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Cocos Island National Park*
UNESCO World Heritage Site

Isla del coco.jpg
Cocos Island
State Party  Costa Rica
Type Natural
Criteria ix, x
Reference 820
Region** Central America
Inscription history
Inscription 1997  (21st Session)
Extensions 2002
* Name as inscribed on World Heritage List.
** Region as classified by UNESCO.

Cocos Island (Spanish: Isla del Coco) is an uninhabited island located off the shore of Costa Rica. It constitutes the 11th district[1] (one of 13) of Puntarenas Canton of the province of Puntarenas.[2]. It is one of the National Parks of Costa Rica. It is located in the Pacific Ocean, approximately 550 km (340 mi) from the Pacific shore of Costa Rica,[3] at 05°31′08″N 087°04′18″W / 5.51889°N 87.07167°W / 5.51889; -87.07167. With an area of approximately 23.85 km² (9.2 mi²), about 8×3 km (5×1.9 mi) and a perimeter of around 23.3 km[4] this island is more or less rectangular in shape.

Surrounded by deep waters with counter-currents, Cocos Island is admired by scuba divers for its populations of Hammerhead sharks, rays, dolphins and other large marine species. The extremely wet climate and oceanic character give Cocos an ecological character that is not shared with either the Galapagos Archipelago or any of the other islands (e.g., Malpelo or Coiba) in this region of the world[5]

Contents

Present status and international distinctions

Cocos Island was declared a Costa Rican National Park by means of Executive Decree in 1978.[1] Cocos Island National Park was designated a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1997. In 2002, the World Heritage Site designation was extended to include an expanded marine zone of 1,997 km². In addition, it is included in the list of "Wetlands of International Importance".[6]

Cocos Island was short-listed as a candidate to be one of the New7Wonders of Nature by the New Seven Wonders of the World Foundation. As of June 2009 it is ranking second in the islands category.[7]

Thanks to the breathtaking marine life in its waters (see Fauna section below), Cocos Island was named one of the best 10 scuba diving spots in the world by PADI (Professional Association of Diving Instructors) and a "must do" according to diving experts.[8] For many, the main attractions are the large pelagic species, which are very abundant in this unique meeting point between deep and shallow waters. The largest schools of hammerhead sharks in the World are consistently reported there. Encounters with dozens if not hundreds of these and other large animals are nearly certain in every dive. Smaller and colorful species area also abundant in one of the most extensive and rich reefs of the south eastern Pacific.[9] The famous oceanographer Jacques Cousteau visited the island several times and in 1994 called it "the most beautiful island in the world". These numerous accolades highlight the urgent need to protect Cocos Island and surrounding waters from illegal large-scale fishing, poaching and other problems (see Threats section below).

The only persons allowed to live on Cocos Island are Costa Rican Park Rangers, who have established two encampments, including one at English Bay. Tourists and ship crew members are allowed ashore only with permission of island rangers, and are not permitted to camp, stay overnight or collect any flora, fauna or minerals from the island.

This island is popular in pirate lore as well. It is said that over 300 expeditions have gone in search of treasure such as the hoard of Benito Bonito, the Treasure of Lima, and many others. Some incidents of small caches have been discovered, leading many to believe the stories of vast pirate treasures to be valid.

Geology and landscape

Orthographic projection centred over Cocos Island
A waterfall at Wafer Bay, Cocos Island

Cocos Island is an oceanic island of both volcanic and tectonic origin. It is the only emergent island of the Cocos Plate, one of the minor tectonic plates. An ArgonPotassium radiometric determination established the age of the oldest rocks between 1.91 and 2.44 million years (Late Pliocene)[10] and is composed primarily of basalt, which is formed by cooling lava. The landscape is mountainous and irregular and the summit is Cerro Iglesias at 575.5 m.[10] In spite of its mountainous character, there are flatter areas between 200–260 m in elevation in the central part of the island, which are said to be a transitional stage of the geomorphological cycle of V-shaped valleys.[11] With four bays, three of them in the north side (Wafer, Chatham and Weston), Cocos Island has a number of short rivers and streams that drain the abundant rainfall into them. The largest rivers are the Genio and the Pittier, which drain their water into Wafer Bay. The mountainous landscape and the tropical climate combine to create over 200 waterfalls throughout the island. The island's soils are classified as entisols which are highly acidic and could be easily eroded by the Island's high rainfall on the steep slopes, were it not for the dense forest coverage.

