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Coburg
Coat of arms of Coburg
Coburg is located in Germany
Coburg
Coordinates 50°16′N 10°58′E / 50.26667°N 10.96667°E / 50.26667; 10.96667
Administration
Country Germany
State Bavaria
Admin. region Upper Franconia
District Urban district
Lord Mayor Norbert Kastner (SPD)
Basic statistics
Area 48.30 km2 (18.65 sq mi)
Elevation 292 m  (958 ft)
Population 42,015  (30 June 2005)
 - Density 870 /km2 (2,253 /sq mi)
Other information
Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2)
Licence plate CO
Postal code 96450
Area code 09561
Website www.stadt.coburg.de

Coburg is a town located on the Itz River in Bavaria, Germany. Its 2005 population was 42,015. Long one of the Thuringian states of the Wettin line, it joined with Bavaria by popular vote in 1920. Before 1918, it was the smaller of the two capital cities in the united duchy of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha.

Coburg's Coat of Arms honoring the city's patron Saint Maurice was granted in 1493.

Contents

History

Castle Ehrenburg, rebuilt after a catastrophic fire in 1690, received its neo-Gothic exterior in the 19th century.
Fortress of Coburg

Coburg lies about 90 km south of Erfurt and about 100 km north of Nuremberg. Coburg was first mentioned in a document dated 1056, although there was a settlement at the site that predates it called Trufalistat. Following several changes of aristocratic ownership, it came into the hands of the House of Wettin in 1353 from the House of Henneberg with the marriage of Friedrich III, the Strong, with Katherina von Henneberg and was initially regarded by them as a Saxon outpost within Franconia. In 1596, it was raised to the status of capital of one of the dynasty's splintered Saxon-Thuringian territories, the new Duchy of Saxe-Coburg under the leadership of Duke Johann Casimirs (ruled 1596–1633).

One of Germany's largest castles, the mighty Veste Coburg citadel, built starting in 1225 (upon the site of an 11th century chapel), dominates the town from its hilltop. During the Diet of Augsburg in 1530 reformer Martin Luther spent 6 months at the castle (located at the southernmost point of the Saxon duchy) while his lord, the Duke of Saxony, attended the Diet. Luther was forbidden to attend by the duke, who feared that he would be imprisoned and burned as a heretic. While stationed at the castle Luther continued with his translation of the Bible into German.

Today the Veste Coburg is home to three museums. One is the Ducal Palace (Fürstenbau), with many furnished rooms of the Dukes of Coburg, including the apartment where Martin Luther lived in 1530. Probably the most notable room in the castle (unique in all of Germany) is the Hunting Room (Jagdzimmer) of 1632, which is completely made of marquetry wood inlay, done up with over 60 marquetry panels, deeply coffered marquetry ceilings and a wood paneled floor. Another museum is the Armory (Rüstkammer), containing the largest collection of medieval armor and weaponry in Germany, with over 10,500 items. The third is the Art Collections (Kunstsammlungen), which contains a world class collection of 300,000 engravings (Kupferstich-Kabinett), a 20,000 piece coin collection (Münzkabinett), a 7000 piece documentation collection (Briefe & Urkunden), and a 3,500 piece glassware collection (Gläser-Sammlung).

In the old town at the base of the castle hill, the Ehrenburg Palace (a former Franciscan Monastery), was rebuilt in 1543. It was gutted by fire in 1690 and rebuilt in a Baroque style, with stuccowork by North Italian craftsmen that includes a famous "Hall of the Giants" (which contains a plaque that states it was the location of the first meeting between England's Queen Victoria and Franz Josef Emperor of Austria in 1860). Its Gothic Revival exterior was remodelled by Karl Friedrich Schinkel in the 19th century. It now also houses a museum as well as a famous library.

From 1826 to 1918, Coburg was one of the two capitals of the Duchy of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha. During the nineteenth century, dynastic marriages created ties with the royal families of Belgium, Bulgaria, Portugal, as well as Great Britain, the last being achieved when Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, born at suburban Schloss Rosenau, married his first cousin, Queen Victoria. This marriage established the present British royal house, which renamed itself Windsor during World War I. This marriage in turn led to a union with Germany's ruling dynasty, the Hohenzollerns, when the couple's eldest child, Victoria, married the future Kaiser Friedrich III.

