.net</a> [Source type: Reference]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="88"><a href="#citable__88"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Order: 20 Kilometer COAXIAL CABLE RG-6U .</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coaxial Cable, Coaxial Cable Manufacturers & Suppliers</c_title></em> <c_date>16 September 2009 21:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.alibaba.com/showroom/Coaxial_Cable.html">www.alibaba.com</a> [Source type: General]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="88"><a href="#citable__88"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Order: 2000 Meter 802 Matching Results RG series Coaxial cable .</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coaxial Cable, Coaxial Cable Manufacturers & Suppliers</c_title></em> <c_date>16 September 2009 21:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.alibaba.com/showroom/Coaxial_Cable.html">www.alibaba.com</a> [Source type: General]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__117" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="117">It is purported that RG-62 cable was originally used in mainframe computer networks.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="117"><a href="#citable__117"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The Co-axial cable type RG were originally developed for Military applications.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coaxial Cables</c_title></em> <c_date>16 September 2009 21:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://catalogs.indiamart.com/products/coaxial-cables.html">catalogs.indiamart.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="117"><a href="#citable__117"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Both dual and quad shield RG6 and RG 59 cables are UL Rated Class 2 for in-wall and in-ceiling use.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Wholesale Coax Cable,Coax Cable, RG 6 Coax Cable, RG6 Coax Cable, RG6 Coax Cables,Reeled RG 6 Coax Cable, Pull Box Coax Cable</c_title></em> <c_date>16 September 2009 21:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.americantechsupply.com/cables_coax.html">www.americantechsupply.com</a> [Source type: General]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="117"><a href="#citable__117"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Coaxial Wire The coaxial cable, RG-6 series we offer are used in cable TV operations, computer networking and other such areas.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coaxial Cables</c_title></em> <c_date>16 September 2009 21:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://catalogs.indiamart.com/products/coaxial-cables.html">catalogs.indiamart.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> (1970's / early 1980s). <a name="citable__93" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="93">It was the cable used to connect the terminals to the terminal cluster controllers.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="93"><a href="#citable__93"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Coaxial cable connector Used as a distribution cable for indoor CATV, CCTV systems and as a connection cable for satellite...</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coaxial Cable, Coaxial Cable Manufacturers & Suppliers</c_title></em> <c_date>16 September 2009 21:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.alibaba.com/showroom/Coaxial_Cable.html">www.alibaba.com</a> [Source type: General]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="93"><a href="#citable__93"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>In audio world digital audio (S/PDIF and coaxial AES/EBU) uses 75 ohms coaxial cable, as well as radio receiver connections at home and in car.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coaxial cables</TITLE<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=iso-8859-1" /><title>ePanorama.net - Circuits</c_title></em> <c_date>25 September 2009 13:12 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.epanorama.net/documents/wiring/coaxcable.html">www.epanorama.net</a> [Source type: Reference]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__77" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="77">Later some manufacturers of LAN equipment such as ARCNET adopted RG-62 as a standard.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="77"><a href="#citable__77"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Co-Axial Cables We are engaged in manufacturing a wide range of standard co- axial cables to RG military specifications.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coaxial Cables</c_title></em> <c_date>16 September 2009 21:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://catalogs.indiamart.com/products/coaxial-cables.html">catalogs.indiamart.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="77"><a href="#citable__77"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Coaxial Cables We manufacture RG-59, RG-6, RG-8, RG-11, RG-218, RG-58 and RG-62 Armoured Coaxial Cable.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coaxial Cables</c_title></em> <c_date>16 September 2009 21:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://catalogs.indiamart.com/products/coaxial-cables.html">catalogs.indiamart.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__129" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="129">It has the lowest capacitance per unit length when compared to other coaxial cables of similar size.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="129"><a href="#citable__129"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The length has nothing to do with a coaxial cable impedance.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coaxial cables</TITLE<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=iso-8859-1" /><title>ePanorama.net - Circuits</c_title></em> <c_date>25 September 2009 13:12 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.epanorama.net/documents/wiring/coaxcable.html">www.epanorama.net</a> [Source type: Reference]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="129"><a href="#citable__129"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>This is very similar to coaxial cable except the spacing between center conductor and shield is not carefully controlled during manufacture, resulting in non-constant impedance.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coaxial cables</TITLE<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=iso-8859-1" /><title>ePanorama.net - Circuits</c_title></em> <c_date>25 September 2009 13:12 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.epanorama.net/documents/wiring/coaxcable.html">www.epanorama.net</a> [Source type: Reference]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="129"><a href="#citable__129"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Ribbon Coaxial Cable consists of many tiny coaxial cables placed physically on the side of each other to form a flat cable.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coaxial cables</TITLE<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=iso-8859-1" /><title>ePanorama.net - Circuits</c_title></em> <c_date>25 September 2009 13:12 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.epanorama.net/documents/wiring/coaxcable.html">www.epanorama.net</a> [Source type: Reference]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__7" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="7">Capacitance is the enemy of square wave data transmission and is much more important than power handling or attenuation specifications in these environments.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="7"><a href="#citable__7"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>These signal transmission and data communication cables are designed and developed to keep in pace with high-tech application requirements.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coaxial Cables</c_title></em> <c_date>16 September 2009 21:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://catalogs.indiamart.com/products/coaxial-cables.html">catalogs.indiamart.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="7"><a href="#citable__7"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Standard RG8x can easily handle that much power, even at an elevated SWR. RG8 is also rather stiff, and in the tight confines of a mobile, it makes installation difficult.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coax & PL259s</c_title></em> <c_date>16 September 2009 21:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.k0bg.com/coax.html">www.k0bg.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="7"><a href="#citable__7"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>These cables have following specifications : Conductor more...</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coaxial Cables</c_title></em> <c_date>16 September 2009 21:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://catalogs.indiamart.com/products/coaxial-cables.html">catalogs.indiamart.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> </div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__79" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="79">All of the components of a coaxial system should have the same impedance to reduce internal reflections at connections between components.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="79"><a href="#citable__79"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Coaxial cables and systems connected to them are not ideal.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coaxial cables</TITLE<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=iso-8859-1" /><title>ePanorama.net - Circuits</c_title></em> <c_date>25 September 2009 13:12 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.epanorama.net/documents/wiring/coaxcable.html">www.epanorama.net</a> [Source type: Reference]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="79"><a href="#citable__79"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The total voltage between the two coaxial conductors is double the single-ended voltage, but the net current in each is the same, so the differential impedance between two coax cable used in a differential configuration would be 100 ohms.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coaxial cables</TITLE<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=iso-8859-1" /><title>ePanorama.net - Circuits</c_title></em> <c_date>25 September 2009 13:12 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.epanorama.net/documents/wiring/coaxcable.html">www.epanorama.net</a> [Source type: Reference]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="79"><a href="#citable__79"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Coaxial cable connector Used as a distribution cable for indoor CATV, CCTV systems and as a connection cable for satellite...</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coaxial Cable, Coaxial Cable Manufacturers & Suppliers</c_title></em> <c_date>16 September 2009 21:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.alibaba.com/showroom/Coaxial_Cable.html">www.alibaba.com</a> [Source type: General]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> Such reflections increase signal loss and can result in the reflected signal reaching a receiver with a slight delay from the original. In analog video or TV systems this visual effect is commonly referred to as ghosting. (see <a href="/Impedance_matching" title="Impedance matching">Impedance matching</a>)</div> <h2><span class="mw-headline" id="wikipedia_Issues">Issues</span></h2> <div style="display:table-cell;clear:both;"></div><h3><span class="mw-headline" id="wikipedia_Signal_leakage">Signal leakage</span></h3> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__44" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="44">Signal leakage is the passage of electromagnetic fields through the shield of a cable and occurs in both directions.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="44"><a href="#citable__44"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Because the electromagnetic field carrying the signal exists (ideally) only in the space between the inner and outer conductors, it cannot interfere with or suffer interference from external electromagnetic fields.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coaxial Cables</c_title></em> <c_date>16 September 2009 21:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://catalogs.indiamart.com/products/coaxial-cables.html">catalogs.indiamart.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="44"><a href="#citable__44"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The signal is carried between the cable shield and the center conductor.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coaxial cables</TITLE<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=iso-8859-1" /><title>ePanorama.net - Circuits</c_title></em> <c_date>25 September 2009 13:12 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.epanorama.net/documents/wiring/coaxcable.html">www.epanorama.net</a> [Source type: Reference]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="44"><a href="#citable__44"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>This arrangement give quite good shielding agains noise from outside cable, keeps the signal well inside the cable and keeps cable characteristics stable.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coaxial cables</TITLE<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=iso-8859-1" /><title>ePanorama.net - Circuits</c_title></em> <c_date>25 September 2009 13:12 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.epanorama.net/documents/wiring/coaxcable.html">www.epanorama.net</a> [Source type: Reference]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__67" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="67">Ingress is the passage of an outside signal into the cable and can result in noise and disruption of the desired signal.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="67"><a href="#citable__67"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>This arrangement give quite good shielding agains noise from outside cable, keeps the signal well inside the cable and keeps cable characteristics stable.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coaxial cables</TITLE<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=iso-8859-1" /><title>ePanorama.net - Circuits</c_title></em> <c_date>25 September 2009 13:12 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.epanorama.net/documents/wiring/coaxcable.html">www.epanorama.net</a> [Source type: Reference]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="67"><a href="#citable__67"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Among the important characteristics designed into miniature cables are low noise, low capacitance, and high operating temperatures.We offers R.F. cable such as rg.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coaxial Cables</c_title></em> <c_date>16 September 2009 21:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://catalogs.indiamart.com/products/coaxial-cables.html">catalogs.indiamart.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__19" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="19">Egress is the passage of signal intended to remain within the cable into the outside world and can result in a weaker signal at the end of the cable and <a href="/Electromagnetic_interference" title="Electromagnetic interference">radio frequency interference</a> to nearby devices.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="19"><a href="#citable__19"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Sometimes coaxial cables are used also for carrying low frequency signals, like audio signals or measurement device signals.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coaxial cables</TITLE<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=iso-8859-1" /><title>ePanorama.net - Circuits</c_title></em> <c_date>25 September 2009 13:12 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.epanorama.net/documents/wiring/coaxcable.html">www.epanorama.net</a> [Source type: Reference]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="19"><a href="#citable__19"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Coaxial cable is a cable type used to carry radio signals, video signals, measurement signals and data signals.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coaxial cables</TITLE<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=iso-8859-1" /><title>ePanorama.net - Circuits</c_title></em> <c_date>25 September 2009 13:12 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.epanorama.net/documents/wiring/coaxcable.html">www.epanorama.net</a> [Source type: Reference]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="19"><a href="#citable__19"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>RF coax(ial) connectors are a vital link in the system which uses coaxial cables and high frequency signals.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coaxial cables</TITLE<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=iso-8859-1" /><title>ePanorama.net - Circuits</c_title></em> <c_date>25 September 2009 13:12 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.epanorama.net/documents/wiring/coaxcable.html">www.epanorama.net</a> [Source type: Reference]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> </div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__124" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="124">For example, in the United States, signal leakage from <a href="/Cable_television" title="Cable television">cable television</a> systems is regulated by the FCC, since cable signals use the same frequencies as aeronautical and radionavigation bands.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="124"><a href="#citable__124"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Also RF video signal systems like antenna signal distribution networks in houses and cable TV systems are built from 75 ohms coaxial cable (those applications use very low loss cable types).</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coaxial cables</TITLE<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=iso-8859-1" /><title>ePanorama.net - Circuits</c_title></em> <c_date>25 September 2009 13:12 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.epanorama.net/documents/wiring/coaxcable.html">www.epanorama.net</a> [Source type: Reference]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="124"><a href="#citable__124"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Sometimes coaxial cables are used also for carrying low frequency signals, like audio signals or measurement device signals.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coaxial cables</TITLE<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=iso-8859-1" /><title>ePanorama.net - Circuits</c_title></em> <c_date>25 September 2009 13:12 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.epanorama.net/documents/wiring/coaxcable.html">www.epanorama.net</a> [Source type: Reference]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="124"><a href="#citable__124"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>In some communications applications a pair of 50 ohm coaxial cables are used to transmit a differential signal on two non-interacting pieces of 50-ohm coax.