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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Coffee
A cup of coffee.
A cup of black coffee
Type Hot or cold beverage
Country of origin Ethiopia
Introduced Approx. 15th century (beverage)
Color Dark brown, beige, black
.Coffee is a brewed drink prepared from roasted seeds, commonly called coffee beans, of the coffee plant.^ Dinner Roast beef, potaotes, green corn, egg plant, succotash, watermelon, cake, cheese, wafers, and coffee.
  • TheFood Timeline: popular American decade foods, menus, products & party planningtips 13 January 2010 23:44 UTC www.foodtimeline.org [Source type: General]

^ A guide to identifying, collecting, and preparing twenty wild plants commonly found in and around fields, forests, and streams.

^ Veal paprika, noodles with poppy seeds, string beans, a salad of greens, velvet pie, orange mint julep, coffee.
  • TheFood Timeline: popular American decade foods, menus, products & party planningtips 13 January 2010 23:44 UTC www.foodtimeline.org [Source type: General]

They are seeds of coffee cherries that grow on trees in over 70 countries. .Green (unroasted) coffee is one of the most traded agricultural commodities in the world.^ "Kopi Luwak", the world's most expensive coffee.
  • The 6 Most Terrifying Foods in the World | Cracked.com 13 January 2010 23:44 UTC www.cracked.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We are one of the most wasteful when it comes to food, because we are willing to rape half the world so we can keep gorging ourselves on steak.
  • The 6 Most Terrifying Foods in the World | Cracked.com 13 January 2010 23:44 UTC www.cracked.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ PM ginakim I checked out the 6 Most Terrifying Foods in the World and my goodness, the only one I could see myself eating is the Pacha and Balut.
  • The 6 Most Terrifying Foods in the World | Cracked.com 13 January 2010 23:44 UTC www.cracked.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[1] Due to its caffeine content, coffee can have a stimulating effect in humans. .Today, coffee is one of the most popular beverages worldwide.^ "There is no question that the most popular cocktail in the world today is the Martini.
  • TheFood Timeline: popular American decade foods, menus, products & party planningtips 13 January 2010 23:44 UTC www.foodtimeline.org [Source type: General]

[2]
It is thought that the energizing effect of the coffee bean plant was first recognized in Yemen in Arabia and the north east of Ethiopia, and the cultivation of coffee first expanded in the Arab world.[3] The earliest credible evidence of coffee drinking appears in the middle of the fifteenth century, in the Sufi monasteries of the Yemen in southern Arabia.[3] From the Muslim world, coffee spread to Italy, then to the rest of Europe, to Indonesia, and to the Americas.[4] .Coffee has played an important role in many societies throughout history.^ Balut plays an important role in their diet because it will help them not to be nutrient deficient.
  • The 6 Most Terrifying Foods in the World | Cracked.com 13 January 2010 23:44 UTC www.cracked.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ AM Cooper88 *Balut plays an important role in their diet because it helps them not to be nutrient deficient.
  • The 6 Most Terrifying Foods in the World | Cracked.com 13 January 2010 23:44 UTC www.cracked.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In Africa and Yemen, it was used in religious ceremonies. As a result, the Ethiopian Church banned its secular consumption until the reign of Emperor Menelik II of Ethiopia.[5] It was banned in Ottoman Turkey during the 17th century for political reasons,[6] and was associated with rebellious political activities in Europe.
Coffee berries, which contain the coffee seed, or "bean", are produced by several species of small evergreen bush of the genus Coffea. The two most commonly grown are the highly regarded Coffea arabica, and the 'robusta' form of the hardier Coffea canephora. The latter is resistant to the devastating coffee leaf rust (Hemileia vastatrix). Both are cultivated primarily in Latin America, Southeast Asia, and Africa. Once ripe, coffee berries are picked, processed, and dried. The seeds are then roasted to varying degrees, depending on the desired flavor. They are then ground and brewed to create coffee. Coffee can be prepared and presented in a variety of ways.
An important export commodity, coffee was the top agricultural export for twelve countries in 2004,[7] and it was the world's seventh-largest legal agricultural export by value in 2005.[8] Some controversy is associated with coffee cultivation and its impact on the environment. Many studies have examined the relationship between coffee consumption and certain medical conditions; whether the overall effects of coffee are ultimately positive or negative has been widely disputed.[9] However, the method of brewing coffee has been found to be important.[10]

Contents

Etymology

The first reference to "coffee" in the English language, in the form chaoua, dates to 1598. In English and other European languages, coffee derives from the Ottoman Turkish kahve, via the Italian caffè. The Turkish word in turn was borrowed from the Arabic: قهوة‎, qahwah. .Arab lexicographers maintain that qahwah originally referred to a type of wine, and gave its etymology, in turn, to the verb qahiya, signifying "to have no appetite",[11] since this beverage was thought to dull one's hunger.^ Since I seem to inhale any bacon in front me too quickly for a thoughtful taste test, I turned to Cooks Illustrated , my favorite food magazine ever.
  • Tonynet Explorer: Food and Drink Archives 22 September 2009 13:28 UTC www.tonychor.com [Source type: General]

^ "For one speakeasy with pretensions to any sort of elegance, there were dozens of drab cellar or tenement bars where no mone or thought was wasted on decor.
  • TheFood Timeline: popular American decade foods, menus, products & party planningtips 13 January 2010 23:44 UTC www.foodtimeline.org [Source type: General]

.Several alternative etymologies exist that hold that the Arab form may disguise a loanword from an Ethiopian or African source, suggesting Kaffa, the highland in southwestern Ethiopia as one, since the plant is indigenous to that area.^ If you have only one shaker, Martinis and Manhattans may be stirred and served in pitches form which they may be poured into the cocktail glasses in the living room.
  • TheFood Timeline: popular American decade foods, menus, products & party planningtips 13 January 2010 23:44 UTC www.foodtimeline.org [Source type: General]

[11][12] Instead, the term qahwah is not given to the berry or plant locally there, which is called bunn, the native name in Shoa being būn.'[11]

Biology

Illustration of a single branch of a plant. Broad, ribbed leaves are accented by small white flowers at the base of the stalk. On the edge of the drawing are cutaway diagrams of parts of the plant.
Illustration of Coffea arabica plant and seeds
Several species of shrub of the genus Coffea produce the berries from which coffee is extracted. The two main species commercially cultivated are Coffea canephora (predominantly a form known as 'robusta') and C. arabica.[13] Coffea arabica, the original and most highly regarded species, is native to the southwestern highlands of Ethiopia and the Boma Plateau in southeastern Sudan and possibly Mount Marsabit in northern Kenya.[14] C. canephora is native to western and central subsaharan Africa, from Guinea to the Uganda and southern Sudan.[15]
Less popular species are C. liberica, excelsa, stenophylla, mauritiana, and racemosa. They are classified in the large family Rubiaceae. They are evergreen shrubs or small trees that may grow 5 m (15 ft) tall when unpruned. The leaves are dark green and glossy, usually 10–15 cm (4–6 in) long and 6 cm (2.4 in) wide. Clusters of fragrant white flowers bloom simultaneously and are followed by oval berries of about 1.5 cm (0.6 in).[16] Green when immature, they ripen to yellow, then crimson, before turning black on drying. .Each berry usually contains two seeds, but 5–10% of the berries[17] have only one; these are called peaberries.^ By then, Gyorg's gobble-up attack will only cost you one heart instead of two.
  • The Legend of Zelda: Majora's Mask N64 Cheats 25 September 2009 5:05 UTC www.neoseeker.com [Source type: General]

[18] Berries ripen in seven to nine months.

Cultivation

Coffee is usually propagated by seeds. The traditional method of planting coffee is to put 20 seeds in each hole at the beginning of the rainy season; half are eliminated naturally. A more effective method of growing coffee, used in Brazil, is to raise seedlings in nurseries that are then planted outside at six to twelve months. .Coffee is often intercropped with food crops, such as corn, beans, or rice, during the first few years of cultivation.^ Describes the kinds of foods grown and prepared by the Pilgrims during their first years in America, and their dependence upon Native people to ward off starvation.

^ Dinner pea soup, veal pot pie, Lima beans, carrots, corn, peach meringue, cake, fresh fruits, coffee.
  • TheFood Timeline: popular American decade foods, menus, products & party planningtips 13 January 2010 23:44 UTC www.foodtimeline.org [Source type: General]

[16]
Map showing areas of coffee cultivation:
r:Coffea canephora
m:Coffea canephora and Coffea arabica
a:Coffea arabica
.Of the two main species grown, arabica coffee (from C. arabica) is generally more highly regarded than robusta coffee (from C. canephora); robusta tends to be bitter and have less flavor but better body than arabica.^ After I scarfed these two tarts down, I ate the sugar puff; this might have been even better than the dan ta .
  • Tonynet Explorer: Food and Drink Archives 22 September 2009 13:28 UTC www.tonychor.com [Source type: General]

^ I decided I liked the Hood Canal oysters a bit more than the Puget Sound oysters; they're a bit less salty and bit sweeter.
  • Tonynet Explorer: Food and Drink Archives 22 September 2009 13:28 UTC www.tonychor.com [Source type: General]

^ Special microwave dishes for bacon: - They tend to melt after the first batch or two!

For these reasons, about three-quarters of coffee cultivated worldwide is C. arabica.[13] However, C. canephora is less susceptible to disease than C. arabica and can be cultivated in lower altitudes and warmer climates where C. arabica will not thrive. The Robusta strain was first collected in 1890 from the Lomani, a tributary of the Congo River, and was conveyed from Zaire to Brussels to Java around 1900. From Java, further breeding resulted in the establishment of Robusta plantations in many countries.[19] In particular, the spread of the devastating coffee leaf rust (Hemileia vastatrix), to which C. arabica is vulnerable, hastened the uptake of the resistant Robusta. Coffee leaf rust is found in virtually all countries that produce coffee.[20]
.Robusta coffee also contains about 40–50% more caffeine than arabica.^ Here at the restaurant this is done in a convection oven so it runs about 50 degrees hotter than the conventional oven.

^ More than 40 points: You are hardcore.
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[21] For this reason, it is used as an inexpensive substitute for arabica in many commercial coffee blends. .Good quality robusta beans are used in some espresso blends to provide a full-bodied taste, a better foam head known as crema, and to lower the ingredient cost.^ Use the subject headings "menus" "meals" and "dining" to locate articles printed in popular magazines such as the Ladies Home Journal , Family Circle , Good Housekeeping , American Home , Better Homes and Gardens , and Southern Living .
  • TheFood Timeline: popular American decade foods, menus, products & party planningtips 13 January 2010 23:44 UTC www.foodtimeline.org [Source type: General]

^ We had a pretty good evening as far as air quality goes (better than in the photo from their website above) so the view was nice.
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^ Some say it's the best in Tokyo, and I can't imagine better tasting ramen."
  • Tonynet Explorer: Food and Drink Archives 22 September 2009 13:28 UTC www.tonychor.com [Source type: General]

[22]
Arabica coffee beans are cultivated in Latin America, eastern Africa, Arabia, or Asia. .Robusta coffee beans are grown in western and central Africa, throughout southeast Asia, and to some extent in Brazil.^ I figured I had nothing to lose by buying two, so I picked them up along with some coffee beans (how can you not buy coffee when you're on the island of Java?
  • Tonynet Explorer: Food and Drink Archives 22 September 2009 13:28 UTC www.tonychor.com [Source type: General]

[13] .Beans from different countries or regions can usually be distinguished by differences in flavor, aroma, body, or acidity.^ Aidells, B. and D. Kelly, Hot links & country flavors : sausages in American regional cooking .

[23] These taste characteristics are dependent not only on the coffee's growing region, but also on genetic subspecies (varietals) and processing.[24] Varietals are generally known by the region in which they are grown, such as Colombian, Java or Kona.

Production

Brazil is the world leader in production of green coffee, followed by Vietnam and Colombia,[25] the last of which produces a much softer coffee.[citation needed]
Worldwide coffee yield
2007 Top twenty green coffee producers
Country Tonnes[26] Bags thousands[27]
 Brazil 2,249,010 36,070
 Vietnam 961,200 16,467
 Colombia 697,377 12,515
 Indonesia 676,475 7,751
 Ethiopia[note 1] 325,800 4,906
 India 288,000 4,148
 Mexico 268,565 4,150
 Guatemala[note 1] 252,000 4,100
 Peru 225,992 2,953
 Honduras 217,951 3,842
 Côte d'Ivoire 170,849 2,150
 Uganda 168,000 3,250
 Costa Rica 124,055 1,791
 Philippines 97,877 431
 El Salvador 95,456 1,626
 Nicaragua 90,909 1,700
 Papua New Guinea[note 1] 75,400 968
 Venezuela 70,311 897
 Madagascar[note 2] 62,000 604
 Thailand 55,660 653
  World[note 3] 7,742,675 117,319

Ecological effects

A cluster of bushes with drooping leaves and long chains of flowers sits in a clearing, surrounded by forest.
A flowering Coffea arabica tree in a Brazilian plantation
Originally, coffee farming was done in the shade of trees that provided a habitat for many animals and insects.[28] This method is commonly referred to as the traditional shaded method, or "shade-grown". Starting in the 1970s, many farmers switched their production method to sun cultivation, in which coffee is grown in rows under full sun with little or no forest canopy. This causes berries to ripen more rapidly and bushes to produce higher yields, but requires the clearing of trees and increased use of fertilizer and pesticides, which damage the environment and cause health problems.[29] When compared with the sun cultivation method, traditional coffee production causes berries to ripen more slowly and produce lower yields, but the quality of the coffee is allegedly superior.[30] In addition, the traditional shaded method is environmentally friendly and provides living space for many wildlife species. Opponents of sun cultivation say environmental problems such as deforestation, pesticide pollution, habitat destruction, and soil and water degradation are the side effects of these practices.[28] The American Birding Association, Smithsonian Migratory Bird Center,[31] National Arbor Day Foundation,[32] and the Rainforest Alliance have led a campaign for "shade-grown" and organic coffees, which may be sustainably harvested.[33] However, while certain types of shaded coffee cultivation systems show greater biodiversity than full-sun systems, they still compare poorly to native forest in terms of habitat value.[34][35]
Another issue concerning coffee is its use of water. .According to New Scientist, if using industrial farming practices, it takes about 140 liters of water to grow the coffee beans needed to produce one cup of coffee, and the coffee is often grown in countries where there is a water shortage, such as Ethiopia.^ I discovered the time it takes a new batch to cool off and get eaten is about the time it takes to bake the next batch.
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^ But unlike the food crises which used to rack the pre-industrial world, this one took place among food surpluses, not shortages."
  • TheFood Timeline: popular American decade foods, menus, products & party planningtips 13 January 2010 23:44 UTC www.foodtimeline.org [Source type: General]