After her marriage, Queen Victoria said of Coburg

If I were not who I am, this would have been my real home, but I shall always consider it my second one.[1]

Due to the royal connections among the royal houses of Europe, Coburg was the site of many royal Ducal weddings and visits. Britain's Queen Victoria made 6 visits to Coburg during her 64 year reign. In 1894 one ceremony brought together Queen Victoria, her son Edward (future Edward VII), her second son Alfred (Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha), her daughter the German dowager Empress Friedrich (Victoria), and many of her grandchildren, such as future Tsar Nicholas and Alexandra of Russia, Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany, and the future King George V of Great Britain.

Old print image of Coburg
Coburg in 1915.
Veste Coburg at Night, 2007.
The Town Hall.

In 1920, two years after the abdication of the last duke, the locals voted to join Bavaria. Thus whilst the other Saxon-Thuringian principalities were later incorporated into the German Democratic Republic after World War II, Coburg became part of West Germany As a result, the town spent the Cold War years lying right next to the Iron Curtain, surrounded by East German territory on three sides.

In 1929, Coburg was the first German city in which the Nazi Party won the absolute majority of the popular votes during municipal elections.[2]

Main sights

Coburg has the typical features of a former capital of German little states. There are numerous houses from the 16th, 17th and 18th centuries. The most important landmarks include:

  • Ehrenburg, a former Franciscan convent built in 1220 and turned into a castle in 1543–1549, and renovated until the 19th century. The internal decoration dates from the late 17th-early 18th centuries.
  • St.-Moriz Church ("St. Maurice", 14th-16th centuries), is a Gothic edifice on the Hallenkirche plan with two towers. The interior, remade in 1701, include the notable funerary moment of Duke John Casimir, a 12 m-tall alabaster sculpture painted with statue and reliefs (1595–1598).
  • The medieval Veste Coburg, one of the biggest and most beautiful castles in Germany. It was mostly rebuilt in the 19th century. It has a triple line of walls with numerous towers. Martin Luther resided here in 1530. The edifices contain today 3 museums with armories, art galleria, exhibitions and other attractions.
  • Casimirium, an elegant Renaissance edifice from 1598.
  • Gymnasium Casimirianum, begun in 1601.
  • Arsenal (1616–1621).
  • Coburg State Theater
  • Coburg Doll Museum
  • Callenberg Palace
  • Town Hall (1414)
  • Castle Rosenau near Coburg
  • The Baroque sanctuary at the Basilica of the Vierzehnheiligen, 20 km outside the city.

Religion

Most residents of Coburg are members of the Evangelical Church (Lutheranism). Other Christian communities are Baptists, Seventh-day Adventists, the ICF Movement, Jehovah's Witnesses, Catholics, Old Catholics and the New Apostolic Church, as well as The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. There are also three communities of Muslims. Coburg had a large Jewish community until the 1940s. Jews have lived there since the 14th century. The old synagogue was a former church. Today it is used by Old Catholics. Coburg became Protestant after the Reformation. All Catholics were persecuted. A new Catholic community was founded in the 19th century.

Districts

Coburg is divided into 15 districts:

Coburg pattern English (London) silver spoons, c1830

Over two thirds of Coburg's population live in Coburg City.

Culture

Coburg is home to two major festivals: Samba Festival and Johann Strauss Musiktage. Coburg is referred to as "Europe's Capital of Samba" [1].

As a result of the large presence of the US Army prior to German re-unification, Americans and American culture are still present in Coburg and the surrounding area. This influence ranges from American-style pubs and restaurants to two sports clubs sponsoring [2] baseball teams.

Famous people

Besides various royalty, other famous individuals associated with Coburg include Hans Berger (graduated), William Frishmuth (born), and Eduard Study (born).

In 1530, Martin Luther stayed in the Veste Coburg to follow negotiations at the Imperial Diet in Augsburg. He also preached at St. Moriz church.[3]

In 1887, Johann Strauss, better known as the Waltz King, left Vienna when the Roman Catholic Church forbade his divorce from his 2nd wife. So he moved to Lutheran Saxe-Coburg-Gotha with is future 3rd wife Adele, where he lived the last 13 years of his life in Coburg. He was however buried in Vienna.

