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Cocaine
Systematic (IUPAC) name
methyl (1R,2R,3S,5S)-3- (benzoyloxy)-8-methyl-8-azabicyclo[3.2.1] octane-2-carboxylate
Identifiers
CAS number 50-36-2
ATC code N01BC01 R02AD03, S01HA01, S02DA02
PubChem 5760
DrugBank APRD00080
ChemSpider 10194104
Chemical data
Formula C17H21NO4 
Mol. mass 303.353 g/mol
SMILES eMolecules & PubChem
Synonyms methylbenzoylecgonine, benzoylmethylecgonine
Physical data
Melt. point 195 °C (383 °F)
Solubility in water 1800 mg/mL (20 °C)
Pharmacokinetic data
Bioavailability Oral: 33%[1]
Insufflated: 60[2]–80%[3]
Nasal Spray: 25[4]–43%[1]
Metabolism Hepatic CYP3A4
Half life 1 hour
Excretion Renal (benzoylecgonine and ecgonine methyl ester)
Therapeutic considerations
Pregnancy cat. C
Legal status Controlled (S8) (AU) Schedule I (CA) ? (UK) Schedule II (US)
Dependence Liability High
Routes Topical, Oral, Insufflation, IV, PO
 Yes check.svgY(what is this?)  (verify)
.Cocaine (benzoylmethylecgonine) is a crystalline tropane alkaloid that is obtained from the leaves of the coca plant.^ Cocaine transported into the United States originates from coca plants in South America, 75% of which are in Columbia.
  • Toxicity, Cocaine: eMedicine Emergency Medicine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Cocaine is a bitter crystalline alkaloid with the molecular formula of C 17 H 21 NO 4 .
  • Toxicity, Cocaine: eMedicine Emergency Medicine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Cocaine was not isolated from coca leaves until 1859.
  • Toxicity, Cocaine: eMedicine Emergency Medicine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

[5] .The name comes from "coca" in addition to the alkaloid suffix -ine, forming cocaine.^ The name comes from “coca” in addition to the alkaloid suffix -ine, forming cocaine.

^ The name Cocaine comes from "coca" in addition to the alkaloid suffix -ine, forming cocaine.
  • Cocaine | Coca Leaf | Crack Cocaine and Sulfate | Drug Injection | Freebase | Coca Herbal Infusion 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.tclondon.org.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The name comes from "coca" in addition to the alkaloid suffix -ine, forming cocaine.
  • Cocaine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.nydailynews.com [Source type: General]
  • http://www.narconongulfcoast.com/categories/drug-info/cocaine.html 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.narconongulfcoast.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Cocaine, Psychoactive Drug - News - Evri 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.evri.com [Source type: General]

It is a stimulant of the central nervous system and an appetite suppressant. .Specifically, it is a serotonin-norepinephrine-dopamine reuptake inhibitor, which mediates functionality of such as an exogenous catecholamine transporter ligand.^ As with cocaine, cocaethylene binds to dopamine and norepinephrine transporters and inhibits catecholamine reuptake (primarily norepinephrine) into nerve terminals.
  • Toxicity, Cocaine: eMedicine Emergency Medicine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Serotonin syndrome may result when serotonin selective reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), such as fluoxetine (Prozac), are taken concurrently with sympathomimetics.
  • Toxicity, Cocaine: eMedicine Emergency Medicine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Cocaine also causes moderate release and reuptake-blockade of serotonin and dopamine.
  • Toxicity, Cocaine: eMedicine Emergency Medicine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

.Because of the way it affects the mesolimbic reward pathway, cocaine is addictive.^ Because of the way cocaine affects the mesolimbic reward pathway, cocaine is addictive.
  • Cocaine | Coca Leaf | Crack Cocaine and Sulfate | Drug Injection | Freebase | Coca Herbal Infusion 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.tclondon.org.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Because of the way it affects the mesolimbic reward pathway, cocaine is addictive.
  • Cocaine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.nydailynews.com [Source type: General]
  • Cocaine, Psychoactive Drug - News - Evri 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.evri.com [Source type: General]
  • Drug Cocaine - Cocaine Drug Information 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC drugcocaine.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Cocaine/Crack 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.nationalliferecovery.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Cocaine is highly addictive because of the way it affects the mesolimbic reward pathway in the brain.
  • http://www.narconongulfcoast.com/categories/drug-info/cocaine.html 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.narconongulfcoast.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[6]
.Its possession, cultivation, and distribution are illegal for non-medicinal and non-government sanctioned purposes in virtually all parts of the world.^ Its possession, cultivation, and distribution are illegal for non-medicinal and non-government sanctioned purposes in virtually all parts of the world.
  • Cocaine encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Cocaine | Tobacco Facts. 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.tobacco-facts.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Drug Cocaine - Cocaine Drug Information 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC drugcocaine.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Cocaine/Crack 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.nationalliferecovery.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Cocaine can be psychologically addictive, and its possession, cultivation, and distribution is illegal for non-medicinal and non-government sanctioned purposes in virtually all parts of the world.

^ Cocaine can be psychologically and physiologically addictive, and its possession, cultivation, and distribution are illegal for non-medicinal and non-government sanctioned purposes in virtually all parts of the world.

.Although its free commercialization is illegal and has been severely penalized in virtually all countries, its use worldwide remains widespread in many social, cultural, and personal settings.^ Although its free commercialization is illegal and has been severely penalized in virtually all countries, its use worldwide remains widespread in many social, cultural, and personal settings.
  • Cocaine encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Cocaine, Psychoactive Drug - News - Evri 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.evri.com [Source type: General]
  • Drug Cocaine - Cocaine Drug Information 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC drugcocaine.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Cocaine/Crack 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.nationalliferecovery.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Today, although its free commercialization is illegal and has been severely penalized in virtually all countries, its use worldwide remains widespread in many social, cultural, and personal settings.

^ Native cultures have used coca leaves, in chewed and brewed forms, for thousands of years for social and religious occasions.

Contents

History

Coca leaf

.For over a thousand years South American indigenous peoples have chewed the coca leaf (Erythroxylon coca), a plant that contains vital nutrients as well as numerous alkaloids, including cocaine.^ Cocaine enters the United States in the form of a hydrochloride salt, having undergone numerous steps in refinement from the original coca leaf.
  • Toxicity, Cocaine: eMedicine Emergency Medicine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Cocaine transported into the United States originates from coca plants in South America, 75% of which are in Columbia.
  • Toxicity, Cocaine: eMedicine Emergency Medicine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Use of cocaine spans thousands of years, with a duality of effects noted throughout its history.
  • Toxicity, Cocaine: eMedicine Emergency Medicine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

.The leaf was, and is, chewed almost universally by some indigenous communities—ancient Peruvian mummies have been found with the remains of coca leaves and pottery from the time period depicts humans, cheeks bulged with the presence of something on which they are chewing.^ YOU DON'T BUTTSEX FOR CRACK IN BROAD DAYLIGHT OUT IN THE OPEN. PERIOD. What if they'd been spotted by a kid or something?

[7] .There is also evidence that these cultures used a mixture of coca leaves and saliva as an anesthetic for the performance of trepanation.^ In 1884, William Stewart Halsted performed the first nerve block using cocaine as the anesthetic.
  • Toxicity, Cocaine: eMedicine Emergency Medicine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ There is evidence of both social selection and social influence processes in the association between drug use and network drug use among drug-experienced adults.
  • CORK Bibliography: Cocaine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Although there are important differences in the neuropsychiatric and medical consequences of cocaine and amphetamine use disorders, there is currently no evidence for a differential treatment effect of any psychosocial treatment in the management of these disorders.
  • CORK Bibliography: Cocaine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

[8]
.
When the Spanish arrived in South America, most at first ignored aboriginal claims that the leaf gave them strength and energy, and declared the practice of chewing it the work of the Devil.
^ December 11, 2009 at 8:57 pm Usually, the team is just too damn tired from non-sports related ventures to work up the energy for practice.
  • Cocaine - Pundit Kitchen: Lol News and Lol Sarah Palin, Barack Obama, John McCain, Joe Biden and more 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC punditkitchen.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.But after discovering that these claims were true, they legalized and taxed the leaf, taking 10% off the value of each crop.^ Nothing about these “TESTINGS” are perfect but we havta stand by our trues & never give up when these mistakes take place.
  • How long does cocaine stay in your system? 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC howto.dcrdetox.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Whomever took these pictures must be a renter; and whomever posted that they would take a bat to anyone they saw doing this in their alley must be a homeowner.

^ Charro God says: December 11, 2009 at 10:30 pm I wanted to donate my eggs but they wouldn’t take them.
  • Cocaine - Pundit Kitchen: Lol News and Lol Sarah Palin, Barack Obama, John McCain, Joe Biden and more 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC punditkitchen.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[9] In 1569, Nicolás Monardes described the practice of the natives of chewing a mixture of tobacco and coca leaves to induce "great contentment":
[...when they wished to] make themselves drunk and [...] out of judgment [they chewed a mixture of tobacco and coca leaves which ...] make them go as they were out of their wittes [...][10]
In 1609, Padre Blas Valera wrote:
.Coca protects the body from many ailments, and our doctors use it in powdered form to reduce the swelling of wounds, to strengthen broken bones, to expel cold from the body or prevent it from entering, and to cure rotten wounds or sores that are full of maggots.^ Coca protects the body from many ailments, and our doctors use it in powdered form to reduce the swelling of wounds, to strengthen broken bones, to expel cold from the body or prevent it from entering, and to cure rotten wounds or sores that are full of maggots.

^ In 1609, Padre Blas Valera wrote: Coca protects the body from many ailments, and our doctors use it in powdered form to reduce the swelling of wounds, to strengthen broken bones, to expel cold from the body or prevent it from entering, and to cure rotten wounds or sores that are full of maggots.
  • Cocaine encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Drug Cocaine - Cocaine Drug Information 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC drugcocaine.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In 1569, Nicolás Monardes described the practice of the natives of chewing a mixture of tobacco and coca leaves to induce “great contentment”: ” In 1609, Padre Blas Valera wrote: “Coca protects the body from many ailments, and our doctors use it in powdered form to reduce the swelling of wounds, to strengthen broken bones, to expel cold from the body or prevent it from entering, and to cure rotten wounds or sores that are full of maggots.

.And if it does so much for outward ailments, will not its singular virtue have even greater effect in the entrails of those who eat it?^ And if it does so much for outward ailments, will not its singular virtue have even greater effect in the entrails of those who eat it?
  • Cocaine - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Cocaine encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Drug Cocaine - Cocaine Drug Information 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC drugcocaine.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Cocaine/Crack 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.nationalliferecovery.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Cocaine has a strong reinforcing action, causing a rapid psychological dependence, an effect even more pronounced in those who smoke cocaine base.

^ Those who distribute the drug can spend a longer time in jail and have to pay even bigger fines.
  • Cocaine | LIVESTRONG.COM 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

Isolation

.Although the stimulant and hunger-suppressant properties of coca had been known for many centuries, the isolation of the cocaine alkaloid was not achieved until 1855. Various European scientists had attempted to isolate cocaine, but none had been successful for two reasons: the knowledge of chemistry required was insufficient at the time, and the cocaine in the plant was damaged because coca does not grow in the Eurasian region and ruined easily amidst transcontinental shipping.^ Cocaine was not isolated from coca leaves until 1859.
  • Toxicity, Cocaine: eMedicine Emergency Medicine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ People Search: how long does cocaine stay in the human body?, how many days does cocaine stay in your system, what cocaine does to your body, how long does benzoylecgonine stay in urine, how long does cocaine stay in your system”", cocaine out of your system, cocaine stays in the body, cocaine time in body, how long cocain stays in your system .
  • How long does cocaine stay in your system? 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC howto.dcrdetox.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Cocaine transported into the United States originates from coca plants in South America, 75% of which are in Columbia.
  • Toxicity, Cocaine: eMedicine Emergency Medicine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

The cocaine alkaloid was first isolated by the German chemist Friedrich Gaedcke in 1855. Gaedcke named the alkaloid "erythroxyline", and published a description in the journal Archiv der Pharmazie.[11]
In 1856, Friedrich Wöhler asked Dr. Carl Scherzer, a scientist aboard the Novara (an Austrian frigate sent by Emperor Franz Joseph to circle the globe), to bring him a large amount of coca leaves from South America. .In 1859, the ship finished its travels and Wöhler received a trunk full of coca.^ In 1859, the ship finished its travels and Whler received a trunk full of coca.
  • Drug Cocaine - Cocaine Drug Information 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC drugcocaine.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In 1859, the ship finished its travels and Wöhler received a trunk full of coca.
  • Cocaine encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]

Wöhler passed on the leaves to Albert Niemann, a Ph.D. student at the University of Göttingen in Germany, who then developed an improved purification process.[12]
Niemann described every step he took to isolate cocaine in his dissertation titled Über eine neue organische Base in den Cocablättern (On a New Organic Base in the Coca Leaves), which was published in 1860—it earned him his Ph.D. and is now in the British Library. .He wrote of the alkaloid's “colourless transparent prisms” and said that, “Its solutions have an alkaline reaction, a bitter taste, promote the flow of saliva and leave a peculiar numbness, followed by a sense of cold when applied to the tongue.” Niemann named the alkaloid “cocaine”—as with other alkaloids its name carried the “-ine” suffix (from Latin -ina).^ Cocaine is a bitter crystalline alkaloid with the molecular formula of C 17 H 21 NO 4 .
  • Toxicity, Cocaine: eMedicine Emergency Medicine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ For something like cocaine use, I would hope the answer would be a preference for other solutions before prison.
  • Change of Subject: Five reasons why the cocaine story is good for Obama 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC blogs.chicagotribune.com [Source type: General]

[12]
.The first synthesis and elucidation of the structure of the cocaine molecule was by Richard Willstätter in 1898.[13] The synthesis started from tropinone, a related natural product and took five steps.^ Disulfiram, which blocks NE synthesis, increased the number of cocaine-negative urines in five randomized clinical trials.
  • CORK Bibliography: Cocaine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

Medicalization

.With the discovery of this new alkaloid, Western medicine was quick to exploit the possible uses of this plant.^ Medicalization With the discovery of this new alkaloid, Western medicine was quick to exploit the possible uses of this plant.

^ With the discovery of this new alkaloid, Western medicine was quick to exploit the possible uses of this plant.
  • Cocaine - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Cocaine encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Drug Cocaine - Cocaine Drug Information 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC drugcocaine.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Cocaine has since been largely replaced in Western medicine by synthetic local anaesthetics such as benzocaine, proparacaine, and tetracaine though it remains available for use if specified.

.In 1879, Vassili von Anrep, of the University of Würzburg, devised an experiment to demonstrate the analgesic properties of the newly-discovered alkaloid.^ In 1879, Vassili von Anrep, of the University of Würzburg, devised an experiment to demonstrate the analgesic properties of the newly-discovered alkaloid.

^ In 1879, Vassili von Anrep , of the University of Würzburg , devised an experiment to demonstrate the analgesic properties of the newly-discovered alkaloid.
  • Cocaine - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Cocaine encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Vassily von Anrep, forgotten pioneer of regional anesthesia.

.He prepared two separate jars, one containing a cocaine-salt solution, with the other containing merely salt water.^ He prepared two separate jars, one containing a cocaine-salt solution, with the other containing merely salt water.

^ To obtain crack-cocaine, ordinary cocaine hydrochloride is concentrated by heating the drug in a solution of baking soda until the water evaporates.
  • Crack Cocaine 10 February 2010 14:47 UTC www.cocaine.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ To inject cocaine, the user mixes the powder with a small amount of water and uses a hypodermic needle to force the solution directly into a vein.
  • Howstuffworks "How Crack Cocaine Works" 10 February 2010 14:47 UTC www.howstuffworks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.He then submerged a frog's legs into the two jars, one leg in the treatment and one in the control solution, and proceeded to stimulate the legs in several different ways.^ He then submerged a frog's legs into the two jars, one leg in the treatment and one in the control solution, and proceeded to stimulate the legs in several different ways.

^ To feel the effects of the stimulant, one can either roll the leaves into cigarettes and smoke them or infuse the leaves with a liquid to form a kind of tea.
  • Cocaine: Where It Comes From and Its Neurological Effects | Serendip's Exchange 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC serendip.brynmawr.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There must be one last snowstorm on its way or something, because I've been hearing nothing but coke mentioned over and over again from different sources.
  • Cocaine@Everything2.com 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The leg that had been immersed in the cocaine solution reacted very differently than the leg that had been immersed in salt water.^ The leg that had been immersed in the cocaine solution reacted very differently than the leg that had been immersed in salt water.
  • Cocaine - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Cocaine encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Drug Cocaine - Cocaine Drug Information 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC drugcocaine.com [Source type: Academic]

^ To obtain crack-cocaine, ordinary cocaine hydrochloride is concentrated by heating the drug in a solution of baking soda until the water evaporates.
  • Crack Cocaine 10 February 2010 14:47 UTC www.cocaine.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Health 24 - Mind, Substance abuse 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.health24.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ To inject cocaine, the user mixes the powder with a small amount of water and uses a hypodermic needle to force the solution directly into a vein.
  • Howstuffworks "How Crack Cocaine Works" 10 February 2010 14:47 UTC www.howstuffworks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[14]
.Carl Koller (a close associate of Sigmund Freud, who would write about cocaine later) experimented with cocaine for ophthalmic usage.^ Jimmy on March 16th, 2009 at 1:08 am IF someone did about a gram of coke and was tested 24 days later they would pass right?
  • How long does cocaine stay in your system? 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC howto.dcrdetox.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ That same year, Sigmund Freud published the essay "Uber Coca," in which he advocated the use of cocaine in the treatment of asthma, wasting diseases, and syphilis.
  • Toxicity, Cocaine: eMedicine Emergency Medicine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ If they say that there was a large amount of cocaine present in his urine in the first test would there still be an amount of cocaine in the second test that he took 3 days later?
  • How long does cocaine stay in your system? 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC howto.dcrdetox.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In an infamous experiment in 1884, he experimented upon himself by applying a cocaine solution to his own eye and then pricking it with pins.^ In an infamous experiment in 1884, he experimented upon himself by applying a cocaine solution to his own eye and then pricking it with pins.
  • Cocaine - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Cocaine encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Drug Cocaine - Cocaine Drug Information 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC drugcocaine.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Cocaine/Crack 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.nationalliferecovery.com [Source type: Academic]

^ He proceeded to experiment on himself and upon his return to Milan he wrote a paper in which he described the effects.
  • Cocaine - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Cocaine encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Drug Cocaine - Cocaine Drug Information 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC drugcocaine.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Cocaine/Crack 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.nationalliferecovery.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Solutions of cocaine should not be applied to burnt or abraded skin or tissue supplied by terminal arterioles, because of the risks of ischaemia and tissue necrosis.
  • Cocaine (PIM 139) 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

.His findings were presented to the Heidelberg Ophthalmological Society.^ His findings were presented to the Heidelberg Ophthalmological Society.

^ His findings were presented to the Heidelberg Ophthalmological Society .
  • Cocaine - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Cocaine encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]

.Also in 1884, Jellinek demonstrated the effects of cocaine as a respiratory system anesthetic.^ Also in 1884, Jellinek demonstrated the effects of cocaine as a respiratory system anesthetic.
  • Cocaine - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Cocaine encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Drug Cocaine - Cocaine Drug Information 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC drugcocaine.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Cocaine/Crack 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.nationalliferecovery.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Summary of Teratogenic Effects: Cocaine is a topical anesthetic, local vasoconstrictor, and central nervous system (CNS) stimulant that is widely abused recreationally (Gay, 1981; Farrar & Kearns, 1989; Johanson & Fischman, 1989).
  • TERIS Web Site - Sample Summary, Cocaine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC depts.washington.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Combining cocaine with heroin may affect the respiratory system and slow down the user's breathing, with severe consequences.
  • Cocaine Index - Coke Effects, Dangers, Mixing - Cocaine Addiction 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.thegooddrugsguide.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In 1885, William Halsted demonstrated nerve-block anesthesia,[15] and James Corning demonstrated peridural anesthesia.^ In 1884, William Stewart Halsted performed the first nerve block using cocaine as the anesthetic.
  • Toxicity, Cocaine: eMedicine Emergency Medicine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

[16] 1898 saw Heinrich Quincke use cocaine for spinal anesthesia.
.Today, cocaine has very limited medical use.^ The medical complications of recreational cocaine use are diverse, involving almost any body organ, and vary greatly according to the substance used and the route by which is taken.
  • CORK Bibliography: Cocaine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Initial UDS results and CSSA scores are very useful predictors of treatment outcome and could be used as stratifying variables in outpatient cocaine and alcohol medication trials.
  • CORK Bibliography: Cocaine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Past year abuse or dependence on cocaine, heroin, marijuana, stimulants, and hallucinogens as well as nonmedical use of prescription medications were assessed.
  • CORK Bibliography: Cocaine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

See the section Cocaine as a local anesthetic

Popularization

In 1859, an Italian doctor, Paolo Mantegazza, returned from Peru, where he had witnessed first-hand the use of coca by the natives. He proceeded to experiment on himself and upon his return to Milan he wrote a paper in which he described the effects. In this paper he declared coca and cocaine (at the time they were assumed to be the same) as being useful medicinally, in the treatment of “a furred tongue in the morning, flatulence, [and] whitening of the teeth.”
Pope Leo XIII purportedly carried a hipflask of the coca-treated Vin Mariani with him, and awarded a Vatican gold medal to Angelo Mariani.
A chemist named Angelo Mariani who read Mantegazza’s paper became immediately intrigued with coca and its economic potential. In 1863, Mariani started marketing a wine called Vin Mariani, which had been treated with coca leaves, to become cocawine. .The ethanol in wine acted as a solvent and extracted the cocaine from the coca leaves, altering the drink’s effect.^ Cocaine was not isolated from coca leaves until 1859.
  • Toxicity, Cocaine: eMedicine Emergency Medicine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Nevertheless, by 1863, a wine fortified with 6 mg of cocaine alkaloid extract per ounce was marketed in France.
  • Toxicity, Cocaine: eMedicine Emergency Medicine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Knowledge of its mind-altering function dates to at least 2000 BC. For centuries, indigenous mineworkers in Andean countries have used cocaine derived from the chewing of coca leaves as an endurance-enhancement agent.
  • Toxicity, Cocaine: eMedicine Emergency Medicine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

.It contained 6 mg cocaine per ounce of wine, but Vin Mariani which was to be exported contained 7.2 mg per ounce, to compete with the higher cocaine content of similar drinks in the United States.^ Cocaine enters the United States in the form of a hydrochloride salt, having undergone numerous steps in refinement from the original coca leaf.
  • Toxicity, Cocaine: eMedicine Emergency Medicine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Cocaine may be insufflated through a straw or rolled-up paper currency, or a coke spoon, typically containing 5-20 mg of the drug, may be used to snort cocaine.
  • Toxicity, Cocaine: eMedicine Emergency Medicine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Thirdly, the quantities of cocaine or heroine taken by dependant persons are higher than the quantity of nicotine per cigarette, which makes an anti nicotine vaccine the easier vaccine project.
  • CORK Bibliography: Cocaine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

.A “pinch of coca leaves” was included in John Styth Pemberton's original 1886 recipe for Coca-Cola, though the company began using decocainized leaves in 1906 when the Pure Food and Drug Act was passed.^ Though participants reported using an array of club drugs, almost all participants (90.0%) were cocaine users.
  • CORK Bibliography: Cocaine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In 1885, John Styth Pemberton registered French Wine Cola in the United States.
  • Toxicity, Cocaine: eMedicine Emergency Medicine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

.The actual amount of cocaine that Coca-Cola contained during the first twenty years of its production is practically impossible to determine.^ The actual amount of cocaine that Coca-Cola contained during the first twenty years of its production is practically impossible to determine.
  • Cocaine - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Cocaine encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Drug Cocaine - Cocaine Drug Information 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC drugcocaine.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Cocaine/Crack 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.nationalliferecovery.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Pure cocaine was first extracted from the leaf of the coca bush, which grows primarily in Peru and Bolivia, in the mid-19th century.
  • Cocaine Addiction - Serenity Lane, Eugene, Portland, Salem, Albany, Bend Oregon 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.serenitylane.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Rimrock Foundation - Cocaine abuse treatment in addition to alcohol dependency, compulsive gambling, drug addiction, anorexia and bulimia. 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.rimrock.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Until 1906, cocaine was a chief ingredient of Coca-Cola (hence the name) and was also used as an anesthetic.
  • Cocaine Abuse - VistaBay.com 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.vistabay.com [Source type: Academic]

.In 1879 cocaine began to be used to treat morphine addiction.^ In 1879 cocaine began to be used to treat Morphine addiction.