^ The whole process takes only about two minutes, a minute shorter than instant cup noodles.
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[36] By using sustainable agriculture methods, the amount of water usage can be dramatically reduced, while retaining comparable yields.
Coffee grounds may be used for composting or as a mulch. They are especially appreciated by worms and acid-loving plants such as blueberries.[37]

Processing

Roasting

Coffee berries and their seeds undergo several processes before they become the familiar roasted coffee. First, coffee berries are picked, generally by hand. Then they are sorted by ripeness and color and the flesh of the berry is removed, usually by machine, and the seeds—usually called beans—are fermented to remove the slimy layer of mucilage still present on the bean. When the fermentation is finished, the beans are washed with large quantities of fresh water to remove the fermentation residue, which generates massive amounts of coffee wastewater. Finally, the seeds are dried. .The best (but least utilized) method of drying coffee is using drying tables.^ The consensus around the table seemed to be that this one was the best wine of the night, even though it was the least expense (although still not cheap...
  • Tonynet Explorer: Food and Drink Archives 22 September 2009 13:28 UTC www.tonychor.com [Source type: General]

In this method the pulped and fermented coffee is spread thinly on raised beds, which allows the air to pass on all sides of the coffee, and then the coffee is mixed by hand. .In this method the drying that takes place is more uniform, and fermentation is less likely.^ I decided I liked the Hood Canal oysters a bit more than the Puget Sound oysters; they're a bit less salty and bit sweeter.
  • Tonynet Explorer: Food and Drink Archives 22 September 2009 13:28 UTC www.tonychor.com [Source type: General]

.Most African Coffee is dried in this manner and certain coffee farms around the world are starting to use this traditional method.^ "Kopi Luwak", the world's most expensive coffee.
  • The 6 Most Terrifying Foods in the World | Cracked.com 13 January 2010 23:44 UTC www.cracked.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A 1968 BATF directive specifies "whisky" as the official U.S. spelling, but allows labeling as "whiskey" in deference to tradition, and most U.S. producers still use the latter spelling.
  • Tonynet Explorer: Food and Drink Archives 22 September 2009 13:28 UTC www.tonychor.com [Source type: General]

Next, the coffee is sorted, and labeled as green coffee. Another way to let the coffee beans dry is to let them sit on a cement patio and rake over them in the sunlight. .Some companies use cylinders to pump in heated air to dry the coffee beans, though this is generally in places where the humidity is very high.^ I figured I had nothing to lose by buying two, so I picked them up along with some coffee beans (how can you not buy coffee when you're on the island of Java?
  • Tonynet Explorer: Food and Drink Archives 22 September 2009 13:28 UTC www.tonychor.com [Source type: General]

[38]
.The next step in the process is the roasting of the green coffee.^ Dinner Roast beef, potaotes, green corn, egg plant, succotash, watermelon, cake, cheese, wafers, and coffee.
  • TheFood Timeline: popular American decade foods, menus, products & party planningtips 13 January 2010 23:44 UTC www.foodtimeline.org [Source type: General]

.Coffee is usually sold in a roasted state, and with rare exceptions all coffee is roasted before it is consumed.^ Now, if I only had some patience to let the coals get to the right state before I start cooking, I might figure this grilling thing out after all.
  • Tonynet Explorer: Food and Drink Archives 22 September 2009 13:28 UTC www.tonychor.com [Source type: General]

It can be sold roasted by the supplier, or it can be home roasted.[39] The roasting process influences the taste of the beverage by changing the coffee bean both physically and chemically. The bean decreases in weight as moisture is lost and increases in volume, causing it to become less dense. The density of the bean also influences the strength of the coffee and requirements for packaging. The actual roasting begins when the temperature inside the bean reaches approximately 200 °C (392 °F), though different varieties of beans differ in moisture and density and therefore roast at different rates.[40] During roasting, caramelization occurs as intense heat breaks down starches in the bean, changing them to simple sugars that begin to brown, changing the color of the bean.[41] Sucrose is rapidly lost during the roasting process and may disappear entirely in darker roasts. During roasting, aromatic oils, acids, and caffeine weaken, changing the flavor; at 205 °C (401 °F), other oils start to develop.[40] .One of these oils is caffeol, created at about 200 °C (392 °F), which is largely responsible for coffee's aroma and flavor.^ Or hunt about for one of the very little known Swedish punches-and these are powerful too.
  • TheFood Timeline: popular American decade foods, menus, products & party planningtips 13 January 2010 23:44 UTC www.foodtimeline.org [Source type: General]

^ Today persons in need of one of these nickel meals must go to one of the 90 welfare organizations scattered about the city for a ticket.
  • TheFood Timeline: popular American decade foods, menus, products & party planningtips 13 January 2010 23:44 UTC www.foodtimeline.org [Source type: General]

[42]
.Depending on the color of the roasted beans as perceived by the human eye, they will be labeled as light, medium light, medium, medium dark, dark, or very dark.^ This is a delicate whisky with a very light color -- quite a contrast from the darker, very sherried taste that defines the Macallan palate to me.
  • Tonynet Explorer: Food and Drink Archives 22 September 2009 13:28 UTC www.tonychor.com [Source type: General]

A more accurate method of discerning the degree of roast involves measuring the reflected light from roasted beans illuminated with a light source in the near infrared spectrum. This elaborate light meter uses a process known as spectroscopy to return a number that consistently indicates the roasted coffee's relative degree of roast or flavor development. .Such devices are routinely used for quality assurance by coffee-roasting businesses.^ Instructions for sewing such useful camping items as a backpack, duffle bag, and tent and for cooking over a camp fire or with an easily constructed reflector oven or roasting pit.

[citation needed]
.Darker roasts are generally smoother, because they have less fiber content and a more sugary flavor.^ The veggies are way more flavorful than grocery store veggies both because they're much fresher and because the varieties are chosen for their flavor not shelf-life, harvestability, or good looks.
  • Tonynet Explorer: Food and Drink Archives 22 September 2009 13:28 UTC www.tonychor.com [Source type: General]

^ Irish whiskey can be a bit smoother but scotch is has more interesting flavors as result.
  • Tonynet Explorer: Food and Drink Archives 22 September 2009 13:28 UTC www.tonychor.com [Source type: General]

^ I decided I liked the Hood Canal oysters a bit more than the Puget Sound oysters; they're a bit less salty and bit sweeter.
  • Tonynet Explorer: Food and Drink Archives 22 September 2009 13:28 UTC www.tonychor.com [Source type: General]

.Lighter roasts have more caffeine and a stronger flavor from aromatic oils and acids otherwise destroyed by longer roasting times.^ A little vegetable oil on the paper before you crumple it up seems to make the paper last longer so the charcoal has time to catch.
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[43] A small amount of chaff is produced during roasting from the skin left on the bean after processing.[44] .Chaff is usually removed from the beans by air movement, though a small amount is added to dark roast coffees to soak up oils on the beans.^ I figured I had nothing to lose by buying two, so I picked them up along with some coffee beans (how can you not buy coffee when you're on the island of Java?
  • Tonynet Explorer: Food and Drink Archives 22 September 2009 13:28 UTC www.tonychor.com [Source type: General]

[40] Decaffeination may also be part of the processing that coffee seeds undergo. Seeds are decaffeinated when they are still green. .Many methods can remove caffeine from coffee, but all involve either soaking beans in hot water or steaming them, then using a solvent to dissolve caffeine-containing oils.^ Deviled eggs, sardine sandwiches, olives, spreading cheese and green pepper sandwiches, fruit, hot water gingerbread, coffee.
  • TheFood Timeline: popular American decade foods, menus, products & party planningtips 13 January 2010 23:44 UTC www.foodtimeline.org [Source type: General]

^ For hot buffets, there are many marvelous things to serve as a change from the good, but too familiar, Boston baked beans and spaghetti with meat sauce.
  • TheFood Timeline: popular American decade foods, menus, products & party planningtips 13 January 2010 23:44 UTC www.foodtimeline.org [Source type: General]

[42] Decaffeination is often done by processing companies, and the extracted caffeine is usually sold to the pharmaceutical industry.[42]

Storage

.Once roasted, coffee beans must be stored properly to preserve the fresh taste of the bean.^ Dinner pea soup, veal pot pie, Lima beans, carrots, corn, peach meringue, cake, fresh fruits, coffee.
  • TheFood Timeline: popular American decade foods, menus, products & party planningtips 13 January 2010 23:44 UTC www.foodtimeline.org [Source type: General]

Ideally, the container must be airtight and kept cool. In order of importance: air, moisture, heat, and light are the environmental factors[45] responsible for deteriorating flavor in coffee beans.
Folded-over bags, a common way consumers often purchase coffee, are generally not ideal for long-term storage because they allow air to enter. A better package contains a one-way valve, which prevents air from entering.[45]

Preparation

Two clear mugs sit on a shiny steel grating. A metal contraption with a black handle has a dual spout at its bottom that pours thick, rusty orange liquid into the cups.
Espresso brewing, with dark reddish-brown crema
Coffee beans must be ground and brewed in order to create a beverage. .Almost all methods of preparing coffee require the beans to be ground and mixed with hot water for long enough to extract the flavor, but without boiling for more than an instant; boiling develops an unpleasant "cooked" flavor.^ Deviled eggs, sardine sandwiches, olives, spreading cheese and green pepper sandwiches, fruit, hot water gingerbread, coffee.
  • TheFood Timeline: popular American decade foods, menus, products & party planningtips 13 January 2010 23:44 UTC www.foodtimeline.org [Source type: General]

^ Prohibition also brought about cooking wines and artificially flavored brandy, sherry, and rum extracts.
  • TheFood Timeline: popular American decade foods, menus, products & party planningtips 13 January 2010 23:44 UTC www.foodtimeline.org [Source type: General]

^ You use fire (1 point) The fire department has been called when you were cooking burgers (2 points) They stayed for the burgers (3 points) You have a burger “recipe” (1 point) You have more than 6 burger “recipes” (3 points) You have had family arguments about what burger “recipe” you would be making (2 points) You have at least three distinct recipes for “cheeseburgers” that require specific cheeses (i.e.
  • Tonynet Explorer: Food and Drink Archives 22 September 2009 13:28 UTC www.tonychor.com [Source type: General]

Finally the spent grounds are removed from the liquid, and the liquid is drunk. .There are many variations in the fineness of grind, the ways in which the water extracts the flavor, additional flavorings (sugar, milk, spices), and the removal of the spent grounds.^ As usual, there were many fine whiskies.
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^ The flavors and texture are amazing; for instance, in the caramel, there's a lovely burned-sugar taste.
  • Tonynet Explorer: Food and Drink Archives 22 September 2009 13:28 UTC www.tonychor.com [Source type: General]

The ideal holding temperature is 79 to 85 °C (174 to 185 °F) and the ideal serving temperature is 68 to 79 °C (154 to 174 °F).
The criteria for choosing a method include flavor and economy. Extracting as much as possible from the beans (for economy) tends to impair flavor[citation needed].
The roasted coffee beans may be ground at a roastery, in a grocery store, or in the home. Most coffee is roasted and ground at a roastery and sold in packaged form, though roasted coffee beans can be ground at home immediately before consumption. It is also possible, though uncommon, to roast raw beans at home.
Coffee beans may be ground in several ways. A burr mill uses revolving elements to shear the bean; an electric grinder smashes the beans with blunt blades moving at high speed; and a mortar and pestle crushes the beans. For most brewing methods, a burr mill is deemed superior because the grind is more even and the grind size can be adjusted.
The type of grind is often named after the brewing method for which it is generally used. Turkish grind is the finest grind, while coffee percolator or French press are the coarsest grinds. The most common grinds are between the extremes; a medium grind is used in most common home coffee-brewing machines.[46]
Coffee may be brewed by several methods: boiled, steeped, or pressured.
Brewing coffee by boiling was the earliest method, and Turkish coffee is an example of this method.[47] .It is prepared by grinding or pounding the beans to a fine powder, then adding it to water and bringing it to the boil for no more than an instant in a pot called a cezve or, in Greek, a bríki.^ Meteigner, J.F. and B.L. Binns, Cuisine naturelle : more than 140 simple, elegant recipes that bring a revolution in French cooking to your kitchen .

^ It was definitely more refined and lighter than the younger Fine Oaks (I love this whole line, I admit).
  • Tonynet Explorer: Food and Drink Archives 22 September 2009 13:28 UTC www.tonychor.com [Source type: General]

^ The chef stands about 4-5 feet from the boiling water, pulls the dough from behind him and throws the single strand into the pot.
  • Tonynet Explorer: Food and Drink Archives 22 September 2009 13:28 UTC www.tonychor.com [Source type: General]

This produces a strong coffee with a layer of foam on the surface and sediment (which is not meant for drinking) settling on the bottom of the cup.[47]
Coffee percolators and automatic coffeemakers brew coffee using gravity. In an automatic coffeemaker hot water drips onto coffee grounds held in a coffee filter made of paper, plastic, or perforated metal, allowing the water to seep through the ground coffee while extracting its oils and essences. The liquid drips through the coffee and the filter into a carafe or pot, and the spent grounds are retained in the filter.[48] (The Chemex coffeemaker operates under a similar principle but uses only an hourglass shaped flask..January 2010" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed]) In a percolator, boiling water is forced into a chamber above a filter by steam pressure created by boiling.^ The chef stands about 4-5 feet from the boiling water, pulls the dough from behind him and throws the single strand into the pot.
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The water then seeps through the grounds, and the process is repeated until terminated by removing from the heat, by an internal timer,[48] or by a thermostat that turns off the heater when the entire pot reaches a certain temperature. This thermostat also serves to keep the coffee warm (it turns on when the pot cools), but requires the removal of the basket holding the grounds after the initial brewing to avoid additional brewing as the pot reheats.[citation needed] Repeated boiling spoils the flavor of coffee.[citation needed]
Coffee may be brewed by steeping in a device such as a French press (also known as a cafetière or coffee press). .Ground coffee and hot water are combined in a cylindrical vessel and left to brew for a few minutes.^ This non-alcoholic, non-carbonated brew is just ginger and a bay leaf steeped in hot water for a few hours and then cut with simple syrup.
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A circular filter which fits tightly in the cylinder fixed to a plunger is then pushed down from the top to force the grounds to the bottom. .Because the coffee grounds are in direct contact with the water, all the coffee oils remain in the beverage, making it stronger and leaving more sediment than in coffee made by an automatic coffee machine.^ By comparison, the Copper River kings, which have more oil than most kings, have 16-17%.
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^ Johnson, R., The American table : more than 400 recipes that make accessible for the first time the full richness of American regional cooking .