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coaxial cables</TITLE<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=iso-8859-1" /><title>ePanorama.net - Circuits</c_title></em> <c_date>25 September 2009 13:12 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.epanorama.net/documents/wiring/coaxcable.html">www.epanorama.net</a> [Source type: Reference]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> CATV operators may also choose to monitor their networks for leakage to prevent ingress. <a name="citable__34" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="34">Outside signals entering the cable can cause unwanted noise and picture ghosting.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="34"><a href="#citable__34"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The quad-shield coax cable has an ad ditional layer of foil tape and braided wire to make it nearly impossible for stray signals to leave or enter the cable.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Wholesale Coax Cable,Coax Cable, RG 6 Coax Cable, RG6 Coax Cable, RG6 Coax Cables,Reeled RG 6 Coax Cable, Pull Box Coax Cable</c_title></em> <c_date>16 September 2009 21:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.americantechsupply.com/cables_coax.html">www.americantechsupply.com</a> [Source type: General]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="34"><a href="#citable__34"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>This arrangement give quite good shielding agains noise from outside cable, keeps the signal well inside the cable and keeps cable characteristics stable.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coaxial cables</TITLE<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=iso-8859-1" /><title>ePanorama.net - Circuits</c_title></em> <c_date>25 September 2009 13:12 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.epanorama.net/documents/wiring/coaxcable.html">www.epanorama.net</a> [Source type: Reference]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> Excessive <a href="/Electronic_noise" title="Electronic noise" class="mw-redirect">noise</a> can overwhelm the signal, making it useless.</div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block">An ideal shield would be a perfect conductor with no holes, gaps or bumps connected to a perfect ground. <a name="citable__68" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="68">However, a smooth solid copper shield would be heavy, inflexible, and expensive.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="68"><a href="#citable__68"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>RG59U Conductor: 0.65mm CCS Dielectric: 3.7mm Solid polyethylene Shield: Bare copper braid 95% coverage Jack...</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coaxial Cable, Coaxial Cable Manufacturers & Suppliers</c_title></em> <c_date>16 September 2009 21:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.alibaba.com/showroom/Coaxial_Cable.html">www.alibaba.com</a> [Source type: General]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="68"><a href="#citable__68"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Shields can be solid, corrugated, copper or braided copper, silver or braided silver, aluminum in many different configurations, and even steel.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coax & PL259s</c_title></em> <c_date>16 September 2009 21:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.k0bg.com/coax.html">www.k0bg.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__32" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="32">Practical cables must make compromises between shield efficacy, flexibility and cost, such as the corrugated surface of hardline, flexible braid, or foil shields.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="32"><a href="#citable__32"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The quad-shield coax cable has an ad ditional layer of foil tape and braided wire to make it nearly impossible for stray signals to leave or enter the cable.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Wholesale Coax Cable,Coax Cable, RG 6 Coax Cable, RG6 Coax Cable, RG6 Coax Cables,Reeled RG 6 Coax Cable, Pull Box Coax Cable</c_title></em> <c_date>16 September 2009 21:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.americantechsupply.com/cables_coax.html">www.americantechsupply.com</a> [Source type: General]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="32"><a href="#citable__32"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Shields can be solid, corrugated, copper or braided copper, silver or braided silver, aluminum in many different configurations, and even steel.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coax & PL259s</c_title></em> <c_date>16 September 2009 21:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.k0bg.com/coax.html">www.k0bg.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="32"><a href="#citable__32"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The characteristic impedance of a cable (Zo) is determined by the formula 138 log b/a, where b represents the inside diameter of the outer conductor (read: shield or braid), and a represents the outside diameter of the inner conductor.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coaxial cables</TITLE<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=iso-8859-1" /><title>ePanorama.net - Circuits</c_title></em> <c_date>25 September 2009 13:12 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.epanorama.net/documents/wiring/coaxcable.html">www.epanorama.net</a> [Source type: Reference]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__144" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="144">Since the shields are not perfect conductors, electric fields can exist inside the shield, thus allowing radiating electromagnetic fields to go through the shield.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="144"><a href="#citable__144"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Because the electromagnetic field carrying the signal exists (ideally) only in the space between the inner and outer conductors, it cannot interfere with or suffer interference from external electromagnetic fields.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coaxial Cables</c_title></em> <c_date>16 September 2009 21:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://catalogs.indiamart.com/products/coaxial-cables.html">catalogs.indiamart.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="144"><a href="#citable__144"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The characteristic impedance of a cable (Zo) is determined by the formula 138 log b/a, where b represents the inside diameter of the outer conductor (read: shield or braid), and a represents the outside diameter of the inner conductor.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coaxial cables</TITLE<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=iso-8859-1" /><title>ePanorama.net - Circuits</c_title></em> <c_date>25 September 2009 13:12 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.epanorama.net/documents/wiring/coaxcable.html">www.epanorama.net</a> [Source type: Reference]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="144"><a href="#citable__144"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>This cables are called co axial consist of an inner conductor, a uniform di electric transmission path (core di electric ) and outer surroundings conductor (shield) usually braided to allow flexibility.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coaxial Cables</c_title></em> <c_date>16 September 2009 21:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://catalogs.indiamart.com/products/coaxial-cables.html">catalogs.indiamart.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> </div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block">Consider the <a href="/Skin_effect" title="Skin effect">skin effect</a>. The magnitude of an alternating current in a conductor decays exponentially with distance beneath the surface, with the depth of penetration being proportional to the square root of the resistivity. <a name="citable__9" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="9">This means that in a shield of finite thickness, some small amount of current will still be flowing on the opposite surface of the conductor.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="9"><a href="#citable__9"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Even the best of mobile installations will have some common mode currents flowing on the coaxial feed line.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coax & PL259s</c_title></em> <c_date>16 September 2009 21:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.k0bg.com/coax.html">www.k0bg.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="9"><a href="#citable__9"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>I mentioned above, that in order to make a good RF connection, it was necessary to flow solder into the shield of the coax, and wet it to the inside surfaces of the PL259.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coax & PL259s</c_title></em> <c_date>16 September 2009 21:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.k0bg.com/coax.html">www.k0bg.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__111" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="111">With a perfect conductor (i.e., zero resistivity), all of the current would flow at the surface, with no penetration into and through the conductor.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="111"><a href="#citable__111"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>I mentioned above, that in order to make a good RF connection, it was necessary to flow solder into the shield of the coax, and wet it to the inside surfaces of the PL259.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coax & PL259s</c_title></em> <c_date>16 September 2009 21:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.k0bg.com/coax.html">www.k0bg.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__66" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="66">Real cables have a shield made of an imperfect, although usually very good, conductor, so there will always be some leakage.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="66"><a href="#citable__66"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The triaxial cable has the usual outer conductor braid.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coaxial Cables</c_title></em> <c_date>16 September 2009 21:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://catalogs.indiamart.com/products/coaxial-cables.html">catalogs.indiamart.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="66"><a href="#citable__66"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Cable Makeup The Inner conductor is made from plain, tinned or Silver plated Copper Single wire Solid or Standard, the very thin inner conductors are made of copper coated steel wire to provide High Tensile Strength.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coaxial Cables</c_title></em> <c_date>16 September 2009 21:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://catalogs.indiamart.com/products/coaxial-cables.html">catalogs.indiamart.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="66"><a href="#citable__66"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>This cables are called co axial consist of an inner conductor, a uniform di electric transmission path (core di electric ) and outer surroundings conductor (shield) usually braided to allow flexibility.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coaxial Cables</c_title></em> <c_date>16 September 2009 21:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://catalogs.indiamart.com/products/coaxial-cables.html">catalogs.indiamart.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> </div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block">The gaps or holes, allow some of the electromagnetic field to penetrate to the other side. <a name="citable__118" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="118">For example, braided shields have many small gaps.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="118"><a href="#citable__118"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Shields can be solid, corrugated, copper or braided copper, silver or braided silver, aluminum in many different configurations, and even steel.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coax & PL259s</c_title></em> <c_date>16 September 2009 21:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.k0bg.com/coax.html">www.k0bg.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> The gaps are smaller when using a foil (solid metal) shield, but there is still a seam running the length of the cable. <a name="citable__70" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="70">Foil becomes increasingly rigid with increasing thickness, so a thin foil layer is often surrounded by a layer of braided metal, which offers greater flexibility for a given cross-section.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="70"><a href="#citable__70"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>We offer coaxial cable, thick coaxial cable, thin coaxial cable, house wiring, power cable, control cable, telephone cable, round flexible cable, f...</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coaxial Cables</c_title></em> <c_date>16 September 2009 21:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://catalogs.indiamart.com/products/coaxial-cables.html">catalogs.indiamart.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> </div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__139" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="139">This type of leakage can also occur at locations of poor contact between connectors at either end of the cable.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="139"><a href="#citable__139"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>RF Connectors Reverse Polarity SMA Male/Plug Straight RF Connector, Coaxial Connector Crimp type for Coaxial Cable .</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>RF Connectors, Coaxial Connectors, RF Cable Connectors, Coaxial Cable connectors, 50 ohm connector, Manufacturer, Factory, Supplier, Right Angle Connector, Right Angle Plug SMA,SMB, MCX, MMCX, TNC, SSMB, MC CARD, BNC, rp-SMA, RP TNC, N, 1.6 5.6,1.0 2.3 rf connector</c_title></em> <c_date>16 September 2009 21:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.rfcoaxcable.com/rf_connectors/coaxial_connectors.html">www.rfcoaxcable.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="139"><a href="#citable__139"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>RF Connectors SMB Female/Jack Straight RF Connector, Coaxial Connector Crimp type for Coaxial Cable .</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>RF Connectors, Coaxial Connectors, RF Cable Connectors, Coaxial Cable connectors, 50 ohm connector, Manufacturer, Factory, Supplier, Right Angle Connector, Right Angle Plug SMA,SMB, MCX, MMCX, TNC, SSMB, MC CARD, BNC, rp-SMA, RP TNC, N, 1.6 5.6,1.0 2.3 rf connector</c_title></em> <c_date>16 September 2009 21:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.rfcoaxcable.com/rf_connectors/coaxial_connectors.html">www.rfcoaxcable.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="139"><a href="#citable__139"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>RF Connectors BNC Male/Plug Right Angle RF Connector, Coaxial Connector Crimp type for Coaxial Cable .</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>RF Connectors, Coaxial Connectors, RF Cable Connectors, Coaxial Cable connectors, 50 ohm connector, Manufacturer, Factory, Supplier, Right Angle Connector, Right Angle Plug SMA,SMB, MCX, MMCX, TNC, SSMB, MC CARD, BNC, rp-SMA, RP TNC, N, 1.6 5.6,1.0 2.3 rf connector</c_title></em> <c_date>16 September 2009 21:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.rfcoaxcable.com/rf_connectors/coaxial_connectors.html">www.rfcoaxcable.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> </div> <div style="display:table-cell;clear:both;"></div><h3><span class="mw-headline" id="wikipedia_Ground_loops">Ground loops</span></h3> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__54" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="54">A continuous current flow, even if small, along the imperfect shield of a coaxial cable can cause visible or audible interference.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="54"><a href="#citable__54"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Even the best of mobile installations will have some common mode currents flowing on the coaxial feed line.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coax & PL259s</c_title></em> <c_date>16 September 2009 21:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.k0bg.com/coax.html">www.k0bg.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="54"><a href="#citable__54"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Products: 1) Standard shield coaxial cable 2) Tri-shield coaxial cable 3) Quad-shield coaxial cable 4) Flooded coaxial cable 5)...</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coaxial Cable, Coaxial Cable Manufacturers & Suppliers</c_title></em> <c_date>16 September 2009 21:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.alibaba.com/showroom/Coaxial_Cable.html">www.alibaba.com</a> [Source type: General]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="54"><a href="#citable__54"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Coaxial Cables We offer high quality coaxial cables, giving excellent performance consistently due to superior shielding from interferences.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coaxial Cables</c_title></em> <c_date>16 September 2009 21:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://catalogs.indiamart.com/products/coaxial-cables.html">catalogs.indiamart.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__140" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="140">In CATV systems distributing analog signals the potential difference between the coaxial network and the electrical grounding system of a house can cause a visible "hum bar" in the picture.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="140"><a href="#citable__140"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Also RF video signal systems like antenna signal distribution networks in houses and cable TV systems are built from 75 ohms coaxial cable (those applications use very low loss cable types).</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coaxial cables</TITLE<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=iso-8859-1" /><title>ePanorama.net - Circuits</c_title></em> <c_date>25 September 2009 13:12 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.epanorama.net/documents/wiring/coaxcable.html">www.epanorama.net</a> [Source type: Reference]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="140"><a href="#citable__140"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>For use in Home Network systems and satellite and video distribution.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>CyberEstore | RG6 1000ft Black Quad Shield Coax Cable -UL- | ULPVRG6SCQUA</c_title></em> <c_date>25 September 2009 13:12 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.cyberestore.com/installation-tools-accessories-coax/coax-cable-and-wire/rg6-1000ft-black-quad-shield-coax-cable-ul.html">www.cyberestore.