^ In 1879 cocaine began to be used to treat morphine addiction.
  • Cocaine encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Drug Cocaine - Cocaine Drug Information 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC drugcocaine.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Cocaine/Crack 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.nationalliferecovery.com [Source type: Academic]

^ As cocaine use increased, people began to discover its dangers. The use of cocaine declined until the 1970s, when it became known for its high cost, and for the rich and glamorous people who used it.
  • UK Drug Rehab: Alcohol & drug addiction treatment, therapy, counselling, and help. - COCAINE 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.uk-rehab.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Cocaine was introduced into clinical use as a local anesthetic in Germany in 1884, about the same time as Sigmund Freud published his work Über Coca, in which he wrote that cocaine causes
exhilaration and lasting euphoria, which in no way differs from the normal euphoria of the healthy person...You perceive an increase of self-control and possess more vitality and capacity for work....In other words, you are simply normal, and it is soon hard to believe you are under the influence of any drug....Long intensive physical work is performed without any fatigue...This result is enjoyed without any of the unpleasant after-effects that follow exhilaration brought about by alcohol....Absolutely no craving for the further use of cocaine appears after the first, or even after repeated taking of the drug...
Cocaine was marketed as a fast-acting anesthetic.
.In 1885 the U.S. manufacturer Parke-Davis sold cocaine in various forms, including cigarettes, powder, and even a cocaine mixture that could be injected directly into the user’s veins with the included needle.^ Intervention approaches to link these not-in-treatment cocaine users to services and reduce cocaine use must take into account concomitant alcohol Mmsuse and violence.
  • CORK Bibliography: Cocaine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ A "pocket shot" is an attempted injection of the internal jugular vein by directing the needle into the depression in the neck superior to the clavicle and lateral to the sternocleidomastoid.
  • Toxicity, Cocaine: eMedicine Emergency Medicine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Crack cocaine, sold in the form of 0.1-0.2 g rocks, generally cost $10 per rock, with a price range of $2-40, depending on the size of the rock.
  • Toxicity, Cocaine: eMedicine Emergency Medicine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

.The company promised that its cocaine products would “supply the place of food, make the coward brave, the silent eloquent and ...^ The company promised that its cocaine products would “supply the place of food, make the coward brave, the silent eloquent and ...
  • Cocaine - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Cocaine encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The company promised that its cocaine products would “supply the place of food, make the coward brave, the silent eloquent and … render the sufferer insensitive to pain.” .

^ The company promised that its cocaine products would supply the place of food, make the coward brave, the silent eloquent and ...
  • Crack! 10 February 2010 14:47 UTC www.kipaddotta.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Drug Cocaine - Cocaine Drug Information 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC drugcocaine.com [Source type: Academic]

render the sufferer insensitive to pain.”
.By the late Victorian era cocaine use had appeared as a vice in literature.^ Chronic use of cocaine appears to deplete stores of dopamine in peripheral nerve terminals.
  • Toxicity, Cocaine: eMedicine Emergency Medicine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

For example, it was injected by Arthur Conan Doyle’s fictional Sherlock Holmes.
In early 20th-century Memphis, Tennessee, cocaine was sold in neighborhood drugstores on Beale Street, costing five or ten cents for a small boxful. .Stevedores along the Mississippi River used the drug as a stimulant, and white employers encouraged its use by black laborers.^ Stevedores along the Mississippi River used the drug as a stimulant, and white employers encouraged its use by black laborers.
  • Cocaine - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Cocaine encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Drug Cocaine - Cocaine Drug Information 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC drugcocaine.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Cocaine/Crack 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.nationalliferecovery.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In particular, drug rehab patients are generally encouraged or required not to associate with friends who still use the addictive substance.

^ The March of Dimes also encourages pregnant women who use illicit drugs (with the exception of heroin) to stop using the drug immediately, because of the harm continued drug use may cause.
  • Illicit Drug Use During Pregnancy - March of Dimes 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.marchofdimes.com [Source type: Academic]

[17]
.In 1909, Ernest Shackleton took “Forced March” brand cocaine tablets to Antarctica, as did Captain Scott a year later on his ill-fated journey to the South Pole.^ March 29th, 2009 at 2:34 pm hi i am 26 year old female who weighs 220 lbs and did 2 lines of cocaine 5 weeks ago….i have to do urine test….will it show???
  • How long does cocaine stay in your system? 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC howto.dcrdetox.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Asked in an interview about cocaine use, he said, "I'm not going to talk about what I did years ago....
  • Change of Subject: Five reasons why the cocaine story is good for Obama 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC blogs.chicagotribune.com [Source type: General]

^ If what they did isn't 'wrong', surely the young minority woman living on the south side at age 19 today using cocaine can't be wrong?
  • Change of Subject: Five reasons why the cocaine story is good for Obama 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC blogs.chicagotribune.com [Source type: General]

[18]

Prohibition

.By the turn of the twentieth century, the addictive properties of cocaine had become clear, and the problem of cocaine abuse began to capture public attention in the United States.^ By the turn of the twentieth century, the addictive properties of cocaine had become clear to many, and the problem of cocaine abuse began to capture public attention in the United States.

^ Crack cocaine remains a serious problem in the United States.
  • What is Crack Cocaine? | Crack Cocaine and Crack Addiction 10 February 2010 14:47 UTC www.cocainedrugaddiction.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Cocaine - Kokain Facts | Cocaine Abuse and Treatment | Cocaine Addiction by Drug Rehab Experts 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.drug-rehab.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Cocaine Rehab Treatment for Cocaine Crack Cocaine Addiction 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.drug-rehabilitation.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Cocaine Rehab Drug Rehabilitation Cocaine Rehab Center Cocaine Treatment Programs 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.drugandalcoholrehab.net [Source type: Academic]
  • Cocaine Addiction - Serenity Lane, Eugene, Portland, Salem, Albany, Bend Oregon 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.serenitylane.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Rimrock Foundation - Cocaine abuse treatment in addition to alcohol dependency, compulsive gambling, drug addiction, anorexia and bulimia. 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.rimrock.org [Source type: Academic]
  • HEALTH - Research Report Series: Cocaine Abuse and Addiction 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.ehd.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Cocaine has powerful psychological addictive properties.

.The dangers of cocaine abuse became part of a moral panic that was tied to the dominant racial and social anxieties of the day.^ The dangers of cocaine abuse became part of a moral panic that was tied to the dominant racial and social anxieties of the day.
  • Cocaine - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Cocaine encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Drug Cocaine - Cocaine Drug Information 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC drugcocaine.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Cocaine/Crack 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.nationalliferecovery.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Trends in 30-day prevalence of cocaine abuse among eighth, tenth and twelfth graders.
  • Cocaine Addiction - Serenity Lane, Eugene, Portland, Salem, Albany, Bend Oregon 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.serenitylane.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Rimrock Foundation - Cocaine abuse treatment in addition to alcohol dependency, compulsive gambling, drug addiction, anorexia and bulimia. 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.rimrock.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Crack, a form of cocaine, is one of the most serious and dangerous drugs a teen may abuse.
  • Tag: Cocaine - Explore content tagged Cocaine on eHow.com 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.ehow.com [Source type: General]

In 1903, the American Journal of Pharmacy stressed that most cocaine abusers were “bohemians, gamblers, high- and low-class prostitutes, night porters, bell boys, burglars, racketeers, pimps, and casual laborers.” In 1914, Dr. Christopher Koch of Pennsylvania’s State Pharmacy Board made the racial innuendo explicit, testifying that, “Most of the attacks upon the white women of the South are the direct result of a cocaine-crazed Negro brain.” Mass media manufactured an epidemic of cocaine use among African Americans in the Southern United States to play upon racial prejudices of the era, though there is little evidence that such an epidemic actually took place. .In the same year, the Harrison Narcotics Tax Act outlawed the sale and distribution of cocaine in the United States.^ The Harrison Narcotics Act of 1914 banned nonprescription use of cocaine-containing products.
  • Toxicity, Cocaine: eMedicine Emergency Medicine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Cocaine enters the United States in the form of a hydrochloride salt, having undergone numerous steps in refinement from the original coca leaf.
  • Toxicity, Cocaine: eMedicine Emergency Medicine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Cocaine transported into the United States originates from coca plants in South America, 75% of which are in Columbia.
  • Toxicity, Cocaine: eMedicine Emergency Medicine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

This law incorrectly referred to cocaine as a narcotic, and the misclassification passed into popular culture. .As stated above, cocaine is a stimulant, not a narcotic.^ As stated above, cocaine is a stimulant, not a narcotic.

^ Cocaine is a stimulant, not a narcotic.

^ Cocaine came under strict control in the United States in 1914 with the Harrison Narcotic Act.

.Although technically illegal for purposes of distribution and use, the distribution, sale and use of cocaine was still legal for registered companies and individuals.^ Although technically illegal for purposes of distribution and use, the distribution, sale and use of cocaine was still legal for registered companies and individuals.
  • Cocaine - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Cocaine encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Drug Cocaine - Cocaine Drug Information 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC drugcocaine.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Cocaine/Crack 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.nationalliferecovery.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Was cocaine use legal at one time?
  • Cocaine Index - Coke Effects, Dangers, Mixing - Cocaine Addiction 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.thegooddrugsguide.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although cocaine use has not significantly changed over the last six years and "is still a threat to the United States," it is significantly less prevalent today than it was during the early 1980s.
  • Cocaine Facts - How to Tell Use of Cocaine - Questions, Myths, Truth 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.thegooddrugsguide.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Because of the misclassification of cocaine as a narcotic, the debate is still open on whether the government actually enforced these laws strictly.^ Because of the misclassification of cocaine as a narcotic, the debate is still open on whether the government actually enforced these laws strictly.
  • Cocaine encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Drug Cocaine - Cocaine Drug Information 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC drugcocaine.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Cocaine/Crack 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.nationalliferecovery.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Today, the medical use of cocaine is limited to topical anesthesia of the upper respiratory tract and eye because the vasoconstrictive properties of cocaine are desirable during these procedures.
  • Information and research on cocaine addiction, cocaine rehab, abuse, withdrawal, crack addiction, rehabilitation and treatment. 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.addictionsearch.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Although current rhetoric would often have one believe otherwise, these results emphasize that the self-administration of cocaine is governed by the same laws that govern behavior maintained by other positive reinforcers.
  • Cocaine and the Concept of Addiction: Environmental Factors in Drug Compulsions 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.peele.net [Source type: Academic]

.Cocaine was not considered a controlled substance until 1970, when the United States listed it as such in the Controlled Substances Act.^ Cocaine was not considered a controlled substance until 1970, when the United States listed it as such in the Controlled Substances Act .
  • Cocaine encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Cocaine is "cut" with many substances such as: .
  • Drug Cocaine - Cocaine Drug Information 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC drugcocaine.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In the United States the manufacture, importation, possession, and distribution of cocaine is additionally regulated by the 1970 Controlled Substances Act.
  • Crack! 10 February 2010 14:47 UTC www.kipaddotta.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Drug Cocaine - Cocaine Drug Information 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC drugcocaine.com [Source type: Academic]

.Until that point, the use of cocaine was open and rarely prosecuted in the US due to the moral and physical debates commonly discussed.^ Until that point, the use of cocaine was open and rarely prosecuted in the US due to the moral and physical debates commonly discussed.

^ Rolled up banknotes, hollowed-out pens, cut straws, pointed ends of keys, and specialized spoons are often used to insufflate cocaine.

^ Commonly used cocaine adulterants may include local anesthetics, phenytoin, sugars, amphetamines, phencyclidine, phenylpropanolamine, quinine, talc, and others.
  • Information and research on cocaine addiction, cocaine rehab, abuse, withdrawal, crack addiction, rehabilitation and treatment. 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.addictionsearch.com [Source type: Academic]

Modern usage

.In many countries, cocaine is a popular recreational drug.^ Modern usage In many countries, cocaine is a popular recreational drug.

^ In many countries, cocaine is a popular recreational drug .
  • Cocaine - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Cocaine encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In many countries, cocaine is a popular recreational drug.
  • Drug Cocaine - Cocaine Drug Information 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC drugcocaine.com [Source type: Academic]

.In the United States, the development of "crack" cocaine introduced the substance to a generally poorer inner-city market.^ In the United States of America, the creation of an alternate form, known as "crack" cocaine introduced the substance to a commonly poorer population, the inner-city market.
  • Cocaine Index - Coke Effects, Dangers, Mixing - Cocaine Addiction 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.thegooddrugsguide.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Crack cocaine remains a serious problem in the United States.
  • Cocaine - Kokain Facts | Cocaine Abuse and Treatment | Cocaine Addiction by Drug Rehab Experts 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.drug-rehab.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Cocaine Rehab Treatment for Cocaine Crack Cocaine Addiction 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.drug-rehabilitation.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Cocaine Drug Rehab Drug Rehabilitation Cocaine Drug Addiction Treatment Center 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.drug-rehabs.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Cocaine Rehab Drug Rehabilitation Cocaine Rehab Center Cocaine Treatment Programs 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.drugandalcoholrehab.net [Source type: Academic]
  • Cocaine Addiction - Serenity Lane, Eugene, Portland, Salem, Albany, Bend Oregon 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.serenitylane.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Rimrock Foundation - Cocaine abuse treatment in addition to alcohol dependency, compulsive gambling, drug addiction, anorexia and bulimia. 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.rimrock.org [Source type: Academic]
  • HEALTH - Research Report Series: Cocaine Abuse and Addiction 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.ehd.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In the United States, the development of “crack” cocaine introduced the substance to a generally poorer inner-city market.

Use of the powder form has stayed relatively constant, experiencing a new height of use during the late 1990s and early 2000s in the U.S., and has become much more popular in the last few years in the UK.
.Cocaine use is prevalent across all socioeconomic strata, including age, demographics, economic, social, political, religious, and livelihood.^ What age was he when he quit using cocaine?
  • Barack Obama, cocaine use and 60 minutes | Russ Page 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.russpage.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Cocaine use is prevalent across all socioeconomic strata, including age, demographics, economic, social, political, religious, and livelihood.
  • Cocaine - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Drug Cocaine - Cocaine Drug Information 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC drugcocaine.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Query patients in all age groups about their cocaine use.
  • Toxicity, Cocaine: eMedicine Emergency Medicine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

.The estimated U.S. cocaine market exceeded $70 billion in street value for the year 2005, exceeding revenues by corporations such as Starbucks.^ Cocaine may increase the risk of neuroleptic-induced dystonias, a problem compounded by the street marketing of substances, such as haloperidol, sold as cocaine.
  • Toxicity, Cocaine: eMedicine Emergency Medicine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Cocaine was reported in 39% of such drug deaths, ranging from 8-70% in various areas.
  • Toxicity, Cocaine: eMedicine Emergency Medicine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

[19][20] .There is a tremendous demand for cocaine in the U.S. market, particularly among those who are making incomes affording luxury spending, such as single adults and professionals with discretionary income.^ Cocaine may increase the risk of neuroleptic-induced dystonias, a problem compounded by the street marketing of substances, such as haloperidol, sold as cocaine.
  • Toxicity, Cocaine: eMedicine Emergency Medicine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In respect to demographic characteristics, there were no significant differences between patients who achieved four weeks of abstinence from cocaine and those who did not.
  • CORK Bibliography: Cocaine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Cocaine powder is currently marketed to adults from all ethnic backgrounds and socioeconomic groups, predominated by white men older than 30 years who live in the central city.
  • Toxicity, Cocaine: eMedicine Emergency Medicine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

.Cocaine’s status as a club drug shows its immense popularity among the “party crowd”.^ Cocaine is a major drug in club culture.
  • CORK Bibliography: Cocaine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Cocaine’s status as a club drug shows its immense popularity among the “party crowd”.

^ Cocaines status as a club drug shows its immense popularity among the party crowd.
  • Drug Cocaine - Cocaine Drug Information 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC drugcocaine.com [Source type: Academic]

.In 1995 the World Health Organization (WHO) and the United Nations Interregional Crime and Justice Research Institute (UNICRI) announced in a press release the publication of the results of the largest global study on cocaine use ever undertaken.^ To synthesize the results of marijuana, cocaine and opiate drug toxicology studies of homicide victims and examine variation in results across person and setting characteristics.
  • CORK Bibliography: Cocaine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Compared with cocaine, amphetamine use was associated with older age, Nordic origin, nonurban residence, injecting, tobacco and institution treatment.
  • CORK Bibliography: Cocaine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ DUI and family vulnerability, this study provides useful information for clinical research about individuals with chronic and severe alcohol problems.
  • CORK Bibliography: Cocaine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

However, a decision in the World Health Assembly banned the publication of the study. .In the sixth meeting of the B committee the US representative threatened that "If WHO activities relating to drugs failed to reinforce proven drug control approaches, funds for the relevant programs should be curtailed". This led to the decision to discontinue publication.^ In the sixth meeting of the B committee the US representative threatened that "If WHO activities relating to drugs failed to reinforce proven drug control approaches, funds for the relevant programs should be curtailed".
  • Cocaine - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Cocaine encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Drug Cocaine - Cocaine Drug Information 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC drugcocaine.com [Source type: Academic]

^ This led to the decision to discontinue publication.
  • Cocaine - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Cocaine encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Drug Cocaine - Cocaine Drug Information 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC drugcocaine.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Cocaine/Crack 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.nationalliferecovery.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In the sixth meeting of the B committee the US representative threatened that “If WHO activities relating to drugs failed to reinforce proven drug control approaches, funds for the relevant programs should be curtailed”.

.A part of the study has been recuperated.^ A part of the study has been recuperated.
  • Cocaine - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Cocaine encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Drug Cocaine - Cocaine Drug Information 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC drugcocaine.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Cocaine/Crack 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.nationalliferecovery.com [Source type: Academic]

[21] .Available are profiles of cocaine use in 20 countries.^ Available are profiles of cocaine use in 20 countries.
  • Cocaine - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Cocaine encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Drug Cocaine - Cocaine Drug Information 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC drugcocaine.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Cocaine/Crack 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.nationalliferecovery.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Cocaine has since been largely replaced in Western medicine by synthetic local anaesthetics such as benzocaine, proparacaine, and tetracaine though it remains available for use if specified.

^ Finally, the Harrison Act of 1914 was enacted, outlawing the use of cocaine and opiates in over-the-counter products and making these drugs available only by prescription.
  • Cocaine Information - Effects of Cocaine - Use of cocaine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.homedrugtestingkit.com [Source type: Academic]

.A problem with illegal cocaine use, especially in the higher volumes used to combat fatigue (rather than increase euphoria) by long-term users, is the risk of ill effects or damage caused by the compounds used in adulteration.^ (The mechanism of fatality differs for long-term cocaine users.
  • Toxicity, Cocaine: eMedicine Emergency Medicine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ This increase is associated with relatively more adverse effects with cocaine use.
  • CORK Bibliography: Cocaine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The risk of severe effects is increased when cocaine is combined with drugs such as monoamine oxidase inhibitors, tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs), alpha-methyldopa, and reserpine.
  • Toxicity, Cocaine: eMedicine Emergency Medicine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

.Cutting or "stamping on" the drug is commonplace, using compounds which simulate ingestion effects, such as Novocain (procaine) producing temporary anesthaesia as many users believe a strong numbing effect is the result of strong and/or pure cocaine, ephedrine or similar stimulants that are to produce an increased heart rate.^ What is his or her history of cocaine and other drug use?
  • Toxicity, Cocaine: eMedicine Emergency Medicine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The risk of severe effects is increased when cocaine is combined with drugs such as monoamine oxidase inhibitors, tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs), alpha-methyldopa, and reserpine.
  • Toxicity, Cocaine: eMedicine Emergency Medicine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Cocaine may be insufflated through a straw or rolled-up paper currency, or a coke spoon, typically containing 5-20 mg of the drug, may be used to snort cocaine.
  • Toxicity, Cocaine: eMedicine Emergency Medicine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

.The normal adulterants for profit are inactive sugars, usually mannitol, creatine or glucose, so introducing active adulterants gives the illusion of purity and to 'stretch' or make it so a dealer can sell more product than without the adulterants.^ The adulterant of sugars therefore allows the dealer to sell the product for a higher price .

^ The normal adulterants for profit are inactive sugars, usually mannitol, creatine or glucose, so introducing active adulterants gives the illusion of purity and to ’stretch’ or make it so a dealer can sell more product than without the adulterants.

^ The adulterant of sugars therefore allows the dealer to sell the product for a higher price because of the illusion of purity and allows to sell more of the product at that higher price, enabling dealers to make a lot of revenue with little cost of the adulterants.
  • Cocaine - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Cocaine encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Drug Cocaine - Cocaine Drug Information 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC drugcocaine.com [Source type: Academic]

[citation needed] .The adulterant of sugars therefore allows the dealer to sell the product for a higher price because of the illusion of purity and allows to sell more of the product at that higher price, enabling dealers to make a lot of revenue with little cost of the adulterants.^ The adulterant of sugars therefore allows the dealer to sell the product for a higher price .

^ The adulterant of sugars therefore allows the dealer to sell the product for a higher price because of the illusion of purity and allows to sell more of the product at that higher price, enabling dealers to make a lot of revenue with little cost of the adulterants.
  • Cocaine - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Cocaine encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Drug Cocaine - Cocaine Drug Information 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC drugcocaine.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The normal adulterants for profit are inactive sugars, usually mannitol, creatine or glucose, so introducing active adulterants gives the illusion of purity and to ’stretch’ or make it so a dealer can sell more product than without the adulterants.

.Cocaine trading carries large penalties in most jurisdictions, so user deception about purity and consequent high profits for dealers are the norm.^ Cocaine trading carries large penalties in most jurisdictions, so user deception about purity and consequent high profits for dealers are the norm.
  • Cocaine - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Cocaine encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Drug Cocaine - Cocaine Drug Information 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC drugcocaine.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Cocaine/Crack 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.nationalliferecovery.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Ecstasy (86.6% of users) and cocaine (85.7% of users) were the two most-frequently reported club drugs used in combination with other substances.
  • CORK Bibliography: Cocaine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Numbers of cocaine users are still very large, with a concentration among urban youth.
  • Cocaine - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Cocaine encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Drug Cocaine - Cocaine Drug Information 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC drugcocaine.com [Source type: Academic]

.A study by the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction in 2007 showed that the purity levels for street purchased cocaine was often under 5% and on average under 50% pure.^ Street drugs often are not what they are marketed to be.
  • Toxicity, Cocaine: eMedicine Emergency Medicine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ To synthesize the results of marijuana, cocaine and opiate drug toxicology studies of homicide victims and examine variation in results across person and setting characteristics.
  • CORK Bibliography: Cocaine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Interaction between Two Independent CNR1 Variants Increases Risk for Cocaine dependence in European Americans: A replication study in family-based sample and population-based sample.
  • CORK Bibliography: Cocaine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

[22]

Biosynthesis

The first synthesis and elucidation of the cocaine molecule was by Richard Willstätter in 1898.[23] Willstätter's synthesis derived cocaine from tropinone. Since then, Robert Robinson and Edward Leete have made significant contributions to the mechanism of the synthesis.

Biosynthesis of N-methyl-pyrrolinium cation

Biosynthesis of N-methyl-pyrrolinium cation
The biosynthesis begins with L-Glutamine, which is derived to L-ornithine in plants. The major contribution of L-ornithine and L-arginine as a precursor to the tropane ring was confirmed by Edward Leete.[24] Ornithine then undergoes a Pyridoxal phosphate-dependent decarboxylation to form putrescine. In animals, however, the urea cycle derives putrescine from ornithine. L-ornithine is converted to L-arginine,[25] which is then decarboxylated via PLP to form agmatine. Hydrolysis of the imine derives N-carbamoylputrescine followed with hydrolysis of the urea to form putrescine. The separate pathways of converting ornithine to putrescine in plants and animals have converged. A SAM-dependent N-methylation of putrescine gives the N-methylputrescine product, which then undergoes oxidative deamination by the action of diamine oxidase to yield the aminoaldehyde. Schiff base formation confirms the biosynthesis of the N-methyl-Δ1-pyrrolinium cation.

Biosynthesis of cocaine

Biosynthesis of cocaine
The additional carbon atoms required for the synthesis of cocaine are derived from acetyl-CoA, by addition of two acetyl-CoA units to the N-methyl-Δ1-pyrrolinium cation.[26] The first addition is a Mannich-like reaction with the enolate anion from acetyl-CoA acting as a nucleophile towards the pyrrolinium cation. The second addition occurs through a Claisen condensation. This produces a racemic mixture of the 2-substituted pyrrolidine, with the retention of the thioester from the Claisen condensation. In formation of tropinone from racemic ethyl [2,3-13C2]4(Nmethyl- 2-pyrrolidinyl)-3-oxobutanoate there is no preference for either stereoisomer.[27] In the biosynthesis of cocaine, however, only the (S)-enantiomer can cyclize to form the tropane ring system of cocaine. The stereoselectivity of this reaction was further investigated through study of prochiral methylene hydrogen discrimination.[28] .This is due to the extra chiral center at C-2.[29] This process occurs through an oxidation, which regenerates the pyrrolinium cation and formation of an enolate anion, and an intramolecular Mannich reaction.^ The process of cocaethylene formation continues for several hours, which may explain why sudden deaths may occur 6-12 hours after cocaine ingestion.
  • Toxicity, Cocaine: eMedicine Emergency Medicine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

The tropane ring system undergoes hydrolysis, SAM-dependent methylation, and reduction via NADPH for the formation of methylecgonine. The benzoyl moiety required for the formation of the cocaine diester is synthesized from phenylalanine via cinnamic acid.[30] .Benzoyl-CoA then combines the two units to form cocaine.^ Cocaine enters the United States in the form of a hydrochloride salt, having undergone numerous steps in refinement from the original coca leaf.
  • Toxicity, Cocaine: eMedicine Emergency Medicine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Ecstasy (86.6% of users) and cocaine (85.7% of users) were the two most-frequently reported club drugs used in combination with other substances.
  • CORK Bibliography: Cocaine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

Robert Robinson's acetonedicarboxylate

Robinson biosynthesis of tropane
The biosynthesis of the tropane alkaloid, however, is still uncertain. Hemscheidt proposes that Robinson's acetonedicarboxylate emerges as a potential intermediate for this reaction.[31] Condensation of N-methylpyrrolinium and acetonedicarboxylate would generate the oxobutyrate. Decarboxylation leads to tropane alkaloid formation.