^ Michelle's are even better than the ones at Cafe Du Monde and more plentiful (quantity has a quality all its own.
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[49] The coffee is poured from the container; the filter retains the grounds at the bottom.
The espresso method forces hot (but not boiling) pressurized water through ground coffee. .As a result of brewing under high pressure (ideally between 9–10 atm), the espresso beverage is more concentrated (as much as 10 to 15 times the quantity of coffee to water as gravity-brewing methods can produce) and has a more complex physical and chemical constitution.^ Researchers also found a complex chemical interaction in the cooking of bacon produces the winning combination of taste and smell which is almost irresistible.
  • Tonynet Explorer: Food and Drink Archives 22 September 2009 13:28 UTC www.tonychor.com [Source type: General]

^ Pressure cooking for all seasons : using 5, 10 and 15 lbs.

^ Let meat sit under foil for 10-15 minutes after you take it off the grill.
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A well-prepared espresso has a reddish-brown foam called crema that floats on the surface.[46]
.Coffee may also be brewed in cold water by steeping coarsely-ground beans in cold water for several hours, then filtering.^ This non-alcoholic, non-carbonated brew is just ginger and a bay leaf steeped in hot water for a few hours and then cut with simple syrup.
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[50]

Presentation

Presentation can be an integral part of coffeehouse service, as illustrated by the common fern design layered into this latte.
Once brewed, coffee may be presented in a variety of ways. .Drip-brewed, percolated, or French-pressed/cafetière coffee may be served with a dairy product such as milk or cream, or dairy substitute (colloquially known as white coffee), or not (black coffee).^ I am dreaming of coffee milk and may have to come back to Japan just to get another one.
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^ It really was a milk bar, serving great milk products like ice cream, milk, panna cotta, and so on (apparently, it's unhomogenized milk from Hokkaido).
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It may be sweetened with sugar or artificial sweetener. When served cold, it is called iced coffee.
Espresso-based coffee has a wide variety of possible presentations. .In its most basic form, it is served alone as a shot or in the more watered-down style café américano—a shot or two of espresso with hot water added.^ This means they are not cut down with water to 80 proof like most whisky.
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Reversing the process by adding espresso to hot water preserves the crema, and is known as a long black.[51] Milk can be added in various forms to espresso: steamed milk makes a caffè latte,[52] equal parts steamed milk and milk froth make a cappuccino,[51] and a dollop of hot foamed milk on top creates a caffè macchiato.[53] The use of steamed milk to form patterns such as hearts or maple leaves is referred to as latte art.
A number of products are sold for the convenience of consumers who do not want to prepare their own coffee.
Instant coffee is dried into soluble powder or freeze-dried into granules that can be quickly dissolved in hot water.[54] Originally invented in 1907,[55] it rapidly gained in popularity in many countries in the post-war period, with Nescafé the most popular product.[56] .The convenience in preparing a cup of instant coffee more than made up for its vastly inferior taste.^ Stevens, D., The first book of vegetarian cooking : more than 300 recipes combining great taste with good nutrition .

^ The whole process takes only about two minutes, a minute shorter than instant cup noodles.
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^ That said, real well-made ramen is a thing of beauty and way, way better than the instant stuff.
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[57] Robusta beans are the main beans used in instant coffee.[citation needed] Paralleling (and complementing) the rapid rise of instant coffee was the coffee vending machine, invented in 1947 and multiplying rapidly through the 1950s.[58]
.Canned coffee has been popular in Asian countries for many years, particularly in China, Japan, and South Korea.^ Cost, B., Bruce Cost's Asian ingredients : buying and cooking the staple foods of China, Japan, and Southeast Asia ; foreword by Alice Waters .

.Vending machines typically sell varieties of flavored canned coffee, much like brewed or percolated coffee, available both hot and cold.^ I use it on the cold grill first (both sides) and then on the hot grill (using tongs to hold the foil ball) to get the last bits off.
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^ Furthermore, the varieties of produce from the Root Connection are optimized for flavor, not appearance, mechanical harvestability, or shelf-life like virtually everything you get in the grocery store.
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^ They were pretty good, but the texture was a bit soft and the flavor was very sugary - like the difference between fresh and canned peaches.
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.Japanese convenience stores and groceries also have a wide availability of bottled coffee drinks, which are typically lightly sweetened and pre-blended with milk.^ I had an absolutely lovely Coffee Milk in a cute bottle; it was like a frappuccino done right -- creamy and sweet but not cloying, with great coffee taste.
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Bottled coffee drinks are also consumed in the United States.[59] Liquid coffee concentrates are sometimes used in large institutional situations where coffee needs to be produced for thousands of people at the same time. It is described as having a flavor about as good as low-grade robusta coffee, and costs about 10¢ a cup to produce. The machines used can process up to 500 cups an hour, or 1,000 if the water is preheated.[60]
Coffee can also be incorporated with alcohol in beverages—it is combined with whiskey in Irish coffee, and forms the base of alcoholic coffee liqueurs such as Baileys, Kahlúa, and Tia Maria.

Sale and distribution

Brazilian coffee sacks.
.Coffee ingestion on average is about a third of that of tap water in North America and Europe.^ In North America, as well as in Continental Europe the abbreviated term "Scotch" is usually used for "Scotch Whisky."
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[2] Worldwide, 6.7 million metric tons of coffee were produced annually in 1998–2000, and the forecast is a rise to seven million metric tons annually by 2010.[61]
Brazil remains the largest coffee exporting nation, but Vietnam tripled its exports between 1995 and 1999, and became a major producer of robusta beans.[62] Indonesia is the third-largest exporter and the largest producer of washed arabica coffee. .Robusta coffees, traded in London at much lower prices than New York's arabica, are preferred by large industrial clients, such as multinational roasters and instant coffee producers because of the lower cost.^ London ; New York 177.

^ London ; New York 3080.

^ London ; New York [etc.

[citation needed]

Commodity

While coffee is not technically a commodity (it is fresh produce; its value is directly affected by the length of time it is held), coffee is bought and sold by roasters, investors and price speculators as a tradable commodity. .Coffee futures contracts for Grade 3 washed arabicas are traded on the New York Mercantile Exchange under ticker symbol KT, with contract deliveries occurring every year in March, May, July, September, and December.^ New York: St. Martin's Press Tony May.

[63] Higher and lower grade arabica coffees are sold through other channels. .Futures contracts for robusta coffee are traded on the London Liffe exchange and, since 2007, on the New York ICE exchange.^ Where Salt was a really global and across world history and Cod spanned centuries and focused on trans-Atlantic trade, The Big Oyster was very localized to New York City and the time since colonization.
  • Tonynet Explorer: Food and Drink Archives 22 September 2009 13:28 UTC www.tonychor.com [Source type: General]

As of 2006 green coffee has been purported to be the second most traded commodity in the world. .However Mark Pendergrast, who originally wrote about this comparison,[64] now believes after further research that his statement is incorrect.^ (This post was inspired by L who wrote about Seven Stars in Cookbook 411 .
  • Tonynet Explorer: Food and Drink Archives 22 September 2009 13:28 UTC www.tonychor.com [Source type: General]

[65]

Trade

The concept of fair trade labeling, which guarantees coffee growers a negotiated preharvest price, began with the Max Havelaar Foundation's labeling program in the Netherlands. In 2004, 24,222 metric tons (of 7,050,000 produced worldwide) were fair trade; in 2005, 33,991 metric tons out of 6,685,000 were fair trade, an increase from 0.34% to 0.51%.[66][67] A number of fair trade impact studies have shown that fair trade coffee has a positive impact on the communities that grow it. Coffee was incorporated into the fair-trade movement in 1988, when the Max Havelaar mark was introduced in the Netherlands. The very first fair-trade coffee was an effort to import a Guatemalan coffee into Europe as "Indio Solidarity Coffee".[68]
Since the founding of organisations such as the European Fair Trade Association (1987), the production and consumption of fair trade coffee has grown as some local and national coffee chains started to offer fair trade alternatives.[69][70] For example, in April 2000, after a year-long campaign by the human rights organization Global Exchange, Starbucks decided to carry fair-trade coffee in its stores.[71] Since September 2009 all Starbucks Espresso beverages in UK and Ireland are made with Fairtrade and Shared Planet certified coffee.[72] A 2005 study done in Belgium concluded that consumers' buying behavior is not consistent with their positive attitude toward ethical products. .On average 46% of European consumers claimed to be willing to pay substantially more for ethical products, including fair-trade products such as coffee.^ He also included a little about Kwikpak: Kwikpak Fisheries is the only seafood company in the world to be certified by the the Fair Trade Federation.
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^ You have consumed a burger with two or more patties (1 point) You have consumed a burger with cheese on it (1 point) You have consumed a burger with an egg on it (2 points) You have consumed a burger with pork products on or in it (bacon, sausage, etc.
  • Tonynet Explorer: Food and Drink Archives 22 September 2009 13:28 UTC www.tonychor.com [Source type: General]

[71] The study found that the majority of respondents were unwilling to pay the actual price premium of 27% for fair trade coffee.[71]

Health and pharmacology

Scientific studies have examined the relationship between coffee consumption and an array of medical conditions. Findings have been contradictory as to whether coffee has any specific health benefits, and results are similarly conflicting regarding the potentially harmful effects of coffee consumption.[9] Variations in findings, however, can be at least partially resolved by considering the method of preparation. Coffee prepared using paper filters removes oily components called diterpenes that are present in unfiltered coffee. Two types of diterpenes are present in coffee: kahweol and cafestol, both of which have been associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease via elevation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) levels in blood.[73] Metal filters, on the other hand, do not remove the oily components of coffee.[10]
In addition to differences in methods of preparation, conflicting data regarding serving size could partially explain differences between beneficial/harmful effects of coffee consumption. Prevention of multiple chronic diseases has been associated with coffee consumption ranging from one to ten cups[citation needed].
Top half of a naked man, with illustrations of internal organs superimposed. Lines from explanatory text point to portions of the body. Effects listed: blurred vision, dizziness, dryness of mouth, cold sweats, pallid skin, breath odor, troubled breathing, diarrhea, drowsiness, changes in hunger, thirst, anxiety, confusion, insomnia, hyperglycemia, muscle tremors, nausea, and increased urination.
Overview of the more common effects of caffeine,[74] a main active component of coffee
Coffee consumption has been shown to have minimal or no impact, positive or negative, on cancer development;[75] however, researchers involved in an ongoing 22-year study by the Harvard School of Public Health state that "the overall balance of risks and benefits [of coffee consumption] are on the side of benefits."[75] Other studies suggest coffee consumption reduces the risk of being affected by Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, heart disease, diabetes mellitus type 2, cirrhosis of the liver,[76] and gout. .A longitudinal study in 2009 showed that those who consumed a moderate amount of coffee or tea (3–5 cups per day) at midlife were less likely to develop dementia and Alzheimer's disease in late-life compared with those who drank little coffee or avoided it altogether.^ Discusses the everyday life, family roles, cooking methods, and common foods of pioneers who settled in the Midwest during the late 1800s and early 1900s.

^ Discusses the everyday life, cooking methods, and common foods of cowboys who moved cattle across the American West in the late nineteenth century.

[77] It increases the risk of acid reflux and associated diseases.[78] Most of coffee's beneficial effects against type 2 diabetes are not due to its caffeine content, as the positive effects of consumption are greater in those who drink decaffeinated coffee.[79] The presence of antioxidants in coffee has been shown to prevent free radicals from causing cell damage.[80]
In a healthy liver, caffeine is mostly broken down by the hepatic microsomal enzymatic system. The resulting metabolites are mostly paraxanthines-theobromine and theophylline-and a small amount of unchanged caffeine is excreted by urine. Therefore, the metabolism of caffeine depends on the state of this enzymatic system of the liver. Elderly individuals with a depleted enzymatic system do not tolerate coffee with caffeine. They are recommended to take decaffeinated coffee, and this only if their stomach is healthy, because both decaffeinated coffee and coffee with caffeine cause heartburn. Moderate amounts of coffee (50–100 mg of caffeine or 5–10 g of coffee powder a day) are well tolerated by most elderly people. Excessive amounts of coffee, however, can, in many individuals, cause very unpleasant, exceptionally even life-threatening adverse effects.[81]
Coffee consumption can lead to iron deficiency anemia in mothers and infants.[82] Coffee also interferes with the absorption of supplemental iron.[83] Interference with iron absorption is due to the polyphenols present in coffee. Although the inhibition of iron absorption can cause an iron deficiency, iron is considered a carcinogen in relation to the liver and can increase risks of hepatocellular carcinoma, more commonly known as liver cancer. Polyphenols contained in coffee are therefore associated with decreasing the risk of liver cancer development.[84]
American scientist Yaser Dorri has suggested that the smell of coffee can restore appetite and refresh olfactory receptors. .He suggests that people can regain their appetite after cooking by smelling coffee beans, and that this method can also be used for research animals.^ Researchers also found a complex chemical interaction in the cooking of bacon produces the winning combination of taste and smell which is almost irresistible.
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[85]
Over 1,000 chemicals have been reported in roasted coffee; more than half of those tested (19/28) are rodent carcinogens.[86] Coffee also contains healthful chemicals, including polyphenols (chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid), as well as diterpenes (kahweol and cafestol). Coffee's negative health effects are often blamed on its caffeine content. Research suggests that drinking caffeinated coffee can cause a temporary increase in the stiffening of arterial walls.[87] Caffeinated coffee is not recommended for everybody. It may aggravate preexisting conditions such as gastroesophageal reflux disease, migraines, arrhythmias, and cause sleep disturbances.[88]
Coffee is no longer thought to be a risk factor for coronary heart disease.[89] .One study suggests that it may have a mixed effect on short-term memory, by improving it when the information to be recalled is related to the current train of thought but making it more difficult to recall unrelated information.^ Provides information on safety in the kitchen, cooking terms, measuring, nutrition, and more along with recipes designed for young people to make.