In 1922, Adolf Hitler led several hundred stormtroopers in a march through the city, fighting pitched street battles with leftists. During the Nazi era, the Coburg Badge was one of the most prestigious party medals.

Hans Morgenthau, founder of International Relations as a field of study, was born here.

Trivia

The National Hot Dog and Sausage Council asserts that Frankfurt is traditionally credited with originating the frankfurter. According to the Council, this claim is disputed and that the hot dog was created in the late 1600s by Johann Georghehner, a butcher, living in Coburg.[4]

Coburg was the first German town to elect a Nazi Mayor.

A popular local delicacy is the Coburger bratwurst, a sausage (the official size of which is denoted by a statue of a man holding a bratwurst located on the town hall, overlooking the square) roasted over a pinecone fire. The sausage is served in a semmel (a small bread bun, a third the size of the sausage itself), and is highly popular with locals and tourists alike.

Traffic

Car

Coburg can be reached by car via B 303 Schweinfurt-Coburg-Schirnding, B 4 Hamburg-Coburg-Nürnberg or highway A 73 Suhl-Coburg-Nürnberg. Seven-times Formula 1 world champion Michael Schumacher has been a recently noted driver in Coburg.

Train

Coburg has four train stations

  • Coburg-Neuses
  • Coburg-Nord
  • Coburg mainstation
  • Coburg-Creidlitz

From the Mainstation one can go to Lichtenfels, Bamberg, Forchheim, Erlangen, Fürth and Nürnberg, to Neustadt bei Coburg, Sonneberg, to Bad Rodach and to Kulmbach, Neuenmarkt-Wirsberg.

In future the high speed train ICE will stop in Coburg, on the new route Berlin-Erfurt-Coburg-Nürnberg

Airports

Small planes can land on the two airfields:

  • Coburg Brandensteinsebene (ICAO-Code: EDQC, founded in 1912),
  • Coburg Steinrücken (ICAO-Code: EDQY).

Large airports nearby are in Frankfurt, Erfurt and Nürnberg

Public transportation system

The public transportation system in Coburg is operated by SÜC ("Stadt- und Überlandwerke Coburg") with 22 bus lines. The OVF ("Omnibus Verkehr Franken") covers Coburg's surrounding countryside with additional 11 bus lines.

International relations

Twin towns — Sister cities

Coburg is twinned with:

References

  1. ^ David Duff, Victoria and Albert (1972), p. 9
  2. ^ Man of the Year, TIME Magazine, January 2, 1939

External links


Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

Contents

Coburg is a city in Upper Franconia a region in Bavaria, Germany.

See

On a hill overlooking the town there is a large castle, Veste Coburg, from which you can see an amazing view of the city and surrounding hillside. Housed within there is a museum.

Get out

Bamberg and Nurnberg are both good destinations for a day trip from Coburg.

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1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

COBURG, a town of Germany, the twin capital with Gotha of the duchy of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, on the left bank of the Itz, an affluent of the Regen, on the southern slope of the Frankenwald, the railway from Eisenach to Lichtenfels, and 40 m. S.S.E. of Gotha. Pop. (1905) 22,489. The town is for the most part Head of Cobra.