Reduction of tropinone

Reduction of tropinone
The reduction of tropinone is mediated by NADPH-dependent reductase enzymes, which have been characterized in multiple plant species.[32] These plant species all contain two types of the reductase enzymes, tropinone reductase I and tropinone reductase II. TRI produces tropine and TRII produces pseudotropine. .Due to differing kinetic and pH/activity characteristics of the enzymes and by the 25-fold higher activity of TRI over TRII, the majority of the tropinone reduction is from TRI to form tropine.^ This allows us to formulate the hypothesis that the major driving force behind the price decline is a reduction of the intermediation margin (the difference between the retail and producer prices).
  • CORK Bibliography: Cocaine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

[33]

Pharmacology

Appearance

A pile of cocaine hydrochloride
A piece of compressed cocaine powder
.Cocaine in its purest form is a white, pearly product.^ A piece of compressed cocaine powder Cocaine in its purest form is a white, pearly product.

^ A pile of cocaine hydrochloride Cocaine in its purest form is a white, pearly product.

^ Cocaine in its purest form is a white, pearly product.
  • Cocaine encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Drug Cocaine - Cocaine Drug Information 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC drugcocaine.com [Source type: Academic]

.Cocaine appearing in powder form is a salt, typically cocaine hydrochloride (CAS 53-21-4).^ Cocaine enters the United States in the form of a hydrochloride salt, having undergone numerous steps in refinement from the original coca leaf.
  • Toxicity, Cocaine: eMedicine Emergency Medicine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

.Street market cocaine is frequently adulterated or “cut” with various powdery fillers to increase its weight; the substances most commonly used in this process are baking soda; sugars, such as lactose, dextrose, inositol, and mannitol; and local anesthetics, such as lidocaine or benzocaine, which mimic or add to cocaine's numbing effect on mucous membranes.^ Across nationalities, substance use frequency increased on holiday.
  • CORK Bibliography: Cocaine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ This increase is associated with relatively more adverse effects with cocaine use.
  • CORK Bibliography: Cocaine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Ecstasy (86.6% of users) and cocaine (85.7% of users) were the two most-frequently reported club drugs used in combination with other substances.
  • CORK Bibliography: Cocaine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

.Cocaine may also be "cut" with other stimulants such as methamphetamine.^ Cocaine may also be “cut” with other stimulants such as methamphetamine.

^ Cocaine is "cut" with many substances such as: .
  • Cocaine - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Drug Cocaine - Cocaine Drug Information 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC drugcocaine.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Cocaine may also be "cut" with other stimulants such as methamphetamine.
  • Crack! 10 February 2010 14:47 UTC www.kipaddotta.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Drug Cocaine - Cocaine Drug Information 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC drugcocaine.com [Source type: Academic]

[34] .Adulterated cocaine is often a white, off-white or pinkish powder.^ Cocaine is produced as a white chunky powder.
  • Crack addiction FAQ. Crack addiction treatment. 10 February 2010 14:47 UTC www.drugrehab.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Adulterated cocaine is often a white, off-white or pinkish powder.
  • Crack! 10 February 2010 14:47 UTC www.kipaddotta.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Cocaine - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Cocaine encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Drug Cocaine - Cocaine Drug Information 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC drugcocaine.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Cocaine/Crack 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.nationalliferecovery.com [Source type: Academic]

^ File:CocaineHydrochloridePowder.jpg A pile of cocaine hydrochloride File:CocaineHCl.jpg A piece of compressed cocaine powder Cocaine in its purest form is a white, pearly product.

.The color of “crack” cocaine depends upon several factors including the origin of the cocaine used, the method of preparation – with ammonia or baking soda – and the presence of impurities, but will generally range from white to a yellowish cream to a light brown.^ We examined these relations using six self-reported indices of cocaine dependence severity and three self-reported measures of treatment utilization and self-help group participation for cocaine dependence.
  • CORK Bibliography: Cocaine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Results: IRT modeling showed that symptoms of cocaine and opioid dependences, respectively, were arrayed along a continuum of severity.
  • CORK Bibliography: Cocaine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The authors conducted secondary analyses of data from 3 clinical trials to determine whether this relation generalizes to cocaine-dependent homeless persons.
  • CORK Bibliography: Cocaine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

.Its texture will also depend on the adulterants, origin and processing of the powdered cocaine, and the method of converting the base.^ Cocaine powder forms the base of freebase cocaine .
  • Howstuffworks "How Crack Cocaine Works" 10 February 2010 14:47 UTC www.howstuffworks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Its texture will also depend on the adulterants, origin and processing of the powdered cocaine, and the method of converting the base.
  • Crack! 10 February 2010 14:47 UTC www.kipaddotta.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Cocaine - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Cocaine encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Drug Cocaine - Cocaine Drug Information 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC drugcocaine.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Cocaine/Crack 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.nationalliferecovery.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The color of crack cocaine depends upon several factors including the origin of the cocaine used, the method of preparation with ammonia or baking soda and the presence of impurities, but will generally range from white to a yellowish cream to a light brown.
  • Drug Cocaine - Cocaine Drug Information 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC drugcocaine.com [Source type: Academic]

.It ranges from a crumbly texture, sometimes extremely oily, to a hard, almost crystalline nature.^ It ranges from a crumbly texture, sometimes extremely oily, to a hard, almost crystalline nature.

Forms of cocaine

Salts

.Cocaine, like many alkaloids can form many different salts, such as hydrochloride (HCl) and sulfate (-SO4).^ For drugs like nicotine interacting with different types of receptors in many organs, this is a further advantage.
  • CORK Bibliography: Cocaine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Recent findings: Stimulant dependence, in the form of cocaine or amphetamine/methamphetamine dependence, is prevalent worldwide, and their ratio may vary across different countries and regions of countries.
  • CORK Bibliography: Cocaine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

Different salts have different solvency in solvents. Its hydrochloride, like many alkaloid hydrochloride is polar and is soluble in water.

Basic

.As the name implies, “freebase” is the base form of cocaine, as opposed to the salt form.^ Cocaine enters the United States in the form of a hydrochloride salt, having undergone numerous steps in refinement from the original coca leaf.
  • Toxicity, Cocaine: eMedicine Emergency Medicine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

It is practically insoluble in water whereas hydrochloride salt is water soluble.
.Smoking freebase cocaine has the additional effect of releasing methylecgonidine into the user's system due to the pyrolysis of the substance (a side effect which insufflating or injecting powder cocaine does not create).^ People Search: how long does cocaine stay in the human body?, how many days does cocaine stay in your system, what cocaine does to your body, how long does benzoylecgonine stay in urine, how long does cocaine stay in your system”", cocaine out of your system, cocaine stays in the body, cocaine time in body, how long cocain stays in your system .
  • How long does cocaine stay in your system? 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC howto.dcrdetox.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Individuals with excited delirium may be more sensitive to the life-threatening effects of catecholamine surges than other cocaine users.
  • Toxicity, Cocaine: eMedicine Emergency Medicine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Reed SC; Haney M; Evans SM; Vadhan NP; Rubin E; Foltin RW. Cardiovascular and subjective effects of repeated smoked cocaine administration in experienced cocaine users.
  • CORK Bibliography: Cocaine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

.Some research suggests that smoking freebase cocaine can be even more cardiotoxic than other routes of administration[35] because of methylecgonidine's effects on lung tissue[36] and liver tissue.^ Cocaine is - and stays - attractive because of the ritual of snorting (the route of administration).
  • CORK Bibliography: Cocaine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Reed SC; Haney M; Evans SM; Vadhan NP; Rubin E; Foltin RW. Cardiovascular and subjective effects of repeated smoked cocaine administration in experienced cocaine users.
  • CORK Bibliography: Cocaine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Adulterated cocaine was associated more frequently with reported adverse effects than unadulterated cocaine.
  • CORK Bibliography: Cocaine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

[37]
Pure cocaine is prepared by neutralizing its compounding salt with an alkaline solution which will precipitate to non-polar basic cocaine. It is further refined through aqueous-solvent Liquid-liquid extraction.

Crack cocaine

A woman smoking crack cocaine.
.Crack is a lower purity form of free-base cocaine and contains sodium bicarbonate as impurity.^ Crack cocaine, sold in the form of 0.1-0.2 g rocks, generally cost $10 per rock, with a price range of $2-40, depending on the size of the rock.
  • Toxicity, Cocaine: eMedicine Emergency Medicine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Crack is produced when the hydrochloride molecule is removed by ether extraction, which frees the basic cocaine molecule, or "freebase.".
  • Toxicity, Cocaine: eMedicine Emergency Medicine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Users of cocaine in its crack form tend to be young adults aged 18-30 years who live in the central city and who are from low socioeconomic backgrounds.
  • Toxicity, Cocaine: eMedicine Emergency Medicine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

.Freebase and crack are often administered by smoking.^ The term crack describes the crackling sound heard when cocaine freebase is smoked.
  • Toxicity, Cocaine: eMedicine Emergency Medicine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

[38] .The origin of the name is from the crackling sound (hence the onomatopoeic “crack”) produced when cocaine containing impurities are heated.^ The term crack describes the crackling sound heard when cocaine freebase is smoked.
  • Toxicity, Cocaine: eMedicine Emergency Medicine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Crack is produced when the hydrochloride molecule is removed by ether extraction, which frees the basic cocaine molecule, or "freebase.".
  • Toxicity, Cocaine: eMedicine Emergency Medicine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Dissolving and injecting crack is less expensive than purchasing enough cocaine powder to produce the same effect.
  • Toxicity, Cocaine: eMedicine Emergency Medicine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

[39]

Coca leaf infusions

.Coca herbal infusion (also referred to as Coca tea) is used in coca-leaf producing countries much as any herbal medicinal infusion would elsewhere in the world.^ Spanish physicians reported the first European use of coca for medicinal purposes in 1596.
  • Toxicity, Cocaine: eMedicine Emergency Medicine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

.The free and legal commercialization of dried coca leaves under the form of filtration bags to be used as "coca tea" has been actively promoted by the governments of Peru and Bolivia for many years as a drink having medicinal powers.^ Cocaine enters the United States in the form of a hydrochloride salt, having undergone numerous steps in refinement from the original coca leaf.
  • Toxicity, Cocaine: eMedicine Emergency Medicine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ That same year, Sigmund Freud published the essay "Uber Coca," in which he advocated the use of cocaine in the treatment of asthma, wasting diseases, and syphilis.
  • Toxicity, Cocaine: eMedicine Emergency Medicine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In Obama's 1996 autobiography, he wrote of having used "a little blow" during an unhappy phase of his high school years.
  • Change of Subject: Five reasons why the cocaine story is good for Obama 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC blogs.chicagotribune.com [Source type: General]

Visitors to the city of Cuzco in Peru, and La Paz in Bolivia are greeted with the offering of coca leaf infusions (prepared in tea pots with whole coca leaves) purportedly to help the newly-arrived traveler overcome the malaise of high altitude sickness. .The effects of drinking coca tea are a mild stimulation and mood lift.^ The effects of drinking coca tea are a mild stimulation and mood lift.
  • Crack! 10 February 2010 14:47 UTC www.kipaddotta.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Cocaine - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Cocaine encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Drug Cocaine - Cocaine Drug Information 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC drugcocaine.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The article stated that drinking two cups of the tea per day gave a mild stimulation, increased heart rate, and mood elevation, and the tea was essentially harmless.
  • Crack! 10 February 2010 14:47 UTC www.kipaddotta.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Drug Cocaine - Cocaine Drug Information 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC drugcocaine.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The article stated that drinking two cups of the tea per day gave a mild stimulation , increased heart rate , and mood elevation, and the tea was essentially harmless.
  • Cocaine - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Cocaine encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]

.It does not produce any significant numbing of the mouth nor does it give a rush like snorting cocaine.^ It does not produce any significant numbing of the mouth nor does it give a rush like snorting cocaine.
  • Crack! 10 February 2010 14:47 UTC www.kipaddotta.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Cocaine - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
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  • Drug Cocaine - Cocaine Drug Information 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC drugcocaine.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Cocaine sulfate is produced by macerating coca leaves along with water that has been acidulated with sulfuric acid, or an aromatic-based solvent, like kerosene or benzene .
  • Cocaine - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Cocaine encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Cocaine sulfate is produced by macerating coca leaves along with water that has been acidulated with sulfuric acid, or an aromatic-based solvent, like kerosene or benzene.
  • Crack! 10 February 2010 14:47 UTC www.kipaddotta.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Drug Cocaine - Cocaine Drug Information 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC drugcocaine.com [Source type: Academic]

.In order to prevent the demonization of this product, its promoters publicize the unproven concept that much of the effect of the ingestion of coca leaf infusion would come from the secondary alkaloids, as being not only quantitatively different from pure cocaine but also qualitatively different.^ Crack Coca leaf infusions .

^ In order to prevent the demonization of this product, its promoters publicize the unproven concept that much of the effect of the ingestion of coca leaf infusion would come from the secondary alkaloids, as being not only quantitatively different from pure cocaine but also qualitatively different.
  • Crack! 10 February 2010 14:47 UTC www.kipaddotta.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Cocaine - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Cocaine encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Drug Cocaine - Cocaine Drug Information 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC drugcocaine.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Coca leaf infusions .
  • Cocaine - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Cocaine encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]
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.It has been promoted as an adjuvant for the treatment of cocaine dependence.^ It has been promoted as an adjuvant for the treatment of cocaine dependence.
  • Crack! 10 February 2010 14:47 UTC www.kipaddotta.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Cocaine - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
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^ Modafinil for the treatment of cocaine dependence.
  • CORK Bibliography: Cocaine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ We examined these relations using six self-reported indices of cocaine dependence severity and three self-reported measures of treatment utilization and self-help group participation for cocaine dependence.
  • CORK Bibliography: Cocaine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

.In one controversial study, coca leaf infusion was used -in addition to counseling- to treat 23 addicted coca-paste smokers in Lima, Peru.^ One advantage of studying addiction using cognitive paradigms is that neural processing in addicts or drug-exposed animals can be compared to that in normal subjects.
  • CORK Bibliography: Cocaine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

.Relapses fell from an average of four times per month before treatment with coca tea to one during the treatment.^ Relapses fell from an average of four times per month before treatment with coca tea to one during the treatment.
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  • Drug Cocaine - Cocaine Drug Information 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC drugcocaine.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In this paper he declared coca and cocaine (at the time they were assumed to be the same) as being useful medicinally, in the treatment of a furred tongue in the morning, flatulence, [and] whitening of the teeth.
  • Drug Cocaine - Cocaine Drug Information 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC drugcocaine.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In this paper he declared coca and cocaine (at the time they were assumed to be the same) as being useful medicinally, in the treatment of “a furred tongue in the morning, flatulence , [and] whitening of the teeth.” .

.The duration of abstinence increased from an average of 32 days prior to treatment to 217 days during treatment.^ The duration of abstinence increased from an average of 32 days prior to treatment to 217 days during treatment.
  • Crack! 10 February 2010 14:47 UTC www.kipaddotta.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Cocaine - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Cocaine encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Drug Cocaine - Cocaine Drug Information 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC drugcocaine.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Increasing the number of glutamate receptors may help ease cravings for cocaine during abstinence and also help prevent relapse.

^ Expenditures averaged $9.00 per day per patient enrolled in standard outpatient treatment and $23.00 per day per patient enrolled in any modality of care (i.e., including outpatient and inpatient care).
  • Market Analysis for a Prospective Cocaine Medication 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC aspe.hhs.gov [Source type: Academic]

.These results suggest that the administration of coca leaf infusion plus counseling would be an effective method for preventing relapse during treatment for cocaine addiction.^ Crack Coca leaf infusions .

^ Coca leaf infusions .
  • Cocaine encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Drug Cocaine - Cocaine Drug Information 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC drugcocaine.com [Source type: Academic]

^ These results suggest that the administration of coca leaf infusion plus counseling would be an effective method for preventing relapse during treatment for cocaine addiction.
  • Crack! 10 February 2010 14:47 UTC www.kipaddotta.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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[40] .Importantly, these results also suggest strongly that the primary pharmacologically active metabolite in coca leaf infusions is actually cocaine and not the secondary alkaloids.^ Crack Coca leaf infusions .

^ Importantly, these results also suggest strongly that the primary pharmacologically active metabolite in coca leaf infusions is actually cocaine and not the secondary alkaloids.
  • Crack! 10 February 2010 14:47 UTC www.kipaddotta.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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  • Drug Cocaine - Cocaine Drug Information 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC drugcocaine.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Coca leaf infusions .
  • Cocaine - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Cocaine encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Drug Cocaine - Cocaine Drug Information 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC drugcocaine.com [Source type: Academic]

.The cocaine metabolite benzoylecgonine can be detected in the urine of people a few hours after drinking one cup of coca leaf infusion.^ People Search: how long does cocaine stay in the human body?, how many days does cocaine stay in your system, what cocaine does to your body, how long does benzoylecgonine stay in urine, how long does cocaine stay in your system”", cocaine out of your system, cocaine stays in the body, cocaine time in body, how long cocain stays in your system .
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^ People Search: how long does cocaine stay in your system urine test, how long does coke stay in system, how long does cocaine stay in the system?, cocaine how long does it stay in your system, how long cocaine stay in your system, how long does cocaine stay in you system, how long does cocaine stay in your urine for, how long does coke stay in your urine, cocaine stays in system .
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Routes of administration

Oral

.
A spoon containing baking soda, cocaine, and a small amount of water.
^ Cocaine may be insufflated through a straw or rolled-up paper currency, or a coke spoon, typically containing 5-20 mg of the drug, may be used to snort cocaine.
  • Toxicity, Cocaine: eMedicine Emergency Medicine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Cocaine, benzoylecgonine, and morphine were determined in water samples by gas chromatography-mass spectrometer, and the amount of illicit substance was estimated.
  • CORK Bibliography: Cocaine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

Used in a "poor-man's" crack-cocaine production
Many users rub the powder along the gum line, or onto a cigarette filter which is then smoked, which numbs the gums and teeth - hence the colloquial names of "numbies", "gummers" or "cocoa puffs" for this type of administration. .This is mostly done with the small amounts of cocaine remaining on a surface after insufflation.^ This is mostly done with the small amounts of cocaine remaining on a surface after insufflation.
  • Cocaine - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
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^ This is commonly done with the small amounts of cocaine remaining on a surface after insufflation.

^ The cocaine typically is poured onto a flat, hard surface (such as a mirror, CD case or book) and divided into "bumps", "lines" or "rails", and then insufflated.
  • Drug Cocaine - Cocaine Drug Information 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC drugcocaine.com [Source type: Academic]

.Another oral method is to wrap up some cocaine in rolling paper and swallow it.^ Another oral method is to wrap up some cocaine in rolling paper and swallow it.
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^ Rolled up banknotes, hollowed-out pens, cut straws, pointed ends of keys, and specialized spoons are often used to insufflate cocaine.

^ Cocaine may be insufflated through a straw or rolled-up paper currency, or a coke spoon, typically containing 5-20 mg of the drug, may be used to snort cocaine.
  • Toxicity, Cocaine: eMedicine Emergency Medicine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

.This is sometimes called a "snow bomb."^ This is sometimes called a "snow bomb."
  • Cocaine encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]
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Coca leaf
.Coca leaves are typically mixed with an alkaline substance (such as lime) and chewed into a wad that is retained in the mouth between gum and cheek (much in the same as chewing tobacco is chewed) and sucked of its juices.^ Only when mixed with a highly alkaline substance (such as lime) can it be absorbed into the bloodstream through the stomach.
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^ Coca leaves are typically mixed with an alkaline substance (such as lime) and chewed into a wad that is retained in the mouth between gum and cheek (much in the same as chewing tobacco is chewed) and sucked of its juices.
  • Cocaine - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
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^ Coca leaves typically are mixed with an alkaline substance (such as lime) and chewed into a wad that is retained in the mouth between gum and cheek and sucked of its juices.

.The juices are absorbed slowly by the mucous membrane of the inner cheek and by the gastrointestinal tract when swallowed.^ The juices are absorbed slowly by the mucous membrane of the inner cheek and by the gastro-intestinal tract when swallowed.

^ The juices are absorbed slowly by the mucous membrane of the inner cheek and by the gastrointestinal tract when swallowed.
  • Cocaine - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
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^ Any material not directly absorbed through the mucous membranes is collected in mucus and swallowed (this "drip" is considered pleasant by some and unpleasant by others).
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.Alternatively, coca leaves can be infused in liquid and consumed like tea.^ Alternatively, coca leaves can be infused in liquid and consumed like tea.
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^ Cocaine sulfate is produced by macerating coca leaves along with water that has been acidulated with sulfuric acid, or an aromatic-based solvent, like kerosene or benzene .
  • Cocaine encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Cocaine sulfate is produced by macerating coca leaves along with water that has been acidulated with sulfuric acid, or an aromatic-based solvent, like kerosene or benzene.
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.Ingesting coca leaves generally is an inefficient means of administering cocaine.^ Ingesting coca leaves generally is an inefficient means of administering cocaine.
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^ Cocaine sulfate is produced by macerating coca leaves along with water that has been acidulated with sulfuric acid, or an aromatic-based solvent, like kerosene or benzene .
  • Cocaine - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
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^ Cocaine sulfate is produced by macerating coca leaves along with water that has been acidulated with sulfuric acid, or an aromatic-based solvent, like kerosene or benzene.
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.Advocates of the consumption of the coca leaf state that coca leaf consumption should not be criminalized as it is not actual cocaine, and consequently it is not properly the illicit drug.^ Advocates of the consumption of the coca leaf state that coca leaf consumption should not be criminalized as it is not actual cocaine, and consequently it is not properly the illicit drug.
  • Cocaine - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
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^ Advocates of the consumption of the coca leaf, state that coca leaf consumption should not be criminalized as it is not actual cocaine, and consequently it is not properly the illicit drug.

^ Cocaine enters the United States in the form of a hydrochloride salt, having undergone numerous steps in refinement from the original coca leaf.
  • Toxicity, Cocaine: eMedicine Emergency Medicine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

.Because cocaine is hydrolyzed and rendered inactive in the acidic stomach, it is not readily absorbed when ingested alone.^ Ingested cocaine is poorly absorbed from the stomach because it is a weak base with a pKa of 8.6, but it is readily absorbed from the duodenum.
  • Toxicity, Cocaine: eMedicine Emergency Medicine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Because cocaine is hydrolyzed and rendered inactive in the acidic stomach, it is not readily absorbed when ingested alone.
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^ Smoking freebase is a popular route of ingestion because the cocaine is absorbed immediately into blood via the lungs, reaching the brain in about five seconds.
  • Drug Cocaine - Cocaine Drug Information 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC drugcocaine.com [Source type: Academic]

.Only when mixed with a highly alkaline substance (such as lime) can it be absorbed into the bloodstream through the stomach.^ Only when mixed with a highly alkaline substance (such as lime) can it be absorbed into the bloodstream through the stomach.
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^ The most common way to ingest powdered cocaine is to inhale the drug through one's nasal passage, where the cocaine is absorbed into the bloodstream by way of the nasal tissues.
  • Cocaine and the Nervous System | Serendip's Exchange 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC serendip.brynmawr.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Coca leaves are typically mixed with an alkaline substance (such as lime) and chewed into a wad that is retained in the mouth between gum and cheek (much in the same as chewing tobacco is chewed) and sucked of its juices.
  • Cocaine - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
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.The efficiency of absorption of orally administered cocaine is limited by two additional factors.^ The efficiency of absorption of orally administered cocaine is limited by two additional factors.
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^ To determine the dosage and route of cocaine administration for studies in pregnant monkeys that would be relevant to humans, Dr. Lidow and his colleagues looked at the absorption and elimination of cocaine administered by mouth (orally) and intravenously in pregnant monkeys and in their fetuses.