[90] Caffeine has been associated with its ability to act as an antidepressant. A review by de Paulis and Martin indicated a link between a decrease in suicide rates and coffee consumption, and suggested that the action of caffeine in blocking the inhibitory effects of adenosine on dopamine nerves in the brain reduced feelings of depression.[91] A 1992 study concluded that about 10% of people with a moderate daily intake (235 mg per day) experienced increased depression and anxiety when caffeine was withdrawn,[92] but a 2002 review of the literature criticised its methodology and concluded that "[t]he effects of caffeine withdrawal are still controversial."[93] About 15% of the U.S. general population report having stopped drinking coffee altogether, citing concern about health and unpleasant side effects of caffeine.[94]

History

Relief of a young, cherub-like boy passing a cup to a reclining man with a moustache and hat. The sculpture is white with gold accents on the cup, clothes, and items.
Over the door of a Leipzig coffeeshop is a sculptural representation of a man in Turkish dress, receiving a cup of coffee from a boy
Ethiopian ancestors of today's Oromo people were believed to have been the first to recognize the energizing effect of the coffee bean plant.[3] .However, no direct evidence has been found indicating where in Africa coffee grew or who among the natives might have used it as a stimulant or even known about it, earlier than the 17th century.^ After I scarfed these two tarts down, I ate the sugar puff; this might have been even better than the dan ta .
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^ I believe that we should use land in the ways it's best suited rather than what's most convenient or even economical.
  • Tonynet Explorer: Food and Drink Archives 22 September 2009 13:28 UTC www.tonychor.com [Source type: General]

[3] The story of Kaldi, the 9th-century Ethiopian goatherd who discovered coffee, did not appear in writing until 1671 and is probably apocryphal.[3] From Ethiopia, coffee was said to have spread to Yemen, where the coffee beverage was first made and drunk, and then the beverage went to Egypt.[95] The earliest credible evidence of either coffee drinking or knowledge of the coffee tree appears in the middle of the fifteenth century, in the Sufi monasteries around Mokha in Yemen.[3] It was here in Arabia that coffee beans were first roasted and brewed, in a similar way to how it is now prepared. By the 16th century, it had reached the rest of the Middle East, Persia, Turkey, and northern Africa. Coffee then spread to Italy, and to the rest of Europe, to Indonesia, and to the Americas.[4]
In 1583, Leonhard Rauwolf, a German physician, gave this description of coffee after returning from a ten-year trip to the Near East:
A beverage as black as ink, useful against numerous illnesses, particularly those of the stomach. Its consumers take it in the morning, quite frankly, in a porcelain cup that is passed around and from which each one drinks a cupful. It is composed of water and the fruit from a bush called bunnu.
—Léonard Rauwolf, Reise in die Morgenländer (in German)
A man with short curly hair, wearing a gold-fringed black vest over a magenta shirt, pours coffee from an ornate, angular container into a small white cup.
Pouring Turkish coffee in the Arab village Abu Ghosh (Israel)
From the Muslim world, coffee spread to Italy. .The thriving trade between Venice and North Africa, Egypt, and the Middle East brought many goods, including coffee, to the Venetian port.^ Twena, P.G., The Sephardic table : the vibrant cooking of the Mediterranean Jews : a personal collection of recipes from the Middle East, North Africa, and India .

From Venice, it was introduced to the rest of Europe. Coffee became more widely accepted after it was deemed a Christian beverage by Pope Clement VIII in 1600, despite appeals to ban the "Muslim drink." The first European coffee house opened in Italy in 1645.[4] The Dutch were the first to import coffee on a large scale, and they were among the first to defy the Arab prohibition on the exportation of plants or unroasted seeds when Pieter van den Broeck smuggled seedlings from Mocha, Yemen, into Europe in 1616.[96] The Dutch later grew the crop in Java and Ceylon.[42] The first exports of Indonesian coffee from Java to the Netherlands occurred in 1711.[97] Through the efforts of the British East India Company, coffee became popular in England as well. Oxford's Queen's Lane Coffee House, established in 1654, is still in existence today. Coffee was introduced in France in 1657, and in Austria and Poland after the 1683 Battle of Vienna, when coffee was captured from supplies of the defeated Turks.[98]
.When coffee reached North America during the Colonial period, it was initially not as successful as it had been in Europe as alcoholic beverages remained more popular.^ Clayton, B., Bernard Clayton's cooking across America : cooking with more than 100 of North America's best cooks and 250 of their favorite recipes .

^ In North America, as well as in Continental Europe the abbreviated term "Scotch" is usually used for "Scotch Whisky."
  • Tonynet Explorer: Food and Drink Archives 22 September 2009 13:28 UTC www.tonychor.com [Source type: General]

During the Revolutionary War, however, the demand for coffee increased so much that dealers had to hoard their scarce supplies and raise prices dramatically; this was also due to the reduced availability of tea from British merchants.[99] .After the War of 1812, during which Britain temporarily cut off access to tea imports, the Americans' taste for coffee grew, and high demand during the American Civil War together with advances in brewing technology secured the position of coffee as an everyday commodity in the United States.^ Discusses everyday life, family roles, cooking methods, most important foods, and celebrations of people on southern plantations before the Civil War.

[100] Paradoxically, coffee consumption declined in England, giving way to tea during the 18th century. The latter beverage was simpler to make, and had become cheaper with the British conquest of India and the tea industry there.[101]
The Frenchman Gabriel de Clieu brought a coffee plant to the French territory of Martinique in the Caribbean, from which much of the world's cultivated arabica coffee is descended. Coffee thrived in the climate and was conveyed across the Americas.[102] The territory of San Domingo (now Haiti) saw coffee cultivated from 1734, and by 1788 it supplied half the world's coffee. However, the dreadful conditions that the slaves worked in on coffee plantations were a factor in the soon to follow Haitian Revolution. The coffee industry never fully recovered there.[103] Meanwhile, coffee had been introduced to Brazil in 1727, although its cultivation didn't gather momentum until independence in 1822.[104] After this time, massive tracts of rainforest were cleared first from the vicinity of Rio and later São Paulo for coffee plantations.[105] .Cultivation was taken up by many countries in Central America in the latter half of the 19th century, and almost all involved the large-scale displacement and exploitation of the indigenous Indian people.^ Their pasta is all freshly made and served with tasty sauces (I almost stole half of Andrew's carbonara).
  • Tonynet Explorer: Food and Drink Archives 22 September 2009 13:28 UTC www.tonychor.com [Source type: General]

Harsh conditions led to many uprisings, coups and bloody suppression of peasants.[106] The notable exception was Costa Rica, where lack of ready labor prevented the formation of large farms. Smaller farms and more egalitarian conditions ameliorated unrest over the 19th and 20th centuries.[107]
Coffee has become a vital cash crop for many Third World countries. Over one hundred million people in developing countries have become dependent on coffee as their primary source of income. It has become the primary export and backbone for African countries like Uganda, Burundi, Rwanda, and Ethiopia,[108] as well as many Central American countries.

Social and cultural aspects

Monochrome photograph of men with turbans and facial hair reclining on a mat. In the foreground a man uses a mortar and pestle, while the men in the back have cups in their hands.
A coffeehouse in Palestine (1900)
Coffee is often consumed alongside (or instead of) breakfast by many at home. .It is also often served after a meal, often with an after-dinner mint, in a restaurant or dinner party.^ Recipes for breakfasts, lunches, and dinners, for families or single servings, and special sections on vegetables, desserts, and party foods.

Aggressively promoted by the Pan-American Coffee Bureau, the "coffee break" was first promoted in 1952. Hitherto unknown in the workplace, its uptake was facilitated by the recent popularity of both instant coffee and vending machines, and has become an institution of the American workplace.[58]

Coffeehouses

Most widely known as coffeehouses or cafés, establishments serving prepared coffee or other hot beverages have existed for over five hundred years.
Various legends involving the introduction of coffee to Istanbul at a "Kiva Han" in the late 15th century circulate in culinary tradition, but with no documentation.[109]
.Coffeehouses in Mecca soon became a concern as places for political gatherings to the imams who banned them, and the drink, for Muslims between 1512 and 1524. In 1530 the first coffee house was opened in Damascus,[110] and not long after there were many coffee houses in Cairo.^ The first one is in Chaoyang; we went to the one in Shunyi at Lake View Place (near Dragon Bay Villas); this is walking distance from our house!
  • Tonynet Explorer: Food and Drink Archives 22 September 2009 13:28 UTC www.tonychor.com [Source type: General]

In the 17th century, coffee appeared for the first time in Europe outside the Ottoman Empire, and coffeehouses were established and quickly became popular. .The first coffeehouses in Western Europe appeared in Venice, a result of the traffic between La Serenissima and the Ottomans; the very first one is recorded in 1645. The first coffeehouse in England was set up in Oxford in 1650 by a Jewish man named Jacob in the building now known as "The Grand Cafe". A plaque on the wall still commemorates this and the Cafe is now a trendy cocktail bar.^ The parking lot is small and the narrow drive only allows one-way traffic, which made for a very difficult departure.
  • Tonynet Explorer: Food and Drink Archives 22 September 2009 13:28 UTC www.tonychor.com [Source type: General]

^ The restaurant also has a good (if expensive) wine list, makes good cocktails (hard to find in Beijing), and has the first Bollinger champagne bar in Beijing.
  • Tonynet Explorer: Food and Drink Archives 22 September 2009 13:28 UTC www.tonychor.com [Source type: General]

[111]
.By 1675, there were more than 3,000 coffeehouses in England.^ So there, more than you ever wanted to know.
  • Tonynet Explorer: Food and Drink Archives 22 September 2009 13:28 UTC www.tonychor.com [Source type: General]

^ White, J., Jasper White's cooking from New England : more than 300 traditional and contemporary recipes .

[112] An Armenian named Pascal established Paris' a coffee stall in 1672 that was ultimately unsuccessful and the city had to wait until 1689 for its first coffeehouse when Procopio Cutò opened the Café Procope. This coffeehouse still exists today and was a major meeting place of the French Enlightenment; Voltaire, Rousseau, and Denis Diderot frequented it, and it is arguably the birthplace of the Encyclopédie, the first modern encyclopedia.[113] America had its first coffeehouse in Boston, in 1676.[114] Coffee, tea and beer were often served together in establishments which functioned both as coffeehouses and taverns; one such was the Green Dragon in Boston, where John Adams, James Otis and Paul Revere planned rebellion.[101]
.The modern espresso machine was born in Milan in 1945 by Achille Gaggia,[115] and from there spread across coffeehouses and restaurants across Italy and the rest of Europe and North America in the early 1950s.^ In North America, as well as in Continental Europe the abbreviated term "Scotch" is usually used for "Scotch Whisky."
  • Tonynet Explorer: Food and Drink Archives 22 September 2009 13:28 UTC www.tonychor.com [Source type: General]

An Italian named Pino Riservato opened the first espresso bar, the Moka Bar, in Soho in 1952, and there were 400 such bars in London alone by 1956. Cappucino was particularly popular among English drinkers.[116] Similarly in the United States, the espresso craze spread. North Beach in San Francisco saw the opening of the Caffe Trieste in 1957, which saw Beat Generation poets such as Allan Ginsberg and Bob Kaufman alongside bemused Italian immigrants.[116] Similar such cafes existed in Greenwich Village and elsewhere.[116]
The international coffeehouse chain Starbucks began as a modest business roasting and selling quality coffee beans in Seattle in 1971, by three college students Jerry Baldwin, Gordon Bowker and Zev Siegl. The first store opened on March 30, 1971, followed by a second and third over the next two years.[117] Entrepreneur Howard Schultz joined the company in 1982 as Director of Retail Operations and Marketing, and pushed to sell premade espresso coffee. .The others were reluctant, but Schultz opened Il Giornale in Seattle in April 1986.[118] He bought the other owners out in March 1987 and pushed on with plans to expand – from 1987 to the end of 1991, the chain (rebranded from Il Giornale to Starbucks) expanded to over 100 outlets.^ It's so popular, they bought out the space next door a few years ago and expanded into it.
  • Tonynet Explorer: Food and Drink Archives 22 September 2009 13:28 UTC www.tonychor.com [Source type: General]

^ He is also planning to open his second ramen shop in Kofu possibly by the end of this year.
  • Tonynet Explorer: Food and Drink Archives 22 September 2009 13:28 UTC www.tonychor.com [Source type: General]

[119] The company's name graces 16,600 stores in over 40 countries worldwide.[120]

Prohibition

Coffee was initially used for spiritual reasons. .At least 1,000 years ago, traders brought coffee across the Red Sea into Arabia (modern-day Yemen), where Muslim monks began cultivating the shrub in their gardens.^ It's so popular, they bought out the space next door a few years ago and expanded into it.
  • Tonynet Explorer: Food and Drink Archives 22 September 2009 13:28 UTC www.tonychor.com [Source type: General]

.At first, the Arabians made wine from the pulp of the fermented coffee berries.^ Selective picking means that several passes are made among the coffee trees, in which only the fully ripe berries are taken.
  • Coffee@Everything2.com 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

This beverage was known as qishr (kisher in modern usage) and was used during religious ceremonies.[121]
Coffee became the substitute beverage in spiritual practices where wine was forbidden..January 2010" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] Coffee drinking was prohibited by jurists and scholars (ulema) meeting in Mecca in 1511 as haraam, but the subject of whether it was intoxicating was hotly debated over the next 30 years until the ban was finally overturned in the mid 16th century.^ It's so popular, they bought out the space next door a few years ago and expanded into it.
  • Tonynet Explorer: Food and Drink Archives 22 September 2009 13:28 UTC www.tonychor.com [Source type: General]

[122] Use in religious rites among the Sufi branch of Islam led to coffee's being put on trial in Mecca: it was accused of being a heretical substance, and its production and consumption were briefly repressed. It was later prohibited in Ottoman Turkey under an edict by the Sultan Murad IV.[6] Coffee, regarded as a Muslim drink, was prohibited by Ethiopian Orthodox Christians until as late as 1889; it is now considered a national drink of Ethiopia for people of all faiths. .Its early association in Europe with rebellious political activities led to Charles II outlawing coffeehouses from January 1676 (although the uproar created forced the monarch to back down two days before the ban was due to come into force).^ We've been to the Herbfarm several times before, although this is the first time in their new location (their first place burned down, then they were in a few temporary locations.
  • Tonynet Explorer: Food and Drink Archives 22 September 2009 13:28 UTC www.tonychor.com [Source type: General]