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="140"><a href="#citable__140"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Coaxial cable connector Used as a distribution cable for indoor CATV, CCTV systems and as a connection cable for satellite...</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coaxial Cable, Coaxial Cable Manufacturers & Suppliers</c_title></em> <c_date>16 September 2009 21:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.alibaba.com/showroom/Coaxial_Cable.html">www.alibaba.com</a> [Source type: General]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> This appears as a wide horizontal distortion bar in the picture that scrolls slowly upward. Such differences in potential can be reduced by proper bonding to a common ground at the house. See <a href="/Ground_loop_(electricity)" title="Ground loop (electricity)">ground loop</a>.</div> <div style="display:table-cell;clear:both;"></div><h3><span class="mw-headline" id="wikipedia_Induction">Induction</span></h3> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__135" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="135">External current sources like <a href="/Switched-mode_power_supply" title="Switched-mode power supply">switched-mode power supplies</a> create a voltage across the <a href="/Inductance" title="Inductance">inductance</a> of the outer conductor between sender and receiver.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="135"><a href="#citable__135"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Because the electromagnetic field carrying the signal exists (ideally) only in the space between the inner and outer conductors, it cannot interfere with or suffer interference from external electromagnetic fields.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coaxial Cables</c_title></em> <c_date>16 September 2009 21:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://catalogs.indiamart.com/products/coaxial-cables.html">catalogs.indiamart.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> The effect is less when there are several parallel cables, as this reduces the inductance and therefore the voltage. <a name="citable__121" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="121">Because the outer conductor carries the reference potential for the signal on the inner conductor, the receiving circuit measures the wrong voltage.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="121"><a href="#citable__121"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Because the electromagnetic field carrying the signal exists (ideally) only in the space between the inner and outer conductors, it cannot interfere with or suffer interference from external electromagnetic fields.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coaxial Cables</c_title></em> <c_date>16 September 2009 21:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://catalogs.indiamart.com/products/coaxial-cables.html">catalogs.indiamart.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="121"><a href="#citable__121"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The signals are transmitted through di electric medium and contend between inner and conductor.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coaxial Cables</c_title></em> <c_date>16 September 2009 21:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://catalogs.indiamart.com/products/coaxial-cables.html">catalogs.indiamart.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="121"><a href="#citable__121"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>PTFE Insulated Coaxial/ Triaxial Cables Coaxial cables are constructed with an inner conductor surrounded by a dielectric, which in turn, is enclosed by an outer conductor that also acts as a shield.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coaxial Cables</c_title></em> <c_date>16 September 2009 21:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://catalogs.indiamart.com/products/coaxial-cables.html">catalogs.indiamart.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> </div> <h4><span class="mw-headline" id="wikipedia_Transformer_effect">Transformer effect</span></h4> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block">The <a href="/Transformer" title="Transformer">transformer</a> effect is sometimes used to mitigate the effect of currents induced in the shield. <a name="citable__107" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="107">The inner and outer conductors form the primary and secondary winding of the transformer, and the effect is enhanced in some high quality cables that have an outer layer of <a href="/Mu-metal" title="Mu-metal">mu-metal</a>.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="107"><a href="#citable__107"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Because the electromagnetic field carrying the signal exists (ideally) only in the space between the inner and outer conductors, it cannot interfere with or suffer interference from external electromagnetic fields.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coaxial Cables</c_title></em> <c_date>16 September 2009 21:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://catalogs.indiamart.com/products/coaxial-cables.html">catalogs.indiamart.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="107"><a href="#citable__107"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The triaxial cable has the usual outer conductor braid.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coaxial Cables</c_title></em> <c_date>16 September 2009 21:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://catalogs.indiamart.com/products/coaxial-cables.html">catalogs.indiamart.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="107"><a href="#citable__107"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Co-ax-RGB Cables High performance and defect-less are some of the features associated with our Co-ax/RGB cables.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coaxial Cables</c_title></em> <c_date>16 September 2009 21:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://catalogs.indiamart.com/products/coaxial-cables.html">catalogs.indiamart.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__33" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="33">Because of this 1:1 transformer, the aforementioned voltage across the outer conductor is transformed onto the inner conductor so that the two voltages can be cancelled by the receiver.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="33"><a href="#citable__33"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Because the electromagnetic field carrying the signal exists (ideally) only in the space between the inner and outer conductors, it cannot interfere with or suffer interference from external electromagnetic fields.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coaxial Cables</c_title></em> <c_date>16 September 2009 21:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://catalogs.indiamart.com/products/coaxial-cables.html">catalogs.indiamart.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="33"><a href="#citable__33"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>PTFE Insulated Coaxial/ Triaxial Cables Coaxial cables are constructed with an inner conductor surrounded by a dielectric, which in turn, is enclosed by an outer conductor that also acts as a shield.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coaxial Cables</c_title></em> <c_date>16 September 2009 21:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://catalogs.indiamart.com/products/coaxial-cables.html">catalogs.indiamart.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> Many sender and receivers have means to reduce the leakage even further. They increase the transformer effect by passing the whole cable through a ferrite core sometimes several times.</div> <div style="display:table-cell;clear:both;"></div><h3><span class="mw-headline" id="wikipedia_Common_mode_current_and_radiation">Common mode current and radiation</span></h3> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__116" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="116">Common mode current occurs when stray currents in the shield flow in the same direction as the current in the center conductor, causing the coax to radiate.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="116"><a href="#citable__116"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>I mentioned above, that in order to make a good RF connection, it was necessary to flow solder into the shield of the coax, and wet it to the inside surfaces of the PL259.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coax & PL259s</c_title></em> <c_date>16 September 2009 21:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.k0bg.com/coax.html">www.k0bg.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="116"><a href="#citable__116"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>In order to make a good RF connection, it is necessary to get the solder to flow into the shield of the coax, and provide a well soldered joint.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coax & PL259s</c_title></em> <c_date>16 September 2009 21:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.k0bg.com/coax.html">www.k0bg.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="116"><a href="#citable__116"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Even the best of mobile installations will have some common mode currents flowing on the coaxial feed line.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coax & PL259s</c_title></em> <c_date>16 September 2009 21:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.k0bg.com/coax.html">www.k0bg.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> </div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__25" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="25">Most of the shield effect in coax results from opposing currents in the center conductor and shield creating opposite magnetic fields that cancel, and thus do not radiate.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="25"><a href="#citable__25"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The "First Cut" end cuts the coax outer jacket, shield, and core, but not the center conductor.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coax & PL259s</c_title></em> <c_date>16 September 2009 21:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.k0bg.com/coax.html">www.k0bg.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="25"><a href="#citable__25"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Order: 50 Kilometer 2 Matching Results RG6 COAXIAL CABLE RG6 COAX SHIELD RG6 CABLE RG6 Quad Shield F Connectors RG6 Tri Shield F Connectors 18AWG RG59 RG58 .</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>F Coaxial, F Coaxial Manufacturers & Suppliers</c_title></em> <c_date>16 September 2009 21:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.alibaba.com/showroom/F_Coaxial.html">www.alibaba.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> The same effect helps <a href="/Ladder_line" title="Ladder line">ladder line</a>. <a name="citable__16" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="16">However, ladder line is extremely sensitive to surrounding metal objects which can enter the fields before they completely cancel.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="16"><a href="#citable__16"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Since the cable fillers are composed primarily of saturated hydrocarbons, they are extremely hydrophobic and repel moisture that might enter cables.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coaxial Cables</c_title></em> <c_date>16 September 2009 21:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://catalogs.indiamart.com/products/coaxial-cables.html">catalogs.indiamart.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> Coax does not have this problem since the field is enclosed in the shield. However, it is still possible for a field to form between the shield and other connected objects, such as the antenna the coax feeds. <a name="citable__30" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="30">The current formed by the field between the antenna and the coax shield would flow in the same direction as the current in the center conductor, and thus not be canceled, and would actually cause energy to radiate from the coax itself, making it appear to be part of the antenna, affecting the <a href="/Radiation_pattern" title="Radiation pattern">radiation pattern</a> of the antenna and possibly introducing dangerous radio frequency energy into areas near people, with the risk of <a href="/Radiation_burns" title="Radiation burns" class="mw-redirect">radiation burns</a> if the coax is being used for sufficiently high power transmissions.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="30"><a href="#citable__30"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>It is used as a high-frequency transmission line to carry a high-frequency or broadband signal.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coaxial Cables</c_title></em> <c_date>16 September 2009 21:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://catalogs.indiamart.com/products/coaxial-cables.html">catalogs.indiamart.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="30"><a href="#citable__30"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>I mentioned above, that in order to make a good RF connection, it was necessary to flow solder into the shield of the coax, and wet it to the inside surfaces of the PL259.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coax & PL259s</c_title></em> <c_date>16 September 2009 21:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.k0bg.com/coax.html">www.k0bg.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="30"><a href="#citable__30"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Our range finds different application areas such as transmission of high frequency signals in communication equipment and Control systems.We offer: more...</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coaxial Cables</c_title></em> <c_date>16 September 2009 21:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://catalogs.indiamart.com/products/coaxial-cables.html">catalogs.indiamart.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> A properly placed and sized <a href="/Balun" title="Balun">balun</a> can prevent common mode radiation in coax.</div> <div style="display:table-cell;clear:both;"></div><h3><span class="mw-headline" id="wikipedia_Miscellaneous">Miscellaneous</span></h3> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block">Some senders and receivers use only a limited range of frequencies and block all others by means of an isolating transformer. <a name="citable__101" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="101">Such a transformer breaks the shield for high frequencies.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="101"><a href="#citable__101"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Our range finds different application areas such as transmission of high frequency signals in communication equipment and Control systems.We offer: more...</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coaxial Cables</c_title></em> <c_date>16 September 2009 21:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://catalogs.indiamart.com/products/coaxial-cables.html">catalogs.indiamart.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> Still others avoid the transformer effect altogether by using two capacitors. <a name="citable__45" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="45">If the capacitor for the outer conductor is implemented as one thin gap in the shield, no leakage at high frequencies occurs.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="45"><a href="#citable__45"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The "First Cut" end cuts the coax outer jacket, shield, and core, but not the center conductor.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coax & PL259s</c_title></em> <c_date>16 September 2009 21:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.k0bg.com/coax.html">www.k0bg.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="45"><a href="#citable__45"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>PTFE Insulated Coaxial/ Triaxial Cables Coaxial cables are constructed with an inner conductor surrounded by a dielectric, which in turn, is enclosed by an outer conductor that also acts as a shield.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coaxial Cables</c_title></em> <c_date>16 September 2009 21:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://catalogs.indiamart.com/products/coaxial-cables.html">catalogs.indiamart.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__143" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="143">At high frequencies, beyond the limits of coaxial cables, it becomes more efficient to use other types of transmission line such as <a href="/Wave_guide" title="Wave guide" class="mw-redirect">wave guides</a> or <a href="/Optical_fiber" title="Optical fiber">optical fiber</a>, which offer low leakage (and much lower losses) around 200 THz and good isolation for all other frequencies.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="143"><a href="#citable__143"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Coaxial Cable We offer computer cables, that include coaxial cable.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coaxial Cables</c_title></em> <c_date>16 September 2009 21:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://catalogs.indiamart.com/products/coaxial-cables.html">catalogs.indiamart.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="143"><a href="#citable__143"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>It is used as a high-frequency transmission line to carry a high-frequency or broadband signal.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coaxial Cables</c_title></em> <c_date>16 September 2009 21:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://catalogs.indiamart.com/products/coaxial-cables.html">catalogs.indiamart.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="143"><a href="#citable__143"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Coaxial Cables We offer coaxial cables.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coaxial Cables</c_title></em> <c_date>16 September 2009 21:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://catalogs.indiamart.com/products/coaxial-cables.html">catalogs.indiamart.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> </div> <h2><span class="mw-headline" id="wikipedia_Standards">Standards</span></h2> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__22" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="22">Most coaxial cables have a characteristic impedance of either 50, 52, 75, or 93 Ω.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="22"><a href="#citable__22"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Coaxial Cables The Coaxial Cables are referred to as “coax” which are not only the most used cables but the least expensive one in the market.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coaxial Cables</c_title></em> <c_date>16 September 2009 21:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://catalogs.indiamart.com/products/coaxial-cables.html">catalogs.indiamart.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="22"><a href="#citable__22"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>RF Connectors, Coaxial Connectors, RF Cable Connectors, Coaxial Cable connectors, 50 ohm connector, Manufacturer, Factory, Supplier .