Climate

The climate of the island is mostly determined by the latitudinal movement of the Intertropical Convergence Zone which creates cloudiness and precipitation that is constant throughout the year.[12] This makes the climate in the island to be humid and tropical with an average annual temperature of 23.6 ºC (74.5 ºF) and an average annual rainfall of over 7,000 mm (275 in). Rainfall is high throughout the year, although lower from January through March and slightly lower during late September and October.[13] Numerous oceanic currents from the central Pacific Ocean that converge on the island also have an important influence.

Ecology

Chatham beach on Cocos Island

Cocos Island is home to dense and exuberant tropical moist forests. It is the only oceanic island in the eastern Pacific region with such rain forests and their characteristic types of flora and fauna. The cloud forests at higher elevations are also unique in the eastern Pacific. The island was never linked to a continent, so the flora and fauna arrived via long distance dispersal from the Americas. The island has therefore a high proportion of endemic species.

Flora

The island has 235 known species of flowering plants, of which 70, or nearly 30%, are endemic. A good comprehensive study on the flora of the island is provided in the journal Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences.[14] Also, 74 species of ferns and fern allies (lycopodiophytes and pteridophytes, see[15]), and 128 species of mosses and liverworts (bryophytes, see[16]), 90 species of fungi and 41 species of slimemolds[17] have been reported. Nevertheless, more exhaustive investigations are expected to reveal many more species. The island has three main plant communities. The coastal forests extend from the seacoast up to 50 meters elevation. Purple Coral Tree (Erythrina fusca), Coconut Palm (Cocos nucifera), and Pond-apple (Annona glabra) are the predominant trees, with an understory of ferns, shrubs of the Rubiaceae and Solanaceae families, sedges and grasses, and herbaceous plants of the Leguminosae and Malvaceae families.

The inland forests extend from 50 to 500 meters elevation. "Palo de hierro" or huriki (Sacoglottis holdridgei), "avocado" (Ocotea insularis) and the endemic Cecropia pittieri are the most common canopy trees. The trees are festooned at all levels with epiphytic plants, including as orchids, ferns, bromeliads and mosses. The understory includes sedges such as Hypolitrum amplum and various species of ferns and tree ferns including Cyathea armata and Danaea media. The endemic palm Rooseveltia frankliniana is also common.

Cloud forests are found at the highest elevations, over 500 meters. Melastoma spp. is predominant.

Fauna

Land fauna

The island has over 400 known species of insects, of which 65 (16%) are endemic. The greatest diversity is found among the Lepidoptera and Formicidae. Over 50 species of other arthropods have been described (spiders, centipedes, millipedes, and isopods).

Two species of lizard are found on the island, an anole (Norops townsendii) and a gecko (Sphaerodactylus pacificus); both are endemic. No amphibians have been reported.

Nearly 90 bird species have been reported. The island and neighboring rocks are home to large nesting colonies of migratory seabirds, including the Brown Booby (Sula leucogaster), Red-footed Booby (Sula sula), Great Frigatebird (Fregata minor), White Tern (Gygis alba) and Brown Noddy (Anous stolidus). Seven species of land birds inhabit the island, including three endemics: the Cocos Cuckoo (Coccyzus ferrugineus), Cocos Flycatcher (Nesotriccus ridgwayi) and Cocos Finch (Pinaroloxias inornata).

The island has five land mammal species, including pigs, deer, cats and rats. All these land mammals were introduced by humans. The Costa Rican government has vowed to control the populations of these animals, as they are harmful to the local ecosystems[18].