[101] Frederick the Great banned it in Germany in 1777 for nationalistic and economic reasons; concerned about the money leaving to country on the popular beverage, he sought to force the public back to consuming beer.[123] Lacking coffee producing colonies, Germany had to import all its coffee at a great cost.[124]
A contemporary example of religious prohibition of coffee can be found in The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints.[125] The organization holds that it is both physically and spiritually unhealthy to consume coffee.[126] This comes from the Mormon doctrine of health, given in 1833 by Mormon founder Joseph Smith in a revelation called the Word of Wisdom. It does not identify coffee by name, but includes the statement that "hot drinks are not for the belly," which has been interpreted to forbid both coffee and tea.[126]
Quite a number of members of the Seventh-day Adventist Church also avoid caffeinated drinks. In its teachings, the Church encourages members to avoid tea and coffee and other stimulants. Studies conducted on Adventists have shown a small but statistically significant association between coffee consumption and mortality from ischemic heart disease, other cardiovascular disease, all cardiovascular diseases combined, and all causes of death.[127]

Folklore

The Oromo people would customarily plant a coffee tree on the graves of powerful sorcerers. They believed that the first coffee bush sprang up from the tears that the god of heaven shed over the corpse of a dead sorcerer.[128]
Johann Sebastian Bach was inspired to pen the Coffee Cantata, about dependence on the beverage.[129]

Notes

  1. ^ a b c Unofficial/semiofficial/mirror data
  2. ^ FAO estimate
  3. ^ Aggregate (may include official, semiofficial, or estimates)

References

Footnotes

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  113. ^ Weinberg & Bealer 2001, pp. 71–72
  114. ^ Danko, C (2009). "America's First Coffeehouse". Massachusetts Travel Journal. Masstraveljournal.com. http://masstraveljournal.com/page/quick-facts/americas-first-coffeehouse. Retrieved February 13, 2010. 
  115. ^ Pendergrast 2001, p. 218
  116. ^ a b c Pendergrast 2001, p. 219
  117. ^ Pendergrast 2001, pp. 252–53
  118. ^ Pendergrast 2001, p. 301
  119. ^ Pendergrast 2001, p. 302
  120. ^ "Starbucks Corporation". Company profile from Hoover's. Hoover's. 2010. http://www.hoovers.com/company/Starbucks_Corporation/rhkchi-1.html. Retrieved February 13, 2010. 
  121. ^ Pendergrast 2001, p. 5
  122. ^ Brown, Daniel W (2004). A new introduction to Islam. Chichester, West Sussex: Wiley-Blackwell. pp. 149–51. ISBN 1405158077. 
  123. ^ Pendergrast 2001, p. 11
  124. ^ Bersten 1999, p. 53
  125. ^ "Coffee facts, coffee trivia & coffee information!". Coffee Facts. http://www.coffeefacts.com/. Retrieved February 13, 2010. 
  126. ^ a b "Who Are the Mormons?". Beliefnet. http://www.beliefnet.com/story/98/story_9838_1.html. Retrieved February 13, 2010. 
  127. ^ "Coffee consumption and mortality in Seventh-Day Adventists". Nutrition Research Newsletter. Frost & Sullivan. September 1992. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0887/is_n9_v11/ai_12673616. Retrieved February 13, 2010. 
  128. ^ Allen 1999, p. 27
  129. ^ Pendergrast 2001, p. 10

External links


Quotes

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiquote

Wikipedia
Wikipedia has an article about:
  • "Coffee should be black as hell, strong as death, and sweet as love." - Turkish proverbs
  • "I have measured out my life with coffee spoons" - T.S. Eliot
  • "No one can understand the truth until he drinks of coffee's frothy goodness." - Sheik Abd al-Qadir
  • "Coffee leads men to trifle away their time, scald their chops, and spend their money, all for a little base, black, thick, nasty, bitter, stinking nauseous puddle water." -The Women's Petition Against Coffee (1674)
  • "Is it impossible to get a cup of coffee-flavoured coffee, anymore, in this country? What happened with the coffee? Did I miss a fucking meeting with the coffee, huh? You can get every other flavour except coffee-flavoured coffee!" - Denis Leary
  • "I like my coffee like I like my women- Black and Strong." - Paul Howell (2005)
  • "I like my coffee the way I like my women -- in a plastic cup." - Eddie Izzard
  • "I like my coffee the way I like my women -- covered in beeeeeeeeeeeees!" - Eddie Izzard again a couple of minutes later
  • "I believe humans get a lot done, not because we're smart, but because we have thumbs so we can make coffee." -Flash Rosenberg
  • "Decaffeinated coffee is kind of like kissing your sister." -Bob Irwin
  • "Coffee is a beverage that puts one to sleep when not drank." -.Allais">Alphonse Allais
  • "Only Irish coffee provides in a single glass all four essential food groups: alcohol, caffeine, sugar, and fat."^ Gelles, C., Wholesome harvest : cooking with the new four food groups : grains, beans, fruits, and vegetables .

    ^ The reaction between amino acids in the bacon and reducing sugars in the fat is what provides the sandwich with its appeal.
    • Tonynet Explorer: Food and Drink Archives 22 September 2009 13:28 UTC www.tonychor.com [Source type: General]

    -Alex Levine
  • "The voodoo priest and all his powers were as nothing compared to espresso, cappuccino, and mocha, which are stronger than all the religions of the world combined, and perhaps stronger than the human soul itself." -Mark Helprin, Memoir from Antproof Case, 1995
  • "He was my cream, and I was his coffee - And when you poured us together, it was something." - Josephine Baker
  • "When we drink coffee, ideas march in like the army" - Honore de Balzac
  • "simplicity and consistency makes perfect,think of coffee."lawrence cayao,filipino
  • "Coffee comes in five descending stages: Coffee, Java, Jamoke, Joe, and Carbon Remover." - Robert A. Heinlein, Glory Road
  • A mathematician is a device for turning coffee into theorems.
    • Popularly attributed to Paul Erdős, who was quoting Alfréd Rényi (Bruce Schechter, My Brain Is Open: The Mathematical Journeys of Paul Erdős, 1998, New York: Simon & Schuster, ISBN 0684846357)
  • "Life is just one cup of coffee after another, and don't look for anything else." - said to be Bertrand Russell's last words
  • "Coffee, which makes the politician wise/And see through all things with his half-shut eyes..." - Alexander Pope, The Rape of the Lock
  • "If this is coffee, please bring me some tea; but if this is tea, please bring me some coffee." - attributed to Abraham Lincoln
  • "Sleep is just a symptom of caffeine lack" - Herman Friele
  • "I like my coffee black, just like my metal" - Mindless Self Indulgence Shut Me Up
  • "It is by caffeine alone I set my mind in motion. It is by the beans of Java that thoughts acquire speed, the hands acquire shaking, the shaking becomes a warning. It is by caffeine alone I set my mind in motion." - Unknown (derived from Dune)
  • "The influence of coffee in stimulating the genital organs is notorious." -John Harvey Kellogg (1877) Plain facts for old and young : embracing the natural history and hygiene of organic life.
  • "I like my coffee strong and my women weak." - .Alexander Pappas
  • "Coffee is to wake up, coffee is to work with, coffee is to live with, coffee is life" - Tim Parsons, Industrial Joe Coffee
  • "Coffee was only a way of stealing time that should by rights belong to your slightly older self."^ C Right x2 - A x2 - C Down x2 And slow down time by playing The Song of Time backwards, for more time to play with Fierce Deity...well, more time on your clock anyway.
    • The Legend of Zelda: Majora's Mask N64 Cheats 25 September 2009 5:05 UTC www.neoseeker.com [Source type: General]

    ^ If you try to leave clock town you will make it out side but epona will get stuck and the only way to get her unstuck is to get off her and play the song of time again.
    • The Legend of Zelda: Majora's Mask N64 Cheats 25 September 2009 5:05 UTC www.neoseeker.com [Source type: General]

    ^ I really enjoy your site, keep up the good work!

    - Terry Pratchett, Thud!
  • "Blacker than a moonless night. Hotter and more bitter than Hell itself... That is coffee." - Godot, Phoenix Wright: Ace Attorney

Study guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiversity

.
The coffee industry has grown dramatically in the past decades with the Starbucks Coffee Company dominating this emerging market.
^ McCafe vs. Starbucks We sampled four different hot, espresso-based beverages from McDonald's and Starbucks to evaluate the quality behind the coffee marketing war.
  • Coffee Review :: The World's Leading Coffee Buying Guide 12 September 2009 3:56 UTC www.coffeereview.com [Source type: General]

Coffee is both rich in history and in cultural meaning throughout the world. As an industry, consumers often embrace socially progressive movements, and therefore encourage stock holders and executives to adopt more socially responsible practices.
  • United States of America
The Boston Tea Party in 1773 marked an important moment in US history. Angry colonial protesters boarded a boat in Boston Harbor and threw the tea overboard because of recent tariffs that Great Britain had started to enforce. Supporters of this action proudly drank coffee as a sign of opposition against the British and turned coffee into a patriotic icon.
  • Philosophy and Art
  • Political Movements
More at Wikipedia.org w:Coffeehouse
Get to love the competition First, don't be afraid of Starbucks. .In fact, make her your best friend.^ Teubner, C. and E. Witzigmann, Herbs & spices : how to make the best use of herbs and spices in your cooking .

^ But let us say that you have decided to give your friends cocktails, and the best of their kind.
  • TheFood Timeline: popular American decade foods, menus, products & party planningtips 13 January 2010 23:44 UTC www.foodtimeline.org [Source type: General]

As Chinese general Sun-tsu from 400BC said, "Keep your friends close, and your enemies closer." .Here is a list of reasons why this is true in starting your own coffee shop.^ Such spread-your-owns are excellent too as an afternoon snack, served with tea or coffee."
  • TheFood Timeline: popular American decade foods, menus, products & party planningtips 13 January 2010 23:44 UTC www.foodtimeline.org [Source type: General]

^ Teen party menus suggested in cookbooks are generally not as *hip.* Sample 1950s coffee shop & ice cream parlor menus are online here .
  • TheFood Timeline: popular American decade foods, menus, products & party planningtips 13 January 2010 23:44 UTC www.foodtimeline.org [Source type: General]

^ Life Begins at 30 published a pretty good list of reasons why it's advantageous to eat locally as well.
  • Tonynet Explorer: Food and Drink Archives 22 September 2009 13:28 UTC www.tonychor.com [Source type: General]

  • Many of your potential customers like coffee, but hate Starbucks
  • Starbucks has made a point of moving in near local coffee shops, do the same so that people will start to come to that part of town where all the coffee shops are.
  • Hire disgruntled or even part time Starbucks barristas to cut down on training costs.
  • Have friendly competition fundraisers for local schools and causes to bring awareness of your shop, its a fun and uplifting way of stealing Starbucks customers.
  • The general public thinks Starbucks is overpriced, you will be the affordable competitor.
  • Right now McDonald's and Dunkin' Donuts are launching campaigns to compete with Starbucks, join them
.Location Location Location The best general advice for a start up coffee shop is to follow the pack.^ Teen party menus suggested in cookbooks are generally not as *hip.* Sample 1950s coffee shop & ice cream parlor menus are online here .
  • TheFood Timeline: popular American decade foods, menus, products & party planningtips 13 January 2010 23:44 UTC www.foodtimeline.org [Source type: General]

Find a Starbucks and move in across the street. It is vital for long term success to move with the market and not against it in these early stages of your shop. There are certain businesses that thrive off of each other, for instance a 24/7 diner across from a bar. .In fact, in every town you will find that successful bars clump together and thrive.^ In fact, you'll find foods in this world that don't even seem possible.
  • The 6 Most Terrifying Foods in the World | Cracked.com 13 January 2010 23:44 UTC www.cracked.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.One big reason for this is that every time your potential customer goes to your competitor they will see your business, and become comfortable with your location.^ (I'm not sure if your suppose to do this but you'll see ToTo, the big fat fish from the Zora band and the Gorman man so depressed.
  • The Legend of Zelda: Majora's Mask N64 Cheats 25 September 2009 5:05 UTC www.neoseeker.com [Source type: General]

^ Flipping the bacon every five minutes, they reached doneness in twenty minutes time.

^ Buy a powder keg from the goron in the bomb shop(he's the cheaper one) And place it wherever there is a big boulder, instead of waiting for an annoyingly long time just shoot it with your arrows.
  • The Legend of Zelda: Majora's Mask N64 Cheats 25 September 2009 5:05 UTC www.neoseeker.com [Source type: General]

.The one day that your competitor gets too crowded, gives bad service, or isn't open then they will come to you.^ They are there to give you practise with your boomarangs so shoot them.
  • The Legend of Zelda: Majora's Mask N64 Cheats 25 September 2009 5:05 UTC www.neoseeker.com [Source type: General]

^ The wide opening also gives you the advantage of fitting whole slices of bacon if your microwave is large enough.

^ Once you beat the race a goron will give you gold sand.Go back to the goron village go in the blacksmiths house give him your razor sword and gold sand come back in a couple days and you got it!
  • The Legend of Zelda: Majora's Mask N64 Cheats 25 September 2009 5:05 UTC www.neoseeker.com [Source type: General]

.It is also good to make your sign visible and appealing to the type of customer you are looking for.^ If you make these according to the accecpted practice, it will not be necessary to have any more on your list of standbys.
  • TheFood Timeline: popular American decade foods, menus, products & party planningtips 13 January 2010 23:44 UTC www.foodtimeline.org [Source type: General]

Think about a sign of a big steaming mug in fluorescent lights vs a sculpture of a coffee farmer filling a burlap bag with beans. .They send different signals and will attract different kinds of coffee drinkers.^ They have a wide variety of fillings for the potstickers; we stuffed our faces with three different kinds of potstickers: pork and chive, pork and pickled vegetables, and egg and spinach.
  • Tonynet Explorer: Food and Drink Archives 22 September 2009 13:28 UTC www.tonychor.com [Source type: General]

Purist vs Poly-product Some shops exclusively cater to the gourmet coffee drinker, while others diversify with similar products, services, and gimmicks. .Be careful when adding anything other foods and drinks into your shop.^ At least the food here kills you slowly, rather than burrowing a hole into your intestines, dumbass.
  • The 6 Most Terrifying Foods in the World | Cracked.com 13 January 2010 23:44 UTC www.cracked.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.If you want to attract the high end crowd of coffee connoisseurs then you must not have competing fragrances in your shop from candles, food, incense, a fireplace, or tobacco.^ Help: Sitemap Our site map will help you find answers to many of your coffee-related questions.
  • Coffee Review :: The World's Leading Coffee Buying Guide 12 September 2009 3:56 UTC www.coffeereview.com [Source type: General]

^ If you have no use for the Strength bonus on this food it may not be worth your time to get this recipe.
  • Cooking Recipes : Crafter's Tome : World of Warcraft 1 February 2010 7:31 UTC wow.crafterstome.com [Source type: General]

^ Note: to get back your sword you back you must do the same as above, except you should use the Zora mask.
  • The Legend of Zelda: Majora's Mask N64 Cheats 25 September 2009 5:05 UTC www.neoseeker.com [Source type: General]

.Now if you don't have a comfortable place for people to smoke and socialize, then you lose out on a huge market of coffee addicts who religiously smoke when they drink.^ If you are int eh SF bay area (unfortunately I am now in FL) try Cosentinos Markets, they sometimes have fairly good bacon in the meat department.