</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>RF Connectors, Coaxial Connectors, RF Cable Connectors, Coaxial Cable connectors, 50 ohm connector, Manufacturer, Factory, Supplier, Right Angle Connector, Right Angle Plug SMA,SMB, MCX, MMCX, TNC, SSMB, MC CARD, BNC, rp-SMA, RP TNC, N, 1.6 5.6,1.0 2.3 rf connector</c_title></em> <c_date>16 September 2009 21:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.rfcoaxcable.com/rf_connectors/coaxial_connectors.html">www.rfcoaxcable.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__58" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="58">The RF industry uses standard type-names for coaxial cables.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="58"><a href="#citable__58"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>RF Coaxial Cables We are one of the reputed names in the industry for developing a reckoned range of RF coaxial cables that are constructed to perfection using superior quality material.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coaxial Cables</c_title></em> <c_date>16 September 2009 21:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://catalogs.indiamart.com/products/coaxial-cables.html">catalogs.indiamart.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="58"><a href="#citable__58"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Coaxial Cables We are a trusted name in supplying coaxial cables which can carry information to great distances.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coaxial Cables</c_title></em> <c_date>16 September 2009 21:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://catalogs.indiamart.com/products/coaxial-cables.html">catalogs.indiamart.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="58"><a href="#citable__58"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>PTFE is used if RF-Coaxial to be used in high temperature applications.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coaxial Cables</c_title></em> <c_date>16 September 2009 21:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://catalogs.indiamart.com/products/coaxial-cables.html">catalogs.indiamart.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__0" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="0">Thanks to television, <a href="/RG-6" title="RG-6">RG-6</a> is the most commonly-used coaxial cable for home use, and the majority of connections outside Europe are by <a href="/F_connector" title="F connector">F connectors</a>.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="0"><a href="#citable__0"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Coaxial Cables The Coaxial Cables are referred to as “coax” which are not only the most used cables but the least expensive one in the market.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coaxial Cables</c_title></em> <c_date>16 September 2009 21:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://catalogs.indiamart.com/products/coaxial-cables.html">catalogs.indiamart.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="0"><a href="#citable__0"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>RF Connectors, Coaxial Connectors, RF Cable Connectors, Coaxial Cable connectors, 50 ohm connector, Manufacturer, Factory, Supplier .</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>RF Connectors, Coaxial Connectors, RF Cable Connectors, Coaxial Cable connectors, 50 ohm connector, Manufacturer, Factory, Supplier, Right Angle Connector, Right Angle Plug SMA,SMB, MCX, MMCX, TNC, SSMB, MC CARD, BNC, rp-SMA, RP TNC, N, 1.6 5.6,1.0 2.3 rf connector</c_title></em> <c_date>16 September 2009 21:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.rfcoaxcable.com/rf_connectors/coaxial_connectors.html">www.rfcoaxcable.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="0"><a href="#citable__0"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Coaxial Cable Our finished co-axial cables are manufactured by using high frequency technology.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coaxial Cables</c_title></em> <c_date>16 September 2009 21:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://catalogs.indiamart.com/products/coaxial-cables.html">catalogs.indiamart.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> </div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__35" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="35">A series of standard types of coaxial cable were specified for <a href="/Army-Navy_Equipment_Code_Designators" title="Army-Navy Equipment Code Designators" class="mw-redirect">military</a> uses, in the form "RG-#" or "RG-#/U". They date from <a href="/WW_II" title="WW II" class="mw-redirect">WW II</a> and were listed in <em>MIL-HDBK-216</em> published in 1962. These designations are now obsolete.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="35"><a href="#citable__35"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>We manufacture two types of Coaxial cables: I. 75 ohm Co-axial cables: These cables consist of following kind of cables: • RG-59 Drop Coaxial Cables • RG-6 Drop Coaxial Cables • Rg-7 Drop Coaxial Cables • RG-11 Drop Coaxial Cables • Trunk Cables • Japanese Standard Cables II. 50 ohm co-axial cables: These cables have following varieties: • Base Station Corrugated Hard-line Feeder Cable • Radiating Hard line Cable Corrugated • Braiding Type 50 ohms Communication Cable .</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coaxial Cables</c_title></em> <c_date>16 September 2009 21:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://catalogs.indiamart.com/products/coaxial-cables.html">catalogs.indiamart.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="35"><a href="#citable__35"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Coaxial Cables The Coaxial Cables are referred to as “coax” which are not only the most used cables but the least expensive one in the market.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coaxial Cables</c_title></em> <c_date>16 September 2009 21:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://catalogs.indiamart.com/products/coaxial-cables.html">catalogs.indiamart.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="35"><a href="#citable__35"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Co-Axial Cables We are engaged in manufacturing a wide range of standard co- axial cables to RG military specifications.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coaxial Cables</c_title></em> <c_date>16 September 2009 21:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://catalogs.indiamart.com/products/coaxial-cables.html">catalogs.indiamart.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> The RG designation stands for Radio Guide, the U designation stands for Universal. <a name="citable__110" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="110">The current military standard is <a href="/Defense_Standard" title="Defense Standard" class="mw-redirect">MIL-SPEC</a> MIL-C-17. MIL-C-17 numbers, such as "M17/75-RG214," are given for military cables and manufacturer's catalog numbers for civilian applications.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="110"><a href="#citable__110"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Co-Axial Cables We are engaged in manufacturing a wide range of standard co- axial cables to RG military specifications.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coaxial Cables</c_title></em> <c_date>16 September 2009 21:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://catalogs.indiamart.com/products/coaxial-cables.html">catalogs.indiamart.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="110"><a href="#citable__110"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The Co-axial cable type RG were originally developed for Military applications.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coaxial Cables</c_title></em> <c_date>16 September 2009 21:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://catalogs.indiamart.com/products/coaxial-cables.html">catalogs.indiamart.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="110"><a href="#citable__110"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>They meet the requirements of American Military regulation MIL-C-17.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coaxial Cables</c_title></em> <c_date>16 September 2009 21:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://catalogs.indiamart.com/products/coaxial-cables.html">catalogs.indiamart.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__73" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="73">However, the RG-series designations were so common for generations that they are still used, although critical users should be aware that since the handbook is withdrawn there is no standard to guarantee the electrical and physical characteristics of a cable described as "RG-# type". The RG designators are mostly used to identify compatible <a href="/Connector" title="Connector">connectors</a> that fit the inner conductor, dielectric, and jacket dimensions of the old RG-series cables.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="73"><a href="#citable__73"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Co-Axial Cables We are engaged in manufacturing a wide range of standard co- axial cables to RG military specifications.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coaxial Cables</c_title></em> <c_date>16 September 2009 21:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://catalogs.indiamart.com/products/coaxial-cables.html">catalogs.indiamart.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="73"><a href="#citable__73"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Enough solder should be used to close the connector tip entirely to aid in keeping out moisture.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coax & PL259s</c_title></em> <c_date>16 September 2009 21:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.k0bg.com/coax.html">www.k0bg.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="73"><a href="#citable__73"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Generally people are aware that the Co-axial cable are used in TV sets, Radios, Ethernets and other video equipments.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coaxial Cables</c_title></em> <c_date>16 September 2009 21:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://catalogs.indiamart.com/products/coaxial-cables.html">catalogs.indiamart.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> </div> <table class="wikitable" style="font-size:97%; text-align:center;"> <caption>Common Coaxial Cables</caption> <tr> <th rowspan="2">___type___</th> <th rowspan="2"><a href="/Electrical_impedance" title="Electrical impedance">impedance</a><br /> [ohms]</th> <th rowspan="2">core</th> <th colspan="4">dielectric</th> <th colspan="2">overall diameter</th> <th rowspan="2">shields</th> <th rowspan="2" width="250px">comments</th> </tr> <tr> <th>type</th> <th>VF</th> <th>[in]</th> <th>[mm]</th> <th>in</th> <th>mm</th> </tr> <tr> <th><a href="/RG-6" title="RG-6">RG-6</a>/U</th> <td>75</td> <td>1.0 mm</td> <td>PF</td> <td>0.75</td> <td>0.185</td> <td>4.7</td> <td>0.270</td> <td>6.86</td> <td>double</td> <td align="left">Low loss at high frequency for <a href="/Cable_television" title="Cable television">cable television</a>, <a href="/Satellite_television" title="Satellite television">satellite television</a> and <a href="/Cable_modem" title="Cable modem">cable modems</a></td> </tr> <tr> <th><a href="/RG-6" title="RG-6">RG-6</a>/UQ</th> <td>75</td> <td></td> <td>PF</td> <td></td> <td></td> <td></td> <td>0.298</td> <td>7.57</td> <td>quad</td> <td align="left">This is "quad shield RG-6". It has four layers of <a href="/Electromagnetic_shielding" title="Electromagnetic shielding">shielding</a>; regular RG-6 only has one or two</td> </tr> <tr> <th>RG-8/U</th> <td>50</td> <td>2.17 mm</td> <td>PE</td> <td></td> <td>0.285</td> <td>7.2</td> <td>0.405</td> <td>10.3</td> <td></td> <td align="left"><a href="/Amateur_radio" title="Amateur radio">Amateur radio</a>; Thicknet (<a href="/10BASE5" title="10BASE5">10BASE5</a>) is similar</td> </tr> <tr> <th>RG-8/X</th> <td>50</td> <td>1.0 mm</td> <td>PF</td> <td>0.75</td> <td>0.185</td> <td>4.7</td> <td>0.270</td> <td>6.86</td> <td>double</td> <td align="left">A thinner version, with the electrical characteristics of RG-8U in a diameter similar to RG-6</td> </tr> <tr> <th>RG-9/U</th> <td>51</td> <td></td> <td>PE</td> <td></td> <td></td> <td></td> <td>0.420</td> <td>10.7</td> <td></td> <td align="left"></td> </tr> <tr> <th>RG-11/U</th> <td>75</td> <td>1.63 mm</td> <td>PE</td> <td>0.66</td> <td>0.285</td> <td>7.2</td> <td>0.412</td> <td>10.5</td> <td></td> <td align="left">Used for long drops and underground conduit</td> </tr> <tr> <th><a href="/RG-58" title="RG-58">RG-58/U</a></th> <td>50</td> <td>0.9 mm</td> <td>PE</td> <td>0.66</td> <td>0.116</td> <td>2.9</td> <td>0.195</td> <td>5.0</td> <td>single</td> <td align="left"><a name="citable__97" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="97">Used for radiocommunication and <a href="/Amateur_radio" title="Amateur radio">amateur radio</a>, thin Ethernet (<a href="/10BASE2" title="10BASE2">10BASE2</a>) and <a href="/NIM" title="NIM" class="mw-redirect">NIM</a> electronics.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="97"><a href="#citable__97"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Generally people are aware that the Co-axial cable are used in TV sets, Radios, Ethernets and other video equipments.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coaxial Cables</c_title></em> <c_date>16 September 2009 21:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://catalogs.indiamart.com/products/coaxial-cables.html">catalogs.indiamart.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> Common.</td> </tr> <tr> <th><a href="/RG-59" title="RG-59">RG-59/U</a></th> <td>75</td> <td>0.81 mm</td> <td>PE</td> <td>0.66</td> <td>0.146</td> <td>3.7</td> <td>0.242</td> <td>6.1</td> <td>single</td> <td align="left"><a name="citable__102" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="102">Used to carry <a href="/Baseband" title="Baseband">baseband</a> video in <a href="/Closed-circuit_television" title="Closed-circuit television">closed-circuit television</a>, previously used for cable television.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="102"><a href="#citable__102"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Generally people are aware that the Co-axial cable are used in TV sets, Radios, Ethernets and other video equipments.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coaxial Cables</c_title></em> <c_date>16 September 2009 21:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://catalogs.indiamart.com/products/coaxial-cables.html">catalogs.indiamart.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> Generally it has poor shielding but will carry an HQ HD signal or video over short distances.</td> </tr> <tr> <th>RG-60/U</th> <td>50</td> <td>1.024 mm</td> <td>PE</td> <td></td> <td></td> <td></td> <td>0.425</td> <td>10.8</td> <td>single</td> <td align="left"><a name="citable__114" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="114">Used for high-definition cable TV and high-speed cable Internet.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="114"><a href="#citable__114"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Generally people are aware that the Co-axial cable are used in TV sets, Radios, Ethernets and other video equipments.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coaxial Cables</c_title></em> <c_date>16 September 2009 21:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://catalogs.indiamart.com/products/coaxial-cables.html">catalogs.indiamart.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="114"><a href="#citable__114"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Coaxial Wire The coaxial cable, RG-6 series we offer are used in cable TV operations, computer networking and other such areas.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coaxial Cables</c_title></em> <c_date>16 September 2009 21:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://catalogs.indiamart.com/products/coaxial-cables.html">catalogs.indiamart.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="114"><a href="#citable__114"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Coaxial Cable Our finished co-axial cables are manufactured by using high frequency technology.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Coaxial Cables</c_title></em> <c_date>16 September 2009 21:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://catalogs.indiamart.com/products/coaxial-cables.html">catalogs.indiamart.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> </td> </tr> <tr> <th>RG-62/U</th> <td>92</td> <td></td> <td>PF</td> <td>0.84</td> <td></td> <td></td> <td>0.242</td> <td>6.1</td> <td>single</td> <td align="left">Used for <a href="/ARCNET" title="ARCNET">ARCNET</a> and automotive radio antennas.</td> </tr> <tr> <th>RG-62A</th> <td>93</td> <td></td> <td>ASP</td> <td></td> <td></td> <td></td> <td>0.242</td> <td>6.1</td> <td>single</td> <td align="left">Used for <a href="/NIM" title="NIM" class="mw-redirect">NIM</a> electronics</td> </tr> <tr> <th>RG-174/U</th> <td>50</td> <td>0.48 mm</td> <td>PE</td> <td>0.66</td> <td>0.100</td> <td>2.5</td> <td>0.100</td> <td>2.55</td> <td>single</td> <td align="left">Common for <a href="/Wifi" title="Wifi" class="mw-redirect">wifi</a> pigtails: more flexible but higher loss than RG58; used with <a href="/LEMO" title="LEMO">LEMO</a> 00 connectors in <a href="/NIM" title="NIM" class="mw-redirect">NIM</a> electronics.</td> </tr> <tr> <th>RG-178/U</th> <td>50</td> <td>7×0.1 mm<br /> (Ag plated Cu clad Steel)</td> <td>PTFE</td> <td>0.69</td> <td>0.033</td> <td>0.84</td> <td>0.071</td> <td>1.8</td> <td>single</td> <td></td> </tr> <tr> <th>RG-179/U</th> <td>75</td> <td>7×0.1 mm<br /> (Ag plated Cu)</td> <td>PTFE</td> <td>0.67</td> <td>0.063</td> <td>1.6</td> <td>0.098</td> <td>2.5</td> <td>single</td> <td align="left"><a href="/VGA" title="VGA" class="mw-redirect">VGA</a> RGBHV</td> </tr> <tr> <th>RG-213/U</th> <td>50</td> <td>7×0.0296 in Cu</td> <td>PE</td> <td>0.66</td> <td>0.285</td> <td>7.2</td> <td>0.405</td> <td>10.3</td> <td>single</td> <td align="left">For radiocommunication and <a href="/Amateur_radio" title="Amateur radio">amateur radio</a>, EMC test antenna cables. Typically lower loss than RG58. Common.</td> </tr> <tr> <th>RG-214/U</th> <td>50</td> <td>7×0.0296 in</td> <td>PTFE</td> <td>0.66</td> <td>0.285</td> <td>7.2</td> <td>0.425</td> <td>10.8</td> <td>double</td> <td></td> </tr> <tr> <th>RG-218</th> <td>50</td> <td>0.195 in Cu</td> <td>PE</td> <td>0.66</td> <td>0.660 (0.680?)</td> <td>16.76 (17.27?)</td> <td>0.870</td> <td>22</td> <td>single</td> <td align="left">Large diameter, not very flexible, low loss (2.5dB/100' @ 400 MHz), 11kV dielectric withstand.