^ Additionally, crack cocaine defendants are most likely (4.2% compared to 1.7% for powder cocaine defendants) to have committed the instant offense within two years of release from imprisonment for a prior offense.
  • Report to Congress - Chapter 7 - Cocaine and Federal Sentencing Policy - Feb 1995 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.ussc.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.First, the drug is partly catabolized by the liver.^ First, the drug is partly catabolized by the liver.
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.Second, capillaries in the mouth and esophagus constrict after contact with the drug, reducing the surface area over which the drug can be absorbed.^ Second, capillaries in the mouth and esophagus constrict after contact with the drug, reducing the surface area over which the drug can be absorbed.
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.Nevertheless, cocaine metabolites can be detected in the urine of subjects that have sipped even one cup of coca leaf infusion.^ Crack Coca leaf infusions .

^ The cocaine metabolite benzoylecgonine can be detected in the urine of people a few hours after drinking one cup of coca leaf infusion.
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^ Depending on liver and kidney function, cocaine metabolites are detectable in urine.
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.Therefore, this is an actual additional form of administration of cocaine, albeit an inefficient one.^ Therefore, this is an actual additional form of administration of cocaine, albeit an inefficient one.
  • Cocaine - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
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^ Therefore, this is an actual additional form of administration of cocaine albeit inefficient.

^ It is, therefore, directly relevant to cocaine abuse because the important variable of drug administration is controlled by the subjects and it does not focus on arbitrarily selected, high drug dosages.
  • Addiction Research Unit/Buffalo: Cocaine Addiction 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC wings.buffalo.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Orally administered cocaine takes approximately 30 minutes to enter the bloodstream.^ Orally administered cocaine takes approximately 30 minutes to enter the bloodstream.
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^ After approximately 30 minutes, the second stage may occur, in which cerebral autoregulation fails, cerebral blood flow diminishes, and systemic hypotension occurs.
  • Toxicity, Cocaine: eMedicine Emergency Medicine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ After 3-5 days of D-amphetamine maintenance (0, 15, and 30 mg/day), volunteers were administered ascending closes of cocaine (4, 30, 60 mg, IN) within a single session.
  • CORK Bibliography: Cocaine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

.Typically, only a third of an oral dose is absorbed, although absorption has been shown to reach 60% in controlled settings.^ Typically, only a third of an oral dose is absorbed, although absorption has been shown to reach 60 percent in controlled settings.

^ Typically, only a third of an oral dose is absorbed, although absorption has been shown to reach 60% in controlled settings.
  • Cocaine encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]
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^ By oral or intra-nasal route, 60 to 80% of cocaine is absorbed (Ellenhorn & Barceloux, 1988; Stinus, 1992).
  • Cocaine (PIM 139) 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

.Given the slow rate of absorption, maximum physiological and psychotropic effects are attained approximately 60 minutes after cocaine is administered by ingestion.^ While the onset of these effects is slow, the effects are sustained for approximately 60 minutes after their peak is attained.
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^ Given the slow rate of absorption, maximum physiological and psychotropic effects are attained approximately 60 minutes after cocaine is administered by ingestion.
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^ Physiological and psychotropic effects from nasally insufflated cocaine are sustained for approximately 40 - 60 minutes after the peak effects are attained.
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.While the onset of these effects is slow, the effects are sustained for approximately 60 minutes after their peak is attained.^ While the onset of these effects is slow, the effects are sustained for approximately 60 minutes after their peak is attained.
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^ Physiological and psychotropic effects from nasally insufflated cocaine are sustained for approximately 40 - 60 minutes after the peak effects are attained.
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^ By the nasal route, clinical effects are evident 3 minutes after administration, and last for 30 to 60 minutes, the peak plasma concentration being around 15 minutes.
  • Cocaine (PIM 139) 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

.Contrary to popular belief, both ingestion and insufflation result in approximately the same proportion of the drug being absorbed: 30 to 60%.^ Contrary to popular belief, both ingestion and insufflation result in approximately the same proportion of the drug being absorbed: 30 to 60%.
  • Cocaine - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
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^ Results: For 83% of the variables tested in this study, the Dual Users subgroup (using both powder and crack cocaine) demonstrated statistical differences from the single drug user subgroups.
  • CORK Bibliography: Crack Cocaine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Smoking freebase is a popular route of ingestion because the cocaine is absorbed immediately into blood via the lungs, reaching the brain in about five seconds.
  • Drug Cocaine - Cocaine Drug Information 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC drugcocaine.com [Source type: Academic]

.Compared to ingestion, the faster absorption of insufflated cocaine results in quicker attainment of maximum drug effects.^ Compared to ingestion, the faster absorption of insufflated cocaine results in quicker attainment of maximum drug effects.
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^ Smoking of cocaine exposes the lung directly to the volatilized drug as well as to the other combustion products of the smoked mixture, thereby increasing the risk of adverse pulmonary effects.
  • CORK Bibliography: Crack Cocaine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The risk of severe effects is increased when cocaine is combined with drugs such as monoamine oxidase inhibitors, tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs), alpha-methyldopa, and reserpine.
  • Toxicity, Cocaine: eMedicine Emergency Medicine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

.Snorting cocaine produces maximum physiological effects within 40 minutes and maximum psychotropic effects within 20 minutes, however, a more realistic activation period is closer to 5 to 10 minutes, which is similar to ingestion of cocaine.^ Snorting cocaine produces maximum physiological effects within 40 minutes and maximum psychotropic effects within 20 minutes, however, a more realistic activation period is closer to 5 to 10 minutes, which is similar to ingestion of cocaine.
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^ Given the slow rate of absorption, maximum physiological and psychotropic effects are attained approximately 60 minutes after cocaine is administered by ingestion.
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^ Subsequently, the alkaloids are precipitated with sodium carbonate and then dissolved in dilute hydrochloric acid to produce cocaine hydrochloride containing 40% cocaine.
  • Cocaine (PIM 139) 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

.Physiological and psychotropic effects from nasally insufflated cocaine are sustained for approximately 40 – 60 minutes after the peak effects are attained.^ This experiment determined the physiological and behavioral effects of cocaine during D-amphetamine maintenance in seven cocaine-dependent participants.
  • CORK Bibliography: Cocaine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Cocaine produced prototypical physiological (e.g., increased heart rate, blood pressure, and body temperature) and subject-rated (e.g., increased ratings of Good Effects) effects.
  • CORK Bibliography: Cocaine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

[41]
.Mate de coca or coca-leaf infusion is also a traditional method of consumption and is often recommended in coca producing countries, like Peru and Bolivia, to ameliorate some symptoms of altitude sickness.^ It is derived from the leaves of Erythroxylon coca, a shrub indigenous to Peru, Bolivia, Mexico, the West Indies, and Indonesia.
  • Toxicity, Cocaine: eMedicine Emergency Medicine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

.This method of consumption has been practiced for many centuries by the native tribes of South America.^ This method of consumption has been practiced for many centuries by the native tribes of South America.
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^ Spanish explorers first observe South American natives chewing the cocoa leaf, from which cocaine is derived, when they arrived on the continent in 16th century.
  • Cocaine and the Nervous System | Serendip's Exchange 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC serendip.brynmawr.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ When the Spaniards conquered South America , they at first ignored aboriginal claims that the leaf gave them strength and energy, and declared the practice of chewing it the work of the Devil .
  • Cocaine encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]

.One specific purpose of ancient coca leaf consumption was to increase energy and reduce fatigue in messengers who made multi-day quests to other settlements.^ One specific purpose of ancient coca leaf consumption was to increase energy and reduce fatigue in messengers who made multi-day quests to other settlements.
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^ Advocates of the consumption of the coca leaf state that coca leaf consumption should not be criminalized as it is not actual cocaine, and consequently it is not properly the illicit drug.
  • Cocaine - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
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^ In one controversial study, coca leaf infusion was used -in addition to counseling- to treat 23 addicted coca-paste smokers in Lima, Peru.
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.In 1986 an article in the Journal of the American Medical Association revealed that U.S. health food stores were selling dried coca leaves to be prepared as an infusion as “Health Inca Tea.”[42] While the packaging claimed it had been “decocainized,” no such process had actually taken place.^ Copyright 2009, American Medical Association .
  • CORK Bibliography: Cocaine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse 35(1): 38-42, 2009.
  • CORK Bibliography: Cocaine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

.The article stated that drinking two cups of the tea per day gave a mild stimulation, increased heart rate, and mood elevation, and the tea was essentially harmless.^ The effects of drinking coca tea are a mild stimulation and mood lift.
  • Crack! 10 February 2010 14:47 UTC www.kipaddotta.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Cocaine - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Cocaine encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Drug Cocaine - Cocaine Drug Information 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC drugcocaine.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The article stated that drinking two cups of the tea per day gave a mild stimulation, increased heart rate, and mood elevation, and the tea was essentially harmless.
  • Crack! 10 February 2010 14:47 UTC www.kipaddotta.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Drug Cocaine - Cocaine Drug Information 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC drugcocaine.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The article stated that drinking two cups of the tea per day gave a mild stimulation , increased heart rate , and mood elevation, and the tea was essentially harmless.
  • Cocaine - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Cocaine encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]

Despite this, the DEA seized several shipments in Hawaii, Chicago, Illinois, Georgia, and several locations on the East Coast of the United States, and the product was removed from the shelves.

Insufflation

.Insufflation (known colloquially as "snorting," "sniffing," or "blowing") is the most common method of ingestion of recreational powdered cocaine in the Western world.^ Cocaine may be insufflated through a straw or rolled-up paper currency, or a coke spoon, typically containing 5-20 mg of the drug, may be used to snort cocaine.
  • Toxicity, Cocaine: eMedicine Emergency Medicine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Neurologic and psychiatric findings Altered sensorium and acute seizures are the most common cocaine-associated neurologic syndromes observed in the ED, accounting for 52% of related presentations.
  • Toxicity, Cocaine: eMedicine Emergency Medicine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Benzoylecgonine was the most common cocaine analyte detected in bone.
  • CORK Bibliography: Cocaine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

The drug coats and is absorbed through the mucous membranes lining the sinuses. .When insufflating cocaine, absorption through the nasal membranes is approximately 30–60%, with higher doses leading to increased absorption efficiency.^ When insufflating cocaine, absorption through the nasal membranes is approximately 3060%, with higher doses leading to increased absorption efficiency.
  • Drug Cocaine - Cocaine Drug Information 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC drugcocaine.com [Source type: Academic]

^ When insufflating cocaine, absorption through the nasal membranes is approximately 30-60 percent, with higher doses leading to increased absorption efficiency.

^ When insufflating cocaine, absorption through the nasal membranes is approximately 30–60%, with higher doses leading to increased absorption efficiency.
  • Cocaine - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Cocaine encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]

.Any material not directly absorbed through the mucous membranes is collected in mucus and swallowed (this "drip" is considered pleasant by some and unpleasant by others).^ Any material not directly absorbed through the mucous membranes is collected in mucus and swallowed (this "drip" is considered pleasant by some and unpleasant by others).
  • Crack! 10 February 2010 14:47 UTC www.kipaddotta.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Cocaine - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Cocaine encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Drug Cocaine - Cocaine Drug Information 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC drugcocaine.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The drug coats and is absorbed through the mucous membranes lining the sinuses.
  • Crack! 10 February 2010 14:47 UTC www.kipaddotta.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Drug Cocaine - Cocaine Drug Information 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC drugcocaine.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The drug coats and is absorbed through the mucous membranes lining the sinuses .
  • Cocaine - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Cocaine encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]

.In a study[43] of cocaine users, the average time taken to reach peak subjective effects was 14.6 minutes.^ Cocaine users lacked the typical functional segregation observed in the dorsal striatum of the control subjects.
  • CORK Bibliography: Cocaine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The goal of this study was to determine D-1 receptor availability in human cocaine-dependent (CD) subjects and matched healthy controls (HCs).
  • CORK Bibliography: Cocaine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Reed SC; Haney M; Evans SM; Vadhan NP; Rubin E; Foltin RW. Cardiovascular and subjective effects of repeated smoked cocaine administration in experienced cocaine users.
  • CORK Bibliography: Cocaine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

.Any damage to the inside of the nose is because cocaine highly constricts blood vessels – and therefore blood and oxygen/nutrient flow – to that area.^ Any damage to the inside of the nose is because cocaine highly constricts blood vessels – and therefore blood and oxygen/nutrient flow – to that area.

^ Any damage to the inside of the nose is because cocaine highly constricts blood vessels and therefore blood and oxygen/nutrient flow to that area.
  • Cocaine encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Drug Cocaine - Cocaine Drug Information 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC drugcocaine.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Any damage to the inside of the nose is because cocaine highly constricts blood vessels and therefore blood & oxygen/nutrient flow-- to that area.

.Prior to insufflation, cocaine powder must be divided into very fine particles.^ Prior to insufflation, cocaine powder must be divided into very fine particles.
  • Crack! 10 February 2010 14:47 UTC www.kipaddotta.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Cocaine - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Cocaine encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Drug Cocaine - Cocaine Drug Information 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC drugcocaine.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Cocaine of high purity breaks into fine dust very easily, except when it is moist (not well stored) and forms chunks, which reduces the efficiency of nasal absorption.

^ Cocaine of high purity breaks into fine dust very easily, except when it is moist (not well stored) and forms "chunks," which reduces the efficiency of nasal absorption.
  • Cocaine - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Cocaine encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Drug Cocaine - Cocaine Drug Information 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC drugcocaine.com [Source type: Academic]

.Cocaine of high purity breaks into fine dust very easily, except when it is moist (not well stored) and forms "chunks," which reduces the efficiency of nasal absorption.^ Cocaine of high purity breaks into fine dust very easily, except when it is moist (not well stored) and forms chunks, which reduces the efficiency of nasal absorption.

^ Cocaine of high purity breaks into fine dust very easily, except when it is moist (not well stored) and forms "chunks," which reduces the efficiency of nasal absorption.
  • Cocaine - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Cocaine encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Drug Cocaine - Cocaine Drug Information 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC drugcocaine.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Fattinger K, Benowitz NL, Jones RT, Verotta D. "Nasal mucosal versus gastrointestinal absorption of nasally administered cocaine."

.Rolled up banknotes, hollowed-out pens, cut straws, pointed ends of keys, specialized spoons, long fingernails, and (clean) tampon applicators are often used to insufflate cocaine.^ Trauma is often associated with cocaine use.
  • Toxicity, Cocaine: eMedicine Emergency Medicine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Cocaine may be insufflated through a straw or rolled-up paper currency, or a coke spoon, typically containing 5-20 mg of the drug, may be used to snort cocaine.
  • Toxicity, Cocaine: eMedicine Emergency Medicine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Long-term cocaine use decreases the density of dopamine-1 (D1) receptors throughout the striatal reward centers, but it does not affect the number of dopamine-2 (D2) receptors.
  • Toxicity, Cocaine: eMedicine Emergency Medicine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

.Such devices are often called "tooters" by users.^ Such devices are often called "tooters" by users.
  • Crack! 10 February 2010 14:47 UTC www.kipaddotta.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Cocaine - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Drug Cocaine - Cocaine Drug Information 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC drugcocaine.com [Source type: Academic]

.The cocaine typically is poured onto a flat, hard surface (such as a mirror, CD case or book) and divided into "bumps", "lines" or "rails", and then insufflated.^ The cocaine typically is poured onto a flat, hard surface (such as a mirror , CD case or book) and divided into "bumps", "lines" or "rails", and then insufflated.
  • Cocaine - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Cocaine encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The cocaine typically is poured onto a flat, hard surface (such as a mirror) and divided into "lines" or "rails", and then insufflated.

^ The cocaine typically is poured onto a flat, hard surface (such as a mirror, CD case or book) and divided into "bumps", "lines" or "rails", and then insufflated.
  • Drug Cocaine - Cocaine Drug Information 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC drugcocaine.com [Source type: Academic]

[44] .As tolerance builds rapidly in the short-term (hours), many lines are often snorted to produce greater effects.^ As tolerance builds rapidly in the short-term (hours), many lines are often snorted to produce greater effects.
  • Crack! 10 February 2010 14:47 UTC www.kipaddotta.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Cocaine - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Cocaine encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Drug Cocaine - Cocaine Drug Information 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC drugcocaine.com [Source type: Academic]

^ I snorted about 10 lines of coke on Saturday.I am getting tested on Thursday.I am drinking alot of water.I don’t use often.Do you think I will be clean on Thursday?
  • How long does cocaine stay in your system? 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC howto.dcrdetox.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Tolerance rapidly develops to the euphoriant effects of cocaine but not to its local anesthetic effects of membrane stabilization.
  • Toxicity, Cocaine: eMedicine Emergency Medicine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

.A study by Bonkovsky and Mehta[45] reported that, just like shared needles, the sharing of straws used to "snort" cocaine can spread blood diseases such as Hepatitis C.^ Cocaine may be insufflated through a straw or rolled-up paper currency, or a coke spoon, typically containing 5-20 mg of the drug, may be used to snort cocaine.
  • Toxicity, Cocaine: eMedicine Emergency Medicine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Ecstasy (86.6% of users) and cocaine (85.7% of users) were the two most-frequently reported club drugs used in combination with other substances.
  • CORK Bibliography: Cocaine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ We examined these relations using six self-reported indices of cocaine dependence severity and three self-reported measures of treatment utilization and self-help group participation for cocaine dependence.
  • CORK Bibliography: Cocaine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

[46]

Injection

.Drug injection provides the highest blood levels of drug in the shortest amount of time.^ Anti-drug vaccines are irreversible, provide protection over years and need booster injections far beyond the critical phase of acute withdrawal symptoms.
  • CORK Bibliography: Cocaine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

.Subjective effects not commonly shared with other methods of administration include a ringing in the ears moments after injection (usually when in excess of 120 milligrams) lasting 2 to 5 minutes including tinnitus & audio distortion.^ Subjective effects not commonly shared with other methods of administration include a ringing in the ears moments after injection (usually when in excess of 120 milligrams) lasting 2 to 5 minutes including tinnitus & audio distortion.
  • Cocaine encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Drug Cocaine - Cocaine Drug Information 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC drugcocaine.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Cardiovascular and subjective effects of intravenous cocaine administration in humans.
  • Cocaine and the Concept of Addiction: Environmental Factors in Drug Compulsions 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.peele.net [Source type: Academic]

^ Stimulus condition had no effect on cardiovascular or subjective effects so data were analyzed as a function of repeated cocaine administration over 2 weeks.
  • CORK Bibliography: Cocaine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

.This is colloquially referred to as a "bell ringer".[47] In a study[43] of cocaine users, the average time taken to reach peak subjective effects was 3.1 minutes.^ Individuals with excited delirium may be more sensitive to the life-threatening effects of catecholamine surges than other cocaine users.
  • Toxicity, Cocaine: eMedicine Emergency Medicine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Cocaine users lacked the typical functional segregation observed in the dorsal striatum of the control subjects.
  • CORK Bibliography: Cocaine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The goal of this study was to determine D-1 receptor availability in human cocaine-dependent (CD) subjects and matched healthy controls (HCs).
  • CORK Bibliography: Cocaine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

.The euphoria passes quickly.^ The euphoria passes quickly.
  • Crack! 10 February 2010 14:47 UTC www.kipaddotta.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Cocaine - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Cocaine encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Drug Cocaine - Cocaine Drug Information 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC drugcocaine.com [Source type: Academic]

.Aside from the toxic effects of cocaine, there is also danger of circulatory emboli from the insoluble substances that may be used to cut the drug.^ What is his or her history of cocaine and other drug use?
  • Toxicity, Cocaine: eMedicine Emergency Medicine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The risk of severe effects is increased when cocaine is combined with drugs such as monoamine oxidase inhibitors, tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs), alpha-methyldopa, and reserpine.
  • Toxicity, Cocaine: eMedicine Emergency Medicine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Cocaine may be insufflated through a straw or rolled-up paper currency, or a coke spoon, typically containing 5-20 mg of the drug, may be used to snort cocaine.
  • Toxicity, Cocaine: eMedicine Emergency Medicine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

.As with all injected illicit substances, there is a risk of the user contracting blood-borne infections if sterile injecting equipment is not available or used.^ There is also a risk of serious infection associated with the use of contaminated needles.

^ As with all injected illicit substances, there is a risk of the user contracting blood-borne infections if sterile injecting equipment is not available or used.
  • Cocaine - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Cocaine encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Ecstasy (86.6% of users) and cocaine (85.7% of users) were the two most-frequently reported club drugs used in combination with other substances.
  • CORK Bibliography: Cocaine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

.An injected mixture of cocaine and heroin, known as “speedball” is a particularly dangerous combination, as the converse effects of the drugs actually complement each other, but may also mask the symptoms of an overdose.^ Were any drug combinations taken or were drugs taken to increase, prolong, or decrease the effects of cocaine?
  • Toxicity, Cocaine: eMedicine Emergency Medicine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ What is his or her history of cocaine and other drug use?
  • Toxicity, Cocaine: eMedicine Emergency Medicine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In speedballing, heroin is injected or snorted, followed immediately by smoking of cocaine.
  • Toxicity, Cocaine: eMedicine Emergency Medicine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

It has been responsible for numerous deaths, including celebrities such as John Belushi, Chris Farley, Mitch Hedberg, River Phoenix and Layne Staley.
.Experimentally, cocaine injections can be delivered to animals such as fruit flies to study the mechanisms of cocaine addiction.^ An important goal of cocaine addiction research is to understand the neurobiological mechanisms underlying this disease state.
  • CORK Bibliography: Cocaine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Heshmati M. Cocaine-induced LTP in the ventral tegmental area: New insights into mechanism and time course illuminate the cellular substrates of addiction.
  • CORK Bibliography: Cocaine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In animal studies, hyperthermia was the most significant parameter in the lethality of continuous cocaine infusion.
  • Toxicity, Cocaine: eMedicine Emergency Medicine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

[48]

Inhalation

.Inhalation or smoking is one of the several means cocaine is administered.^ In the presence of cocaine, which diminishes sodium conductance, a severe reduction in conduction velocity may occur, increasing the likelihood of dysrhythmia production by means of reentry excitation.
  • Toxicity, Cocaine: eMedicine Emergency Medicine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ We found that psychiatric disorders were associated with an increased likelihood of cocaine dependence treatment or self-help group participation, but with only one of six indices of cocaine dependence severity.
  • CORK Bibliography: Cocaine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ One such test is reversal learning, which is impaired in cocaine addicts and animals that have chronically self-administered or been exposed to cocaine.
  • CORK Bibliography: Cocaine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

Cocaine is smoked by inhaling the vapor by sublimating solid cocaine by heating.[49] .In a 2000 Brookhaven National Laboratory medical department study, based on self reports of 32 abusers who participated in the study,"peak high" was found at mean of 1.4min +/- 0.5 minutes.^ We examined these relations using six self-reported indices of cocaine dependence severity and three self-reported measures of treatment utilization and self-help group participation for cocaine dependence.
  • CORK Bibliography: Cocaine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Signs et al present an exception to the weight of the literature in a study based on 57 ED patients who tested positive for both alcohol and cocaine.
  • Toxicity, Cocaine: eMedicine Emergency Medicine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ This study sought to examine the pharmacodynamic/pharmacokinetic profile of repeated high dose exposure to oral cocaine and characterize acute and protracted withdrawal in cocaine abusers.
  • CORK Bibliography: Cocaine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

[43]
.Smoking freebase or crack cocaine is most often accomplished using a pipe made from a small glass tube, often taken from "Love roses," small glass tubes with a paper rose that are promoted as romantic gifts.^ Trauma is often associated with cocaine use.
  • Toxicity, Cocaine: eMedicine Emergency Medicine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Ecstasy (86.6% of users) and cocaine (85.7% of users) were the two most-frequently reported club drugs used in combination with other substances.
  • CORK Bibliography: Cocaine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Bourdieu's concept of fields is then applied to illuminate the relational dimensions of gender, sex, and power within this local crack-cocaine using scene, while also illustrating the domination inherent in most scenarios involving crack-for-sex exchange.
  • CORK Bibliography: Cocaine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

[50] .These are sometimes called "stems", "horns", "blasters" and "straight shooters". A small piece of clean heavy copper or occasionally stainless steel scouring pad – often called a "brillo" (actual Brillo pads contain soap, and are not used), or "chore", named for Chore Boy brand copper scouring pads, – serves as a reduction base and flow modulator in which the "rock" can be melted and boiled to vapor.^ These are approximately the size and shape of a stick of chewing gum and are sometimes scored to form smaller pieces.
  • Toxicity, Cocaine: eMedicine Emergency Medicine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

Crack smokers also sometimes smoke through a soda can with small holes in the bottom.
.Crack is smoked by placing it at the end of the pipe; a flame held close to it produces vapor, which is then inhaled by the smoker.^ Crack is smoked by placing it at the end of the pipe; a flame held close to it produces vapor, which is then inhaled by the smoker.
  • Cocaine - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Cocaine encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Drug Cocaine - Cocaine Drug Information 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC drugcocaine.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Results: 56 (79%) subjects smoked crack from crushed can pipes, while 15 (21%) smoked from other containers.
  • CORK Bibliography: Crack Cocaine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Yeh, im 18, i've inhaled a fair ammount of crack for my age, to be honest i've probably smoked it about 8 times.
  • Cocaine and the Nervous System | Serendip's Exchange 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC serendip.brynmawr.edu [Source type: Original source]

.The effects, felt almost immediately after smoking, are very intense and do not last long – usually five to fifteen minutes.^ The effects, felt almost immediately after smoking, are very intense and do not last long – usually five to fifteen minutes.