Marine fauna

The rich coral reef, volcanic tunnels, caves, massifs and deeper waters surrounding Cocos Island are home to more than 30 species of coral, 60 species of crustaceans, 600 species of molluscs and over 300 species of fish. These include large populations of yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares), giant mantas (Manta birostris), sailfish (Istiophorus platypterus) and sharks, such as Whitetip reef shark (Triaenodon obesus) and Scalloped hammerhead shark (Sphyrna lewini). The largest of all species of fish is also present, the whale shark (Rhincodon typus).

Other large marine animals include humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae), pilot whales (Globicephala macrorhynchus), bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus), sea lions (Zalophus californianus), hawksbill turtles (Eretmochelys imbricata), green turtles (Chelonia mydas) and olive ridley turtles (Lepidochelys olivacea).

History

Discovery of Cocos Island and early cartography

Cocos Island

J. Lines (Diario de Costa Rica, May 12, 1940) cites Fernández de Oviedo who claims that the first discoverer of the island was Johan Cabeças. Other sources claim that Joan Cabezas de Grado was not a Portuguese sailor but an Asturian. D. Lievre, Una isla desierta en el Pacífico; la isla del Coco in Los viajes de Cockburn y Lievre por Costa Rica (1962: 134) tells that the first document with the name "Isle de Coques" is a map painted on pergamen, called that of Henry II that appeared in 1542 during the reign of Francis I of France. The planisphere of Nicolás Desliens (1556, Dieppe) places this Ysle de Coques about one and half degrees north of the Equator. (See also Mario A. Boza and Rolando Mendoza, Los parques nacionales de Costa Rica, Madrid, 1981.) Blaeu's Grand Atlas, originally published in 1662, has a colour world map on the back of its front cover which shows I. de Cocos right on the Equator. Frederik De Witt's Atlas, 1680 shows it similarly. The Hondius Broadside map of 1590 shows I. de Cocos at the latitude of 2 degrees and 30 minutes northern latitude, while in 1596 Theodore de Bry shows the Galapagos Islands near 6 degrees north of the Equator. E. Bowen, A Complete system of Geography, Volume II (London, 1747: 586) tells that the Galapagos stretch 5 degrees north of the Equator.

Administrative history

The island became part of Costa Rica in 1832 by the decree No. 54 of the Constitutional Assembly of the free state of Costa Rica.

Whalers stopped at Cocos Island regularly until the mid-19th century, when their industry in the region collapsed due to overfishing.

In October 1863 the ship the "Adelante" dumped 426 Polynesian ex-slaves on the island, the captain being too lazy to bring them home as promised. When they were saved by the "Tumbes", one month later, only 38 were left over, the rest had already perished from smallpox. (See: 'Ata).

In 1897 the Costa Rican government named the German adventurer and treasure hunter August Gissler the first Governor of Cocos Island and allowed him to establish a short-lived colony there.

On May 12, 1970 the insular territory of Cocos Island was incorporated administratively into Central Canton of the Province of Puntarenas by means of Executive Decree No. 27, making it the Eleventh District of Central Canton. The island's 33 residents, the Costa Rican park rangers, were allowed to vote for the first time in Costa Rica's February 5, 2006 election.

Piracy and hidden treasures

In 1818 Captain Bennett Graham, a distinguished British naval officer put in charge of a coastal survey in the South Pacific aboard the HMS Devonshire, instead of his mission chose a life of piracy. He was eventually caught and executed along with his officers, the remainder of his crew being sent to a penal colony in Tasmania. Twenty years later, one of the crew, a woman named Mary Welch released from prison claimed to have witnessed the burial of Graham's fortune — 350 tons of gold bullion stolen from Spanish galleons - on Cocos Island. Moreover, she had a chart with compass bearings showing where the so-called "Devonshire Treasure" was buried. Graham had given it to her, she said, just before he was captured. Welch's story was believed and an expedition was organized to hunt for the treasure. Welch took part in it but on the island she said the lay of the land had changed so much that many of her identifying marks had disappeared. The expedition recovered nothing.