</td> </tr> <tr> <th>RG-223/U</th> <td>50</td> <td>0.88 mm</td> <td>PE</td> <td>0.66</td> <td>0.0815</td> <td>2.07</td> <td>0.212</td> <td>5.4</td> <td>Double</td> <td align="left">Silver plated shields. <a href="http://www.crownelectronics.com/Specs/RG-223-U.pdf" class="external text" rel="nofollow">Sample RG-223 Datasheet</a></td> </tr> <tr> <th>RG-316/U</th> <td>50</td> <td>7x0.0067 in</td> <td>PTFE</td> <td>0.695</td> <td>0.060</td> <td>1.5</td> <td>0.098</td> <td>2.6</td> <td>single</td> <td align="left">used with <a href="/LEMO" title="LEMO">LEMO</a> 00 connectors in <a href="/NIM" title="NIM" class="mw-redirect">NIM</a> electronics;</td> </tr> <tr> <th>H155</th> <td>50</td> <td></td> <td></td> <td>0.79</td> <td></td> <td></td> <td></td> <td></td> <td></td> <td align="left">lower loss at high frequency for radiocommunication and <a href="/Amateur_radio" title="Amateur radio">amateur radio</a></td> </tr> <tr> <th>H500</th> <td>50</td> <td></td> <td></td> <td>0.82</td> <td></td> <td></td> <td></td> <td></td> <td></td> <td align="left">low loss at high frequency for radiocommunication and <a href="/Amateur_radio" title="Amateur radio">amateur radio</a></td> </tr> <tr> <th>LMR-195</th> <td>50</td> <td></td> <td></td> <td></td> <td></td> <td></td> <td></td> <td></td> <td></td> <td align="left">low loss drop-in replacement for RG-58</td> </tr> <tr> <th>LMR-200<br /> HDF-200<br /> CFD-200</th> <td>50</td> <td>1.12 mm Cu</td> <td>PF CF</td> <td>0.83</td> <td>0.116</td> <td align="right">2.95</td> <td>0.195</td> <td align="right">4.95</td> <td></td> <td align="left">low loss communications, 0.554 dB/meter @ 2.4 GHz</td> </tr> <tr> <th>LMR-400<br /> HDF-400<br /> CFD-400</th> <td>50</td> <td>2.74 mm<br /> (Cu clad Al)</td> <td>PF CF</td> <td>0.85</td> <td>0.285</td> <td align="right">7.24</td> <td>0.405</td> <td align="right">10.29</td> <td></td> <td align="left">low loss communications, 0.223 dB/meter @ 2.4 GHz<sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_4" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-4"><span>[</span>5<span>]</span></a></sup></td> </tr> <tr> <th>LMR-600</th> <td>50</td> <td>4.47 mm<br /> (Cu clad Al)</td> <td>PF</td> <td>0.87</td> <td>0.455</td> <td align="right">11.56</td> <td>0.590</td> <td align="right">14.99</td> <td></td> <td align="left">low loss communications, 0.144 dB/meter @ 2.4 GHz</td> </tr> <tr> <th>LMR-900</th> <td>50</td> <td>6.65 mm<br /> (BC tube)</td> <td>PF</td> <td>0.87</td> <td>0.680</td> <td align="right">17.27</td> <td>0.870</td> <td align="right">22.10</td> <td></td> <td align="left">low loss communications, 0.098 dB/meter @ 2.4 GHz</td> </tr> <tr> <th>LMR-1200</th> <td>50</td> <td>8.86 mm<br /> (BC tube)</td> <td>PF</td> <td>0.88</td> <td>0.920</td> <td align="right">23.37</td> <td>1.200</td> <td align="right">30.48</td> <td></td> <td align="left">low loss communications, 0.075 dB/meter @ 2.4 GHz</td> </tr> <tr> <th>LMR-1700</th> <td>50</td> <td>13.39 mm<br /> (BC tube)</td> <td>PF</td> <td>0.89</td> <td>1.350</td> <td align="right">34.29</td> <td>1.670</td> <td align="right">42.42</td> <td></td> <td align="left">low loss communications, 0.056 dB/meter @ 2.4 GHz</td> </tr> </table> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block">Dielectric Material Codes</div> <ul> <li>PE is solid <a href="/Polyethylene" title="Polyethylene">polyethylene</a></li> <li>PF is polyethylene foam</li> <li>PF CF is polyethylene foam</li> <li>PTFE is <a href="/Polytetrafluoroethylene" title="Polytetrafluoroethylene">polytetrafluoroethylene</a>;</li> <li>ASP is air space polyethylene<sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_5" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-5"><span>[</span>6<span>]</span></a></sup></li> </ul> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block">VF is the Velocity Factor; it is determined by the effective <span class="texhtml">μ<sub><em>r</em></sub></span></div> <ul> <li>VF for solid PE should be about 0.66</li> <li>VF for foam PE should be about 0.78 to 0.88</li> <li>VF for air is about 1.00</li> <li>VF for solid PTFE should be about 0.??</li> <li>VF for foam PTFE should be about 0.??</li> </ul> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block">There are also other designation schemes for coaxial cables such as The URM, CT, BT, RA, PSF and WF series.</div> <div style="display:table-cell;clear:both;"></div><h3><span class="mw-headline" id="wikipedia_References_for_this_section">References for this section</span></h3> <ul> <li><em>RF transmission lines and fittings.</em> Military Standardization Handbook MIL-HDBK-216, U.S. Department of Defense, 4 January 1962. <a href="http://combatindex.com/mil_docs/pdf/Hopper/MIL-HDBK/CI-216-MH-8403-5993.pdf" class="external autonumber" rel="nofollow">[5]</a></li> <li><a href="http://www.dscc.dla.mil/Programs/MilSpec/ListDocs.asp?BasicDoc=MIL-HDBK-216" class="external text" rel="nofollow"><em>Withdrawal Notice for MIL-HDBK-216 2001</em></a></li> <li><em>Cables, radio frequency, flexible and rigid.</em> Details Specification MIL-DTL-17H, 19 August 2005 (superseding MIL-C-17G, 9 March 1990). <a href="http://www.dscc.dla.mil/Programs/MilSpec/ListDocs.asp?BasicDoc=MIL-DTL-17" class="external autonumber" rel="nofollow">[6]</a></li> <li><em>Radio-frequency cables</em>, International Standard <a href="/International_Electrotechnical_Commission" title="International Electrotechnical Commission">IEC</a> 60096.</li> <li><em>Coaxial communication cables</em>, International Standard <a href="/International_Electrotechnical_Commission" title="International Electrotechnical Commission">IEC</a> 61196.</li> <li><em>Coaxial cables</em>, <a href="/British_Standard" title="British Standard" class="mw-redirect">British Standard</a> BS EN 50117</li> <li>H. P. Westman et al., (ed), <em>Reference Data for Radio Engineers, Fifth Edition</em>, 1968, Howard W. Sams and Co., no ISBN, Library of Congress Card No. 43-14665</li> <li><a href="http://www.rfcafe.com/references/electrical/coax-chart.htm" class="external free" rel="nofollow">http://www.rfcafe.com/references/electrical/coax-chart.htm</a></li> <li><a href="http://www.talleycom.com/caxt/index.shtml" class="external text" rel="nofollow">Talley Communications CAxT Cable Assembly</a></li> <li><a href="http://www.awcwire.com/ProductTOC.aspx?id=M17-Coaxial-Cable" class="external text" rel="nofollow">Specs for MIL-C-17 Coaxial Cable Q.P.L.</a></li> <li><a href="http://www.timesmicrowave.com/wireless" class="external text" rel="nofollow">Times Microwave Systems LMR Wireless Products Catalog</a></li> <li><a href="http://nuke.freenet-antennas.com/modules.php?name=News&file=print&sid=15" class="external text" rel="nofollow">CFD Cable Specifications</a></li> <li><a href="http://www.tehnoturg.ee/scanantennas/CABLE_specs.htm" class="external text" rel="nofollow">Specs of RG174/U, RG58C/U etc.</a></li> <li><a href="http://www.lelteh.hr/pdf/cable.pdf" class="external text" rel="nofollow">RG213/8, RG218, CLX1/4", CLX1/2", CLX7/8", CLX1+5/8" Cable Power & Impedance Specs</a></li> <li><a href="http://www.nr6ca.org/vf.html" class="external text" rel="nofollow">Velocity factor of various coaxial cables</a></li> <li><a href="http://www.pasternack.com/pdf/catalog/FullCatalog2009A.pdf" class="external text" rel="nofollow">Pasternack 2009 Catalog</a></li> <li><a href="http://www.unioncopper.com" class="external text" rel="nofollow">Union Copper site with pictures, diagrams, and spec sheet</a></li> </ul> <h2><span class="mw-headline" id="wikipedia_Uses">Uses</span></h2> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block">Short coaxial cables are commonly used to connect home <a href="/Video" title="Video">video</a> equipment, in <a href="/Amateur_radio" title="Amateur radio">ham radio</a> setups, and in <a href="/NIM" title="NIM" class="mw-redirect">measurement electronics</a>. They used to be common for implementing <a href="/Computer_network" title="Computer network">computer networks</a>, in particular <a href="/Ethernet" title="Ethernet">Ethernet</a>, but <a href="/Twisted_pair" title="Twisted pair">twisted pair</a> cables have replaced them in most applications except in the growing consumer <a href="/Cable_modem" title="Cable modem">cable modem</a> market for <a href="/Broadband_Internet_access" title="Broadband Internet access">broadband Internet access</a>.</div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block">Long distance coaxial cable is used to connect <a href="/Radio_network" title="Radio network">radio networks</a> and <a href="/Television_network" title="Television network">television networks</a>, though this has largely been superseded by other more high-tech methods (<a href="/Fibre_optics" title="Fibre optics" class="mw-redirect">fibre optics</a>, <a href="/T-carrier" title="T-carrier">T1</a>/<a href="/E-carrier" title="E-carrier">E1</a>, <a href="/Satellite" title="Satellite">satellite</a>). It still carries <a href="/Cable_television" title="Cable television">cable television</a> signals to the majority of television receivers, and this purpose consumes the majority of coaxial cable production.</div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block">Micro coaxial cables are used in a range of consumer devices, military equipment, and also in ultra-sound scanning equipment.</div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block">The most common impedances that are widely used are 50 or 52 ohms, and 75 ohms, although other impedances are available for specific applications. The 50 / 52 ohm cables are widely used for industrial and commercial <a href="/Two-way_radio" title="Two-way radio">two-way radio</a> frequency applications (including radio, and telecommunications), although 75 ohms is commonly used for <a href="/Broadcasting" title="Broadcasting">broadcast</a> television and radio.</div> <h2><span class="mw-headline" id="wikipedia_Types">Types</span></h2> <div style="display:table-cell;clear:both;"></div><h3><span class="mw-headline" id="wikipedia_Hard_line">Hard line</span></h3> <div class="thumb tright"> <div class="thumbinner" style="width:202px;"><img alt="" src="http://images-mediawiki-sites.thefullwiki.org/05/3/7/1/26261972819826059.jpg" width="200" height="225" class="thumbimage" /> <div class="thumbcaption"> <div class="magnify"><img src="http://images-mediawiki-sites.thefullwiki.org/09/7/4/4/3695493113783710.png" width="15" height="11" alt="" /></div> 1-5/8" hard line</div> </div> </div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><strong>Hard line</strong> is often confused with <a href="/Waveguide" title="Waveguide">waveguide</a> but the two are not the same. Hard line is used in <a href="/Broadcasting" title="Broadcasting">broadcasting</a> as well as many other forms of <a href="/Radio" title="Radio">radio</a> <a href="/Communication" title="Communication">communication</a>. It is a coaxial cable constructed using round copper, silver or gold tubing or a combination of such metals as a shield. Some lower quality hard line may use aluminum shielding, aluminum however is easily oxidized and unlike silver or gold oxide, aluminum oxide drastically loses effective conductivity. Therefore all connections must be air and water tight. <a name="citable__23" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="23">The center conductor may consist of solid copper, or copper plated aluminum.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="23"><a href="#citable__23"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Warehouse: Florida Add to cart Perfect Vision RG6 Solid Copper center conductor 1000 Ft Un-Reel Box Swept to 3GHZ Black UL DTV Approved [more] .</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Installation :: Coax Cable & Wire</c_title></em> <c_date>25 September 2009 13:12 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.cyberestore.com/installation-tools-accessories-coax/coax-cable-and-wire.html">www.cyberestore.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="23"><a href="#citable__23"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Warehouse: Florida Add to cart UL Listed - Solid Copper Conductor Wire, SBCA Compliant, swept tested to 3 GHz, 60% Aluminum Braiding, 100% Shielded.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Installation :: Coax Cable & Wire</c_title></em> <c_date>25 September 2009 13:12 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.cyberestore.com/installation-tools-accessories-coax/coax-cable-and-wire.html">www.cyberestore.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="23"><a href="#citable__23"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Warehouse: Florida Add to cart Copper Clad steel conductor, swept tested to 3 GHz, 60% Aluminum Braiding, 100% Shielded.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Installation :: Coax Cable & Wire</c_title></em> <c_date>25 September 2009 13:12 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.cyberestore.com/installation-tools-accessories-coax/coax-cable-and-wire.html">www.cyberestore.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> Since skin effect is an issue with RF, copper plating provides sufficient surface for an effective conductor. Most varieties of hardline used for external chassis or when exposed to the elements have a PVC jacket; however, some internal applications may omit the insulation jacket. Hard line can be very thick, typically at least a half inch or 13 mm and up to several times that, and has low loss even at high power. These large scale hard lines are almost always used in the connection between a <a href="/Transmitter" title="Transmitter">transmitter</a> on the ground and the <a href="/Antenna_(electronics)" title="Antenna (electronics)" class="mw-redirect">antenna</a> or aerial on a tower. Hard line may also be known by trademarked names such as Heliax (Andrew),<sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_6" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-6"><span>[</span>7<span>]</span></a></sup> or Cablewave (RFS/Cablewave).<sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_7" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-7"><span>[</span>8<span>]</span></a></sup> Larger varieties of hardline may consist of a center conductor which is constructed from either rigid or corrugated copper tubing. The dielectric in hard line may consist of polyethylene foam, air or a pressurized gas such as <a href="/Nitrogen" title="Nitrogen">nitrogen</a> or desiccated air (dried air). In gas-charged lines, hard plastics such as nylon are used as spacers to separate the inner and outer conductors. The addition of these gases into the dielectric space reduces moisture contamination, provides a stable dielectric constant, as well as a reduced risk of internal <a href="/Electric_arc" title="Electric arc">arcing</a>. Gas-filled hardlines are usually used on high powered <a href="/Radio_frequency" title="Radio frequency">RF</a> transmitters such as television or radio broadcasting, military transmitters, as well as high powered <a href="/Amateur_radio" title="Amateur radio">amateur radio</a> applications but may also be used on some critical lower powered applications such as those in the microwave bands. Although in the microwave region <em>waveguide</em> is more often used than hard line for transmitter to antenna, or antenna to receiver applications. The various shields used in hardline also differ; some forms use rigid tubing, or pipe, others may use a corrugated tubing which makes bending easier, as well as reduces kinking when the cable is bent to conform. Smaller varieties of hard line may be used internally in some high frequency applications, particularly in equipment within the microwave range, to reduce interference between stages of the device.</div> <div style="display:table-cell;clear:both;"></div><h3><span class="mw-headline" id="wikipedia_Radiating">Radiating</span></h3> <div class="rellink relarticle mainarticle">Main article: <a href="/Leaky_feeder" title="Leaky feeder">Leaky feeder</a></div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><strong>Radiating</strong> or <strong>Leaky Cable</strong> is another form of coaxial cable which is constructed in a similar fashion to hard line, however it is constructed with tuned slots cut into the shield. These slots are tuned to the specific RF wavelength of operation or tuned to a specific radio frequency band. This type of cable is to provide a tuned bi-directional "desired" leakage effect between transmitter and receiver. It is often used in elevator shafts, underground, transportation tunnels and in other areas where an antenna is not feasible. One example of this type of cable is Radiax (Andrew).<sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_8" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-8"><span>[</span>9<span>]</span></a></sup></div> <div style="display:table-cell;clear:both;"></div><h3><span class="mw-headline" id="wikipedia_RG_2F6">RG/6</span></h3> <div class="rellink relarticle mainarticle">Main article: <a href="/RG/6" title="RG/6" class="mw-redirect">RG/6</a></div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><strong>RG/6</strong> is available in three different types designed for various applications. "Plain" or "house" wire is designed for indoor or external house wiring. "Flooded" cable is infused with heavy waterproofing for use in underground conduit (ideally) or direct burial. "Messenger" may contain some waterproofing but is distinguished by the addition of a steel messenger wire along its length to carry the tension involved in an aerial drop from a utility pole.</div> <div style="display:table-cell;clear:both;"></div><h3><span class="mw-headline" id="wikipedia_Triaxial_cable">Triaxial cable</span></h3> <div class="rellink relarticle mainarticle">Main article: <a href="/Triaxial_cable" title="Triaxial cable">Triaxial cable</a></div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><strong>Triaxial cable</strong> or <strong>triax</strong> is coaxial cable with a third layer of shielding, insulation and sheathing. The outer shield, which is earthed (grounded), protects the inner shield from electromagnetic interference from outside sources.</div> <div style="display:table-cell;clear:both;"></div><h3><span class="mw-headline" id="wikipedia_Twin_axial_cable">Twin-axial cable</span></h3> <div class="rellink relarticle mainarticle">Main article: <a href="/Twinaxial_cabling" title="Twinaxial cabling">Twinaxial cabling</a></div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><strong>Twin-axial cable</strong> or <strong>twinax</strong> is a balanced, twisted pair within a cylindrical shield. It allows a nearly perfect differential signal which is <em>both</em> shielded <em>and</em> balanced to pass through. Multi-conductor coaxial cable is also sometimes used.</div> <div style="display:table-cell;clear:both;"></div><h3><span class="mw-headline" id="wikipedia_Biaxial_cable">Biaxial cable</span></h3> <div class="rellink relarticle mainarticle">Main article: <a href="/Twin-lead" title="Twin-lead">Twin-lead</a></div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><strong>Biaxial cable</strong>, <strong>biax</strong> or <em>Twin-Lead</em> is a figure-8 configuration of two 50 Ω coaxial cables, externally resembling that of lamp cord, or speaker wire. Biax is used in some proprietary <a href="/Computer_network" title="Computer network">computer networks</a>. Others may be familiar with 75Ω biax which at one time was popular on many cable TV services.</div> <div style="display:table-cell;clear:both;"></div><h3><span class="mw-headline" id="wikipedia_Semi_rigid">Semi-rigid</span></h3> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><strong>Semi-rigid</strong> cable is a coaxial form using a solid copper outer sheath. This type of coax offers superior screening compared to cables with a braided outer conductor, especially at higher frequencies. The major disadvantage is that the cable, as its name implies, is not very flexible, and is not intended to be flexed after initial forming. (See "hard line")</div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block">Conformable cable is a flexible reformable alternative to semi-rigid coaxial cable used where flexibility is required. Conformable cable can be stripped and formed by hand withouth the need for specialist tools, similar to standard coaxial cable.