^ Categories: Food and Drink Now you can have bacon any time, even after the apocalypse.
  • Tonynet Explorer: Food and Drink Archives 22 September 2009 13:28 UTC www.tonychor.com [Source type: General]

^ I figured I had nothing to lose by buying two, so I picked them up along with some coffee beans (how can you not buy coffee when you're on the island of Java?
  • Tonynet Explorer: Food and Drink Archives 22 September 2009 13:28 UTC www.tonychor.com [Source type: General]

.Every new thing that you introduce to your shop has risks that will potentially lose a segment of the market.^ To not lose a piece of heart when you use the bomb mask, hold your shield then set off the bomb mask and presto, you still have your life piece.
  • The Legend of Zelda: Majora's Mask N64 Cheats 25 September 2009 5:05 UTC www.neoseeker.com [Source type: General]

^ Hey Kabuk, I have a slight news flash for you, 95% of the things you eat daily have some form of horrific animal cruelty.
  • The 6 Most Terrifying Foods in the World | Cracked.com 13 January 2010 23:44 UTC www.cracked.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ You know that trick where you can freeze the game by wearing a mask in Sakons Hideout then switching the mask your wearing with the Giant's Mask?Well guess what.You can play as Giant Link after you lose Sakons Challenge.
  • The Legend of Zelda: Majora's Mask N64 Cheats 25 September 2009 5:05 UTC www.neoseeker.com [Source type: General]

A coffee shop with a cigar cellar can be a great mix, but a large selection of fruit smoothies might spoil that environment. It will be difficult to balance the noises of the blender screaming in the background over Blue Like Jazz; as a teenage girl is talking on her cell phone while a retired business man sips his coffee puffs his cigar. As a rule, if your shop is going to be a hip teenage lounge, expect a demand for blended drinks, sugary stuff, and soft drinks. Your business will be at the whim of whether it is trendy to go to a coffee shop; live music will help attract this crowd of young hipsters. .On the other hand, if you are aiming for business people, then be prepared for the morning rush with grumbles coming from behind newspapers and Blackberries.^ Speaking of cooking with lye there are other foods that use it in the preparation that you might not know...
  • The 6 Most Terrifying Foods in the World | Cracked.com 13 January 2010 23:44 UTC www.cracked.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Many of them will never sit down or get a drink in a "for here" mug.^ Categories: Food and Drink What could be more decadent than an afternoon of slurping as many fresh, fresh, fresh oysters and washing them down with great local wines?
  • Tonynet Explorer: Food and Drink Archives 22 September 2009 13:28 UTC www.tonychor.com [Source type: General]

They will expect the barista to memorize their drink, and will often tip well for quality service.

Within psychology

Coffee contains caffine which is an addictive drug. There are even psyiatric diagnosis related to caffine intoxication, caffine induced anxiety disorders, caffine induced sleep disorders, and of course, "not otherwise specified". [1]

1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

COFFEE (Fr. café, Ger. .Kaffee). This important and valuable article of food is the produce chiefly of Coffea arabica, a Rubiaceous plant indigenous to Abyssinia, which, however, as cultivated originally, spread outwards from the southern parts of Arabia.^ The Delaney Clause is an important part of the federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act.
  • Food Additives ~ CSPI’s Food Safety 13 January 2010 23:44 UTC www.cspinet.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Discusses everyday life, family roles, cooking methods, most important foods, and celebrations of people on southern plantations before the Civil War.

^ Though the manufacturer's (Marlow Foods) advertising and labeling implied that the product is "mushroom protein" or "mushroom in origin," the mold (or fungus) from which it is made does not produce mushrooms.
  • Food Additives ~ CSPI’s Food Safety 13 January 2010 23:44 UTC www.cspinet.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The name is probably derived from theArabic K'hawah, although by some it has been traced to Kaffa, a province in Abyssinia, in which the tree grows wild.^ Gums are derived from natural sources (bushes, trees, seaweed, bacteria) and are poorly tested, though probably safe.
  • Food Additives ~ CSPI’s Food Safety 13 January 2010 23:44 UTC www.cspinet.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The genus Coffea, to which the common coffee tree belongs, contains about 25 species in the tropics of the Old World, mainly African. .Besides being found wild in Abyssinia, the common coffee plant appears to be widely disseminated in Africa, occurring wild in the Mozambique district, on the shores of the Victoria Nyanza, and in Angola on the west coast.^ A guide to identifying, collecting, and preparing twenty wild plants commonly found in and around fields, forests, and streams.

.The coffee leaf disease in Ceylon brought into prominence Liberian coffee (C. liberica), a native of the west coast of Africa, now extensively FIG. 1. - Branch of Coffea grown in several parts of the world.^ Cafe, Caffea, Coffea arabica, Coffea arnoldiana, Coffea bukobensis, Coffea canephora, Coffea Cruda, Coffea liberica, Coffea robusta, Espresso, Green Coffee, Green Coffee Bean, Java, Mocha.
  • COFFEE: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings - WebMD 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ There are several species of the coffee tree, as, Coffea Arabica, C. occidentalis, and C. Liberica.
  • Coffee@Everything2.com 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ However, there has been contention involving bringing plantation grown coffee into the scene, because of the importance of the issue of land reform.

.Other species of economic importance are Sierra Leone coffee (C. stenophylla) and Congo coffee (C. robusta), both of which have been introduced into and are cultivated on a small scale in various parts of the tropics.^ The use of coffee is said to have been introduced into England about 1650, when coffeehouses were opened in Oxford and London.
  • Coffee@Everything2.com 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In the early 1600s live coffee beans were finally smuggled from Yemen into both Europe and India .
  • Coffee@Everything2.com 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It’s by far the biggest development in the history of our species, as it’s pushed us forward into all kinds of other technological advances.
  • Entry level jobs in Food | One Day, One Job 13 January 2010 23:44 UTC www.onedayonejob.com [Source type: General]

C. excelsa is another species of considerable promise.
.The common Arabian coffee shrub is an evergreen plant, which under natural conditions grows to a height of from 18 to 20 ft., with oblong-ovate, acuminate, smooth and shining leaves, measuring about 6 in.^ Cut the leaves into squares (about 15-20 cm) and set aside.

in length by 22 wide. Its flowers, which are produced in dense clusters in the axils of the leaves, have a five-toothed calyx, a tubular five-parted corolla, five stamens and a single bifid style. The flowers are pure white in colour, with a rich fragrant odour, and the plants in blossom have a lovely and attractive appearance, but the bloom is very evanescent. .The fruit is a fleshy berry, having the appearance and size of a small cherry, and as it ripens it assumes a dark red colour.^ Lush fruit-toned acidity, silky body and complex flavors of guava nectar, honey, vanilla, berries and cherry-like chocolate.
  • Coffee Review :: The World's Leading Coffee Buying Guide 12 September 2009 3:56 UTC www.coffeereview.com [Source type: General]

^ They are about the size of a small orange, beautiful dark, smooth skins and very plump.
  • NELA Live: Food and Drink 22 September 2009 13:28 UTC www.nelalive.net [Source type: General]

.Each fruit contains two seeds embedded in a yellowish pulp, and the seeds are enclosed in a thin membranous endocarp (the "parchment").^ These substances are minor components of membranes in many nuts, seeds, vegetable oils, fruits, vegetables and other foods.
  • Food Additives ~ CSPI’s Food Safety 13 January 2010 23:44 UTC www.cspinet.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Between each seed and the parchment is a delicate covering called the "silver skin." The seeds which constitute the raw coffee "beans" of commerce are plano-convex in form, the flat surfaces which are laid against each other within the berry having a longitudinal furrow or groove. .When only one seed is developed in a fruit it is not flattened on one side, but circular in cross section.^ The fruit inside the thick red peel is like a white tangerine - a few small sections and one big one containing the pit.
  • Tonynet Explorer: Food and Drink Archives 22 September 2009 13:28 UTC www.tonychor.com [Source type: General]

Such seeds form "pea-berry" coffee.
The seeds are of a soft, semi-translucent, bluish or greenish colour, hard and tough in texture. The regions best adapted for the cultivation of coffee are well-watered mountain slopes at an elevation ranging from 1000 to 4000 ft. above sea-level, within the tropics, and possessing a mean annual temperature of about 65° to 70° F.
.The Liberian coffee plant (C. liberica) has larger leaves, flowers and fruits, and is of a more robust and hardy constitution, than Arabian coffee.^ It was recorded that after coffee was introduced in Europe there were more madames in the brothel houses of Europe that have a patented coffee making apparatus than men.
  • Coffee@Everything2.com 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I must confess, I am much more discerning with tea than I am with coffee.
  • Coffee@Everything2.com 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ There is some concern that drinking more than 5 cups of coffee per day might not be safe for people with heart disease.
  • COFFEE: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings - WebMD 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: Academic]

.The seeds yield a highly aromatic and wellflavoured coffee (but by no means equal to Arabian), and the plant is very prolific and yields heavy crops.^ Coffee ' is a broad term, that means both the beans of the Coffea plant, and the drink that is made of them.
  • Coffee@Everything2.com 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

Liberian coffee grows, moreover, at low altitudes, and flourishes in many situations unsuitable to the Arabian coffee. It grows wild in great abundance along the whole of the Guinea coast.
Table of contents

History

The early history of coffee as an economic product is involved in considerable obscurity, the absence of fact being compensated for by a profusion of conjectural statements and mythical stories. .The use of coffee (C. arabica) in Abyssinia was recorded in the 15th century, and was then stated to have been practised from time immemorial.^ This controversial high-potency sweetener was used in the United States in diet foods until 1970, at which time it was banned.
  • Food Additives ~ CSPI’s Food Safety 13 January 2010 23:44 UTC www.cspinet.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Neighbouring countries, however, appear to have been quite ignorant of its value. Various legendary accounts are given of the discovery of the beneficial properties of the plant, one ascribing it to a flock of sheep accidentally browsing on the wild shrubs, with the result that they became elated and sleepless at night ! .Its physiological action in dissipating drowsiness and preventing sleep was taken advantage, of in connexion with the prolonged religious service of the Mahommedans, and its use as a devotional antisoporific stirred up fierce opposition on the part of the strictly orthodox and conservative section of the priests.^ You can always also use little mirrors if you want to light up certain parts of your image or give something a little shimmer.

Coffee by them was held to be an intoxicating beverage, and therefore prohibited by the Koran, and severe penalties were threatened to those addicted to its use. .Notwithstanding threats of divine retribution and other devices, the coffee-drinking habit spread rapidly among the Arabian Mahommedans, and the growth of coffee and its use as a national beverage became as inseparably connected with Arabia as tea is with China.^ Such spread-your-owns are excellent too as an afternoon snack, served with tea or coffee."
  • TheFood Timeline: popular American decade foods, menus, products & party planningtips 13 January 2010 23:44 UTC www.foodtimeline.org [Source type: General]

^ Rakic V, Beilin LJ, Burke V. Effect of coffee and tea drinking on postprandial hypotension in older men and women.
  • COFFEE: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings - WebMD 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The Coffee Connection used to carry this model, but stopped; Peet's is reported to have several similar models back in stock.
  • Coffee: Resources for home espresso 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.math.columbia.edu [Source type: General]

.Towards the close of the 16th century the use of coffee was recorded by a European resident in Egypt, and about this epoch it came into general use in the near East.^ My doctor mom used to tell me horror stories of kids who came into the ER after eating drain cleaner.

^ Manufacturers have used sodium benzoate (and its close relative benzoic acid) for a century to prevent the growth of microorganisms in acidic foods.
  • Food Additives ~ CSPI’s Food Safety 13 January 2010 23:44 UTC www.cspinet.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Call the functions that are defined in the library header -- I'm not going too far into this since this isn't really about the use of any particular library.

The appreciation of coffee as a beverage in Europe dates from the 17th century. "Coffee-houses" were soon instituted, the first being opened in Constantinople and Venice. In London coffee-houses date from 1652, when one was opened in St Michael's Alley, Cornhill. .They soon became popular, and the role played by them in the social life of the 17th and 18th centuries is well known.^ Discusses the everyday life, family roles, cooking methods, and common foods of pioneers who traveled west on the Oregon Trail during the nineteenth century.