^ The effects, felt almost immediately after smoking, are very intense and do not last long usually five to fifteen minutes.
  • Crack! 10 February 2010 14:47 UTC www.kipaddotta.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Cocaine encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Drug Cocaine - Cocaine Drug Information 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC drugcocaine.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Subjective effects not commonly shared with other methods of administration include a ringing in the ears moments after injection (usually when in excess of 120 milligrams) lasting 2 to 5 minutes including tinnitus & audio distortion.
  • Cocaine - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Cocaine encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Drug Cocaine - Cocaine Drug Information 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC drugcocaine.com [Source type: Academic]

.When smoked, cocaine is sometimes combined with other drugs, such as cannabis, often rolled into a joint or blunt.^ What is his or her history of cocaine and other drug use?
  • Toxicity, Cocaine: eMedicine Emergency Medicine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The risk of severe effects is increased when cocaine is combined with drugs such as monoamine oxidase inhibitors, tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs), alpha-methyldopa, and reserpine.
  • Toxicity, Cocaine: eMedicine Emergency Medicine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Ecstasy (86.6% of users) and cocaine (85.7% of users) were the two most-frequently reported club drugs used in combination with other substances.
  • CORK Bibliography: Cocaine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

.Powdered cocaine is also sometimes smoked, though heat destroys much of the chemical; smokers often sprinkle it on marijuana.^ Cocaine; to inhale cocaine; to smoke marijuana .

^ To smoke cocaine; to smoke marijuana .

^ Marijuana; powder cocaine .

.The language referring to paraphernalia and practices of smoking cocaine vary, as do the packaging methods in the street level sale.^ We also attempted to clarify the relationship between the pathophysiology of cocaine abuse and magnesium levels by investigating their association with various clinical dimensions.
  • CORK Bibliography: Cocaine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Participants smoked cocaine (25 mg/dose) under two counterbalanced conditions: paired stimuli (same stimuli presented each session) and unpaired stimuli (varied stimuli presented each session).
  • CORK Bibliography: Cocaine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

Physical mechanisms

Cocaine binds directly to the DAT1 transporter, inhibiting reuptake with more efficacy than amphetamines which phosphorylate it causing internalization; instead primarily releasing DAT (which cocaine does not do) and only inhibiting its reuptake as a secondary, and much more minor, mode of action than cocaine and in another manner: from the opposite conformation/orientation to DAT.
.The pharmacodynamics of cocaine involve the complex relationships of neurotransmitters (inhibiting monoamine uptake in rats with ratios of about: serotonin:dopamine = 2:3, serotonin:norepinephrine = 2:5[51]) The most extensively studied effect of cocaine on the central nervous system is the blockade of the dopamine transporter protein.^ Cocaine also causes moderate release and reuptake-blockade of serotonin and dopamine.
  • Toxicity, Cocaine: eMedicine Emergency Medicine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Cocaine acts as a CNS stimulant by inhibiting presynaptic reuptake of norepinephrine, dopamine, and serotonin.
  • Toxicity, Cocaine: eMedicine Emergency Medicine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The risk of severe effects is increased when cocaine is combined with drugs such as monoamine oxidase inhibitors, tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs), alpha-methyldopa, and reserpine.
  • Toxicity, Cocaine: eMedicine Emergency Medicine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

.Dopamine transmitter released during neural signaling is normally recycled via the transporter; i.e., the transporter binds the transmitter and pumps it out of the synaptic cleft back into the presynaptic neuron, where it is taken up into storage vesicles.^ A major advantage of these techniques is that they allow for the characterization of NAc activity and rapid dopamine release during specific phases of motivated behavior.
  • CORK Bibliography: Cocaine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

.Cocaine binds tightly at the dopamine transporter forming a complex that blocks the transporter's function.^ Cocaine binds tightly at the dopamine transporter forming a complex that blocks the transporter's function.
  • Cocaine - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Cocaine encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Drug Cocaine - Cocaine Drug Information 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC drugcocaine.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Bricks of cocaine, a form in which it is commonly transported.
  • Drug Cocaine - Cocaine Drug Information 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC drugcocaine.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The pharmacodynamics of cocaine involve the complex relationships of neurotransmitters (inhibiting monoamine uptake in rats with ratios of about: serotonin :dopamine = 2:3, serotonin:norepinephrine = 2:5 ) The most extensively studied effect of cocaine on the central nervous system is the blockade of the dopamine transporter protein.
  • Drug Cocaine - Cocaine Drug Information 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC drugcocaine.com [Source type: Academic]

.The dopamine transporter can no longer perform its reuptake function, and thus dopamine accumulates in the synaptic cleft.^ The DAT can no longer perform its reuptake function, and thus dopamine accumulates in the extracellular space (synaptic cleft).

^ The dopamine transporter can no longer perform its reuptake function, and thus dopamine accumulates in the synaptic cleft .
  • Cocaine - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Cocaine encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The dopamine transporter can no longer perform its reuptake function, and thus dopamine accumulates in the synaptic cleft.
  • Drug Cocaine - Cocaine Drug Information 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC drugcocaine.com [Source type: Academic]

.This results in an enhanced and prolonged postsynaptic effect of dopaminergic signaling at dopamine receptors on the receiving neuron.^ This results in an enhanced and prolonged post-synaptic effect of dopaminergic signalling at dopamine receptors on the receiving neuron.

^ This results in an enhanced and prolonged postsynaptic effect of dopaminergic signaling at dopamine receptors on the receiving neuron.
  • Cocaine - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Cocaine encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Drug Cocaine - Cocaine Drug Information 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC drugcocaine.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The decreased dopaminergic signaling after chronic cocaine use may contribute to depressive mood disorders and sensitize this important brain reward circuit to the reinforcing effects of cocaine (e.g.
  • Cocaine - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Cocaine encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Drug Cocaine - Cocaine Drug Information 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC drugcocaine.com [Source type: Academic]

Prolonged exposure to cocaine, as occurs with habitual use, leads to homeostatic dysregulation of normal (i.e. without cocaine) dopaminergic signaling via down-regulation of dopamine receptors and enhanced signal transduction. .The decreased dopaminergic signaling after chronic cocaine use may contribute to depressive mood disorders and sensitize this important brain reward circuit to the reinforcing effects of cocaine (e.g.^ The decreased dopaminergic signaling after chronic cocaine use may contribute to depressive mood disorders and sensitize this important brain reward circuit to the reinforcing effects of cocaine (e.g.
  • Cocaine - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Cocaine encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Drug Cocaine - Cocaine Drug Information 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC drugcocaine.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Cortical dopaminergic involvement in cocaine reinforcement.
  • Addiction Research Unit/Buffalo: Cocaine Addiction 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC wings.buffalo.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Chronic cocaine use leads to a DATS upregulation, further contributing to depressed mood states.
  • Cocaine encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]

enhanced dopaminergic signalling only when cocaine is self-administered). .This sensitization contributes to the intractable nature of addiction and relapse.^ This sensitization contributes to the intractable nature of addiction and relapse.
  • Crack! 10 February 2010 14:47 UTC www.kipaddotta.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Cocaine - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Cocaine encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Drug Cocaine - Cocaine Drug Information 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC drugcocaine.com [Source type: Academic]

^ This has important clinical implications because diminished functioning of an important brain reward system may significantly contribute to relapse into cocaine addiction.
  • Addiction Research Unit/Buffalo: Cocaine Addiction 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC wings.buffalo.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Dopamine-rich brain regions such as the ventral tegmental area, nucleus accumbens, and prefrontal cortex are frequent targets of cocaine addiction research.^ Dopamine-rich brain regions such as the ventral tegmental area, nucleus accumbens , and prefrontal cortex are frequent targets of cocaine addiction research.
  • Cocaine - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Cocaine encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Dopamine-rich brain regions such as the ventral tegmental area (VTA), nucleus accumbens (nAC), and prefrontal cortex (PFC) are frequent targets of cocaine addiction research.

^ Dopamine-rich brain regions such as the ventral tegmental area, nucleus accumbens, and prefrontal cortex are frequent targets of cocaine addiction research.
  • Drug Cocaine - Cocaine Drug Information 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC drugcocaine.com [Source type: Academic]

.Of particular interest is the pathway consisting of dopaminergic neurons originating in the ventral tegmental area that terminate in the nucleus accumbens.^ Of particular interest is the pathway consisting of dopaminergic neurons originating in the ventral tegmental area that terminate in the nucleus accumbens.
  • Cocaine - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
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  • Drug Cocaine - Cocaine Drug Information 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC drugcocaine.com [Source type: Academic]

^ This dopamine system has its cell bodies in the ventral tegmental area and sends its axons rostral to terminate in the nucleus accumbens and in the frontal cortex (Lindvall and Björklund, 1974; Ungerstedt, 1971a).
  • Addiction Research Unit/Buffalo: Cocaine Addiction 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC wings.buffalo.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Heshmati M. Cocaine-induced LTP in the ventral tegmental area: New insights into mechanism and time course illuminate the cellular substrates of addiction.
  • CORK Bibliography: Cocaine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

.This projection may function as a "reward center", in that it seems to show activation in response to drugs of abuse like cocaine in addition to natural rewards like food or sex.^ This projection may function as a "reward center", in that it seems to show activation in response to drugs of abuse like cocaine in addition to natural rewards like food or sex.
  • Cocaine - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Cocaine encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Drug Cocaine - Cocaine Drug Information 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC drugcocaine.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Of particular interest is the pathway consisting of dopaminergic neurons originating in the VTA that terminate in the nAC. This projection functions as a "reward center" in that it shows activation is response to drugs of abuse like cocaine in addition to natural rewards like food or sex (R Spanagel and F Weiss, The dopamine hypothesis of reward: past and current status.

^ Cocaine may be insufflated through a straw or rolled-up paper currency, or a coke spoon, typically containing 5-20 mg of the drug, may be used to snort cocaine.
  • Toxicity, Cocaine: eMedicine Emergency Medicine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

[52] .While the precise role of dopamine in the subjective experience of reward is highly controversial among neuroscientists, the release of dopamine in the nucleus accumbens is widely considered to be at least partially responsible for cocaine's rewarding effects.^ Dopaminergic mechanisms in the nucleus accumbens are critically involved in the rewarding effects of cocaine.
  • Addiction Research Unit/Buffalo: Cocaine Addiction 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC wings.buffalo.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ While the precise role of dopamine in the subjective experience of reward is highly controversial among neuroscientists, the release of dopamine in the nucleus accumbens is widely considered to be at least partially responsible for cocaine's rewarding effects.
  • Cocaine - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Cocaine encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Drug Cocaine - Cocaine Drug Information 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC drugcocaine.com [Source type: Academic]

^ While the precise role of DA in the subjective experience of reward is controversial among neuroscientists, the release of DA in the nAC is widely considered to be responsible for cocaine's rewarding effects.

.This hypothesis is largely based on laboratory data involving rats that are trained to self-administer cocaine.^ This conclusion is largely based on laboratory data involving rats that are trained to self-administer cocaine intravenously (i.v.

^ This hypothesis is largely based on laboratory data involving rats that are trained to self-administer cocaine.
  • Cocaine - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
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  • Drug Cocaine - Cocaine Drug Information 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC drugcocaine.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Seventy-two hours after the last cocaine self-administration session, the rats were decapitated and the brains rapidly removed and frozen for later analysis.
  • Addiction Research Unit/Buffalo: Cocaine Addiction 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC wings.buffalo.edu [Source type: Academic]

If dopamine antagonists are infused directly into the nucleus accumbens, well-trained rats self-administering cocaine will undergo extinction (i.e. initially increase responding only to stop completely) thereby indicating that cocaine is no longer reinforcing (i.e. rewarding) the drug-seeking behavior.
.Cocaine's effects on serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) show across multiple serotonin receptors, and is shown to inhibit the re-uptake of 5-HT3 specifically as an important contributor to the effects of cocaine.^ Cocaine's effects on serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) show across multiple serotonin receptors, and is shown to inhibit the re-uptake of 5-HT3 specifically as an important contributor to the effects of cocaine.
  • Cocaine - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Cocaine encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Drug Cocaine - Cocaine Drug Information 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC drugcocaine.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The pharmacodynamics of cocaine involve the complex relationships of neurotransmitters (inhibiting monoamine uptake in rats with ratios of about: serotonin :dopamine = 2:3, serotonin:norepinephrine = 2:5 ) The most extensively studied effect of cocaine on the central nervous system is the blockade of the dopamine transporter protein.
  • Drug Cocaine - Cocaine Drug Information 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC drugcocaine.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The pharmacodynamics of cocaine involve the complex relationships of neurotransmitters (inhibiting monoamine uptake in rats with ratios of about: serotonin : dopamine = 2:3, serotonin: norepinephrine = 2:5) The most extensively studied effect of cocaine on the central nervous system is the blockade of the dopamine transporter protein.
  • Cocaine encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]

.The overabundance of 5-HT3 receptors in cocaine conditioned rats display this trait, however the exact effect of 5-HT3 in this process is unclear.^ The overabundance of 5-HT3 receptors in cocaine conditioned rats display this trait, however the exact effect of 5-HT3 in this process is unclear.
  • Cocaine - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Drug Cocaine - Cocaine Drug Information 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC drugcocaine.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Cocaine's effects on serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) show across multiple serotonin receptors, and is shown to inhibit the re-uptake of 5-HT3 specifically as an important contributor to the effects of cocaine.
  • Cocaine - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Drug Cocaine - Cocaine Drug Information 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC drugcocaine.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The 5-HT2 receptor (particularly the subtypes 5-HT2AR, 5-HT2BR and 5-HT2CR) show influence in the evocation of hyperactivity displayed in cocaine use.
  • Cocaine - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Drug Cocaine - Cocaine Drug Information 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC drugcocaine.com [Source type: Academic]

[53] .The 5-HT2 receptor (particularly the subtypes 5-HT2AR, 5-HT2BR and 5-HT2CR) show influence in the evocation of hyperactivity displayed in cocaine use.^ The influence of personality disorder indication, social support, and grief on alcohol and cocaine use among HIV-positive adults coping with AIDS-related bereavement.
  • CORK Bibliography: Cocaine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Results: The NPS studies show a rising trend in lifetime cocaine use, a fall in incidence, and a fall in continuation rates.
  • CORK Bibliography: Cocaine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Urine-screen results showed that the methadone dose increase reduced heroin use but not cocaine use.
  • CORK Bibliography: Cocaine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

[54]
.In addition to the mechanism shown on the above chart, cocaine has been demonstrated to bind as to directly stabilize the DAT transporter on the open outward-facing conformation whereas other stimulants (namely phenethylamines) stabilize the closed conformation.^ McMullen MJ. Cocaine, amphetamines, and other stimulants.
  • Toxicity, Cocaine: eMedicine Emergency Medicine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In addition, cocaine activates platelets both directly and indirectly by means of an alpha-adrenergic–mediated increase in platelet aggregation.
  • Toxicity, Cocaine: eMedicine Emergency Medicine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Although common in the hearts of cocaine and other stimulant abusers, such findings are found in only a minority of hearts examined.
  • Toxicity, Cocaine: eMedicine Emergency Medicine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

.Further, cocaine binds in such a way as to inhibit a hydrogen bond innate to DAT that otherwise still forms when amphetamine and similar molecules are bound.^ Recent findings: Stimulant dependence, in the form of cocaine or amphetamine/methamphetamine dependence, is prevalent worldwide, and their ratio may vary across different countries and regions of countries.
  • CORK Bibliography: Cocaine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Treatment for cocaine-related cardiovascular disease is in many ways similar to treatment for traditional cardiovascular disease.
  • CORK Bibliography: Cocaine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

.Cocaine's binding properties are such that it attaches so this hydrogen bond will not form and is blocked from formation due to the tightly locked orientation of the cocaine molecule.^ Cocaethylene, which is 40 times less potent than cocaine in binding to the serotonin receptor, does not share this negative property.
  • Toxicity, Cocaine: eMedicine Emergency Medicine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

.Research studies have suggested that the affinity for the transporter is not what is involved in habituation of the substance so much as the conformation and binding properties to where & how on the transporter the molecule binds.^ Exchanges of sex for crack cocaine have received much attention from public health researchers and ethnographers of substance abuse.
  • CORK Bibliography: Cocaine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Background/Objectives: Marijuana is the most commonly used illicit substance, yet among the least studied in medication development research.
  • CORK Bibliography: Cocaine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

[55]
.Sigma receptors are effected by cocaine, as cocaine functions as a sigma ligand agonist.^ Sigma receptors are effected by cocaine, as cocaine functions as a sigma ligand agonist.
  • Cocaine - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Cocaine encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Drug Cocaine - Cocaine Drug Information 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC drugcocaine.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Cocaine's effects on serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) show across multiple serotonin receptors, and is shown to inhibit the re-uptake of 5-HT3 specifically as an important contributor to the effects of cocaine.
  • Cocaine - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Cocaine encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Drug Cocaine - Cocaine Drug Information 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC drugcocaine.com [Source type: Academic]

^ However, tumor growth was less enhanced in mice who received both cocaine and treatment with the sigma receptor antagonist BD1047.

[56] .Further specific receptors it has been demonstrated to function on are NMDA and the D1 dopamine receptor.^ Further specific receptors it has been demonstrated to function on are NMDA and the D1 dopamine receptor.
  • Cocaine - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Cocaine encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Drug Cocaine - Cocaine Drug Information 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC drugcocaine.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Long-term cocaine use decreases the density of dopamine-1 (D1) receptors throughout the striatal reward centers, but it does not affect the number of dopamine-2 (D2) receptors.
  • Toxicity, Cocaine: eMedicine Emergency Medicine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Similarly, isolation rats pretreated with eticlopride, a compound that binds to specific dopamine receptors (D2), were less likely to respond to scheduled food cues than when treated with a similar compound that binds to D1 receptors.

[57]
.Cocaine also blocks sodium channels, thereby interfering with the propagation of action potentials; thus, like lignocaine and novocaine, it acts as a local anesthetic.^ Cocaine also blocks potassium channels.
  • Toxicity, Cocaine: eMedicine Emergency Medicine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Its marked local anesthetic effects are caused by blocking the sodium channels, which inhibits the conduction of nerve impulses, decreasing the resting membrane potential and the amplitude of the action potential while simultaneously prolonging the duration of the action potential.
  • Toxicity, Cocaine: eMedicine Emergency Medicine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Cocaine has also been shown to block K+ channels, increase L-type Ca2+ channel current, and inhibit Na+ influx during depolarization, all possible causes for arrhythmia.
  • CORK Bibliography: Cocaine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

.It also functions on the binding sites to the dopamine & serotonin sodium dependent transport area as targets as separate mechanisms from its reuptake of those transporters; unique to its local anesthetic value which makes it in a class of functionality different from both its own derived phenyltropanes analogues which have that removed and the amphetamine class of stimulants which as well altogether lack that.^ Three distinct classes of primary amphetamine users were identified: non-dependence (11%), intermediate physiological dependence (31%), and physiological dependence (58%).
  • CORK Bibliography: Cocaine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Cocaine also causes moderate release and reuptake-blockade of serotonin and dopamine.
  • Toxicity, Cocaine: eMedicine Emergency Medicine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Vocci FJ; Montoya ID. Psychological treatments for stimulant misuse, comparing and contrasting those for amphetamine dependence and those for cocaine dependence.
  • CORK Bibliography: Cocaine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

.In addition to this cocaine has some target binding to the site of the Kappa-opioid receptor as well.^ Cocaethylene, which is 40 times less potent than cocaine in binding to the serotonin receptor, does not share this negative property.
  • Toxicity, Cocaine: eMedicine Emergency Medicine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In addition, the CD subjects performed cocaine self-administration sessions in order to explore the association between D-1 receptor availability and cocaine-seeking behavior.
  • CORK Bibliography: Cocaine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

[58] .Cocaine also causes vasoconstriction, thus reducing bleeding during minor surgical procedures.^ Cocaine also causes vasoconstriction , thus reducing bleeding during minor surgical procedures.

^ Cocaine also causes vasoconstriction, thus reducing bleeding during minor surgical procedures.
  • Crack! 10 February 2010 14:47 UTC www.kipaddotta.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Drug Cocaine - Cocaine Drug Information 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC drugcocaine.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In this scenario dissolved cocaine is soaked into a ball of cotton wool, which is placed in the nostril for the 10-15 minutes immediately prior to the procedure, thus performing the dual role of both numbing the area to be cauterized and also vasoconstriction.
  • Crack! 10 February 2010 14:47 UTC www.kipaddotta.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Cocaine - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Drug Cocaine - Cocaine Drug Information 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC drugcocaine.com [Source type: Academic]

.The locomotor enhancing properties of cocaine may be attributable to its enhancement of dopaminergic transmission from the substantia nigra.^ The locomotor enhancing properties of cocaine may be attributable to its enhancement of dopaminergic transmission from the substantia nigra .
  • Cocaine - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Cocaine encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The locomotor enhancing properties of cocaine may be attributable to its enhancement of dopaminergic transmission from the substantia nigra.
  • Crack! 10 February 2010 14:47 UTC www.kipaddotta.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Drug Cocaine - Cocaine Drug Information 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC drugcocaine.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The decreased dopaminergic signaling after chronic cocaine use may contribute to depressive mood disorders and sensitize this important brain reward circuit to the reinforcing effects of cocaine (e.g.
  • Cocaine - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Cocaine encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Drug Cocaine - Cocaine Drug Information 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC drugcocaine.com [Source type: Academic]

.Recent research points to an important role of circadian mechanisms[59] and clock genes[60] in behavioral actions of cocaine.^ This review primarily focuses on our recent findings in bidirectional translational research on opiate and cocaine addictions.
  • CORK Bibliography: Cocaine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ An important goal of cocaine addiction research is to understand the neurobiological mechanisms underlying this disease state.
  • CORK Bibliography: Cocaine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Acidemia is seen in a clinically significant toxicity and may play an important role in cocaine-related death.
  • Toxicity, Cocaine: eMedicine Emergency Medicine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

.Because nicotine increases the levels of dopamine in the brain, many cocaine users find that consumption of tobacco products during cocaine use enhances the euphoria.^ Detroit: Cocaine use continues to increase.
  • NIDA - About NIDA - Organization - CEWG Publications - Identifying and Monitoring Emerging Drug Use Problems - A Retrospective Analysis of Drug Abuse Data/Information 10 February 2010 14:47 UTC www.drugabuse.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Atlanta: Cocaine use continued to increase.
  • NIDA - About NIDA - Organization - CEWG Publications - Identifying and Monitoring Emerging Drug Use Problems - A Retrospective Analysis of Drug Abuse Data/Information 10 February 2010 14:47 UTC www.drugabuse.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Consumption of ethanol before cocaine use also increases the bioavailability of cocaine.
  • Toxicity, Cocaine: eMedicine Emergency Medicine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

.This, however, may have undesirable consequences, such as uncontrollable chain smoking during cocaine use (even users who do not normally smoke cigarettes have been known to chain smoke when using cocaine), in addition to the detrimental health effects and the additional strain on the cardiovascular system caused by tobacco.^ The incidence of respiratory complaints in people who use cocaine is not known.
  • Toxicity, Cocaine: eMedicine Emergency Medicine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Cocaine may be insufflated through a straw or rolled-up paper currency, or a coke spoon, typically containing 5-20 mg of the drug, may be used to snort cocaine.
  • Toxicity, Cocaine: eMedicine Emergency Medicine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ This experiment determined the physiological and behavioral effects of cocaine during D-amphetamine maintenance in seven cocaine-dependent participants.
  • CORK Bibliography: Cocaine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

.In addition to irritability, mood disturbances, restlessness, paranoia, and auditory hallucinations, cocaine use can cause several dangerous physical conditions.^ In addition to irritability, mood disturbances, restlessness, paranoia, and auditory hallucinations, crack can cause several dangerous physical conditions.