</div> <h2><span class="mw-headline" id="wikipedia_Interference_and_troubleshooting">Interference and troubleshooting</span></h2> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block">Coaxial cable insulation may degrade, requiring replacement of the cable, especially if it has been exposed to the elements on a continuous basis. The shield is normally grounded, and if even a single thread of the braid or filament of foil touches the center conductor, the signal will be shorted causing significant or total signal loss. This most often occurs at improperly installed end connectors and splices. Also, the connector or splice must be properly attached to the shield, as this provides the path to ground for the interfering signal.</div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block">Despite being shielded, interference can occur on coaxial cable lines. Susceptibility to interference has little relationship to broad cable type designations (e.g. RG-59, RG-6) but is strongly related to the composition and configuration of the cable's shielding. For <a href="/Cable_television" title="Cable television">cable television</a>, with frequencies extending well into the UHF range, a foil shield is normally provided, and will provide total coverage as well as high effectiveness against high-frequency interference. Foil shielding is ordinarily accompanied by a tinned copper or aluminum braid shield, with anywhere from 60 to 95% coverage. The braid is important to shield effectiveness because (1) it is more effective than foil at absorbing low-frequency interference, (2) it provides higher conductivity to ground than foil, and (3) it makes attaching a connector easier and more reliable. "Quad-shield" cable, using two low-coverage aluminum braid shields and two layers of foil, is often used in situations involving troublesome interference, but is less effective than a single layer of foil and single high-coverage copper braid shield such as is found on broadcast-quality precision video cable.</div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block">In the <a href="/United_States" title="United States">United States</a> and some other countries, <a href="/Cable_television" title="Cable television">cable television</a> distribution systems use extensive networks of outdoor coaxial cable, often with in-line distribution amplifiers. Leakage of signals into and out of cable TV systems can cause interference to cable subscribers and to over-the-air radio services using the same frequencies as those of the cable system.</div> <h2><span class="mw-headline" id="wikipedia_History">History</span></h2> <ul> <li>1866 — First successful <a href="/Transatlantic_cable" title="Transatlantic cable">transatlantic cable</a>, designed by <a href="/William_Thomson,_1st_Baron_Kelvin" title="William Thomson, 1st Baron Kelvin">William Thomson</a> (Lord Kelvin, 1892); <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_9" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-9"><span>[</span>10<span>]</span></a></sup><sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_10" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-10"><span>[</span>11<span>]</span></a></sup><sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_11" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-11"><span>[</span>12<span>]</span></a></sup><sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_12" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-12"><span>[</span>13<span>]</span></a></sup><sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_13" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-13"><span>[</span>14<span>]</span></a></sup> see <a href="/Submarine_communications_cable" title="Submarine communications cable">Submarine communications cable</a>.</li> <li>1880 — Coaxial cable patented in <a href="/England" title="England">England</a> by <a href="/Oliver_Heaviside" title="Oliver Heaviside">Oliver Heaviside</a>, patent no. 1,407.<sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_14" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-14"><span>[</span>15<span>]</span></a></sup></li> <li>1884 — <a href="/Siemens_%26_Halske" title="Siemens & Halske">Siemens & Halske</a> patent coaxial cable in <a href="/Germany" title="Germany">Germany</a> (Patent No. 28,978, 27 March 1884).<sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_15" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-15"><span>[</span>16<span>]</span></a></sup></li> <li>1894 — <a href="/Oliver_Lodge" title="Oliver Lodge" class="mw-redirect">Oliver Lodge</a> demonstrates waveguide transmission at the <a href="/Royal_Institution" title="Royal Institution">Royal Institution</a>. <a href="/Nikola_Tesla" title="Nikola Tesla">Nikola Tesla</a> receives <span><a href="http://www.google.com/patents?q=514167" class="external text" rel="nofollow">U.S. Patent 0,514,167</a></span>, <em>Electrical Conductor</em>, on February 6.</li> <li>1929 — First modern coaxial cable patented by <a href="/Lloyd_Espenschied" title="Lloyd Espenschied">Lloyd Espenschied</a> and <a href="/Herman_Affel" title="Herman Affel">Herman Affel</a> of <a href="/AT%26T_(1885-2005)" title="AT&T (1885-2005)" class="mw-redirect">AT&T's</a> <a href="/Bell_Labs" title="Bell Labs">Bell Telephone Laboratories</a>, <span><a href="http://www.google.com/patents?q=1835031" class="external text" rel="nofollow">U.S. Patent 1,835,031</a></span>.</li> <li>1936 — First transmission of <a href="/Television" title="Television">TV</a> pictures on coaxial cable, from the <a href="/1936_Summer_Olympics" title="1936 Summer Olympics">1936 Summer Olympics</a> in Berlin to <a href="/Leipzig" title="Leipzig">Leipzig</a>.</li> <li>1936 — World's first underwater coaxial cable installed between <a href="/Apollo_Bay" title="Apollo Bay" class="mw-redirect">Apollo Bay</a>, near <a href="/Melbourne" title="Melbourne">Melbourne</a>, Australia, and <a href="/Stanley,_Tasmania" title="Stanley, Tasmania">Stanley, Tasmania</a>. The 300 km cable can carry one broadcast channel and seven telephone channels.</li> <li>1936 — AT&T installs experimental coaxial telephone and television cable between <a href="/New_York" title="New York">New York</a> and <a href="/Philadelphia" title="Philadelphia">Philadelphia</a>, with automatic booster stations every ten miles. Completed in December, it can transmit 240 telephone calls simultaneously.<sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_16" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-16"><span>[</span>17<span>]</span></a></sup><sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_17" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-17"><span>[</span>18<span>]</span></a></sup></li> <li>1936 — Coaxial cable laid by the <a href="/General_Post_Office" title="General Post Office">General Post Office</a> (now <a href="/British_Telecom" title="British Telecom" class="mw-redirect">BT</a>) between <a href="/London" title="London">London</a> and <a href="/Birmingham" title="Birmingham">Birmingham</a>, providing 40 telephone channels.<sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_18" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-18"><span>[</span>19<span>]</span></a></sup><sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_19" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-19"><span>[</span>20<span>]</span></a></sup></li> <li>1941 — First commercial use in USA by AT&T, between <a href="/Minneapolis" title="Minneapolis">Minneapolis</a>, Minnesota and Stevens Point, Wisconsin. L1 system with capacity of one TV channel or 480 telephone circuits.</li> <li>1956 — First transatlantic coaxial cable laid, <a href="/TAT-1" title="TAT-1">TAT-1</a>.<sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_20" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-20"><span>[</span>21<span>]</span></a></sup><sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_21" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-21"><span>[</span>22<span>]</span></a></sup></li> </ul> <h2><span class="mw-headline" id="wikipedia_See_also">See also</span></h2> <ul> <li><a href="/Radio_frequency_power_transmission" title="Radio frequency power transmission">Radio frequency power transmission</a></li> <li><a href="/L-carrier" title="L-carrier">L-carrier</a></li> <li><a href="/Balanced_pair" title="Balanced pair" class="mw-redirect">Balanced pair</a></li> <li><a href="/Data_cable" title="Data cable">Data cable</a></li> <li><a href="/Shielded_cable" title="Shielded cable">Shielded cable</a></li> <li><a href="/Cable" title="Cable">Cable</a></li> <li><a href="/Category_5_cable" title="Category 5 cable">Category 5 cable</a></li> </ul> <h2><span class="mw-headline" id="wikipedia_References">References</span></h2> <div class="references-small"> <ol class="references"> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_0"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-0">^</a></strong> <span class="citation book">Nahin, Paul J. (2002). <em>Oliver Heaviside: The Life, Work, and Times of an Electrical Genius of the Victorian Age</em>. <a href="/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a> 0801869099.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=book&rft.btitle=Oliver+Heaviside%3A+The+Life%2C+Work%2C+and+Times+of+an+Electrical+Genius+of+the+Victorian+Age&rft.aulast=Nahin&rft.aufirst=Paul+J.&rft.au=Nahin%2C%26%2332%3BPaul+J.&rft.date=2002&rft.isbn=0801869099&rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Coaxial_cable"><span style="display: none;"> </span></span></li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_1"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-1">^</a></strong> <a href="http://www.smarthome.com/7807R/Right-Angle-F-Connector-Adapters-6-Pack-2125/p.aspx" class="external free" rel="nofollow">http://www.smarthome.com/7807R/Right-Angle-F-Connector-Adapters-6-Pack-2125/p.aspx</a></li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_2"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-2">^</a></strong> <span class="citation book">Elmore, William C.; Heald, Mark A. (1969). <em>Physics of Waves</em>. <a href="/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a> 0486649261.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=book&rft.btitle=Physics+of+Waves&rft.aulast=Elmore&rft.aufirst=William+C.&rft.au=Elmore%2C%26%2332%3BWilliam+C.&rft.au=Heald%2C+Mark+A.&rft.date=1969&rft.isbn=0486649261&rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Coaxial_cable"><span style="display: none;"> </span></span></li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_3"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-3">^</a></strong> <span class="citation book">Ott, Henry W. (1976). <em>Noise Reduction Techniques in Electronic Systems</em>. <a href="/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a> 0471657263.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=book&rft.btitle=Noise+Reduction+Techniques+in+Electronic+Systems&rft.aulast=Ott&rft.aufirst=Henry+W.&rft.au=Ott%2C%26%2332%3BHenry+W.&rft.date=1976&rft.isbn=0471657263&rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Coaxial_cable"><span style="display: none;"> </span></span></li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_4"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-4">^</a></strong> <span class="citation web"><a href="http://www.radioinc.com/oscmax/catalog/product_info.php?name=LMR%20400%20UltraFlex%20(RG-8)%20100%20ft%20pre-cut&products_id=1121" class="external text" rel="nofollow">"Radio City Inc"</a><span class="printonly">. <a href="http://www.radioinc.com/oscmax/catalog/product_info.php?name=LMR%20400%20UltraFlex%20(RG-8)%20100%20ft%20pre-cut&products_id=1121" class="external free" rel="nofollow">http://www.radioinc.com/oscmax/catalog/product_info.php?name=LMR%20400%20UltraFlex%20(RG-8)%20100%20ft%20pre-cut&products_id=1121</a></span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=bookitem&rft.btitle=Radio+City+Inc&rft.atitle=&rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.radioinc.com%2Foscmax%2Fcatalog%2Fproduct_info.php%3Fname%3DLMR%2520400%2520UltraFlex%2520%28RG-8%29%2520100%2520ft%2520pre-cut%26products_id%3D1121&rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Coaxial_cable"><span style="display: none;"> </span></span></li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_5"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-5">^</a></strong> <a href="http://www.rfcafe.com/references/electrical/coax-chart.htm" class="external text" rel="nofollow">RF Cafe - Coaxial Cable Specifications Cables Chart</a></li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_6"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-6">^</a></strong> <span class="citation web"><a href="http://www.commscope.com/andrew/eng/product/trans_line_sys/coaxial/wireless/1206774_13612.html" class="external text" rel="nofollow">"Andrew Heliax"</a><span class="printonly">. <a href="http://www.commscope.com/andrew/eng/product/trans_line_sys/coaxial/wireless/1206774_13612.html" class="external free" rel="nofollow">http://www.commscope.com/andrew/eng/product/trans_line_sys/coaxial/wireless/1206774_13612.html</a></span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=bookitem&rft.btitle=Andrew+Heliax&rft.atitle=&rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.commscope.com%2Fandrew%2Feng%2Fproduct%2Ftrans_line_sys%2Fcoaxial%2Fwireless%2F1206774_13612.html&rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Coaxial_cable"><span style="display: none;"> </span></span></li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_7"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-7">^</a></strong> <span class="citation web"><a href="http://www.rfsworld.com/" class="external text" rel="nofollow">"Cablewave Radio Frequency Systems (http://www.rfsworld.com)"</a><span class="printonly">. <a href="http://www.rfsworld.com/" class="external free" rel="nofollow">http://www.rfsworld.com/</a></span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=bookitem&rft.btitle=Cablewave+Radio+Frequency+Systems+%28http%3A%2F%2Fwww.rfsworld.com%29&rft.atitle=&rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.rfsworld.com%2F&rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Coaxial_cable"><span style="display: none;"> </span></span></li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_8"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-8">^</a></strong> <span class="citation web"><a href="http://www.commscope.com/andrew/eng/product/trans_line_sys/coaxial/radiating/1206639_13611.html" class="external text" rel="nofollow">"Andrew Radiax"</a><span class="printonly">. <a href="http://www.commscope.com/andrew/eng/product/trans_line_sys/coaxial/radiating/1206639_13611.html" class="external free" rel="nofollow">http://www.commscope.com/andrew/eng/product/trans_line_sys/coaxial/radiating/1206639_13611.html</a></span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=bookitem&rft.btitle=Andrew+Radiax&rft.atitle=&rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.commscope.com%2Fandrew%2Feng%2Fproduct%2Ftrans_line_sys%2Fcoaxial%2Fradiating%2F1206639_13611.html&rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Coaxial_cable"><span style="display: none;"> </span></span></li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_9"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-9">^</a></strong> <a href="/Institute_of_Electrical_and_Electronics_Engineers" title="Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers">IEEE</a> - <a href="http://www.ieee.org/web/aboutus/history_center/transatlantic_cable.html" class="external text" rel="nofollow">IEEE History Center: Landing of the Transatlantic Cable, 1866</a></li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_10"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-10">^</a></strong> Atlantic-cable.com - <a href="http://atlantic-cable.com/Article/CableTrail/ValentiaHC/index.htm" class="external text" rel="nofollow">History of the Atlantic Cable & Undersea Communications from the first submarine cable of 1850 to the worldwide fiber optic network</a></li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_11"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-11">^</a></strong> HistoryMagazine.com - <a href="http://www.history-magazine.com/cable.html" class="external text" rel="nofollow">The Transatlantic Cable</a></li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_12"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-12">^</a></strong> <a href="/Public_Broadcasting_Service" title="Public Broadcasting Service">PBS.org</a> - <a href="http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/cable/peopleevents/e_first.html" class="external text" rel="nofollow">The First Attempts to Lay the Transatlantic Cable (1857-1858)</a></li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_13"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-13">^</a></strong> <a href="/Encyclop%C3%A6dia_Britannica,_Inc." title="Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.">Britannica.com</a> - <a href="http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/602373/transatlantic-cable" class="external text" rel="nofollow">transatlantic cable</a></li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_14"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-14">^</a></strong> <a href="/Google_Book_Search" title="Google Book Search" class="mw-redirect">Google Book Search</a> - <a href="http://books.google.com/books?id=e9wEntQmA0IC&pg=PA29&lpg=PA29&dq=coaxial+cable+Oliver+Heaviside&source=bl&ots=f0kQnzwRQA&sig=CirRGTNdKXxb9n--KVrrt5sXIIA&hl=en" class="external text" rel="nofollow">Oliver Heaviside By Paul J. Nahin</a></li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_15"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-15">^</a></strong> <span class="citation book">Feldenkirchen, Wilfried (1994). <em>Werner von Siemens - Inventor and International Entrepreneur</em>. <a href="/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a> 0814206581.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=book&rft.btitle=Werner+von+Siemens+-+Inventor+and+International+Entrepreneur&rft.aulast=Feldenkirchen&rft.aufirst=Wilfried&rft.au=Feldenkirchen%2C%26%2332%3BWilfried&rft.date=1994&rft.isbn=0814206581&rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Coaxial_cable"><span style="display: none;"> </span></span></li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_16"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-16">^</a></strong> "<a href="http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,757144-1,00.html" class="external text" rel="nofollow">Coaxial Debut</a>," <em><a href="/Time_(magazine)" title="Time (magazine)">Time</a></em>, Dec. 14, 1936.