.Germany, France, Sweden and other countries adopted them at about the same time as Great Britain.^ "Teenagers today are about three times as worldly as their parents were at the same age.
  • TheFood Timeline: popular American decade foods, menus, products & party planningtips 13 January 2010 23:44 UTC www.foodtimeline.org [Source type: General]

^ Some will increase a specific skill, while at the same time decreasing other skills.
  • Tip.it RuneScape Help :: Cooking Guide :: The Original RuneScape help site! 1 February 2010 7:31 UTC www.tip.it [Source type: General]

^ The team couldn't stop talking about how much fun they had and what a great time it was cooking with their colleagues.
  • Private Cooking Parties and Teambuilding Events 1 February 2010 7:31 UTC www.rusticocooking.com [Source type: General]

.In Europe, as in Arabia, coffee at first made its way into favour in the face of various adverse and even prohibitive restrictions.^ In college I also inserted chem lab filters into my stovetop unit, which made spectacular coffee until it exploded.
  • Coffee: Resources for home espresso 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.math.columbia.edu [Source type: General]

^ He made the astute observation that one should first fill the storage containers with Argon gas, and then drop in the coffee beans.
  • Coffee: Resources for home espresso 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.math.columbia.edu [Source type: General]

^ But, when you're biting into something that hasn't even had a chance to see its mother' face ...
  • The 6 Most Terrifying Foods in the World | Cracked.com 13 January 2010 23:44 UTC www.cracked.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Thus at one time in Germany it was necessary to obtain a licence to roast coffee.^ Recent Reviews 100% Ka'u Medium Roast (92 points) from Rusty's Hawaiian Coffee is one of many impressive coffees recently reviewed that did not appear in a featured article.
  • Coffee Review :: The World's Leading Coffee Buying Guide 12 September 2009 3:56 UTC www.coffeereview.com [Source type: General]

^ Use 1-2 times as much 190-200 F water as freshly roasted coarsely to medium ground coffee by volume, steeping 3 to 5 minutes in a giant measuring cup.
  • Coffee: Resources for home espresso 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.math.columbia.edu [Source type: General]

^ Coffee extract is a delicious alternative in a work setting where there is neither the time nor the cleanup facilities to make decent coffee in one's office, but the communal machine makes incorrigible coffee.
  • Coffee: Resources for home espresso 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.math.columbia.edu [Source type: General]

In England Charles II. endeavoured to suppress coffee-houses on the ground that they were centres of political agitation, his royal proclamation stating that they were the resort of disaffected persons "who devised and spread abroad divers false, malicious and arabica. scandalous reports, to the defamation of His Majesty's government, and to the disturbance of the peace and quiet of the nation." Up to the close of the 17th century the world's entire, although limited, supply of coffee was obtained from the province of Yemen in south Arabia, where the true celebrated Mocha or Mokka coffee is still produced. At this time, however, plants were successfully introduced from Arabia to Java, where the cultiva_ tion was immediately taken up. The government of Java distributed plants to various places, including the botanic garden of Amsterdam. The Portuguese introduced coffee into Ceylon. From Amsterdam the Dutch sent the plant to Surinam in 1718, and in the same year Jamaica received it through the governor Sir Nicholas Lawes. .Within a few years coffee reached the other West Indian islands, and spread generally through the tropics of the New World, which now produce by far the greater portion of the world's supply.^ LaFray, J., Tropic cooking : the new cuisine from Florida and the islands of the Caribbean .

^ It's the time of year when you send kids on the coast of New England out to the salt marshes and mudflats to dig Steamers, which are the most delicious seafood in the world.

^ It's a little hard to believe now, but New York City and the waters surrounding it were once incredibly productive fishing grounds and the richest oyster beds in the world.
  • Tonynet Explorer: Food and Drink Archives 22 September 2009 13:28 UTC www.tonychor.com [Source type: General]

Cultivation and Preparation for Market

Coffee plants are grown from seeds, which, as in the case of other crops, should be obtained from selected trees of desirable characteristics. The seeds may be sown "at stake," i.e. in the actual positions the mature plants are to occupy, or raised in a nursery and afterwards transplanted. The choice of methods is usually determined by various local considerations. Nurseries are desirable where there is risk of drought killing seedlings in the open. .Whilst young the plants usually require to be shaded, and this may be done by growing castor oil plants, cassava (Manihot), maize or Indian corn, bananas, or various other useful crops between the coffee, until the latter develop and occupy the ground.^ It may be dried and used as corn syrup solids in coffee whiteners and other dry products.
  • Food Additives ~ CSPI’s Food Safety 13 January 2010 23:44 UTC www.cspinet.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They may also become “dependent” on coffee to the point that they develop withdrawal symptoms if they suddenly stop drinking it.
  • COFFEE: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings - WebMD 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Other variation - use dagu..if you can get them before the wild pigs eat them.
  • Chamorro.com 15 September 2009 5:39 UTC www.chamorro.com [Source type: General]

Sometimes, but by no means always, permanent shading is afforded by special shade trees, such as species of the coral tree (Erythrina) and other leguminous trees. .Opinions as to the necessity of shade trees varies in different countries; e.g. in Brazil and at high elevations in Jamaica they are not employed, whereas in Porto Rico many look on them as absolutely essential.^ Many other countries experienced Depression circumstances during the 1930s...their soup kitchen menus could have been altogether different.
  • TheFood Timeline: popular American decade foods, menus, products & party planningtips 13 January 2010 23:44 UTC www.foodtimeline.org [Source type: General]

^ In fact, there's essentially no nutritional difference between sugar and high-fructose corn syrup, so just ignore the marketing hype.
  • Food Additives ~ CSPI’s Food Safety 13 January 2010 23:44 UTC www.cspinet.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

It is probable that in many cases where shade trees are of advantage their beneficial action may be indirect, in affording protection from wind, drought or soil erosion, and, when leguminous plants are employed, in enriching the soil in nitrogen. .The plants begin to come into bearing in their second or third year, but on the average the fifth is the first year of considerable yield.^ Return to the Stock Pot Inn and go up to the second floor of the inn and go into the first door you see and you will be in a small room with anju.
  • The Legend of Zelda: Majora's Mask N64 Cheats 25 September 2009 5:05 UTC www.neoseeker.com [Source type: General]

^ Now, this isn't something you've set, it's just that the first button is #0, the second is #1, the third is #2, and the fourth that you should never use is #3.

^ I first really got into oysters at a dinner hosted by Jon that served the winners of that year's competition with freshly harvested oysters.
  • Tonynet Explorer: Food and Drink Archives 22 September 2009 13:28 UTC www.tonychor.com [Source type: General]

.There may be two, three, or even more "flushes" of blossom in one year, and flowers and fruits in all stages may thus be seen on one plant.^ There are still stone fruits to be found, even at this time of year.
  • NELA Live: Food and Drink 22 September 2009 13:28 UTC www.nelalive.net [Source type: General]

^ For five cents...it is possible to obtain a filling lunch, for with soup, pudding and a beverage, accounted for at three cents, and order of creamed codfish on toast may be had for two cents more.
  • TheFood Timeline: popular American decade foods, menus, products & party planningtips 13 January 2010 23:44 UTC www.foodtimeline.org [Source type: General]

^ You did such a good job of involving EVERYONE (including my father who I have never seen cooking in all of my 49 years!
  • Private Cooking Parties and Teambuilding Events 1 February 2010 7:31 UTC www.rusticocooking.com [Source type: General]

.The fruits are fully ripe about seven months after the flowers open; the ripe fruits are fleshy, and of a deep red colour, whence the name of "cherry."^ Intense aroma: ripe, fallen fruit, flowers, flowering grass, honey, pungent cedar.
  • Coffee Review :: The World's Leading Coffee Buying Guide 12 September 2009 3:56 UTC www.coffeereview.com [Source type: General]

^ Deep, very sweet-toned aroma, with chocolate, flowers, walnut, and a hint of carnal fruit - peach or papaya.
  • Coffee Review :: The World's Leading Coffee Buying Guide 12 September 2009 3:56 UTC www.coffeereview.com [Source type: General]

^ In the cup flowers and a perfectly ripe but pungently crisp fruit with a hint of lemon.
  • Coffee Review :: The World's Leading Coffee Buying Guide 12 September 2009 3:56 UTC www.coffeereview.com [Source type: General]

.When mature the fruits are picked by hand, or allowed to fall of their own accord or by shaking the plant.^ This treat allows for your own creative fruit combinations.
  • Savvy Cooking – Food & Recipes with Pictures 1 February 2010 7:31 UTC cooking.savvy-cafe.com [Source type: General]

^ Farming - members can plant their own vegetables, fruit trees and bushes.
  • Tip.it RuneScape Help :: Cooking Guide :: The Original RuneScape help site! 1 February 2010 7:31 UTC www.tip.it [Source type: General]

The subsequent preparation may be according to (1) the dry or (2) the wet method.
.In the dry method the cherries are spread in a thin layer, often on a stone drying floor, or barbecue, and exposed to the sun.^ I think my form was about the right size but I felt I had to spread the yellow layer too thin resulting in just a very small layer in the middle.

Protection is necessary against heavy dew or rain. .The dried cherries can be stored for any length of time, and later the dried pulp and the parchment are removed, setting free the two beans contained in each cherry.^ It is great to sort and store in the freezer for later uses: baked beans, salads, bacon gravy w/ crumbles over cornbread, bacon and green beans, eggs or omelets, etc.

This primitive and simple method is employed in Arabia, in Brazil and other countries. .In Brazil it is giving place to the more modern method described below.^ This stuff is all described in more detail, below.

^ This beats the time consuming slow fry method you describe, and works when you have more bacon than will fit on the bottom of the pan.

In the wet, or as it is sometimes called, West Indian method, the cherries are put in a tank of water. .On large estates galvanized spouting is often employed to convey the beans by the help of running water from the fields to the tank.^ In a large bowl, soak the chinese bean threads in boiling water until soft.
  • Chamorro.com 15 September 2009 5:39 UTC www.chamorro.com [Source type: General]

The mature cherries sink, and are drawn off from the tank through pipes to the pulping machines. Here they are subjected to the action of a roughened cylinder revolving closely against a curved iron plate. The fleshy portion is reduced to a pulp, and the mixture of pulp and liberated seeds (each still enclosed in its parchment) is carried away to a second tank of water and stirred. The light pulp is removed by a stream of water and the seeds allowed to settle. Slight fermentation and subsequent washings, accompanied by trampling with bare feet and stirring by rakes or special machinery, result in the parchment coverings being left quite clean. The beans are now dried on barbecues, in trays, &c., or by artificial heat if climatic conditions render this necessary. .Recent experiments in Porto Rico tend to show that if the weather is unfavourable during the crop period the pulped coffee can be allowed to remain moist and even to malt or sprout without injury to the final value of the product when dried later.^ It may be dried and used as corn syrup solids in coffee whiteners and other dry products.
  • Food Additives ~ CSPI’s Food Safety 13 January 2010 23:44 UTC www.cspinet.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Later tables in this guide show the ingredients and experience for making the individual topping items and churning dairy products.
  • Tip.it RuneScape Help :: Cooking Guide :: The Original RuneScape help site! 1 February 2010 7:31 UTC www.tip.it [Source type: General]

.The product is now in the state known as parchment coffee, and may be exported.^ It may be dried and used as corn syrup solids in coffee whiteners and other dry products.
  • Food Additives ~ CSPI’s Food Safety 13 January 2010 23:44 UTC www.cspinet.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Before use, however, the parchment must be removed. This may be done on the estate, at the port of shipment, or in the country where imported. The coffee is thoroughly dried, the parchment broken by a roller, and removed by winnowing. Further rubbing and winnowing removes the silver skin, and the beans are left in the condition of ordinary unroasted coffee. .Grading into large, medium and small beans, to secure the uniformity desirable in roasting, is effected by the use of a cylindrical or other pattern sieve, along which the beans are made to travel, encountering first small, then medium, and finally large apertures or meshes.^ Return to the Stock Pot Inn and go up to the second floor of the inn and go into the first door you see and you will be in a small room with anju.
  • The Legend of Zelda: Majora's Mask N64 Cheats 25 September 2009 5:05 UTC www.neoseeker.com [Source type: General]

^ Use the minimum possible amount of water and cut the vegetables into large pieces or boil them whole to keep exposure to a minimum.
  • #1 Cooking Recipes Healthy Cooking Cookware Home Baking Cooking Food Online 1 February 2010 7:31 UTC www.talkingcooking.com [Source type: General]

^ Taking coffee along with birth control pills can cause jitteriness, headache, fast heartbeat, and other side effects.
  • COFFEE: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings - WebMD 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: Academic]

Damaged beans and foreign matter are removed by hand picking. .An average yield of cleaned coffee is from 12 to 2 lb per tree, but much greater crops are obtained on new rich lands, and under special conditions.^ The finish is rich, berry-toned and extraordinarily clean for this style of coffee.
  • Coffee Review :: The World's Leading Coffee Buying Guide 12 September 2009 3:56 UTC www.coffeereview.com [Source type: General]

Production

.The centre of production has shifted greatly since coffee first came into use in Europe.^ It has been used in the United Kingdom since the 1990s and has also been sold in continental Europe.
  • Food Additives ~ CSPI’s Food Safety 13 January 2010 23:44 UTC www.cspinet.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Call the functions that are defined in the library header -- I'm not going too far into this since this isn't really about the use of any particular library.

.Arabia formerly supplied the world; later the West Indies and then Java took the lead, to be supplanted in turn by Brazil, which now produces about threequarters of the world's supply and controls the market.^ You should be falling down for about 1 minute until the screen turns black 10) Now, when the screen turns balck, you can navigate your camera with the Z-Button.
  • The Legend of Zelda: Majora's Mask N64 Cheats 25 September 2009 5:05 UTC www.neoseeker.com [Source type: General]

^ Forget about him, you can now control Epona alone!
  • The Legend of Zelda: Majora's Mask N64 Cheats 25 September 2009 5:05 UTC www.neoseeker.com [Source type: General]

^ Turn bacon over at about 10-12 minutes; very thin bacon may be done now, thicker bacon will take as long as 12-16 minutes total.

Brazil

Coffee planting is the chief industry of Brazil, and coffee the principal export. .The states of Sao Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Minas Geraes and Santos ,containthechiefcoffee-producinglands.^ Origin: Carmo de Minas growing region, Minas Gerais State, Brazil .
  • Coffee Review :: The World's Leading Coffee Buying Guide 12 September 2009 3:56 UTC www.coffeereview.com [Source type: General]

.Theannual output ranges from about 10,000,000 to 16,000,000 bags (of 120 lb each), whilst the world's annual consumption is more or less stationary at about 16,000,00o bags.^ The ten gallon setup uses 10 bags of the mix and 20 lbs.

^ The total number of meals now being served in these restaurants averages more thean 10,000 a day.
  • TheFood Timeline: popular American decade foods, menus, products & party planningtips 13 January 2010 23:44 UTC www.foodtimeline.org [Source type: General]

The overwhelming importance of the Brazilian output is thus evident. .Recently efforts have been made to restrict production to maintain prices, and the Coffee Convention scheme came into force in Sao Paulo on December I, 1906, and in Rio de Janeiro and Minas Geraes on January I, 1907. The cultivation in general is very primitive in character, periodical weeding being almost all the attention the plants receive.^ Each of us has had a high-school education (or GED), but all had ADD so didn't pay attention very well, especially the dogs.