^ In addition to irritability, mood disturbances, restlessness, paranoia, and auditory hallucinations, cocaine use can cause several dangerous physical conditions.
  • Cocaine - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
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^ The decreased dopaminergic signaling after chronic cocaine use may contribute to depressive mood disorders and sensitize this important brain reward circuit to the reinforcing effects of cocaine (e.g.
  • Cocaine - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Cocaine encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Drug Cocaine - Cocaine Drug Information 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC drugcocaine.com [Source type: Academic]

.It can lead to disturbances in heart rhythm and heart attacks, as well as chest pains or even respiratory failure.^ It can lead to disturbances in heart rhythm and heart attacks, as well as chest pains or even respiratory failure.
  • Crack! 10 February 2010 14:47 UTC www.kipaddotta.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Cocaine - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
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  • Drug Cocaine - Cocaine Drug Information 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC drugcocaine.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Cocaine can cause serious long-term effects to the central nervous system, including an increased chance of heart attack, stroke, and convulsions, combined with a higher likelihood of brain seizures, respiratory failures, and, ultimately, death (2) .
  • Cocaine and the Nervous System | Serendip's Exchange 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC serendip.brynmawr.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Cocaine can even increase your risk of siezures, heart attack and stroke, but cocaine is not the devil nor the worst thing on the market.
  • Cocaine and the Nervous System | Serendip's Exchange 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC serendip.brynmawr.edu [Source type: Original source]

.In addition, strokes, seizures and headaches are common in heavy users.^ In addition, strokes, seizures and headaches are common in heavy users.
  • Crack! 10 February 2010 14:47 UTC www.kipaddotta.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Cocaine - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
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.Cocaine can often cause reduced food intake, many chronic users lose their appetite and can experience severe malnutrition and significant weight loss.^ Cocaine can often cause reduced food intake, many chronic users lose their appetite and can experience severe malnourishment and significant weight loss.

^ Cocaine can often cause reduced food intake, many chronic users lose their appetite and can experience severe malnutrition and significant weight loss.
  • Drug Cocaine - Cocaine Drug Information 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC drugcocaine.com [Source type: Academic]

^ However, cocaine does often cause involuntary tooth grinding, known as bruxism, which can deteriorate tooth enamel and lead to gingivitis.
  • Crack! 10 February 2010 14:47 UTC www.kipaddotta.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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.Cocaine effects, further, are shown to be potentiated for the user when used in conjunction with new surroundings and stimuli, and otherwise novel environs.^ Ecstasy (86.6% of users) and cocaine (85.7% of users) were the two most-frequently reported club drugs used in combination with other substances.
  • CORK Bibliography: Cocaine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Individuals with excited delirium may be more sensitive to the life-threatening effects of catecholamine surges than other cocaine users.
  • Toxicity, Cocaine: eMedicine Emergency Medicine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Fatal excited delirium following cocaine use: epidemiologic findings provide new evidence for mechanisms of cocaine toxicity.
  • Toxicity, Cocaine: eMedicine Emergency Medicine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

[61]

Metabolism and excretion

.Cocaine is extensively metabolized, primarily in the liver, with only about 1% excreted unchanged in the urine.^ Cocaine is extensively metabolized , primarily in the liver , with only about 1% excreted unchanged in the urine.
  • Cocaine - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Cocaine encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Cocaine is extensively metabolized, primarily in the liver, with only about 1% excreted unchanged in the urine.
  • Crack! 10 February 2010 14:47 UTC www.kipaddotta.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Drug Cocaine - Cocaine Drug Information 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC drugcocaine.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Cocaine is used by smoking, intravenous, intranasal (snorting) or oral administration, and produced in the urine primarily as benzoylecgonine in a short time.
  • How Long Does Cocaine Stay In Your System? - Blurtit 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.blurtit.com [Source type: General]

.The metabolism is dominated by hydrolytic ester cleavage, so the eliminated metabolites consist mostly of benzoylecgonine (BE), the major metabolite, and other significant metabolites in lesser amounts such as ecgonine methyl ester (EME) and ecgonine.^ Approximately 30-50% of cocaine is metabolized by hepatic esterases and plasma pseudocholinesterase, resulting in the formation of ecgonine methyl ester.
  • Toxicity, Cocaine: eMedicine Emergency Medicine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Empirically determined linearity was from 5-5,000 pg/mg for cocaine and benzoylecgonine (BE), 25-5,000 pg/mg for cotinine, ecgonine methyl ester (EME) and 6AM, 50-5000 pg/mg for trans-3-hydroxycotinine (OH-cotinine) and codeine, and 250-5,000 pg/mg for nicotine.
  • CORK Bibliography: Cocaine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

Further minor metabolites of cocaine include norcocaine, p-hydroxycocaine, m-hydroxycocaine, p-hydroxybenzoylecgonine (pOHBE), and m-hydroxybenzoylecgonine.[62] .These do not include metabolites created beyond the standard metabolism of the drug in the human body, like for example by the process of pyrolysis such as is the case with methylecgonidine.^ These drugs alter the metabolism of epinephrine and norepinephrine, potentiating their effects and, in the presence of cocaine, inducing an adrenergic crisis.
  • Toxicity, Cocaine: eMedicine Emergency Medicine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

.Depending on liver and kidney function, cocaine metabolites are detectable in urine.^ Depending on liver and kidney function, cocaine metabolites are detectable in urine.
  • Crack! 10 February 2010 14:47 UTC www.kipaddotta.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Cocaine - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Cocaine encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Drug Cocaine - Cocaine Drug Information 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC drugcocaine.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Laboratory: by detection of urinary metabolites of cocaine.
  • Cocaine (PIM 139) 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Cocaine and its metabolite Benzoylecgonine are all eventually excreted through our urine and feces.
  • How Long Does Cocaine Stay In Your System? - Blurtit 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.blurtit.com [Source type: General]

.Benzoylecgonine can be detected in urine within four hours after cocaine intake and remains detectable in concentrations greater than 150 ng/ml typically for up to eight days after cocaine is used.^ The method has been routinely used at the Norwegian Institute of Public Health (NIPH) since August 2007 for qualitative detection of opiates, cocaine and benzoylecgonine in more than 2000 urine samples with two replicates of each sample.
  • CORK Bibliography: Cocaine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The limits of detection were 10 pg/mg for morphine, codeine and 6-AM; and 1 pg/mg for cocaine and BE. The precision and accuracy were determined by spiking hair samples at six concentration levels.
  • CORK Bibliography: Cocaine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Participants were 62% male, 40% Caucasian, and used cocaine an average of 13.8 days over the past month.
  • CORK Bibliography: Cocaine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

.Detection of accumulation of cocaine metabolites in hair is possible in regular users until the sections of hair grown during use are cut or fall out.^ Laboratory: by detection of urinary metabolites of cocaine.
  • Cocaine (PIM 139) 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ I understand that he had been a very regular user of cocaine.
  • How long does cocaine stay in your system? 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC howto.dcrdetox.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Detection of accumulation of cocaine metabolites in hair is possible in regular users until the sections of hair grown during use are cut or fall out.
  • Crack! 10 February 2010 14:47 UTC www.kipaddotta.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Cocaine - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Cocaine encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Drug Cocaine - Cocaine Drug Information 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC drugcocaine.com [Source type: Academic]

.If consumed with alcohol, cocaine combines with alcohol in the liver to form cocaethylene.^ Clients who reported using marijuana (n = 499) or cocaine (n = 375) in the past year were asked how often they use these substances in combination with alcohol.
  • CORK Bibliography: Cocaine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Findings: Simultaneous use is very common among treatment clients, with differences in the settings and functions associated with alcohol used in combination with cocaine or marijuana, and by various sociodemographic characteristics.
  • CORK Bibliography: Cocaine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Concurrent drug use is a serious public health concern with significant morbidity and mortality associated with the combined use of alcohol and cocaine.
  • CORK Bibliography: Cocaine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

.Studies have suggested cocaethylene is both more euphorigenic, and has a higher cardiovascular toxicity than cocaine by itself.^ Individuals with excited delirium may be more sensitive to the life-threatening effects of catecholamine surges than other cocaine users.
  • Toxicity, Cocaine: eMedicine Emergency Medicine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Signs et al present an exception to the weight of the literature in a study based on 57 ED patients who tested positive for both alcohol and cocaine.
  • Toxicity, Cocaine: eMedicine Emergency Medicine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Adulterated cocaine was associated more frequently with reported adverse effects than unadulterated cocaine.
  • CORK Bibliography: Cocaine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

[63][64][65]
.A study in mice has suggested that capsaicin found in pepper spray may interact with cocaine with potentially fatal consequences.^ Interaction between Two Independent CNR1 Variants Increases Risk for Cocaine dependence in European Americans: A replication study in family-based sample and population-based sample.
  • CORK Bibliography: Cocaine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Conclusions: Study results suggest that self-reported symptoms of cocaine and opioid dependences and their underlying constructs can be measured appropriately among treatment-seeking polysubstance users.
  • CORK Bibliography: Cocaine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ This increased formation of norcocaine, which is more vasoconstrictive than cocaine, may result in women being more sensitive to the cardiotoxic effects of cocaine than men as a result of hormonal potentiation.
  • Toxicity, Cocaine: eMedicine Emergency Medicine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

The method through which they would interact however, is not known.[66][67]

Effects and health issues

.Cocaine is a powerful nervous system stimulant.^ Cocaine is a powerful stimulant that gives users a temporary sense of euphoria, mental alertness, talkativeness, and a decreased need for food and sleep.
  • CORK Bibliography: Cocaine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Cocaine appears to stimulate the CNS, with particular activity in the limbic system.
  • Toxicity, Cocaine: eMedicine Emergency Medicine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

[68] Its effects can last from 15-30 minutes to an hour, depending upon the method of ingestion.[69]
.Cocaine increases alertness, feelings of well-being and euphoria, energy and motor activity, feelings of competence and sexuality.^ Cocaine is a powerful stimulant that gives users a temporary sense of euphoria, mental alertness, talkativeness, and a decreased need for food and sleep.
  • CORK Bibliography: Cocaine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Agitation secondary to intoxication or withdrawal results in increased motor activity, which causes increased heat production.
  • Toxicity, Cocaine: eMedicine Emergency Medicine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Lower banging activity among cocaine exposed was not explained through cocaine effects on motor development or neurological findings, suggesting that activity level itself is diminished in these infants.
  • CORK Bibliography: Cocaine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

Athletic performance may be enhanced. Anxiety, paranoia and restlessness are also frequent. .With excessive dosage, tremors, convulsions and increased body temperature are observed.^ Cocaine produced prototypical physiological (e.g., increased heart rate, blood pressure, and body temperature) and subject-rated (e.g., increased ratings of Good Effects) effects.
  • CORK Bibliography: Cocaine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

[68]
.Health problems from the use of legal substances, particularly alcohol and tobacco, are greater than health problems from cocaine use.^ Ecstasy (86.6% of users) and cocaine (85.7% of users) were the two most-frequently reported club drugs used in combination with other substances.
  • CORK Bibliography: Cocaine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Cocaine may increase the risk of neuroleptic-induced dystonias, a problem compounded by the street marketing of substances, such as haloperidol, sold as cocaine.
  • Toxicity, Cocaine: eMedicine Emergency Medicine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Intervention approaches to link these not-in-treatment cocaine users to services and reduce cocaine use must take into account concomitant alcohol Mmsuse and violence.
  • CORK Bibliography: Cocaine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

.Occasional cocaine use does not typically lead to severe or even minor physical or social problems.^ We examined these relations using six self-reported indices of cocaine dependence severity and three self-reported measures of treatment utilization and self-help group participation for cocaine dependence.
  • CORK Bibliography: Cocaine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Many of them are able to use cocaine in normal day-to-day life, without any problems.
  • CORK Bibliography: Cocaine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The influence of personality disorder indication, social support, and grief on alcohol and cocaine use among HIV-positive adults coping with AIDS-related bereavement.
  • CORK Bibliography: Cocaine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

[70][71]

Acute

.
Data from The Lancet suggests Cocaine as the 2nd most dependent and 2nd most harmful of 20 drugs.
^ Ecstasy (86.6% of users) and cocaine (85.7% of users) were the two most-frequently reported club drugs used in combination with other substances.
  • CORK Bibliography: Cocaine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The authors conducted secondary analyses of data from 3 clinical trials to determine whether this relation generalizes to cocaine-dependent homeless persons.
  • CORK Bibliography: Cocaine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Conclusions: Study results suggest that self-reported symptoms of cocaine and opioid dependences and their underlying constructs can be measured appropriately among treatment-seeking polysubstance users.
  • CORK Bibliography: Cocaine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

[72] .Some experts however rate nicotine dependency higher than cocaine.^ Thirdly, the quantities of cocaine or heroine taken by dependant persons are higher than the quantity of nicotine per cigarette, which makes an anti nicotine vaccine the easier vaccine project.
  • CORK Bibliography: Cocaine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ They also scored higher than those with type A dependency in assessments of sensation seeking, aggression, criminality, and violence.
  • Toxicity, Cocaine: eMedicine Emergency Medicine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ However, there was a significantly higher incidence of pneumonia in cocaine positive patients.
  • CORK Bibliography: Cocaine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

[73]
.With excessive or prolonged use, the drug can cause itching, tachycardia, hallucinations, and paranoid delusions.^ As a part of this assessment, we assessed a history of delusions and hallucinations in the context of use of, or withdrawal from, these specific substances.
  • CORK Bibliography: Cocaine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Musculoskeletal findings Cocaine use is among the drug-related causes of intrinsic muscle weakness.
  • Toxicity, Cocaine: eMedicine Emergency Medicine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

.Overdoses cause tachyarrhythmias and a marked elevation of blood pressure.^ Overdoses cause tachyarrhythmias and a marked elevation of blood pressure.
  • Cocaine - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Cocaine encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Drug Cocaine - Cocaine Drug Information 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC drugcocaine.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Overdose causes tachyarrhythmias and a marked elevation of blood pressure.

^ An overdose of cocaine raises blood pressure to unsafe heights, often resulting in permanent brain damage or even.
  • Cocaine and the Nervous System | Serendip's Exchange 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC serendip.brynmawr.edu [Source type: Original source]

.These can be life-threatening, especially if the user has existing cardiac problems.^ These can be life-threatening, especially if the user has existing cardiac problems.
  • Crack! 10 February 2010 14:47 UTC www.kipaddotta.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Cocaine - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Cocaine encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Drug Cocaine - Cocaine Drug Information 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC drugcocaine.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Conclusions: In this sample of stimulant users, methamphetamine use was associated with fewer recent medical problems than crack cocaine, combined crack and powder cocaine use, and use of all 3 of these stimulants.
  • CORK Bibliography: Crack Cocaine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

[citation needed]

Chronic

Main effects of chronic cocaine use.
.Chronic cocaine intake causes brain cells to adapt functionally to strong imbalances of transmitter levels in order to compensate extremes.^ Chronic cocaine intake causes brain cells to adapt functionally to strong imbalances of transmitter levels in order to compensate extremes.
  • Crack! 10 February 2010 14:47 UTC www.kipaddotta.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Cocaine - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Cocaine encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Drug Cocaine - Cocaine Drug Information 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC drugcocaine.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The decreased dopaminergic signaling after chronic cocaine use may contribute to depressive mood disorders and sensitize this important brain reward circuit to the reinforcing effects of cocaine (e.g.
  • Cocaine - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Cocaine encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Drug Cocaine - Cocaine Drug Information 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC drugcocaine.com [Source type: Academic]

^ If the function of this brain system were disrupted by chronic stimulant self-administration, then alterations in motivation would be likely to occur.
  • Addiction Research Unit/Buffalo: Cocaine Addiction 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC wings.buffalo.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Thus, receptors disappear from the cell surface or reappear on it, resulting more or less in an "off" or "working mode" respectively, or they change their susceptibility for binding partners (ligands) – mechanisms called down-/upregulation.^ The mechanism of action for the antibody effect on cocaine is very likely to be the straightforward and intuitive result of the binding of the drug in circulation by antibodies, thereby reducing its entry into the central nervous system and thus its pharmacological effects.
  • CORK Bibliography: Cocaine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Methods: Addiction Severity Index and other variables were compared among: 1) in-treatment women vs. Results: Analysis indicated that in-treatment and out-of-treatment women worked less and used more cocaine than their male counterparts (ps .01).
  • CORK Bibliography: Cocaine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Results: The SDS cut-off point at which there was optimal discrimination of a DSM-IV diagnosis presence was found to be 3 (i.e., a score of 3 or more) for heroin dependence and 4 for cocaine dependence.
  • CORK Bibliography: Cocaine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

.However, studies suggest cocaine abusers do not show normal age-related loss of striatal DAT sites, suggesting cocaine has neuroprotective properties for dopamine neurons.^ However, studies suggest cocaine abusers do not show normal age-related loss of striatal DAT sites, suggesting cocaine has neuroprotective properties for dopamine neurons.
  • Cocaine - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Cocaine encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Drug Cocaine - Cocaine Drug Information 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC drugcocaine.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Studies also show people are experimenting with cocaine at younger ages.
  • Crack! 10 February 2010 14:47 UTC www.kipaddotta.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Cocaine - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Cocaine encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Drug Cocaine - Cocaine Drug Information 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC drugcocaine.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Finally, a loss of vesicular monoamine transporters , neurofilament proteins, and other morphological changes appear to indicate a long term damage of dopamine neurons.
  • Cocaine - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Cocaine encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]

[74] .The experience of insatiable hunger, aches, insomnia/oversleeping, lethargy, and persistent runny nose are often described as very unpleasant.^ The experience of insatiable hunger, aches, insomnia/oversleeping, lethargy, and persistent runny nose are often described as very unpleasant.
  • Cocaine - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Cocaine encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]

.Depression with suicidal ideation may develop in very heavy users.^ Depression with suicidal ideation may develop in very heavy users.
  • Cocaine - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Drug Cocaine - Cocaine Drug Information 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC drugcocaine.com [Source type: Academic]

^ I was doing 7g per day so was a very heavy user.
  • How Long Does Cocaine Stay In Your System? - Blurtit 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.blurtit.com [Source type: General]

.Finally, a loss of vesicular monoamine transporters, neurofilament proteins, and other morphological changes appear to indicate a long term damage of dopamine neurons.^ Finally, a loss of vesicular monoamine transporters , neurofilament proteins, and other morphological changes appear to indicate a long term damage of dopamine neurons.
  • Cocaine - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Cocaine encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Finally, a loss of vesicular monoamine transporters, neurofilament proteins, and other morphological changes appear to indicate a long term damage of dopamine neurons.
  • Crack! 10 February 2010 14:47 UTC www.kipaddotta.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Drug Cocaine - Cocaine Drug Information 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC drugcocaine.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The pharmacodynamics of cocaine involve the complex relationships of neurotransmitters (inhibiting monoamine uptake in rats with ratios of about: serotonin :dopamine = 2:3, serotonin:norepinephrine = 2:5 ) The most extensively studied effect of cocaine on the central nervous system is the blockade of the dopamine transporter protein.
  • Drug Cocaine - Cocaine Drug Information 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC drugcocaine.com [Source type: Academic]

.All these effects contribute a rise in tolerance thus requiring a larger dosage to achieve the same effect.^ All these effects contribute a rise in tolerance thus requiring a larger dosage to achieve the same effect.
  • Cocaine - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Cocaine encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Drug Cocaine - Cocaine Drug Information 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC drugcocaine.com [Source type: Academic]

^ All these effects contribute to the rise in an abuser's tolerance thus requiring a larger dosage to achieve the same effect.

^ Phenacetin, hydroxyzine and diltiazem appeared to be three adulterants contributing to these adverse effects.
  • CORK Bibliography: Cocaine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

[citation needed]
.The lack of normal amounts of serotonin and dopamine in the brain is the cause of the dysphoria and depression felt after the initial high.^ The lack of normal amounts of serotonin and dopamine in the brain is the cause of the dysphoria and depression felt after the initial high.
  • Crack! 10 February 2010 14:47 UTC www.kipaddotta.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Cocaine encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Drug Cocaine - Cocaine Drug Information 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC drugcocaine.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Cocaine's primary acute effect on brain chemistry is to raise the amount of dopamine and serotonin in the nucleus accumbens (the pleasure center in the brain); this effect ceases, due to metabolism of cocaine to inactive compounds and particularly due to the depletion of the transmitter resources (tachyphylaxis).
  • Crack! 10 February 2010 14:47 UTC www.kipaddotta.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Drug Cocaine - Cocaine Drug Information 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC drugcocaine.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Cocaine's primary acute effect on brain chemistry is to raise the amount of dopamine and serotonin in the nucleus accumbens (the pleasure center in the brain); this effect ceases, due to metabolism of cocaine to inactive compounds and particularly due to the depletion of the transmitter resources ( tachyphylaxis ).
  • Cocaine encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]

.Physical withdrawal is not dangerous, and is in fact restorative.^ Physical withdrawal is not dangerous, and is in fact restorative.
  • Cocaine - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Cocaine encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Drug Cocaine - Cocaine Drug Information 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC drugcocaine.com [Source type: Academic]

.The diagnostic criteria for cocaine withdrawal are characterized by a dysphoric mood, fatigue, unpleasant dreams, insomnia or hypersomnia, erectile dysfunction, increased appetite, psychomotor retardation or agitation, and anxiety.^ The diagnostic criteria for cocaine withdrawal are characterized by a dysphoric mood, fatigue, unpleasant dreams, insomnia or hypersomnia, erectile dysfunction, increased appetite, psychomotor retardation or agitation, and anxiety.
  • Cocaine - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Drug Cocaine - Cocaine Drug Information 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC drugcocaine.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The diagnostic criteria for cocaine withdrawal is characterized by a dysphoric mood, fatigue, unpleasant dreams, insomnia or hypersomnia, E.D., increased appetite, psychomotor retardation or agitation, and anxiety.

^ A crash follows cocaine binging and may result in extreme exhaustion (may be severe enough that the patient appears unresponsive), anxiety, psychomotor retardation, and increased appetite.
  • Toxicity, Cocaine: eMedicine Emergency Medicine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

[citation needed]
.Physical side effects from chronic smoking of cocaine include hemoptysis, bronchospasm, pruritus, fever, diffuse alveolar infiltrates without effusions, pulmonary and systemic eosinophilia, chest pain, lung trauma, sore throat, asthma, hoarse voice, dyspnea (shortness of breath), and an aching, flu-like syndrome.^ It consists of the constellation of chest pain, cough with hemoptysis, dyspnea, bronchospasm, pruritus, fever, diffuse alveolar infiltrates without effusions, and pulmonary and systemic eosinophilia.
  • Toxicity, Cocaine: eMedicine Emergency Medicine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Chronic and acute effects of "crack" cocaine on diffusing capacity, membrane diffusion, and pulmonary capillary blood volume in the lung.
  • Toxicity, Cocaine: eMedicine Emergency Medicine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Chest pain may be observed in as many as 40% of patients presenting to the ED after admitting to cocaine use.
  • Toxicity, Cocaine: eMedicine Emergency Medicine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

A common but untrue belief is that the smoking of cocaine chemically breaks down tooth enamel and causes tooth decay. .However, cocaine does often cause involuntary tooth grinding, known as bruxism, which can deteriorate tooth enamel and lead to gingivitis.^ Among these, cocaine may lead to MI by causing coronary artery vasoconstriction and accelerated atherosclerosis, and by initiating thrombus formation.
  • CORK Bibliography: Cocaine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Advanced age does not preclude cocaine as the cause of a patient’s emergent presentation, as is demonstrated by the death of Ike Turner.
  • Toxicity, Cocaine: eMedicine Emergency Medicine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ However, the injury patterns, complications, and mortality in cocaine test-positive trauma patients are not well known.
  • CORK Bibliography: Cocaine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

[75]
Chronic intranasal usage can degrade the cartilage separating the nostrils (the septum nasi), leading eventually to its complete disappearance. .Due to the absorption of the cocaine from cocaine hydrochloride, the remaining hydrochloride forms a dilute hydrochloric acid.^ Due to the absorption of the cocaine from cocaine hydrochloride, the remaining hydrochloride forms a dilute hydrochloric acid.
  • Crack! 10 February 2010 14:47 UTC www.kipaddotta.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Cocaine - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Cocaine encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Drug Cocaine - Cocaine Drug Information 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC drugcocaine.com [Source type: Academic]

^ File:CocaineHydrochloridePowder.jpg A pile of cocaine hydrochloride File:CocaineHCl.jpg A piece of compressed cocaine powder Cocaine in its purest form is a white, pearly product.

^ Subsequently, the alkaloids are precipitated with sodium carbonate and then dissolved in dilute hydrochloric acid to produce cocaine hydrochloride containing 40% cocaine.
  • Cocaine (PIM 139) 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

[76]
.Cocaine may also greatly increase this risk of developing rare autoimmune or connective tissue diseases such as lupus, Goodpasture's disease, vasculitis, glomerulonephritis, Stevens-Johnson syndrome and other diseases.^ The risk of severe effects is increased when cocaine is combined with drugs such as monoamine oxidase inhibitors, tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs), alpha-methyldopa, and reserpine.
  • Toxicity, Cocaine: eMedicine Emergency Medicine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Cocaine users have been found to have a 14-fold increase in risk of ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke when compared with matched controls.
  • Toxicity, Cocaine: eMedicine Emergency Medicine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Individuals with excited delirium may be more sensitive to the life-threatening effects of catecholamine surges than other cocaine users.
  • Toxicity, Cocaine: eMedicine Emergency Medicine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

[77][78][79][80] .It can also cause a wide array of kidney diseases and renal failure.^ It can also cause a wide array of kidney diseases and renal failure.
  • Crack! 10 February 2010 14:47 UTC www.kipaddotta.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Cocaine - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Cocaine encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Cocaine-induced hyperthermia may cause muscle cell destruction and myoglobinuria resulting in renal failure.