Benito Bonito, a Portuguese pirate, allegedly buried the Treasure of Lima on Cocos Island during the Peruvian War of Independence. Another version is that captain William Thompson was given treasures from Lima and ordered to sail them on his ship Mary Dear to safety. But the temptation was too great for he and his first mate, James Alexander Forbes. They slew the guards and hid the treasure on Cocos Island. The secret was transmitted to a friend of Thompson called John Keating in 1844.[19] [20]

Some believe that Keating has managed to retrieve part of the treasure. Later a descendant of James Alexander Forbes, John Forbes made five trips to the island, the last one in 1950.

Dangers threatening Cocos Island

The mostly unperturbed habitats are, however, under growing human pressure. Illegal poaching of large marine species in and around its protected waters has become a main concern[21]. Growing local and worldwide demand for tuna, shark fin soup and other seafood is threatening the island's fragile ecosystems[22]. The government of Costa Rica has been openly accused of passivity and even benefiting corruptly from illegal shark fin and other seafood trade to large markets, such as China and other Asian countries[23]. The government has shown some willingness to protect the island's natural richnesses and prosecute poachers[24]. However, efforts to effectively patrol the waters and enforce environmental laws face big financial and bureaucratic difficulties, as well as being prone to the corruption of local, national and international authorities.

Recent events show that large-scale illegal poaching keeps happening. Despite initial hope in stopping and charging poachers[25], who have been caught with abundant evidence[26], they have been quickly released under suspicious circumstances[27]. Also, efforts to raise funds for protection have been dwarfed.

Marvin Orlando Cerdas, a judge with the local Puntarenas Court of Justice, obscurely allowed 22 poachers caught red-handed to escape the country[27].

Also under highly suspicious and allegedly corrupt circumstances, the District Attorney Michael Morales Molina, stopped the auction for public benefit of confiscated goods, immediately after the spokesman of the large illegal poacher ship "Tiuna" simply made the request[28].

Cocos Island in fiction

The book Desert Island[29] proposed the highly detailed theory that Daniel Defoe used the Isla dell Cocoze as an accurate model for his descriptions of the island inhabited by the marooned Robinson Crusoe. However Defoe placed Crusoe's island not in the Pacific, but rather off the coast of Venezuela in the Atlantic Ocean.[30]

Robinson's neighbouring Terra Firma is shown on the colour map of Joannes Jansson (Amsterdam) depicting the northeastern corner of South America, entitled Terra Firma et Novum Regnum Granatense et Popayan. It belongs to the early group of plates printed by William Blaeu from 1630 onwards. The properly called Terra Firma was the Isthmus of Darien.[31] Crusoe's two references to Mexico are against a South American island as well.

The Michael Crichton novel Jurassic Park centers on the fictitious Isla Nublar that is off of the west coast of Costa Rica. Isla del Coco may be the inspiration for this island. Supporting this argument is the Dreamworks Interactive game Jurassic Park: Trespasser (1998) which used Cocos Island's topography as a substitute for the fictional island on which it takes place. Also, "Isla Nublar" is intended to mean "Cloudy Island", and Cocos Island is the only island with cloud forests in the eastern Pacific.