old, and contains a number of interesting buildings. The ducal palace, known as the Ehrenburg, is a magnificent building, originally erected on the site of a convent of bare-footed friars by Duke John Ernest in 1549, renovated in 1698, and restored in 1816 by Duke Ernest I. It contains a vast and richly decorated hall, the court church and a fine picture gallery. In the gardens are the mausoleum of Duke Francis (d. 1806) and his wife, a bronze equestrian statue of Duke Ernest II. and a fountain in commemoration of Duke Alfred (duke of Edinburgh). In the market square are the medieval Rathaus, the government buildings, and a statue of Prince Albert (consort of Queen Victoria), by William Theed the younger (1804-1891). In the Schloss-platz are the Edinburgh Palace (Palais Edinburg), built in 1881, the theatre and an equestrian statue of Duke Ernest I. Among the churches the most remarkable is the Moritzkirche, with a lofty tower. The educational establishments include a gymnasium, founded in 1604 by Duke John Casimir (d. 1633) and thus known as the Casimirianum, a commercial, an agricultural and other schools. The Zeughaus (armoury) contains the ducal library of 100,000 volumes, and among other public buildings may be mentioned the Augustenstift, formerly the seat of the ministerial offices, and the Marstall (royal mews). On a commanding eminence above the town is the ancient castle of Coburg, dating from the 11 th century (see below). In 1781 it was turned into a penitentiary and lunatic asylum, but in 1835-1838 was completely restored, and now contains a natural history museum. The most interesting room in this building is that which was occupied by Luther in 1530, where the surroundings may have inspired, though (as is now proved) he did not compose, the famous hymn, Ein' feste Burg ist unser Gott; the bed on which he slept, and the pulpit from which he preached in the old chapel are shown. Coburg is a place of considerable industry, the chief branches of the latter being brewing, manufactures of machinery, colours and porcelain, iron-founding and saw-milling; and there is an important trade in the cattle reared in the neighbourhood. Among various places of interest in the vicinity are the ducal residences of Callenberg and Rosenau, in the latter of which Albert, Prince Consort, was born in 1819; the castle of Lauterburg; and the village of Neuses, with the house of the poet J. M. F. Ruckert, who died here in 1866, and on the other side of the river the tomb of the poet Moritz August von Thiimmel (1738-1817).

The town of Coburg, first mentioned in a record of 1207, owed its existence and its name to the castle, and in the 15th and 16th centuries was of considerable importance as a halting-place on the great trade route from Nuremberg via Bamberg to the North. In 1245 the castle became the seat of the elder branch of the counts of Henneberg (Coburg-Schmalkalden). The countships ,of Coburg and Schmalkalden passed by the marriage of Jutta, daughter of Hermann I. (d. 1290), to Otto V. of Brandenburg, whose grandson John, however, sold them to Henry VIII. of Henneberg, his brother-in-law. Henry's daughter Catherine ,(d. 1397) married Frederick III. of Meissen, and so brought the castle, town and countship into the possession of the Saxon house of Wettin. In 1549 Duke John Ernest of Saxony made Coburg his residence and turned the old castle into a for tress strong enough to stand a three years' siege (1632-1635) during the Thirty Years' War. In 1641 Coburg fell to the dukes of SaxeAltenburg. In 1835 it became the residence of the dukes of Saxe-Coburg. For the princes of the house of Coburg see Wettin and Saxe-Coburg.


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Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

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Coburg

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Proper noun

Coburg

  1. Coburg (independent city in Bavaria, Germany)

Simple English

Coburg

Coburg
Coordinates 50°16′0″N 10°58′0″E / 50.266667°N 10.966667°E / 50.266667; 10.966667
Administration
Country Germany
State Bavaria
Admin. region Upper Franconia
District Urban district
Lord Mayor Norbert Kastner (SPD)
Basic statistics
Area 48.30 km2 (18.65 sq mi)
Elevation 292 m  (958 ft)
Population 42,015  (30 June 2005)
 - Density 870 /km2 (2,253 /sq mi)
Other information
Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2)
Licence plate CO
Postal code 96450
Area code 09561
Website www.stadt.coburg.de

Coburg is a town located on the Itz River in Bavaria, Germany. Its 2005 population was 42,015. It joined with Bavaria by popular vote in 1920. Before 1918, it was the larger of the two capital cities in the united duchy of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha.

Coburg's Coat of Arms honoring the city's patron Saint Maurice was granted in 1493. [[File:|thumb|left|300px|Castle Ehrenburg, rebuilt after a catastrophic fire in 1690, received its neo-Gothic skin in the 19th century.]]

Contents

History

Coburg lies about 90 km south of Erfurt and about 100 km north of Nuremberg. Coburg was first mentioned in a document dated 1056, although there was a settlement at the site that before then called Trufalistat. Following several changes of noble owners, it came into the hands of the House of Wettin in 1353 when Friedrich III, the Strong, married Katherina von Henneberg. In 1596, it became the capital of one of the new Duchy of Saxe-Coburg under the leadership of Duke Johann Casimirs (ruled 1596-1633).

Due to the royal connections among the royal houses of Europe, Coburg was the site of many royal Ducal weddings and visits. Britain's Queen Victoria made 6 visits to Coburg during her 64 year reign. In 1896 one ceremony brought together Queen Victoria, her son Edward (future Edward VII), her second son Alfred (Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha), her daughter the German dowager Empress Friedrich (Victoria), and many of her grandchildren, such as Tsar Nicholas and Alexandra of Russia, Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany, and the future King George V of Great Britain.