^ Cocaine-induced hyperthermia may cause muscle cell destruction and myoglobinuria resulting in renal failure .
  • Cocaine - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Cocaine encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]

[81][82]
.Cocaine abuse doubles both the risks of hemorrhagic and ischemic strokes,[83] as well as increases the risk of other infarctions, such as myocardial infarction.^ The risk of severe effects is increased when cocaine is combined with drugs such as monoamine oxidase inhibitors, tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs), alpha-methyldopa, and reserpine.
  • Toxicity, Cocaine: eMedicine Emergency Medicine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Cocaine users have been found to have a 14-fold increase in risk of ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke when compared with matched controls.
  • Toxicity, Cocaine: eMedicine Emergency Medicine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ DISCUSSIONS: Cocaine-related vascular complications, including ischemic stroke, myocardial infarction, and peripheral occlusive disease, all of which have various possible mechanisms, are of Clinical importance.
  • CORK Bibliography: Cocaine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

[84]

Addiction

.Cocaine dependence (or addiction) is psychological dependency on the regular use of cocaine.^ We examined these relations using six self-reported indices of cocaine dependence severity and three self-reported measures of treatment utilization and self-help group participation for cocaine dependence.
  • CORK Bibliography: Cocaine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The use of valproate as a treatment for cocaine dependence is not supported.
  • CORK Bibliography: Cocaine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Vocci FJ; Montoya ID. Psychological treatments for stimulant misuse, comparing and contrasting those for amphetamine dependence and those for cocaine dependence.
  • CORK Bibliography: Cocaine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

.Cocaine dependency may result in physiological damage, lethargy, psychosis, depression, and fatal overdose.^ This experiment determined the physiological and behavioral effects of cocaine during D-amphetamine maintenance in seven cocaine-dependent participants.
  • CORK Bibliography: Cocaine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Results: IRT modeling showed that symptoms of cocaine and opioid dependences, respectively, were arrayed along a continuum of severity.
  • CORK Bibliography: Cocaine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Conclusions: Study results suggest that self-reported symptoms of cocaine and opioid dependences and their underlying constructs can be measured appropriately among treatment-seeking polysubstance users.
  • CORK Bibliography: Cocaine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

Cocaine as a local anesthetic

Cocaine hydrochloride for medicinal use.
.Cocaine was historically useful as a topical anesthetic in eye and nasal surgery, although it is now predominantly used for nasal and lacrimal duct surgery.^ Treatment interaction effects were found with "desire to use cocaine now", which underwent a greater increase following cocaine cue exposure in the valproate condition.
  • CORK Bibliography: Cocaine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In 1884, William Stewart Halsted performed the first nerve block using cocaine as the anesthetic.
  • Toxicity, Cocaine: eMedicine Emergency Medicine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Main effects of cue exposure were found for subjective ratings of "desire to use cocaine now", the cocaine craving index, cocaine-like high, and cocaine withdrawal.
  • CORK Bibliography: Cocaine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

.The major disadvantages of this use are cocaine's intense vasoconstrictor activity and potential for cardiovascular toxicity.^ Fatal excited delirium following cocaine use: epidemiologic findings provide new evidence for mechanisms of cocaine toxicity.
  • Toxicity, Cocaine: eMedicine Emergency Medicine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Patients who present to the ED with cocaine toxicity often have a combination of other drugs and cocaine in their system; in fact, the combined use of alcohol and cocaine may be the major cause of drug-related deaths.
  • Toxicity, Cocaine: eMedicine Emergency Medicine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ This study investigated the potential long-term effects of cocaine exposure on brain functioning using fMRI in school-aged children.
  • CORK Bibliography: Cocaine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

.Cocaine has since been largely replaced in Western medicine by synthetic local anesthetics such as benzocaine, proparacaine, lignocaine/xylocaine/lidocaine, and tetracaine though it remains available for use if specified.^ Once playing a vital role in medicine as a local anesthetic, decades of research have established that cocaine has the ability to cause irreversible structural damage to the heart, greatly accelerate cardiovascular disease, and initiate sudden cardiac death.
  • CORK Bibliography: Cocaine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Since the production of cocaine is illegal, it may be impure and mixtures with other drugs such as atropine may occur.
  • CORK Bibliography: Cocaine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Extrapyramidal phenomena and other movement disorders, though uncommon, are reported in association with cocaine use.
  • Toxicity, Cocaine: eMedicine Emergency Medicine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

.If vasoconstriction is desired for a procedure (as it reduces bleeding), the anesthetic is combined with a vasoconstrictor such as phenylephrine or epinephrine.^ If vasoconstriction is desired for a procedure (as it reduces bleeding), the anesthetic is combined with a vasoconstrictor such as phenylephrine or epinephrine.
  • Drug Cocaine - Cocaine Drug Information 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC drugcocaine.com [Source type: Academic]

^ If vasoconstriction is desired for a procedure (as it reduces bleeding), the anesthetic is combined with a vasoconstrictor such as phenylephrine or epinephrine .
  • Cocaine - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Cocaine encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Cocaine also causes vasoconstriction , thus reducing bleeding during minor surgical procedures.
  • Cocaine - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Cocaine encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]

.In Australia it is currently prescribed for use as a local anesthetic for conditions such as mouth and lung ulcers.^ In Australia it is currently prescribed for use as a local anesthetic for conditions such as mouth and lung ulcers .
  • Cocaine - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Cocaine encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In Australia it is currently prescribed for use as a local anesthetic for conditions such as mouth and lung ulcers.

^ Cocaine has since been largely replaced in Western medicine by synthetic local anaesthetics such as benzocaine, proparacaine, and tetracaine though it remains available for use if specified.

.Some ENT specialists occasionally use cocaine within the practice when performing procedures such as nasal cauterization.^ In 1884, William Stewart Halsted performed the first nerve block using cocaine as the anesthetic.
  • Toxicity, Cocaine: eMedicine Emergency Medicine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Headaches, some potentially resulting from inhibited serotonin reuptake, are common in people who use cocaine, whereas cerebral vasculitis is rare.
  • Toxicity, Cocaine: eMedicine Emergency Medicine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Reports indicate that 2.4 million Americans used cocaine within the previous 30-days, with 702,000 reporting the use of crack.
  • Toxicity, Cocaine: eMedicine Emergency Medicine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

.In this scenario dissolved cocaine is soaked into a ball of cotton wool, which is placed in the nostril for the 10–15 minutes immediately prior to the procedure, thus performing the dual role of both numbing the area to be cauterized and also vasoconstriction.^ Heshmati M. Cocaine-induced LTP in the ventral tegmental area: New insights into mechanism and time course illuminate the cellular substrates of addiction.
  • CORK Bibliography: Cocaine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ People who use cocaine long term may dose themselves as frequently as every 10 minutes, binge as long as 7 days at a time and use as much as 10 g/d.
  • Toxicity, Cocaine: eMedicine Emergency Medicine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ By 1909, more than 10 tons of cocaine was being imported into the United States each year.
  • Toxicity, Cocaine: eMedicine Emergency Medicine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

.Even when used this way, some of the used cocaine may be absorbed through oral or nasal mucosa and give systemic effects.^ Even when used this way, some of the used cocaine may be absorbed through oral or nasal mucosa and give systemic effects.
  • Crack! 10 February 2010 14:47 UTC www.kipaddotta.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Cocaine - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Cocaine encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Drug Cocaine - Cocaine Drug Information 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC drugcocaine.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Main effects of chronic cocaine use.
  • Drug Cocaine - Cocaine Drug Information 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC drugcocaine.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Any material not directly absorbed through the mucous membranes is collected in mucus and swallowed (this "drip" is considered pleasant by some and unpleasant by others).
  • Crack! 10 February 2010 14:47 UTC www.kipaddotta.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Cocaine - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Cocaine encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Drug Cocaine - Cocaine Drug Information 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC drugcocaine.com [Source type: Academic]

.In 2005, researchers from Kyoto University Hospital proposed the use of cocaine in conjunction with phenylephrine administered in the form of an eye drop as a diagnostic test for Parkinson's disease.^ Objectives: To determine the prevalence of cocaine use and associated risk factors in African Americans volunteering as research subjects for a hypertension study.
  • CORK Bibliography: Cocaine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Not much research has been done on motivations for and settings in which this cocaine use takes place.
  • CORK Bibliography: Cocaine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Baum MK; Rafie C; Lai S; Sales S; Page B; Campa A. Crack-cocaine use accelerates HIV disease progression in a cohort of HIV-positive drug users.
  • CORK Bibliography: Cocaine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

[85]

Etymology

.The word "cocaine" was made from "coca" + the suffix "-ine"; from its use as a local anesthetic a suffix "-caine" was extracted and used to form names of synthetic local anesthetics.^ Individuals with current cocaine use disorders (CUD) form a heterogeneous group, making sensitive neuropsychological (NP) comparisons with healthy individuals difficult.
  • CORK Bibliography: Cocaine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

Current prohibition

.The production, distribution and sale of cocaine products is restricted (and illegal in most contexts) in most countries as regulated by the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs, and the United Nations Convention Against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances.^ The production, distribution and sale of cocaine products is restricted (and illegal in most contexts) in most countries as regulated by the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs , and the United Nations Convention Against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances .
  • Cocaine encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Main article: Legal status of cocaine The production, distribution and sale of cocaine products is restricted (and illegal in most contexts) in most countries as regulated by the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs , and the United Nations Convention Against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances .

^ The production, distribution and sale of cocaine products is restricted (and illegal in most contexts) in most countries as regulated by the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs, and the United Nations Convention Against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances.
  • Crack! 10 February 2010 14:47 UTC www.kipaddotta.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Drug Cocaine - Cocaine Drug Information 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC drugcocaine.com [Source type: Academic]

.In the United States the manufacture, importation, possession, and distribution of cocaine is additionally regulated by the 1970 Controlled Substances Act.^ Cocaine was not considered a controlled substance until 1970, when the United States listed it as such in the Controlled Substances Act .
  • Cocaine - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Cocaine encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In the United States the manufacture, importation, possession, and distribution of cocaine is additionally regulated by the 1970 Controlled Substances Act.
  • Crack! 10 February 2010 14:47 UTC www.kipaddotta.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Drug Cocaine - Cocaine Drug Information 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC drugcocaine.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In 1970 the United States Congress passed the Controlled Substances Act which today still regulates the manufacture, importation, possession, and distribution of cocaine in the United States.

.Some countries, such as Peru and Bolivia permit the cultivation of coca leaf for traditional consumption by the local indigenous population, but nevertheless prohibit the production, sale and consumption of cocaine.^ Since the production of cocaine is illegal, it may be impure and mixtures with other drugs such as atropine may occur.
  • CORK Bibliography: Cocaine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

.In addition, some parts of Europe and Australia allow processed cocaine for medicinal uses only.^ Additionally, cocaine use has been associated with left ventricular hypertrophy, myocarditis, and dilated cardiomyopathy, which can lead to heart failure if drug use is continued.
  • CORK Bibliography: Cocaine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Dembo R; Sullivan C. Cocaine use and delinquent behavior among high-risk youths: A growth model of parallel processes.
  • CORK Bibliography: Cocaine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ There was also some evidence of experimental cocaine use amongst the sample.
  • CORK Bibliography: Cocaine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

Interdiction

.In 2004, according to the United Nations, 589 metric tons of cocaine were seized globally by law enforcement authorities.^ This paper discusses how arrest avoidance behavior may affect cocaine consumer and dealer response to law enforcement.
  • CORK Bibliography: Cocaine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Contrary to one goal of drug law enforcement, cocaine prices decreased between the years 1986 and 2000.
  • CORK Bibliography: Cocaine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ This article investigates factors affecting the participation in marijuana, cocaine and heroin using micro-unit data from an Australian national survey on recreational drugs.
  • CORK Bibliography: Cocaine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

Colombia seized 188 tons, the United States 166 tons, Europe 79 tons, Peru 14 tons, Bolivia 9 tons, and the rest of the world 133 tons.[86]

Illicit trade

Bricks of cocaine, a form in which it is commonly transported.
.Because of the extensive processing it undergoes during preparation, cocaine is generally treated as a 'hard drug', with severe penalties for possession and trafficking.^ Because of the extensive processing it undergoes during preparation, cocaine is generally treated as a ' hard drug' , with severe penalties for possession and trafficking.
  • Cocaine - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Cocaine encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Bricks of cocaine, a form in which it is commonly transported.Because of the extensive processing it undergoes during preparation, cocaine is generally treated as a 'hard drug', with severe penalties for possession and trafficking.

^ The risk of severe effects is increased when cocaine is combined with drugs such as monoamine oxidase inhibitors, tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs), alpha-methyldopa, and reserpine.
  • Toxicity, Cocaine: eMedicine Emergency Medicine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

.Demand remains high, and consequently black market cocaine is quite expensive.^ Demand remains high, and consequently black market cocaine is quite expensive.
  • Crack! 10 February 2010 14:47 UTC www.kipaddotta.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Cocaine - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Drug Cocaine - Cocaine Drug Information 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC drugcocaine.com [Source type: Academic]

^ There is a tremendous demand for cocaine in the U.S. market, particularly among those who are making incomes affording luxury spending, such as single adults and professionals with discretionary income.
  • Cocaine - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Drug Cocaine - Cocaine Drug Information 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC drugcocaine.com [Source type: Academic]

^ However, the high initially gotten from cocaine keeps its addicts looking for more, as this highly addictive drug can be difficult to quit.
  • Cocaine and the Nervous System | Serendip's Exchange 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC serendip.brynmawr.edu [Source type: Original source]

Unprocessed cocaine, such as coca leaves, are occasionally purchased and sold, but this is exceedingly rare as it is much easier and more profitable to conceal and smuggle it in powdered form. .The scale of the market is immense: 770 tonnes times $100 per gram retail = up to $77 billion.^ The scale of the market is immense: 770 tonnes times $100 per gram retail = up to $77 billion.
  • Cocaine - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Cocaine encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Drug Cocaine - Cocaine Drug Information 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC drugcocaine.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Cocaine addicts can tolerate doses up to 5 grams per day.
  • Cocaine (PIM 139) 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

[citation needed]

Production

Colombia is the world's leading producer of cocaine.[87] .Due to Colombia's 1994 legalization of small amounts of cocaine for personal use, while sale of cocaine was still prohibited, the result was the spread of local coca crops, partly justified by the local demand.^ To synthesize the results of marijuana, cocaine and opiate drug toxicology studies of homicide victims and examine variation in results across person and setting characteristics.
  • CORK Bibliography: Cocaine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Results: A cocaine-positive urine sample at study intake was the most robust and consistent correlate of stimulant use outcome in all analyses.
  • CORK Bibliography: Cocaine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Baum MK; Rafie C; Lai S; Sales S; Page B; Campa A. Crack-cocaine use accelerates HIV disease progression in a cohort of HIV-positive drug users.
  • CORK Bibliography: Cocaine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

.Three-quarters of the world's annual yield of cocaine has been produced in Colombia, both from cocaine base imported from Peru (primarily the Huallaga Valley) and Bolivia, and from locally grown coca.^ Drug use results suggest that both the interventions were efficacious, with effects primarily in opioid rather than cocaine test results.
  • CORK Bibliography: Cocaine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

There was a 28% increase from the amount of potentially harvestable coca plants which were grown in Colombia in 1998 . This, combined with crop reductions in Bolivia and Peru, made Colombia the nation with the largest area of coca under cultivation after the mid-1990s. .Coca grown for traditional purposes by indigenous communities, a use which is still present and is permitted by Colombian laws, only makes up a small fragment of total coca production, most of which is used for the illegal drug trade.^ The major use of cocaine at present is as an illegal drug of abuse.
  • Cocaine (PIM 139) 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Coca grown for traditional purposes by indigenous communities, a use which is still present and is permitted by Colombian laws, only makes up a small fragment of total coca production, most of which is used for the illegal drug trade.
  • Crack! 10 February 2010 14:47 UTC www.kipaddotta.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Cocaine - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Cocaine encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Drug Cocaine - Cocaine Drug Information 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC drugcocaine.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Cocaine may be insufflated through a straw or rolled-up paper currency, or a coke spoon, typically containing 5-20 mg of the drug, may be used to snort cocaine.
  • Toxicity, Cocaine: eMedicine Emergency Medicine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

.Attempts to eradicate coca fields through the use of defoliants have devastated part of the farming economy in some coca growing regions of Colombia, and strains appear to have been developed that are more resistant or immune to their use.^ Attempts to eradicate coca fields through the use of defoliants have devastated part of the farming economy in some coca growing regions of Colombia, and strains appear to have been developed that are more resistant or immune to their use.

^ Some parts of Europe and Australia allow processed cocaine for medicinal uses only.

^ Even when used this way, some of the used cocaine may be absorbed through oral or nasal mucosa and give systemic effects.

.Whether these strains are natural mutations or the product of human tampering is unclear.^ Whether these strains are natural mutations or the product of human tampering is unclear.
  • Crack! 10 February 2010 14:47 UTC www.kipaddotta.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Cocaine - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Cocaine encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Drug Cocaine - Cocaine Drug Information 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC drugcocaine.com [Source type: Academic]

.These strains have also shown to be more potent than those previously grown, increasing profits for the drug cartels responsible for the exporting of cocaine.^ These strains have also shown to be more potent than those previously grown, increasing profits for the drug cartels responsible for the exporting of cocaine.
  • Crack! 10 February 2010 14:47 UTC www.kipaddotta.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Cocaine - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Cocaine encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Drug Cocaine - Cocaine Drug Information 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC drugcocaine.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Boston: Cocaine is more available than ever.
  • NIDA - About NIDA - Organization - CEWG Publications - Identifying and Monitoring Emerging Drug Use Problems - A Retrospective Analysis of Drug Abuse Data/Information 10 February 2010 14:47 UTC www.drugabuse.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Is nicotine more addictive than cocaine?
  • Cocaine and the Concept of Addiction: Environmental Factors in Drug Compulsions 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.peele.net [Source type: Academic]

.Although production fell temporarily, coca crops rebounded as numerous smaller fields in Colombia, rather than the larger plantations.^ Although production fell temporarily, coca crops rebounded as numerous smaller fields in Colombia, rather than the larger plantations.
  • Cocaine encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Drug Cocaine - Cocaine Drug Information 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC drugcocaine.com [Source type: Academic]

^ This, combined with crop reductions in Bolivia and Peru, made Colombia the nation with the largest area of coca under cultivation after the mid-1990s.
  • Crack! 10 February 2010 14:47 UTC www.kipaddotta.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Drug Cocaine - Cocaine Drug Information 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC drugcocaine.com [Source type: Academic]

^ This, combined with crop reductions in Bolivia and Peru , made Colombia the nation with the largest area of coca under cultivation after the mid-1990s.
  • Cocaine encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]

.The cultivation of coca has become an attractive, and in some cases even necessary, economic decision on the part of many growers due to the combination of several factors, including the persistence of worldwide demand, the lack of other employment alternatives, the lower profitability of alternative crops in official crop substitution programs, the eradication-related damages to non-drug farms, and the spread of new strains of the coca plant.^ The cultivation of coca has become an attractive, and in some cases even necessary, economic decision on the part of many growers due to the combination of several factors, including the persistence of worldwide demand, the lack of other employment alternatives, the lower profitability of alternative crops in official crop substitution programs, the eradication-related damages to non-drug farms, and the spread of new strains of the coca plant.

^ Non-pharmacological factors in drug abuse.
  • Cocaine and the Concept of Addiction: Environmental Factors in Drug Compulsions 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.peele.net [Source type: Academic]

^ The risk of severe effects is increased when cocaine is combined with drugs such as monoamine oxidase inhibitors, tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs), alpha-methyldopa, and reserpine.
  • Toxicity, Cocaine: eMedicine Emergency Medicine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

Estimated Andean region coca cultivation and potential pure cocaine production, 2000–2004.[88]
2000 2001 2002 2003 2004
Net cultivation (km2) 1875 2218 2007.5 1663 1662
Potential pure cocaine production (tonnes) 770 925 830 680 645

Synthesis

.Synthetic cocaine would be highly desirable to the illegal drug industry, as it would eliminate the high visibility and low reliability of offshore sources and international smuggling, replacing them with clandestine domestic laboratories, as are common for illicit methamphetamine.^ Crack cocaine is a highly addictive drug.
  • CORK Bibliography: Crack Cocaine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Synthetic cocaine would be highly desirable to the illegal drug industry, as it would eliminate the high visibility and low reliability of offshore sources and international smuggling, replacing them with clandestine domestic laboratories, as are common for illicit methamphetamine .

^ Obama's book adroitly eliminated the potential for a smear campaign that could have resulted if the news of his drug use would have arisen for the first time during his Senate campaign.
  • Change of Subject: Five reasons why the cocaine story is good for Obama 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC blogs.chicagotribune.com [Source type: General]

.However, natural cocaine remains the lowest cost and highest quality supply of cocaine.^ However, natural cocaine remains the lowest cost and highest quality supply of cocaine.

^ San Francisco: Cocaine supplies are abundant and reportedly of good quality at a stable price of $100 a gram.
  • NIDA - About NIDA - Organization - CEWG Publications - Identifying and Monitoring Emerging Drug Use Problems - A Retrospective Analysis of Drug Abuse Data/Information 10 February 2010 14:47 UTC www.drugabuse.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Actual full synthesis of cocaine is rarely done.^ Actual full synthesis of cocaine is rarely done.

Formation of inactive enantiomers (cocaine has 4 chiral centres - 1R,2R,3S,5S - hence a total potential of 16 possible enantiomers and disteroisomers) plus synthetic by-products limits the yield and purity. .Note, names like 'synthetic cocaine' and 'new cocaine' have been misapplied to phencyclidine (PCP) and various designer drugs.^ To synthesize the results of marijuana, cocaine and opiate drug toxicology studies of homicide victims and examine variation in results across person and setting characteristics.
  • CORK Bibliography: Cocaine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The profile indicated that adolescent cocaine users were more likely to be female, live in disrupted families and experience social deprivation which is similar to existing adolescent drug use profiles.
  • CORK Bibliography: Cocaine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Design and participants Drug consumers handed in samples of cocaine powder from 1999 to 2007 for analysis.
  • CORK Bibliography: Cocaine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

Trafficking and distribution

Cocaine smuggled in a charango, 2008.
Organized criminal gangs operating on a large scale dominate the cocaine trade. .Most cocaine is grown and processed in South America, particularly in Colombia, Bolivia, Peru, and smuggled into the United States and Europe, the United States being the worlds largest consumer of Cocaine,[89] where it is sold at huge markups; usually in the US at $80–$120 for 1 gram, and $250–300 for 3.5 grams (1/8th of an ounce, or an "eight ball").^ Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 106(23): 9453-9458, 2009.
  • CORK Bibliography: Cocaine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Cocaine use appeared to be related to increased risk of death from a firearm and was a greater risk factor for violent victimization in the United States than in Newfoundland and Scandinavia.
  • CORK Bibliography: Cocaine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Cocaine intoxication is the most frequent cause of drug-related death reported by medical examiners in the US, and these events are most often related to the cardiovascular manifestations of the drug.
  • CORK Bibliography: Cocaine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

Caribbean and Mexican routes

Cocaine shipments from South America transported through Mexico or Central America are generally moved over land or by air to staging sites in northern Mexico. The cocaine is then broken down into smaller loads for smuggling across the U.S.–Mexico border. .The primary cocaine importation points in the United States are in Arizona, southern California, southern Florida, and Texas.^ The primary cocaine importation points in the United States are in Arizona, southern California, southern Florida, and Texas.

^ The primary cocaine importation points in the United States are in Arizona , southern California , southern Florida , and Texas .

^ By the turn of the twentieth century, the addictive properties of cocaine had become clear to many, and the problem of cocaine abuse began to capture public attention in the United States.

.Typically, land vehicles are driven across the U.S.-Mexico border.^ Typically, land vehicles are driven across the U.S.-Mexico border.

^ The cocaine is then broken down into smaller loads for smuggling across the U.S.–Mexico border .

.Sixty five percent of cocaine enters the United States through Mexico, and the vast majority of the rest enters through Florida.^ Cocaine use appeared to be related to increased risk of death from a firearm and was a greater risk factor for violent victimization in the United States than in Newfoundland and Scandinavia.
  • CORK Bibliography: Cocaine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

[90]
Cocaine traffickers from Colombia, and recently Mexico, have also established a labyrinth of smuggling routes throughout the Caribbean, the Bahama Island chain, and South Florida. .They often hire traffickers from Mexico or the Dominican Republic to transport the drug.^ Street drugs often are not what they are marketed to be.
  • Toxicity, Cocaine: eMedicine Emergency Medicine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ This is crucial, especially if patients are carrying cocaine in their body, because they often have no stigmata of drug abuse.
  • Toxicity, Cocaine: eMedicine Emergency Medicine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

.The traffickers use a variety of smuggling techniques to transfer their drug to U.S. markets.^ The traffickers use a variety of smuggling techniques to transfer their drug to U.S. markets.