References

  1. ^ a b Isla Coco
  2. ^ GUIA DE CODIGOS TRIBUTARIOS
  3. ^ Hogue, C. and Miller, S. 1981. Entomofauna of Cocos Island, Costa Rica. Atoll Research Bulletin 250: 1–29.
  4. ^ Montoya, M. 2007. Conozca la Isla del Coco: una guía para su visitación. In Biocursos para amantes de la naturaleza: Conozca el parque nacional Isla del Coco, la isla del tesoro (26 abril al 6 de mayo 2007). (ed. Organization for Tropical Studies). Organization for Tropical Studies. San José, Costa Rica. 35–176.
  5. ^ Kirkendall, L. and Jordal, B. 2006. The bark and ambrosia beetles (Curculionidae, Scolytinae) of Cocos Island, Costa Rica and the role of mating systems in island zoogeography. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 89(4): 729–743.
  6. ^ Ramsar Convention text in English
  7. ^ New 7 Wonders of the Word: Live Ranking
  8. ^ World's 10 best scuba spots - Active - MSNBC.com
  9. ^ Guzmán, H. M. and Cortés, J. (1992). Cocos Island (Pacific of Costa Rica) coral reefs after the 1982-83 El Niño disturbance. Revista de Biología Tropical 40: 309–324.
  10. ^ a b Castillo, P., Batiza, R., Vanko, D., Malavassi, E., Barquero, J., and Fernandez, E. 1988. Anomalously young volcanoes on old hot-spot traces. I. Geology and petrology of Cocos Island. Geological Society of America Bulletin 100: 1400–1414.
  11. ^ Malavassi, E. 1982. Visita al Parque Nacional Isla del Coco. Revista Geográfica de América Central (15–16): 211–216.
  12. ^ Herrera, W. 1984. Informe de campo. Gira realizada a la Isla del Coco con el objetivo de recabar información climatológica. San José, Servicio de Parques Nacionales, 6 p.
  13. ^ Sinergia 69. 2000. Volumen 2. Aspectos meteorológicos y climatológico del ACMIC y su área de influencia. San José, Proyecto GEF/PNUD Conocimiento y uso de la biodiversidad del ACMIC, 184 p.
  14. ^ Trusty, J.L., Kesler, H.C. and Haug-Delgado, G. 2006. Vascular flora of Isla del Coco, Costa Rica. Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences (Fourth Series) 57(7): 247–355.
  15. ^ Gomez, L.D. 1975. The Ferns and Fern-Allies of Cocos Island, Costa Rica. American Fern Journal 65 (4): 102–104.
  16. ^ Dauphin G. 1999. Bryophytes of Cocos Island, Costa Rica: diversity, biogeography and ecology. Revista de Biología Tropical. 47:309–328
  17. ^ Rojas, C. and Stephenson, S.L. 2008. Myxomycete ecology along an elevation gradient on Cocos Island, Costa Rica. Fungal Diversity 29: 119–129.
  18. ^ País en guerra contra especies invasoras de isla del Coco - ALDEA GLOBAL - nacion.com
  19. ^ Reagen Smith (November 26, 2007). "A history of buried treasure on Coco's Island by Reagen Smith". Daryl Friesen. http://www.bc-alter.net/dfriesen/cocosleads.html.  
  20. ^ Lost Loot of Lima at Treasureisland.com
  21. ^ Eco-Exchange - April-May 2001 - Modern-Day Pirates Plunder Saltwater Booty Near Costa Rica's Fabled Cocos Island
  22. ^ 38 Million Sharks Killed for Fins Annually, Experts Estimate
  23. ^ CNN.com - Transcripts
  24. ^ Costa Rica Court Rules for Sea Turtles, Jails Captain
  25. ^ Cae atunero con pesca ilegal en Isla del Coco - EL PAÍS - nacion.com
  26. ^ El ‘Tiuna’ traía más de 280 toneladas de atún y explosivos - EL PAÍS - nacion.com
  27. ^ a b Juez puntarenense levanta medidas cautelares a atuneros - EL PAÍS - nacion.com
  28. ^ Dall’Anese: ‘La isla del Coco está perdida’ - EL PAÍS - nacion.com
  29. ^ Robinson Crusoe Enterprises, North Vancouver, 1996
  30. ^ See discussion page for further details.
  31. ^ Bowen, 1747: 593, and Charles Theodore Middleton, A new and Complete System of Geography, Volume II (London, printed for J. Cooke, 1777–1778, page 448

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