</li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_17"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-17">^</a></strong> <a href="/Boing_Boing" title="Boing Boing">Boing Boing</a> - <a href="http://gadgets.boingboing.net/2009/04/17/gallery-an-illustrat.html" class="external text" rel="nofollow">Gallery: An illustrated history of the transoceanic cable</a></li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_18"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-18">^</a></strong> <a href="/Google_Book_Search" title="Google Book Search" class="mw-redirect">Google books</a> - <a href="http://books.google.com/books?id=DL73f4vFeEwC&pg=PA819&dq=coaxial+cable+London+and+Birmingham&ei=WKk1SqnfGaSUywSE1v39BQ" class="external text" rel="nofollow">Broadcast engineer's reference book By Edwin Paul J. Tozer</a></li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_19"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-19">^</a></strong> Radio-electronics.com - <a href="http://www.radio-electronics.com/info/antennas/coax/rf-coaxial-feeder-cable.php" class="external text" rel="nofollow">Coaxial feeder or RF coax cable</a></li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_20"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-20">^</a></strong> Atlantic-cable.com - <a href="http://atlantic-cable.com/Souvenirs/1956TAT-1/" class="external text" rel="nofollow">1956 TAT-1 Silver Commemorative Dish</a></li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_21"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-21">^</a></strong> <a href="/Google_Book_Search" title="Google Book Search" class="mw-redirect">Google books</a> - <a href="http://books.google.com/books?id=SnjGRDVIUL4C&pg=PA470&dq=1956+TAT-1&as_brr=3&ei=M7w_SpHECp3KMYrL9ZUF" class="external text" rel="nofollow">The worldwide history of telecommunications By Anton A. Huurdeman</a></li> </ol> </div> <table class="navbox" cellspacing="0" style=";"> <tr> <td style="padding:2px;"> <table cellspacing="0" class="nowraplinks collapsible autocollapse" style="width:100%;background:transparent;color:inherit;;"> <tr> <th style=";" colspan="2" class="navbox-title"><span class="" style="font-size:110%;"><a href="/RF_connector" title="RF connector">RF connectors</a> (<a href="/Coaxial" title="Coaxial">coaxial</a>)</span></th> </tr> <tr style="height:2px;"> <td></td> </tr> <tr> <td colspan="2" style="width:100%;padding:0px;background:transparent; line-height:1.5em;;;" class="navbox-list navbox-odd"> <div style="padding:0em 0.25em"><a href="/APC-7_connector" title="APC-7 connector">APC-7</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/BNC_connector" title="BNC connector">BNC</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/C_connector" title="C connector">C</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/F_connector" title="F connector">F</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/FME_connector" title="FME connector">FME</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Hirose_U.FL" title="Hirose U.FL">Hirose U.FL</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/IPX_connector" title="IPX connector">IPX</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Motorola_connector" title="Motorola connector">Motorola</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/MCX_connector" title="MCX connector">MCX</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/MMCX_connector" title="MMCX connector">MMCX</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/N_connector" title="N connector">N</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/QLS_connector" title="QLS connector">QLS</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/QMA_and_QN_connector" title="QMA and QN connector">QMA/QN</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/RCA_connector" title="RCA connector">RCA</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/SMA_connector" title="SMA connector">SMA</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/SMB_connector" title="SMB connector">SMB</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/SMC_connector" title="SMC connector">SMC</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Twin-lead" title="Twin-lead">Twin-lead</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/TNC_connector" title="TNC connector">TNC</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/TV_aerial_plug" title="TV aerial plug">TV aerial plug</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/UHF_connector" title="UHF connector">UHF</a> / <a href="/Miniature_UHF_connector" title="Miniature UHF connector">Mini-UHF</a> <hr /> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><em>Variations and alternate names</em>: <a href="/SMA_connector" title="SMA connector">2.9 mm</a> (SMA)<span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/APC-7_connector" title="APC-7 connector">7 mm</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/BNC_connector" title="BNC connector">Triax</a> / <a href="/BNC_connector" title="BNC connector">Triaxial</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/BNC_connector" title="BNC connector">Twin BNC</a> / <a href="/BNC_connector" title="BNC connector">Twinax</a> (BNC)<span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Hirose_U.FL" title="Hirose U.FL">IPEX</a> <span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Hirose_U.FL" title="Hirose U.FL">MHF</a> <span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Hirose_U.FL" title="Hirose U.FL">AMC</a> (UFL)<span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/N_connector" title="N connector">SnapN</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/TNC_connector" title="TNC connector">RP-TNC</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/SMA_connector" title="SMA connector">RP-SMA</a></div> <em>Old or seldom used</em>: <a href="/EIA_RF_Connectors" title="EIA RF Connectors">EIA</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/GR_connector" title="GR connector">GR</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/LEMO" title="LEMO">LEMO 00</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Musa_connector" title="Musa connector">Musa</a></div> </td> </tr> <tr style="height:2px;"> <td></td> </tr> <tr> <td class="navbox-abovebelow" style=";" colspan="2">See also: <a href="/Radio_frequency" title="Radio frequency">Radio frequency</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Radio_spectrum" title="Radio spectrum">Radio spectrum</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Audio_and_video_connectors" title="Audio and video connectors" class="mw-redirect">Audio and video connectors</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Audio_and_video_interfaces_and_connectors" title="Audio and video interfaces and connectors">Audio and video interfaces and connectors</a></td> </tr> </table> </td> </tr> </table> <div id='catlinks' class='catlinks'> <div id="wikipedia_mw_normal_catlinks">Categories: <span dir='ltr'><a href="/Category:Signal_cables" title="Category:Signal cables">Signal cables</a></span> | <span dir='ltr'><a href="/Category:Antennas_(radio)" title="Category:Antennas (radio)">Antennas (radio)</a></span></div> <div id="wikipedia_mw_hidden_catlinks" class="mw-hidden-cats-hidden">Hidden categories: <span dir='ltr'><a href="/Category:Articles_needing_additional_references_from_June_2009" title="Category:Articles needing additional references from June 2009">Articles needing additional references from June 2009</a></span> | <span dir='ltr'><a href="/Category:All_articles_needing_additional_references" title="Category:All articles needing additional references">All articles needing additional references</a></span> | <span dir='ltr'><a href="/Category:All_articles_with_unsourced_statements" title="Category:All articles with unsourced statements">All articles with unsourced statements</a></span> | <span dir='ltr'><a href="/Category:Articles_with_unsourced_statements_from_June_2007" title="Category:Articles with unsourced statements from June 2007">Articles with unsourced statements from June 2007</a></span> | <span dir='ltr'><a href="/Category:Articles_lacking_in-text_citations_from_June_2009" title="Category:Articles lacking in-text citations from June 2009">Articles lacking in-text citations from June 2009</a></span> | <span dir='ltr'><a href="/Category:All_articles_lacking_in-text_citations" title="Category:All articles lacking in-text citations">All articles lacking in-text citations</a></span></div> </div> </div> </div> </div><br/> </div> <div class="section-delimeter"></div> <div class="section" id="simple_wikipedia"> <h1 class="section-title"> <a name="simple_wikipedia">Simple English</a> </h1> <div style="float:right"> </div> <div class="fragment"> <div id="simple_wikipedia_fragments"> <p>[[File:|thumb|200px|right|Schematic drawing of a coaxial cable]] </p><p>A <b>Coaxial cable</b> is a special electrical <a href="/Cable" title="Cable">cable</a>. It is used to transmit <a href="/Signal" title="Signal">signals</a>. The cable is specially insulated. This makes it quite stiff. Today, coaxial cables are used for things like <a href="/Cable_TV" title="Cable TV" class="mw-redirect">Cable TV</a>. Coaxial cables can also be used for <a href="/Computer_network" title="Computer network">computer networks</a>, but this is more rarely the case now, as twisted pair cables can be used there more easily. </p><p>Such cables are usually made of a conducting wire. Then there is some insulation, then there is another layer of conducting material. Finally there is the (insulating) mantle. Such cables are used as a high-frequency transmission line to carry a high-<a href="/Frequency" title="Frequency">frequency</a> or <a href="/Broadband" title="Broadband">broadband</a> signal. Because the <a href="/Electromagnetic_field" title="Electromagnetic field" class="mw-redirect">electromagnetic field</a> carrying the signal exists (ideally) only in the space between the inner and outer conductors, it cannot interfere with or suffer <a href="/Interference" title="Interference">interference</a> from external electromagnetic fields. </p><p>There are different types of coaxial cables, which satisfy different standards. </p> <a name="Timeline" id="Timeline"></a><h2> <span class="mw-headline"> Timeline </span></h2> <p> </p> <ul><li> <a href="/1880" title="1880">1880</a> — Coaxial cable patented in <a href="/England" title="England">England</a> by Oliver Heaviside, patent no. 1,407. </li><li> <a href="/1884" title="1884">1884</a> — Coaxial cable patented in <a href="/Germany" title="Germany">Germany</a> by <a href="/Ernst_Werner_von_Siemens" title="Ernst Werner von Siemens">Ernst Werner von Siemens</a>, but with no known application.<sup title="References are needed for the previous part of the text." class="noprint">[<i>needs proof</i>]</sup> </li><li> <a href="/1894" title="1894">1894</a> — Oliver Lodge demonstrates waveguide transmission at the Royal Institution. <a href="/Nikola_Tesla" title="Nikola Tesla">Nikola Tesla</a> receives <a href="http://patft.uspto.gov/netacgi/nph-Parser?patentnumber=0514167" class="external text" title="http://patft.uspto.gov/netacgi/nph-Parser?patentnumber=0514167" rel="nofollow">U.S. Patent 0,514,167</a><span class="PDFlink noprint"><a href="http://www.pat2pdf.org/pat2pdf/foo.pl?number=0514167" class="external text" title="http://www.pat2pdf.org/pat2pdf/foo.pl?number=0514167" rel="nofollow"> </a></span>, <i>Electrical Conductor</i>, on <a href="/February_6" title="February 6">February 6</a>. </li><li> <a href="/1929" title="1929">1929</a> — First modern coaxial cable patented by Lloyd Espenschied and Herman Affel of AT&T's Bell Telephone Laboratories, <a href="http://patft.uspto.gov/netacgi/nph-Parser?patentnumber=1835031" class="external text" title="http://patft.uspto.gov/netacgi/nph-Parser?patentnumber=1835031" rel="nofollow">U.S. Patent 1,835,031</a><span class="PDFlink noprint"><a href="http://www.pat2pdf.org/pat2pdf/foo.pl?number=1835031" class="external text" title="http://www.pat2pdf.org/pat2pdf/foo.pl?number=1835031" rel="nofollow"> </a></span>. </li><li> <a href="/1936" title="1936">1936</a> — First transmission of <a href="/Television" title="Television">TV</a> pictures on coaxial cable, from the <a href="/1936_Summer_Olympics" title="1936 Summer Olympics">1936 Summer Olympics</a> in Berlin to <a href="/Leipzig" title="Leipzig">Leipzig</a>. </li><li> 1936 — World's first underwater coaxial cable installed between Apollo Bay, near <a href="/Melbourne" title="Melbourne">Melbourne</a>, Australia, and Stanley, Tasmania. The 300-km cable can carry one broadcast channel and seven telephone channels. </li><li> 1936 — AT&T installs experimental coaxial telephone and television cable between <a href="/New_York" title="New York">New York</a> and <a href="/Philadelphia" title="Philadelphia" class="mw-redirect">Philadelphia</a>, with automatic booster stations every ten miles. Completed in December, it can transmit 240 telephone calls simultaneously.<sup id="cite_ref-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-0" title="">[1]</a></sup> </li><li> 1936 — Coaxial cable laid by the Post Office (now BT) between <a href="/London" title="London">London</a> and <a href="/Birmingham" title="Birmingham">Birmingham</a>, providing 40 telephone channels. [Source: archives at <a href="http://www.bt.com" class="external free" title="http://www.bt.com" rel="nofollow">http://www.bt.com</a>] </li><li> <a href="/1941" title="1941">1941</a> — First commercial use in USA by AT&T, between <a href="/Minneapolis" title="Minneapolis" class="mw-redirect">Minneapolis</a>, Minnesota and Stevens Point, Wisconsin. L1 system with capacity of one TV channel or 480 telephone circuits. </li><li> <a href="/1956" title="1956">1956</a> — First transatlantic coaxial cable laid, TAT-1. </li></ul> <a name="References" id="References"></a><h2> <span class="mw-headline"> References </span></h2> <div class="references-small"> <ol class="references"><li id="cite_note-0"><a href="#cite_ref-0" title="">↑</a> "<a href="http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,757144-1,00.html" class="external text" title="http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,757144-1,00.html" rel="nofollow">Coaxial Debut</a>," <i><a href="/Time_(magazine)" title="Time (magazine)">Time</a></i>, Dec. 14, 1936.</li></ol></div> <a name="Other_Websites" id="Other_Websites"></a><h2> <span class="mw-headline"> Other Websites </span></h2> <ul><li> <a href="http://www.rfcafe.com/references/electrical/coax_chart.htm" class="external text" title="http://www.rfcafe.com/references/electrical/coax_chart.htm" rel="nofollow">Coaxial Cable Specifications</a> </li><li> <a href="http://www.bluejeanscable.com/articles/rg6.htm" class="external text" title="http://www.bluejeanscable.com/articles/rg6.htm" rel="nofollow">What does "RG-6" mean?</a> </li><li> <a href="http://www.awcwire.com/FAQ-Coaxial.aspx" class="external text" title="http://www.awcwire.com/FAQ-Coaxial.aspx" rel="nofollow">Coaxial Cable FAQ Wire Guide</a> </li><li> <a href="http://www.securityideas.com/cableselection.html" class="external text" title="http://www.securityideas.com/cableselection.html" rel="nofollow">Coaxial Cable Selection Guide</a> </li><li> <a href="http://www.rwonline.com/reference-room/wired-4-sound/rwf_lampen_1_nov_5.shtml" class="external text" title="http://www.rwonline.com/reference-room/wired-4-sound/rwf_lampen_1_nov_5.shtml" rel="nofollow">Is There an Ideal Impedance? — Wired for Sound: Steve Lampen</a> </li></ul> <div class="notice metadata plainlinks" id="stub"><a href="/index.php?title=Special:Upload&wpDestFile=Wiki_letter_w.svg" class="new" title="File:Wiki letter w.svg"></a> <i>This <a href="/Category:Stubs" title="Category:Stubs">short article</a> can be made longer. You can help Wikipedia by <span class="plainlinks"><a href="http://yak.rapint.com/index.php?title=Coaxial_cable&action=edit" class="external text" title="http://yak.rapint.com/index.php?title=Coaxial_cable&action=edit" rel="nofollow">adding to it</a>. </i></div> <p><br /> </span> </p> </div> <div class="printfooter"> Retrieved from "<a href="http://yak.rapint.com/wiki/Coaxial_cable">http://yak.rapint.com/wiki/Coaxial_cable</a>"</div> <div class="contents"> <div id='catlinks' class='catlinks'><div id="mw-normal-catlinks"><a href="/Special:Categories" title="Special:Categories">Categories</a>: <span dir='ltr'><a href="/Category:Articles_with_unsourced_statements" title="Category:Articles with unsourced statements">Articles with unsourced statements</a></span> | <span dir='ltr'><a href="/Category:Articles_with_unsourced_statements_since_June_2007" title="Category:Articles with unsourced statements since June 2007">Articles with unsourced statements since June 2007</a></span> | <span dir='ltr'><a href="/Category:Stubs" title="Category:Stubs">Stubs</a></span> | <span dir='ltr'><a href="/Category:Signal_cables" class="new" title="Category:Signal cables (not yet started)">Signal cables</a></span></div></div> <div class="bottom"></div> </div> <div style="display:table-cell;clear:both;"></div> </div> </div><br/> </div> <div class="section-delimeter"></div> </div> <div id="core_panel_main" > <div class="section" id="citable_sentences"> <h1 class="section-title"> <a name="citable_sentences">Citable sentences</a> </h1> <div style="float:right"> <span class="core-uptodate">Up to date as of December 21, 2010</span> <br> </div> <div class="fragment"> <div id="citable_fragments"> <div id="citableSentencesList"> <p> Here are sentences from other pages on Coaxial cable, which are similar to those in the above article. <div id="citable__sentence_list"> </div> </p> </div> </div> </div><br/> </div> <div class="section-delimeter"></div> <div id="external_links_revision_history_tooltip"> </div> <script> $(document).ready(function() { $("#external_links_revision_history_fragments a[title]").tooltip({tip: '#external_links_revision_history_tooltip', effect: 'toggle', position: 'bottom right', offset: [-1,2], lazy: true, delay: 100}); $("#external_links_revision_history_fragments img[title]").tooltip({tip: '#external_links_revision_history_tooltip', position: 'bottom right', offset: [-1,0], lazy: true, effect: 'toggle'}); }); </script> <div class="section" id="related_links"> <h1 class="section-title"> <a name="related_links">Related links</a> </h1> <span class="core-uptodate">Up to date as of November 16, 2009</span> <span class="fragment"> <div id="external_links_revision_history_fragments"> <table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" hspace="0" vspace="0"><tr><td valign="top" nowrap bgcolor="white"><nobr><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/spacer.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/tick-green-8x11.gif" align="bottom" title = "This page is marked authoritative because it has been included for <B>100%</B> of the life of the Wikipedia article."> </nobr></td><td><a href="http://www.bt.com" title="<A HREF=http://www.bt.com>http://www.bt.com</A>">BT: broadband, TV, phone, home & business networked IT services</a></td></tr></table> </div> </span><br/> <span class="fragment"> <div id="external_links_revision_history_fragments"> <table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" hspace="0" vspace="0"><tr><td valign="top" nowrap bgcolor="white"><nobr><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/spacer.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/tick-green-8x11.gif" align="bottom" title = "This page is marked authoritative because it has been included for <B>67%</B> of the life of the Wikipedia article."> </nobr></td><td><a href="http://www.rfcafe.com/references/electrical/coax_chart.htm" title="<A HREF=http://www.rfcafe.com/references/electrical/coax_chart.htm>http://www.rfcafe.com/references/electrical/coax_chart.htm</A>">Coaxial Cable Specifications</a> - RF Cafe - 404 Error Page - with a solution</td></tr></table> </div> </span><br/> <span class="fragment"> <div id="external_links_revision_history_fragments"> <table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" hspace="0" vspace="0"><tr><td valign="top" nowrap bgcolor="white"><nobr><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/spacer.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/tick-green-8x11.gif" align="bottom" title = "This page is marked authoritative because it has been included for <B>65%</B> of the life of the Wikipedia article."