^ In particular, it can highlight changes in the magnitude and relative use of illicit drug at a population level thereby becoming useful to develop strategies against drug trafficking and abuse.
  • CORK Bibliography: Cocaine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ However, in the modern drug market, pure cocaine is often tempered with a variety of substances in order to make cocaine more profitable for drug dealers (5) .
  • Cocaine and the Nervous System | Serendip's Exchange 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC serendip.brynmawr.edu [Source type: Original source]

.These include airdrops of 500–700 kg in the Bahama Islands or off the coast of Puerto Rico, mid-ocean boat-to-boat transfers of 500–2,000 kg, and the commercial shipment of tonnes of cocaine through the port of Miami.^ Lower banging activity among cocaine exposed was not explained through cocaine effects on motor development or neurological findings, suggesting that activity level itself is diminished in these infants.
  • CORK Bibliography: Cocaine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

Chilean route

.Another route of cocaine traffic goes through Chile, this route is primarily used for cocaine produced in Bolivia since the nearest seaports lie in northern Chile.^ The medical complications of recreational cocaine use are diverse, involving almost any body organ, and vary greatly according to the substance used and the route by which is taken.
  • CORK Bibliography: Cocaine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Drug use results suggest that both the interventions were efficacious, with effects primarily in opioid rather than cocaine test results.
  • CORK Bibliography: Cocaine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ McCrystal P; Percy A. A profile of adolescent cocaine use in Northern Ireland.
  • CORK Bibliography: Cocaine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

The arid Bolivia-Chile border is easily crossed by 4x4 vehicles that then head to the seaports of Iquique and Antofagasta. .While the price of cocaine is higher in Chile than in Peru and Bolivia, the final destination is usually Europe, specially Spain where drug dealing networks exist among South American immigrants.^ Thirdly, the quantities of cocaine or heroine taken by dependant persons are higher than the quantity of nicotine per cigarette, which makes an anti nicotine vaccine the easier vaccine project.
  • CORK Bibliography: Cocaine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The profile indicated that adolescent cocaine users were more likely to be female, live in disrupted families and experience social deprivation which is similar to existing adolescent drug use profiles.
  • CORK Bibliography: Cocaine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Drug use results suggest that both the interventions were efficacious, with effects primarily in opioid rather than cocaine test results.
  • CORK Bibliography: Cocaine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

Techniques

Cocaine is also carried in small, concealed, kilogram quantities across the border by couriers known as “mules” (or “mulas”), who cross a border either legally, e.g. through a port or airport, or illegally elsewhere. .The drugs may be strapped to the waist or legs or hidden in bags, or hidden in the body.^ The drugs may be strapped to the waist or legs or hidden in bags, or hidden in the body.

^ December 8th, 2008 at 11:43 am @John In my opinion, 9 days may not really suffice for your body to completely expel the drug.
  • How long does cocaine stay in your system? 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC howto.dcrdetox.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

If the mule gets through without being caught, the gangs will reap most of the profits. If he or she is caught however, gangs will sever all links and the mule will usually stand trial for trafficking alone.
Bulk cargo ships are also used to smuggle cocaine to staging sites in the western CaribbeanGulf of Mexico area. .These vessels are typically 150–250-foot (50–80 m) coastal freighters that carry an average cocaine load of approximately 2.5 tonnes.^ These vessels are typically 150–250-foot (50–80 m) coastal freighters that carry an average cocaine load of approximately 2.5 tonnes.

^ Rock accounted for approximately 50% of Seattle police seizures of cocaine.
  • NIDA - About NIDA - Organization - CEWG Publications - Identifying and Monitoring Emerging Drug Use Problems - A Retrospective Analysis of Drug Abuse Data/Information 10 February 2010 14:47 UTC www.drugabuse.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Typically people carry up to 1 kg of cocaine, divided into 50-100 packets.
  • CORK Bibliography: Cocaine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

.Commercial fishing vessels are also used for smuggling operations.^ Commercial fishing vessels are also used for smuggling operations.

.In areas with a high volume of recreational traffic, smugglers use the same types of vessels, such as go-fast boats, as those used by the local populations.^ We analyzed waste water in order to monitor illicit drug use by local population.
  • CORK Bibliography: Cocaine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

.Sophisticated drug subs are the latest tool drug runners are using to bring cocaine north from Colombia, it was reported on March 20, 2008. Although the vessels were once viewed as a quirky sideshow in the drug war, they are becoming faster, more seaworthy, and capable of carrying bigger loads of drugs than earlier models, according to those charged with catching them.^ Drug use data were self-report.
  • CORK Bibliography: Cocaine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Ecstasy (86.6% of users) and cocaine (85.7% of users) were the two most-frequently reported club drugs used in combination with other substances.
  • CORK Bibliography: Cocaine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Use was much more common in recent cohorts for extramedical drugs.
  • CORK Bibliography: Cocaine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

[91]

Sales to consumers

.Cocaine is readily available in all major countries' metropolitan areas.^ Louis: Cocaine is readily available throughout the metropolitan area.
  • NIDA - About NIDA - Organization - CEWG Publications - Identifying and Monitoring Emerging Drug Use Problems - A Retrospective Analysis of Drug Abuse Data/Information 10 February 2010 14:47 UTC www.drugabuse.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Cocaine is readily available in all major countries' metropolitan areas.

^ Cocaine came to be seen as the major public health menace in this country (before AIDS), and the imagery previously associated with heroin was usurped by cocaine: .
  • Cocaine and the Concept of Addiction: Environmental Factors in Drug Compulsions 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.peele.net [Source type: Academic]

.According to the Summer 1998 Pulse Check, published by the U.S. Office of National Drug Control Policy, cocaine use had stabilized across the country, with a few increases reported in San Diego, Bridgeport, Miami, and Boston.^ Across nationalities, substance use frequency increased on holiday.
  • CORK Bibliography: Cocaine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Ecstasy (86.6% of users) and cocaine (85.7% of users) were the two most-frequently reported club drugs used in combination with other substances.
  • CORK Bibliography: Cocaine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ We examined these relations using six self-reported indices of cocaine dependence severity and three self-reported measures of treatment utilization and self-help group participation for cocaine dependence.
  • CORK Bibliography: Cocaine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

.In the West, cocaine usage was lower, which was thought to be due to a switch to methamphetamine among some users; methamphetamine is cheaper, more powerful and provides a longer-lasting high.^ Results: Women entering treatment in rural Appalachia had disproportionately high rates of opiate and sedative/tranquilizer use while methamphetamine, cocaine, marijuana, and alcohol were more prevalent for women in non-Appalachian areas.
  • CORK Bibliography: Cocaine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The profile indicated that adolescent cocaine users were more likely to be female, live in disrupted families and experience social deprivation which is similar to existing adolescent drug use profiles.
  • CORK Bibliography: Cocaine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Cocaine users had significantly poorer attentional control under high WM demands, suffering both increased response times and reduced recall accuracy, with this effect more pronounced for cocaine stimuli (when compared to neutral stimuli).
  • CORK Bibliography: Cocaine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

.Numbers of cocaine users are still very large, with a concentration among urban youth.^ Numbers of cocaine users are still very large, with a concentration among urban youth.

^ Very large doses can cause a decrease in respirations, coma or death.In combination cocaine , alcohol and depressants can multiply the effects of both which would increase risk.

^ The uncertainty about the number of cocaine users, especially the secondary users, places a wide confidence interval around the potential size of the market for cocaine abuse treatment.
  • Market Analysis for a Prospective Cocaine Medication 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC aspe.hhs.gov [Source type: Academic]

.In addition to the amounts previously mentioned, cocaine can be sold in "bill sizes": for example, $10 might purchase a "dime bag," a very small amount (0.1–0.15 g) of cocaine.^ Twenty dollars might purchase .15–.3 g.

^ Small sizes sold for $10.
  • NIDA - About NIDA - Organization - CEWG Publications - Identifying and Monitoring Emerging Drug Use Problems - A Retrospective Analysis of Drug Abuse Data/Information 10 February 2010 14:47 UTC www.drugabuse.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ In addition to the amounts previously mentioned, cocaine can be sold in "bill sizes": for example, $10 might purchase a "dime bag," a very small amount (0.1–0.15 g) of cocaine.

Twenty dollars might purchase .15–.3 g. .However, in lower Texas, it's sold cheaper due to it being easier to receive: a dime for $10 is .4g, a 20 is .8-1.0 gram and a 8-ball (3.5g) is sold for $60 to $80 dollars, depending on the quality and dealer.^ However, in lower Texas, it's sold cheaper due to it being easier to receive: a dime for $10 is .4g, a 20 is .8-1.0 gram and a 8-ball (3.5g) is sold for $60 to $80 dollars, depending on the quality and dealer.

^ It was being sold in small bundles at $20 for one-tenth of a gram.
  • NIDA - About NIDA - Organization - CEWG Publications - Identifying and Monitoring Emerging Drug Use Problems - A Retrospective Analysis of Drug Abuse Data/Information 10 February 2010 14:47 UTC www.drugabuse.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ In the West, cocaine usage was lower, which was thought to be due to a switch to methamphetamine among some users; methamphetamine is cheaper and provides a longer-lasting high.

.These amounts and prices are very popular among young people because they are inexpensive and easily concealed on one's body.^ These amounts and prices are very popular among young people because they are inexpensive and easily concealed on one's body.

^ This is crucial, especially if patients are carrying cocaine in their body, because they often have no stigmata of drug abuse.
  • Toxicity, Cocaine: eMedicine Emergency Medicine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Louis: In 1981, methaqualone was one of the most readily available and popular drugs in the metropolitan area, and was popular among young polydrug users.
  • NIDA - About NIDA - Organization - CEWG Publications - Identifying and Monitoring Emerging Drug Use Problems - A Retrospective Analysis of Drug Abuse Data/Information 10 February 2010 14:47 UTC www.drugabuse.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Quality and price can vary dramatically depending on supply and demand, and on geographic region.^ Quality and price can vary dramatically depending on supply and demand, and on geographic region.

^ San Francisco: Cocaine supplies are abundant and reportedly of good quality at a stable price of $100 a gram.
  • NIDA - About NIDA - Organization - CEWG Publications - Identifying and Monitoring Emerging Drug Use Problems - A Retrospective Analysis of Drug Abuse Data/Information 10 February 2010 14:47 UTC www.drugabuse.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Recent findings: Stimulant dependence, in the form of cocaine or amphetamine/methamphetamine dependence, is prevalent worldwide, and their ratio may vary across different countries and regions of countries.
  • CORK Bibliography: Cocaine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

[92]
.The European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction reports that the typical retail price of cocaine varied between 50€ and 75€ per gram in most European countries, although Cyprus, Romania, Sweden and Turkey reported much higher values.^ Most Western European countries have a consumption rate between 1% and 2%.

^ The European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction reports that the typical retail price of cocaine varied between 50€ and 75€ per gram in most European countries, although Cyprus, Romania, Sweden and Turkey reported much higher values.

^ Cocaine may be insufflated through a straw or rolled-up paper currency, or a coke spoon, typically containing 5-20 mg of the drug, may be used to snort cocaine.
  • Toxicity, Cocaine: eMedicine Emergency Medicine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

[93]
Bags of cocaine, adulterated with fruit flavoring.

Consumption

.World annual cocaine consumption currently stands at around 600 metric tons, with the United States consuming around 300 metric tons, 50% of the total, Europe about 150 metric tons, 25% of the total, and the rest of the world the remaining 150 metric tons or 25%.^ Cocaine consumption remained relatively stable across doses until a threshold was reached, at which maximal responding was observed.
  • CORK Bibliography: Cocaine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Cocaine use appeared to be related to increased risk of death from a firearm and was a greater risk factor for violent victimization in the United States than in Newfoundland and Scandinavia.
  • CORK Bibliography: Cocaine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Cocaine addicts showed higher total plasma magnesium levels than opiate addicts and normal controls, even though they remained in the normal range.
  • CORK Bibliography: Cocaine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

[94]

Cocaine adulterants

Cocaine is "cut" with many substances such as:
Other stimulants:
Inert powder:

Usage

.According to a 2007 United Nations report, Spain is the country with the highest rate of cocaine usage (3.0% of adults in the previous year).^ According to a 2007 United Nations report, Spain is the country with the highest rate of cocaine usage (3.0% of adults in the previous year).

^ Cocaine came to be seen as the major public health menace in this country (before AIDS), and the imagery previously associated with heroin was usurped by cocaine: .
  • Cocaine and the Concept of Addiction: Environmental Factors in Drug Compulsions 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.peele.net [Source type: Academic]

^ According to the Summer 1998 Pulse Check, published by the U.S. Office of National Drug Control Policy , cocaine use had stabilized across the country, with a few increases reported in San Diego , Bridgeport , Miami , and Boston .

[95] .Other countries where the usage rate meets or exceeds 1.5% are the United States (2.8%), England and Wales (2.4%), Canada (2.3%), Italy (2.1%), Bolivia (1.9%), Chile (1.8%), and Scotland (1.5%).^ According to the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime 2006 World Drug Report, the United States has the world's greatest rate of cocaine consumption by people aged 15 to 64, 2.8%.

^ At this meeting, two representatives of the United States Department of Justice (DOJ) reported on the supply of illicit drugs.
  • NIDA - About NIDA - Organization - CEWG Publications - Identifying and Monitoring Emerging Drug Use Problems - A Retrospective Analysis of Drug Abuse Data/Information 10 February 2010 14:47 UTC www.drugabuse.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ According to a 2007 United Nations report, Spain is the country with the highest rate of cocaine usage (3.0% of adults in the previous year).

[95]

In the United States

General usage

.Cocaine is the second most popular illegal recreational drug in the U.S. (behind marijuana)[96] and the U.S. is the world's largest consumer of cocaine.^ Ecstasy (86.6% of users) and cocaine (85.7% of users) were the two most-frequently reported club drugs used in combination with other substances.
  • CORK Bibliography: Cocaine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ To synthesize the results of marijuana, cocaine and opiate drug toxicology studies of homicide victims and examine variation in results across person and setting characteristics.
  • CORK Bibliography: Cocaine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Since the production of cocaine is illegal, it may be impure and mixtures with other drugs such as atropine may occur.
  • CORK Bibliography: Cocaine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

[89] .Cocaine is commonly used in middle to upper class communities.^ Cocaine is commonly used in middle to upper class communities.

^ The increased risk from the concomitant use of alcohol and cocaine is enhanced by the formation of a third active compound of toxicologic importance, namely, ethylbenzoylecgonine, commonly known as cocaethylene.
  • Toxicity, Cocaine: eMedicine Emergency Medicine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Conclusion: This pattern of amphetamine use, common among Swedish criminals, has relatively distinct boundaries from heroin and cocaine use, commonly involves injecting, and differs from other countries.
  • CORK Bibliography: Cocaine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

It is also popular amongst college students, as a party drug. .Its users span over different ages, races, and professions.^ Its users span over different ages, races, and professions.

^ Cocaine users were distinct from amphetamine users in age and race/ethnicity.
  • CORK Bibliography: Cocaine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ There were no statistically significant differences between dependent and non-dependent users for age of crack initiation or frequency of crack use.
  • CORK Bibliography: Crack Cocaine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

.In the 1970s and 80's, the drug became particularly popular in the disco culture as cocaine usage was very common and popular in many discos such as Studio 54.^ Cocaine is a major drug in club culture.
  • CORK Bibliography: Cocaine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Cocaine has been a popular illicit drug among drugusing pregnant women over the last three decades.
  • CORK Bibliography: Cocaine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The prevalence of drug abuse or dependence in the 50+ age group was very low (only 0-33% for any abuse or dependence, 0.12% for marijuana abuse or dependence, and 0.18% for cocaine abuse or dependence).
  • CORK Bibliography: Cocaine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

.The National Household Survey on Drug Abuse (NHSDA) reported in 1999 that cocaine was used by 3.7 million Americans, or 1.7% of the household population age 12 and older.^ What is his or her history of cocaine and other drug use?
  • Toxicity, Cocaine: eMedicine Emergency Medicine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Practical comments on the use and abuse of cocaine.

^ Drug use data were self-report.
  • CORK Bibliography: Cocaine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

.Estimates of the current number of those who use cocaine regularly (at least once per month) vary, but 1.5 million is a widely accepted figure within the research community.^ Estimates of the current number of those who use cocaine regularly (at least once per month) vary, but 1.5 million is a widely accepted figure within the research community.

^ Figures for annual use of cocaine were 6.1 million, of which 1.5 million had used crack.
  • Toxicity, Cocaine: eMedicine Emergency Medicine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Conclusion: About 5% of adolescents have used cocaine at least once in their lives.
  • CORK Bibliography: Cocaine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

.Although cocaine use had not significantly changed over the six years prior to 1999, the number of first-time users went up from 574,000 in 1991, to 934,000 in 1998 – an increase of 63%.^ Changing patterns of cocaine use.
  • Cocaine and the Concept of Addiction: Environmental Factors in Drug Compulsions 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.peele.net [Source type: Academic]

^ Although cocaine use had not significantly changed over the six years prior to 1999, the number of first-time users went up from 574,000 in 1991, to 934,000 in 1998 – an increase of 63%.

^ An 11-year follow-up of a network of cocaine users.
  • Cocaine and the Concept of Addiction: Environmental Factors in Drug Compulsions 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.peele.net [Source type: Academic]

.While these numbers indicated that cocaine is still widely present in the United States, cocaine use was significantly less prevalent than it was during the early 1980s.^ Cocaine use in the United States: In a blizzard or just being snowed?
  • Addiction Research Unit/Buffalo: Cocaine Addiction 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC wings.buffalo.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ While these numbers indicated that cocaine is still widely present in the United States, cocaine use was significantly less prevalent than it was during the early 1980s.

^ Cocaine use is prevalent across all socioeconomic strata, including age, demographics, economic, social, political, religious, and livelihood.

Usage among youth

.The 1999 Monitoring the Future (MTF) survey found the proportion of American students reporting use of powdered cocaine rose during the 1990s.^ Ecstasy (86.6% of users) and cocaine (85.7% of users) were the two most-frequently reported club drugs used in combination with other substances.
  • CORK Bibliography: Cocaine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ We examined these relations using six self-reported indices of cocaine dependence severity and three self-reported measures of treatment utilization and self-help group participation for cocaine dependence.
  • CORK Bibliography: Cocaine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The purpose of this work was to determine the validity of a self-report on recent drug use (cocaine and cannabis) in a sample of university students of both sexes and to explore the role of attitudes toward substance use as related to this report.
  • CORK Bibliography: Cocaine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

.In 1991, 2.3% of eighth-graders stated that they had used cocaine in their lifetime.^ In 1991, 2.3% of eighth-graders stated that they had used cocaine in their lifetime.

^ In this paper he declared coca and cocaine (at the time they were assumed to be the same) as being useful medicinally, in the treatment of “a furred tongue in the morning, flatulence , [and] whitening of the teeth.” .

^ Lifetime use of alcohol, tobacco, marijuana, and five other drugs (inhalants, tranquilizers, cocaine, crack, and ecstasy), and problems with drugs and alcohol were the outcome variables.
  • CORK Bibliography: Crack Cocaine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

.This figure rose to 4.7% in 1999. For the older grades, increases began in 1992 and continued through the beginning of 1999. Between those years, lifetime use of cocaine went from 3.3% to 7.7% for tenth-graders and from 6.1% to 9.8% for high school seniors.^ In 1991, 2.3% of eighth-graders stated that they had used cocaine in their lifetime.

^ For the older grades, increases began in 1992 and continued through the beginning of 1999.

^ Although cocaine use had not significantly changed over the six years prior to 1999, the number of first-time users went up from 574,000 in 1991, to 934,000 in 1998 – an increase of 63%.

Lifetime use of crack cocaine, according to MTF, also increased among eighth-, tenth-, and twelfth-graders, from an average of 2% in 1991 to 3.9% in 1999.
.Perceived risk and disapproval of cocaine and crack use both decreased during the 1990s at all three grade levels.^ PCP used with crack or powder cocaine .

^ Perceived risk and disapproval of cocaine and crack use both decreased during the 1990s at all three grade levels.

^ Cocaine use is prevalent across all socioeconomic strata, including age, demographics, economic, social, political, religious, and livelihood.

.The 1999 NHSDA found the highest rate of monthly cocaine use was for those aged 18–25 at 1.7%, an increase from 1.2% in 1997. Rates declined between 1996 and 1998 for ages 26–34, while rates slightly increased for the 12–17 and 35+ age groups.^ The 1999 NHSDA found the highest rate of monthly cocaine use was for those aged 18–25 at 1.7%, an increase from 1.2% in 1997.

^ Rates declined between 1996 and 1998 for ages 26–34, while rates slightly increased for the 12–17 and 35+ age groups.

^ Query patients in all age groups about their cocaine use.
  • Toxicity, Cocaine: eMedicine Emergency Medicine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

.Studies also show people are experimenting with cocaine at younger ages.^ Studies also show people are experimenting with cocaine at younger ages.

^ Granted, Obama seems of a different caliber than those people I knew with cocaine experience.
  • Change of Subject: Five reasons why the cocaine story is good for Obama 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC blogs.chicagotribune.com [Source type: General]

^ According to the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime 2006 World Drug Report, the United States has the world's greatest rate of cocaine consumption by people aged 15 to 64, 2.8%.

NHSDA found a steady decline in the mean age of first use from 23.6 years in 1992 to 20.6 years in 1998.

In Europe

General usage

.Cocaine is the second most popular illegal recreational drug in Europe (behind marijuana).^ Ecstasy (86.6% of users) and cocaine (85.7% of users) were the two most-frequently reported club drugs used in combination with other substances.
  • CORK Bibliography: Cocaine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ To synthesize the results of marijuana, cocaine and opiate drug toxicology studies of homicide victims and examine variation in results across person and setting characteristics.
  • CORK Bibliography: Cocaine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Since the production of cocaine is illegal, it may be impure and mixtures with other drugs such as atropine may occur.
  • CORK Bibliography: Cocaine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

.Since the mid-1990s, overall cocaine usage in Europe has been on the rise, but usage rates and attitudes tend to vary between countries.^ Interaction between Two Independent CNR1 Variants Increases Risk for Cocaine dependence in European Americans: A replication study in family-based sample and population-based sample.
  • CORK Bibliography: Cocaine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Results: The NPS studies show a rising trend in lifetime cocaine use, a fall in incidence, and a fall in continuation rates.
  • CORK Bibliography: Cocaine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ We also attempted to clarify the relationship between the pathophysiology of cocaine abuse and magnesium levels by investigating their association with various clinical dimensions.
  • CORK Bibliography: Cocaine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

Countries with the highest usage rates are: The United Kingdom, Spain, Italy, and Ireland.
.Approximately 12 million Europeans (3.6%) have used cocaine at least once, 4 million (1.2%) in the last year, and 2 million in the last month (0.5%).^ However, 31.0 versus 12.7% had unprotected sex with more than two occasional partners in the last 12 months; 45.0 versus 21.9% had sniffed through tubes used by more than 10 persons.
  • CORK Bibliography: Cocaine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Participants were 62% male, 40% Caucasian, and used cocaine an average of 13.8 days over the past month.
  • CORK Bibliography: Cocaine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The effects of both recent use (6 months prior) of recreational drugs and lagged exposure (i.e., use from 3 and 5 years prior) were examined.
  • CORK Bibliography: Cocaine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

Usage among young adults

.About 3.5 million or 87.5% of those who have used the drug in the last year are young adults (15–34 years old).^ Adults who have recently used MDMA should be screened for possible SUDs to ensure early detection and treatment.
  • CORK Bibliography: Cocaine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The major cohort differences and the widespread experience of cannabis use help to explain the diversity of opinion in New Zealand about how to deal with this drug.
  • CORK Bibliography: Cocaine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The effects of both recent use (6 months prior) of recreational drugs and lagged exposure (i.e., use from 3 and 5 years prior) were examined.
  • CORK Bibliography: Cocaine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

.Usage is particularly prevalent among this demographic: 4% to 7% of males have used cocaine in the last year in Spain, Denmark, Ireland, Italy, and the United Kingdom.^ Recruitment into cocaine use was associated with being Spanish, male, visiting Ibiza and drunkenness.
  • CORK Bibliography: Cocaine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Participants were 62% male, 40% Caucasian, and used cocaine an average of 13.8 days over the past month.
  • CORK Bibliography: Cocaine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Objectives: To determine the prevalence of cocaine use and associated risk factors in African Americans volunteering as research subjects for a hypertension study.
  • CORK Bibliography: Cocaine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

.The ratio of male to female users is approximately 3.8:1, but this statistic varies from 1:1 to 13:1 depending on country.^ Regardless of stimulants used, most female users were in the most severe or the physiological dependence group.
  • CORK Bibliography: Cocaine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Sleep and sleep-dependent learning are impaired in male cocaine users during abstinence, but for female users little is known.
  • CORK Bibliography: Cocaine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Recent findings: Stimulant dependence, in the form of cocaine or amphetamine/methamphetamine dependence, is prevalent worldwide, and their ratio may vary across different countries and regions of countries.
  • CORK Bibliography: Cocaine 6 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

[97]

See also

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