[[File:|thumb|280px|The Town Hall.]] In 1920, two years after the abdication of the last duke, the locals voted to join Bavaria. Thus whilst the other Saxon-Thuringian principalities were later incorporated into the German Democratic Republic after World War II, Coburg became part of West Germany As a result, the town spent the Cold War years lying right next to the Iron Curtain, surrounded by East German territory on three sides.

Main sights

Coburg has the typical features of a former capital of German little states. There are numerous houses from the 16th, 17th and 18th centuries. The most important landmarks include:

  • Ehrenburg, a former Franciscan convent built in 1220 and turned into a castle in 1543-1549, and renovated until the 19th century. The internal decoration dates from the late 17th-early 18th centuries.
  • St.-Moriz Church ("St. Maurice", 14th-16th centuries), is a Gothic edifice on the Hallenkirche plan with two towers. The interior, remade in 1701, include the notable funerary moment of Duke John Casimir, a 12 m-tall alabaster sculpture painted with statue and reliefs (1595-1598).
  • The medieval Veste Coburg, one of the biggest and most beautiful castles in Germany. It was mostly rebuilt in the 19th century. It has a triple line of walls with numerous towers. Martin Luther resided here in 1530. The edifices contain today 3 museums with armories, art galleria, exhibitions and other attractions.
  • Casimirium, an elegant Renaissance edifice from 1598.
  • Gymnasium Caimirianum, begun in 1601.
  • Arsenal (1616-1621).
  • Coburg State Theatre
  • Coburg Doll Museum
  • Callenberg Palace
  • Town Hall (1414)
  • Castle Rosenau near Coburg
  • The Baroque sanctuary at the Basilica of the Vierzehnheiligen, 20 km outside the city.

Religion

Most residents of Coburg are members of the Evangelical Church (Lutheranism). Other Christian communities are Baptists, Seventh-day Adventists, the ICF Movement, Jehovah's Witnesses, Catholics, Old Catholics and the New Apostolic Church, as well as The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. There are also three communities of Muslims. Coburg had a large Jewish community until the 1940s. Jews have lived there since the 14th century. The old synagogue was a former church. Today it is used by Old Catholics. Coburg became Protestant after the Reformation. All Catholics were persecuted. A new Catholic community was founded in the 19th century.

Districts

Coburg is divided into 15 districts:

  • Coburg City
  • Beiersdorf
  • Bertelsdorf
  • Cortendorf
  • Creidlitz
  • Glend
  • Ketschendorf
  • Löbelstein
  • Lützelbuch
  • Neu- and Neershof
  • Neuses
  • Rögen
  • Scheuerfeld
  • Seidmansdorf
  • Wüstenahorn

Over two thirds of Coburg's population live in Coburg City.

Famous people

Amongst the associated royalty, one individual's 20th century association with Coburg proved especially tragic. This was that of the British Royal Charles Edward, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha who was arrested and tried as a Nazi.

Besides various royalty, other famous individuals associated with Coburg include Hans Berger (graduated), William Frishmuth (born), and Eduard Study (born).

In 1530, Martin Luther stayed in the Veste Coburg to follow negotiations at the Imperial Diet in Augsburg. He also preached at St. Moriz church.[1]

In 1887, Johann Strauss, the Waltz King, left Vienna when the Roman Catholic Church would not let him divorce his 2nd wife. He moved to Lutheran Saxe-Coburg-Gotha with his future 3rd wife Adele, where he lived the last 13 years of his life in Coburg. He was however buried in Vienna.

In 1922, Adolf Hitler led several hundred stormtroopers in a march through the city, fighting pitched street battles with leftists. During the Nazi era, the Coburg Badge was one of the most prestigious party medals.

Hans Morgenthau, founder of International Relations as a field of study, was born here.

The US National Hot Dog and Sausage Council asserts that Frankfurt am Main is traditionally credited with originating the Frankfurter. According to the Council, this claim is disputed and that the hot dog was created in the late 1600s by Johann Georghehner, a butcher, living in Coburg.[2] Coburg was the first German town to elect a Nazi Mayor.

Twin towns

Other websites








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