> </nobr></td><td><a href="http://www.dscc.dla.mil/Programs/MilSpec/ListDocs.asp?BasicDoc=MIL-HDBK-216" title="<A HREF=http://www.dscc.dla.mil/Programs/MilSpec/ListDocs.asp?BasicDoc=MIL-HDBK-216>http://www.dscc.dla.mil/Programs/MilSpec/ListDocs.asp?BasicDoc=MIL-HDBK-216</A>">''Withdrawal Notice for MIL-HDBK-216 2001''</a> - List Mil Specs - DSCC</td></tr></table> </div> </span><br/> <span class="fragment"> <div id="external_links_revision_history_fragments"> <table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" hspace="0" vspace="0"><tr><td valign="top" nowrap bgcolor="white"><nobr><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/spacer.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"> </nobr></td><td><a href="http://www.dscc.dla.mil/Programs/MilSpec/ListDocs.asp?BasicDoc=MIL-DTL-17" title="<A HREF=http://www.dscc.dla.mil/Programs/MilSpec/ListDocs.asp?BasicDoc=MIL-DTL-17>http://www.dscc.dla.mil/Programs/MilSpec/ListDocs.asp?BasicDoc=MIL-DTL-17</A>">List Mil Specs - DSCC</a></td></tr></table> </div> </span><br/> <span class="fragment"> <div id="external_links_revision_history_fragments"> <table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" hspace="0" vspace="0"><tr><td valign="top" nowrap bgcolor="white"><nobr><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/spacer.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"> </nobr></td><td><a href="http://lists.contesting.com/pipermail/towertalk/1997-December/011734.html" title="<TABLE STYLE='font-size: 12;'><TR><TD VALIGN='TOP'>•</TD><TD>Del certainly has a point when it comes to long runs of <B>cable</B>.</TD></TR><TR><TD VALIGN='TOP'>&bull</TD><TD>Then there are the practical issues of <B>cable</B> routing</TD></TR></TABLE><BR><A HREF=http://lists.contesting.com/pipermail/towertalk/1997-December/011734.html>http://lists.contesting.com/pipermail/towertalk/1997-December/011734.html</A>">Discussion of using coaxial cable above cutoff, on "Towertalk" mailing list</a> - [TowerTalk] Coax beyond cutoff (waveguide region)</td></tr></table> </div> </span><br/> <span class="fragment"> <div id="external_links_revision_history_fragments"> <table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" hspace="0" vspace="0"><tr><td valign="top" nowrap bgcolor="white"><nobr><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/spacer.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"> </nobr></td><td><a href="http://www.timesmicrowave.com/wireless" title="<A HREF=http://www.timesmicrowave.com/wireless>http://www.timesmicrowave.com/wireless</A>">Times Microwave Systems LMR Wireless Products Catalog</a> - Times Microwave - LMR Wireless Products</td></tr></table> </div> </span><br/> <span class="fragment"> <div id="external_links_revision_history_fragments"> <table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" hspace="0" vspace="0"><tr><td valign="top" nowrap bgcolor="white"><nobr><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/spacer.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"> </nobr></td><td><a href="http://nuke.freenet-antennas.com/modules.php?name=News&file=print&sid=15" title="It is a high quality, low-loss, outdoor rated <B>cable</B>.<br><br><A HREF=http://nuke.freenet-antennas.com/modules.php?name=News&file=print&sid=15>http://nuke.freenet-antennas.com/modules.php?name=News&file=print&sid=15</A>">CFD Cable Specifications</a> - Freenet Antennas - Antenna Coax Cable Specifications</td></tr></table> </div> </span><br/> <span class="fragment"> <div id="external_links_revision_history_fragments"> <table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" hspace="0" vspace="0"><tr><td valign="top" nowrap bgcolor="white"><nobr><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/spacer.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"> </nobr></td><td><a href="http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,757144-1,00.html" title="<TABLE STYLE='font-size: 12;'><TR><TD VALIGN='TOP'>•</TD><TD>Such a <B>cable</B> is the famed <B>coaxial</B> <B>cable</B> developed by American Telephone & Telegraph Co.'s research subsidiary, Bell Telephone Laboratories.</TD></TR><TR><TD VALIGN='TOP'>&bull</TD><TD>Frank Baldwin Jewett, Bell Telephone's president, proudly explained in Manhattan last week that for radiotelephony between fixed points, Bell's <B>coaxial</B> <B>cable</B> provides "a piece of the ether which has been segregated from all the other ether in the world." Because it can carry a frequency band 1,000,000 cycles wide and can "pipe" tele vision underground for hundreds of miles.</TD></TR><TR><TD VALIGN='TOP'>&bull</TD><TD>But weaves of radiation at radio frequencies can also be guided along a <B>cable</B>, if the stations are fixed arid if the <B>cable</B> can carry a wide enough frequency band.</TD></TR></TABLE><BR><A HREF=http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,757144-1,00.html>http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,757144-1,00.html</A>">Coaxial Debut</a> - Science: Coaxial Debut - TIME</td></tr></table> </div> </span><br/> <span class="fragment"> <div id="external_links_revision_history_fragments"> <table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" hspace="0" vspace="0"><tr><td valign="top" nowrap bgcolor="white"><nobr><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/spacer.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"> </nobr></td><td><a href="http://www.nr6ca.org/vf.html" title="<A HREF=http://www.nr6ca.org/vf.html>http://www.nr6ca.org/vf.html</A>">Velocity factor of various coaxial cables</a> - Coaxial cable velocity factor information</td></tr></table> </div> </span><br/> <span class="fragment"> <div id="external_links_revision_history_fragments"> <table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" hspace="0" vspace="0"><tr><td valign="top" nowrap bgcolor="white"><nobr><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/spacer.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"> </nobr></td><td><a href="http://www.talleycom.com/caxt/index.shtml" title="<TABLE STYLE='font-size: 12;'><TR><TD VALIGN='TOP'>•</TD><TD><B>Cable</B> Assemblies by Talley has millions of feet of <B>coaxial</B> <B>cable</B> and an unmatched variety of connectors in stock.</TD></TR><TR><TD VALIGN='TOP'>&bull</TD><TD>Your custom <B>cable</B> assemblies when and where you need them.</TD></TR><TR><TD VALIGN='TOP'>&bull</TD><TD>We have a dedicated facility with the latest in <B>cable</B> processing and testing equipment.</TD></TR></TABLE><BR><A HREF=http://www.talleycom.com/caxt/index.shtml>http://www.talleycom.com/caxt/index.shtml</A>">Talley Communications CAxT Cable Assembly</a></td></tr></table> </div> </span><br/> <span class="fragment"> <div id="external_links_revision_history_fragments"> <table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" hspace="0" vspace="0"><tr><td valign="top" nowrap bgcolor="white"><nobr><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/spacer.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"> </nobr></td><td><a href="http://www.bluejeanscable.com/articles/rg6.htm" title="<TABLE STYLE='font-size: 12;'><TR><TD VALIGN='TOP'>•</TD><TD>All of the common RG designations apply to various types of <B>coaxial</B> <B>cable</B>.</TD></TR><TR><TD VALIGN='TOP'>&bull</TD><TD>Some people think "coax" or "<B>coaxial</B>" <B>cable</B> means "antenna <B>cable</B>," or "<B>cable</B> with F-connectors," or some such thing, but coax is a much more general classification.</TD></TR><TR><TD VALIGN='TOP'>&bull</TD><TD>All common video <B>cable</B> types are <B>coaxial</B> <B>cable</B>s, though that's harder to see in some than in others--for example, s-video <B>cable</B> typically is two mini-<B>coaxial</B> <B>cable</B>s combined either in a common outer jacket or a zip-cord type arrangement.</TD></TR></TABLE><BR><A HREF=http://www.bluejeanscable.com/articles/rg6.htm>http://www.bluejeanscable.com/articles/rg6.htm</A>">What does "RG-6" mean?</a> - Blue Jeans Cable--What does "RG-6" Mean?</td></tr></table> </div> </span><br/> <span class="fragment"> <div id="external_links_revision_history_fragments"> <table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" hspace="0" vspace="0"><tr><td valign="top" nowrap bgcolor="white"><nobr><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/spacer.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"> </nobr></td><td><a href="http://lists.contesting.com/_towertalk/1999-06/msg00184.html" title="<TABLE STYLE='font-size: 12;'><TR><TD VALIGN='TOP'>•</TD><TD>Do not forget there are dozens, maybe even hundreds, of <B>coaxial</B></TD></TR><TR><TD VALIGN='TOP'>&bull</TD><TD>Because the impedance of any coax <B>cable</B> is the ratio of the</TD></TR></TABLE><BR><A HREF=http://lists.contesting.com/_towertalk/1999-06/msg00184.html>http://lists.contesting.com/_towertalk/1999-06/msg00184.html</A>">Coax: RG is for radio guide, "Towertalk" mailing list</a> - [TowerTalk] COAX History - Thought somone might enjoy reading this</td></tr></table> </div> </span><br/> <span class="fragment"> <div id="external_links_revision_history_fragments"> <table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" hspace="0" vspace="0"><tr><td valign="top" nowrap bgcolor="white"><nobr><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/spacer.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"> </nobr></td><td><a href="http://www.rfsworld.com" title="<A HREF=http://www.rfsworld.com>http://www.rfsworld.com</A>">Cablewave<sup>tm</sup> Radio Frequency Systems (http://www.rfsworld.com)</a></td></tr></table> </div> </span><br/> <span class="fragment"> <div id="external_links_revision_history_fragments"> <table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" hspace="0" vspace="0"><tr><td valign="top" nowrap bgcolor="white"><nobr><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/spacer.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"> </nobr></td><td><a href="http://www.airhive.net/modules.php?op=modload&name=4nAlbum&file=index&do=showpic&pid=25&orderby=dateD" title="<A HREF=http://www.airhive.net/modules.php?op=modload&name=4nAlbum&file=index&do=showpic&pid=25&orderby=dateD>http://www.airhive.net/modules.php?op=modload&name=4nAlbum&file=index&do=showpic&pid=25&orderby=dateD</A>">Video: Types of Coaxial cabling used in 2.4 GHz networks</a></td></tr></table> </div> </span><br/> <span class="fragment"> <div id="external_links_revision_history_fragments"> <table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" hspace="0" vspace="0"><tr><td valign="top" nowrap bgcolor="white"><nobr><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/spacer.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"> </nobr></td><td><a href="http://www.andrew.com/products/trans_line/radiax" title="<A HREF=http://www.andrew.com/products/trans_line/radiax>http://www.andrew.com/products/trans_line/radiax</A>">Andrew Radiax<sup>tm</sup>(http://www.andrew.com/products/trans_line/radiax/)</a></td></tr></table> </div> </span><br/> <span class="fragment"> <div id="external_links_revision_history_fragments"> <table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" hspace="0" vspace="0"><tr><td valign="top" nowrap bgcolor="white"><nobr><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/spacer.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"> </nobr></td><td><a href="http://www.andrew.com/products/trans_line/heliax" title="<A HREF=http://www.andrew.com/products/trans_line/heliax>http://www.andrew.com/products/trans_line/heliax</A>">Andrew Heliax<sup>tm</sup>(http://www.andrew.com/products/trans_line/heliax/)</a></td></tr></table> </div> </span><br/> <span class="fragment"> <div id="external_links_revision_history_fragments"> <table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" hspace="0" vspace="0"><tr><td valign="top" nowrap bgcolor="white"><nobr><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/spacer.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"> </nobr></td><td><a href="http://www.awcwire.com/ProductSpec.aspx?id=MIL-C-17-Coaxial" title="<TABLE STYLE='font-size: 12;'><TR><TD VALIGN='TOP'>•</TD><TD>When purchasing a <B>coaxial</B> <B>cable</B>, you should consider impedance, environmental temperature, working voltage, signal loss at specific frequencies, power rating and cost.</TD></TR><TR><TD VALIGN='TOP'>&bull</TD><TD>If a <B>coaxial</B> <B>cable</B> is not listed, please contact our sales department.</TD></TR><TR><TD VALIGN='TOP'>&bull</TD><TD>MIL-C-17 <B>Coaxial</B> <B>Cable</B> is made in accordance with MIL-C-17.</TD></TR></TABLE><BR><A HREF=http://www.awcwire.com/ProductSpec.aspx?id=MIL-C-17-Coaxial>http://www.awcwire.com/ProductSpec.aspx?id=MIL-C-17-Coaxial</A>">Specs for MIL-C-17 Coaxial Cable Q.P.L.</a> - MIL-C-17 Coaxial Cable from Allied Wire and Cable Distributor of QPL Mil Spec Coaxial Cable</td></tr></table> </div> </span><br/> <span class="fragment"> <div id="external_links_revision_history_fragments"> <table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" hspace="0" vspace="0"><tr><td valign="top" nowrap bgcolor="white"><nobr><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/spacer.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"> </nobr></td><td><a href="http://www.securityideas.com/cableselection.html" title="<TABLE STYLE='font-size: 12;'><TR><TD VALIGN='TOP'>•</TD><TD>Video <B>coaxial</B> <B>cable</B> is designed to transmit maximum signaling energy from a 75 ohm source to a 75 ohm load with minimum signal loss.</TD></TR><TR><TD VALIGN='TOP'>&bull</TD><TD>Selecting Video <B>Cable</B> There are two factors that govern the selection of <B>cable</B>: the location of <B>cable</B> runs, either indoor or outdoor, and the maximum length of the individual <B>cable</B> runs.</TD></TR><TR><TD VALIGN='TOP'>&bull</TD><TD><B>Cable</B> Runs Although coax <B>cable</B> has built-in losses, the longer and smaller the <B>cable</B> is, the more severe the losses become;</TD></TR></TABLE><BR><A HREF=http://www.securityideas.com/cableselection.html>http://www.securityideas.com/cableselection.html</A>">Coaxial Cable Selection Guide</a> - Coax Cable Selection</td></tr></table> </div> </span><br/> <span class="fragment"> <div id="external_links_revision_history_fragments"> <table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" hspace="0" vspace="0"><tr><td valign="top" nowrap bgcolor="white"><nobr><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/spacer.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"> </nobr></td><td><a href="http://www.awcwire.com/FAQ-Coaxial.aspx" title="<TABLE STYLE='font-size: 12;'><TR><TD VALIGN='TOP'>•</TD><TD>According to www.webopedia.com, <B>Coaxial</B> <B>Cable</B> is the primary type of cabling used by the <B>cable</B> television industry and is also widely used for computer networks such as Ethernet.</TD></TR><TR><TD VALIGN='TOP'>&bull</TD><TD>Although more expensive than standard telephone wire, <B>coaxial</B> <B>cable</B> is much less susceptible to interference and can carry much more data.</TD></TR><TR><TD VALIGN='TOP'>&bull</TD><TD>The most common <B>coaxial</B> type to carry video signals is RG-59 B/U type 75 ohm <B>coaxial</B> <B>cable</B>.</TD></TR></TABLE><BR><A HREF=http://www.awcwire.com/FAQ-Coaxial.aspx>http://www.awcwire.com/FAQ-Coaxial.aspx</A>">Coaxial Cable FAQ Wire Guide</a> - Coaxial Cable FAQs from Allied Wire and Cable - Manufacturer and Distributor of Custom Coaxial Wire and Cable</td></tr></table> </div> </span><br/> <span class="fragment"> <div id="external_links_revision_history_fragments"> <table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" hspace="0" vspace="0"><tr><td valign="top" nowrap bgcolor="white"><nobr><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/spacer.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"> </nobr></td><td><a href="http://www.radio-electronics.com/info/antennas/coax/coax_cable_connectors.php" title="<TABLE STYLE='font-size: 12;'><TR><TD VALIGN='TOP'>•</TD><TD>The most convenient, and hence the most commonly used form of transmission line is <B>coaxial</B> <B>cable</B> which consists of two concentric conductors, an inner conductor and an outer conductor, often called the screen.</TD></TR><TR><TD VALIGN='TOP'>&bull</TD><TD><B>Coaxial</B> <B>cable</B> has a number of properties, one of which is the characteristic impedance.</TD></TR><TR><TD VALIGN='TOP'>&bull</TD><TD>It is also important that RF <B>coaxial</B> <B>cable</B> connectors have a characteristic impedance that matches that of the <B>cable</B>.</TD></TR></TABLE><BR><A HREF=http://www.radio-electronics.com/info/antennas/coax/coax_cable_connectors.php>http://www.radio-electronics.com/info/antennas/coax/coax_cable_connectors.php</A>">Connectors for coax cable</a> - RF Coax Cable Connectors :: Radio-Electronics.Com</td></tr></table> </div> </span><br/> <span class="fragment"> <div id="external_links_revision_history_fragments"> <table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" hspace="0" vspace="0"><tr><td valign="top" nowrap bgcolor="white"><nobr><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/spacer.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"> </nobr></td><td><a href="http://www.securityideas.com/securitycam/conat.html" title="<TABLE STYLE='font-size: 12;'><TR><TD VALIGN='TOP'>•</TD><TD>BNC, BNC connector, BNC connectors, BNC adapters, BNC to RCA adapter, BNC couplings, Crimp connectors, <B>cable</B> connector, <B>cable</B>, RG-59, coax, coax <B>cable</B>, <B>cable</B> runs, <B>cable</B> connectors, video <B>cable</B>, cctv <B>cable</B>, <B>cable</B> connections, <B>cable</B> connectors, RG-59 coax, RG-59 coax <B>cable</B>, West Penn Wire</TD></TR><TR><TD VALIGN='TOP'>&bull</TD><TD>Some of the key points to remember are as follows: Make sure to use the proper size connector for the type of <B>cable</B> you are using.</TD></TR><TR><TD VALIGN='TOP'>&bull</TD><TD>To see our selection of bulk <B>cable</B> click here.</TD></TR></TABLE><BR><A HREF=http://www.securityideas.com/securitycam/conat.html>http://www.securityideas.com/securitycam/conat.html</A>">How to attach connectors to a coax cable</a></td></tr></table> </div> </span><br/> </div> <div class="section-delimeter"></div> <div class="section" id="related_topics"> <h1 class="section-title"> <a name="related_topics">Related topics</a> </h1> <span class="core-uptodate">Up to date as of August 19, 2010</span> <ul> <span class="fragment"> <li> <a href="/Twin-lead">Twin-lead</a> </li> </span> <span class="fragment"> <li> <a href="/BNC_connector">BNC connector</a> </li> </span> <span class="fragment"> <li> <a href="/N_connector">N connector</a> </li> </span> <span class="fragment"> <li> <a href="/SMA_connector">SMA connector</a> </li> </span> <span class="fragment"> <li> <a href="/F_connector">F connector</a> </li> </span> <span class="fragment"> <li> <a href="/TV_aerial_plug">TV aerial plug</a> </li> </span> <span class="fragment"> <li> <a href="/UHF_connector">UHF connector</a> </li> </span> <span class="fragment"> <li> <a href="/TNC_connector">TNC connector</a> </li> </span> <span class="fragment"> <li> <a href="/RCA_connector">RCA connector</a> </li> </span> <span class="fragment"> <li> <a href="/RF_connector">RF connector</a> </li> </span> <span class="fragment"> <li> <a href="/Coax_cable">Coax cable</a> </li> </span> </ul> </div> <div class="section-delimeter"></div></div> </div> <br/><br/><br/> <script type="text/javascript" language="javascript"><!-- function checkEmail(myForm) { if (/^\w+([\.-]?\w+)*@\w+([\.-]?\w+)*(\.\w{2,3})+$/.test(myForm.str_email.value)){ return (true); } alert("Invalid E-mail Address! 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