^ Sadly, I've not been able to make it to the market recently due to working later than usual, and being away makes me appreciate it all the more.
  • NELA Live: Food and Drink 22 September 2009 13:28 UTC www.nelalive.net [Source type: General]

^ Their pasta is all freshly made and served with tasty sauces (I almost stole half of Andrew's carbonara).
  • Tonynet Explorer: Food and Drink Archives 22 September 2009 13:28 UTC www.tonychor.com [Source type: General]

Manuring is commonly confined to mulches of the cut weeds and addition of the coffee husks. New lands in Sao Paulo yield from 80 cwt. to 100 cwt. of cleaned coffee per .1000 trees (700 go to the acre); the average yield, however, is not more than 15 cwt.^ As a beginner, do not go for a recipe where the preparation time is more than thirty minutes or the number of ingredients is more than 10.
  • #1 Cooking Recipes Healthy Cooking Cookware Home Baking Cooking Food Online 1 February 2010 7:31 UTC www.talkingcooking.com [Source type: General]

^ However, drinking more than this amount has been linked to an increased risk of miscarriage, premature birth, and low birth weight.
  • COFFEE: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings - WebMD 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The 17 is a new bottling and is even more lip-smacking than the 15.
  • Tonynet Explorer: Food and Drink Archives 22 September 2009 13:28 UTC www.tonychor.com [Source type: General]

.The plants are at their best when from 10 to 15 years old, but continue yielding for 30 years or even more.^ Sometimes the old fashioned ways are THE BEST. And BTW I went through the BIG Dig tunnels three times 7-10-2006 in the afternoon.

^ Continue stirring liquid with a wire wisk until you see that the liquid is starting to steam (about 10-15 minutes).
  • Chamorro.com 15 September 2009 5:39 UTC www.chamorro.com [Source type: General]

^ AM RagPen i used to eat balut when i was 6 to 10 years old....
  • The 6 Most Terrifying Foods in the World | Cracked.com 13 January 2010 23:44 UTC www.cracked.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Other South American Countries.^ Good American bacon - the crunchy kind, not that flabby stuff you get in other countries.
  • Tonynet Explorer: Food and Drink Archives 22 September 2009 13:28 UTC www.tonychor.com [Source type: General]

- .Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and to a much less degree Bolivia and Paraguay, produce coffee, the annual crops of the two former countries being each of about £1,500,000 in value.^ Industry produces about 62 pounds (2007) of sugar per person annually.
  • Food Additives ~ CSPI’s Food Safety 13 January 2010 23:44 UTC www.cspinet.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Central America. - .Guatemala produces the most in this region; the coffee estates are mainly controlled by Germans, who have brought them to a high pitch of perfection.^ Men who drink the most caffeinated coffee, 28 ounces (three to four cups) per day, seem to have the greatest reduction in risk.
  • COFFEE: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings - WebMD 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: Academic]

The crop ranges in value from about £1,000,000 to £1,500,000 per annum. Costa Rica and San Salvador produce about half this amount In Nicaragua, Honduras and Panama, coffee is extensively cultivated, and all export the product.

West Indies

.Coffee is grown in most of the islands, often only for local use.^ Most beginners often shy away from buying cookware because they are generally unaware of what is good and useful and what is simply good to look at and costly to buy.
  • #1 Cooking Recipes Healthy Cooking Cookware Home Baking Cooking Food Online 1 February 2010 7:31 UTC www.talkingcooking.com [Source type: General]

^ While this strategy is simple and easy, it often backfires, what with today’s kids being smarter than most of us grown ups.
  • #1 Cooking Recipes Healthy Cooking Cookware Home Baking Cooking Food Online 1 February 2010 7:31 UTC www.talkingcooking.com [Source type: General]

^ This is only the beginning of what promises to be a great year for locally grown fruits and veggies!
  • NELA Live: Food and Drink 22 September 2009 13:28 UTC www.nelalive.net [Source type: General]

.Haiti produces the largest amount, the annual value of the crop being about £500,000. Porto Rico formerly had a flourishing industry, but it has declined owing to various causes.^ Industry produces about 62 pounds (2007) of sugar per person annually.
  • Food Additives ~ CSPI’s Food Safety 13 January 2010 23:44 UTC www.cspinet.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The interior is still expected to be devoted largely to coffee, and the U.S. Department of Agriculture has carried out experiments to improve methods and ensure the cultivation of better varieties.^ That’s true, but freezing and refrigeration could also do that, and the U.S. Department of Agriculture has developed a safe method using lactic-acid-producing bacteria.
  • Food Additives ~ CSPI’s Food Safety 13 January 2010 23:44 UTC www.cspinet.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Jamaica produces the famous Blue Mountain Coffee, which compares favourably with the best coffees of the world, and also ordinary or "plain grown"; the Blue Mountain is cultivated at elevations of from 3000 to 4500 ft. Coffee usually ranks third or fourth in value amongst the exports of the island.
Africa, the native country of the coffees, does not now contribute any important amount to the world's output. .In Liberia, the Gold Coast and elsewhere on the West Coast are many plantations, but the low prices ruling of recent years have caused coffee to be neglected for more remunerative crops.^ Sugar prices, too, were low, and in the Thirties Americans consumed more sugar per capita then they have done before or since..."
  • TheFood Timeline: popular American decade foods, menus, products & party planningtips 13 January 2010 23:44 UTC www.foodtimeline.org [Source type: General]

^ There is developing evidence suggesting that drinking more coffee over a lifetime might improve thinking skills among women older than 80 years of age.
  • COFFEE: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings - WebMD 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: Academic]

.Coffee is, however, still the principal export of Nyasaland (British Central Africa), where it was introduced as recently as 1894. The area under coffee has been greatly reduced, owing partly to more attention being paid to cotton, partly to droughts and other causes.^ Coffee containing caffeine can cause insomnia, nervousness and restlessness, stomach upset, nausea and vomiting, increased heart and breathing rate, and other side effects.
  • COFFEE: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings - WebMD 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Taking coffee along with birth control pills can cause jitteriness, headache, fast heartbeat, and other side effects.
  • COFFEE: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings - WebMD 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Levothyroxine (Synthroid, Levothroid, Levoxyl, and others) interacts with COFFEE Drinking some types of coffee might reduce the amount of levothyroxine that is absorbed when taken by mouth.
  • COFFEE: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings - WebMD 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: Academic]

In Somaliland and Abyssinia coffee cultivation is of very ancient date. Two kinds are exported, Harrari and Habashi. The former compares favourably with Mocha coffee. The industry could be very considerably extended. .In Natal, Rhodesia, &c., coffee is grown, but not in sufficient quantity to supply the local demand.^ It took 185 pounds of coffee to supply the demand, and in addition the boys drank 300 gallons of milk, which is a favorite tipple in this spot.
  • TheFood Timeline: popular American decade foods, menus, products & party planningtips 13 January 2010 23:44 UTC www.foodtimeline.org [Source type: General]

Arabia

The name "Mocha" is applied generally to coffee produced in Arabia. Turkey and Egypt obtain the best grades. .Traders from these countries go to Arabia, buy the crops on the trees, and supervise its picking and preparation themselves.^ If you don't feel like travelling to the jungle to pick your own pineapples, you can buy some at "Hudo's Grand Tree Groceries" and "Funch's Fine Groceries" in the Grand Tree.
  • Tip.it RuneScape Help :: Cooking Guide :: The Original RuneScape help site! 1 February 2010 7:31 UTC www.tip.it [Source type: General]

The coffee is prepared by the "dry method." .India is the principal coffee-growing region in the British empire, and produces about one-fifth of the total supply of the United Kingdom.^ A collection of meatless recipes from around the world, including Welsh rarebit from the United Kingdom, lentil soup from Spain, and curries from India.

^ Origin: Coorg growing region, southern India .
  • Coffee Review :: The World's Leading Coffee Buying Guide 12 September 2009 3:56 UTC www.coffeereview.com [Source type: General]

.There are some 213,000 acres under coffee, mostly in southern India.^ There is some concern that drinking more than 5 cups of coffee per day might not be safe for people with heart disease.
  • COFFEE: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings - WebMD 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ AM ronballs Isn't there a thing in france where they eat a small bird thing, but for some bizzare (probably shame-related) reason they have to do so while their head is under a blanket?
  • The 6 Most Terrifying Foods in the World | Cracked.com 13 January 2010 23:44 UTC www.cracked.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Bleeding disorders : There is some concern that coffee might make bleeding disorders worse.
  • COFFEE: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings - WebMD 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: Academic]

.The official report states that the production of coffee is restricted for the most part to a limited area in the elevated region above the south-western coast, the coffee lands of Mysore, Coorg, and the Madras districts of Malabar and the Nilgiris, comprising 86% of the whole area under the plant in India.^ (As Michelle discovered when we were on our honeymoon, the "something something" in "beef something something noodles" can be a lot of different parts of a cow, not all of them things most Westerners would be comfortable eating.
  • Tonynet Explorer: Food and Drink Archives 22 September 2009 13:28 UTC www.tonychor.com [Source type: General]

^ And not everyone eats the whole damn thing, most just eat the edible yellow part (also called the yolk).
  • The 6 Most Terrifying Foods in the World | Cracked.com 13 January 2010 23:44 UTC www.cracked.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Pineapple (members): go to the jungle area south of Brimhaven and find a pineapple plant.
  • Tip.it RuneScape Help :: Cooking Guide :: The Original RuneScape help site! 1 February 2010 7:31 UTC www.tip.it [Source type: General]

About one-half of the whole coffee-producing area is in Mysore. In Burma, Assam and Bombay, coffee is of minor importance. During 1904-1906 there was a reduction of the area under coffee in India by 21,554 acres.

Ceylon

The history of coffee in Ceylon is practically that of the coffee-leaf disease (see below). The Dutch introduced Arabian coffee in 1720, but abandoned its cultivation later. It was revived by the British, and developed very rapidly between 1836 and 1845, when there was a temporary collapse owing to financial crisis in the United Kingdom. .In 1880 the exports of coffee were of the value of about £2,784,163. Ten years later they had fallen to £430,633, owing to the ravages of the coffee-leaf disease.^ I was quickly pointed to Lori from Recipegirl to read all about this challenge to get healthy in the first ten weeks of the year.

.The output continued to decrease, and the value of the crop in 1906 was only £17,258. Liberian coffee, which is hardier and more resistant to disease, was introduced, but met with only partial success.^ There is some concern that drinking more than 5 cups of coffee per day might not be safe for people with heart disease.
  • COFFEE: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings - WebMD 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ For preventing gallstone disease: 400 mg or more of caffeine per day (two or more cups of coffee).
  • COFFEE: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings - WebMD 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: Academic]

Dutch East Indies

.Coffee from this source passes under the general name of "Java," that island producing the greatest amount; Sumatra, Borneo and the Celebes, &c., however, also contribute.^ I figured I had nothing to lose by buying two, so I picked them up along with some coffee beans (how can you not buy coffee when you're on the island of Java?
  • Tonynet Explorer: Food and Drink Archives 22 September 2009 13:28 UTC www.tonychor.com [Source type: General]

The Java plantations are largely owned by the government. Much of the coffee from these islands is of a high quality.

Australasia

Coffee can be cultivated in the northern territories of Australia, but comparatively little is done with this crop; Queensland produces the largest amount.
Hawaii, &c. - .In all the islands of the Hawaiian group coffee is grown, but nine-tenths or more is raised in Hawaii itself, the Kona district being the chief seat of production.^ Information Coffee World will teach you all about the bean, from an overview of the countries where it is grown to the specifics of roasting and blending.
  • Espresso and Coffee Information from Coffee Universe 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC coffeeuniverse.com [Source type: News]

^ Shade-Grown Coffee Visit our extensive coffee reference section to learn more about Shade-Grown and Bird-Friendly coffees.
  • Coffee Review :: The World's Leading Coffee Buying Guide 12 September 2009 3:56 UTC www.coffeereview.com [Source type: General]

^ Origin: Ka'u growing district, southwestern corner of the "Big Island" of Hawaii.
  • Coffee Review :: The World's Leading Coffee Buying Guide 12 September 2009 3:56 UTC www.coffeereview.com [Source type: General]

.The exports go mostly to the United States, and there is also a large local consumption.^ CSPI has received well over a thousand reports of adverse reactions, mostly from the United Kingdom and the United States.
  • Food Additives ~ CSPI’s Food Safety 13 January 2010 23:44 UTC www.cspinet.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Coffee and alcohol consumption and risk of pancreatic cancer in two prospective United States cohorts.
  • COFFEE: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings - WebMD 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: Academic]

Coffee thrives well also in the Philippines and Guam.

The World's Trade

The following figures, from the Year-book of the U. S. Department of Agriculture, indicate the relative importance of the coffee-exporting countries.
1904.
1905.
Country.
Exports coffee
Exports coffee
in lb.
in lb.
America
Brazil
1,326,027,795
1 ,43 1 328,038
Colombia
. 130,000,000
(est.) 70,000,000
Venezuela
. 128,000,000
94,370,090
Haiti. .
81,407,346
45,244,232
Salvador .
75,314,003
61,822,223
Guatemala .
71,653,700
81,081,600
Mexico. .
41,855,368
42,456,491
Costa Rica .
27,730,672
39,788,002
Nicaragua .
21,661,621
18,171,515
Porto Rico .
15,330,590
Jamaica
5,781,440
9,046,464
A sia-
Dutch East Indies
. 77,168,254
72,864,649
British India
36,920,464
40,340,384
Singapore (port of export) 12,367,156
11,935,034
Other countries..
. 216,891,567
220,132,690
Total. 2,268,109,976 2,238,581,412 In 1906 there was an increased total of 2,680, 855, 878 lb, due to the Brazil export rising to 1,847,367,771 /b. The aggregate value of the coffee annually entering the world's markets is about £40,000,000.

Coffee Consumption

.The United States of America consume nearly one half of all the coffee exported from the producing countries of the world.^ We are one of the most wasteful when it comes to food, because we are willing to rape half the world so we can keep gorging ourselves on steak.
  • The 6 Most Terrifying Foods in the World | Cracked.com 13 January 2010 23:44 UTC www.cracked.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Coffee and alcohol consumption and risk of pancreatic cancer in two prospective United States cohorts.
  • COFFEE: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings - WebMD 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Mix two cups of drinking chocolate powder with two cups of dry dairy creamer, a cup of powdered sugar and one and a half cups of instant coffee.
  • #1 Cooking Recipes Healthy Cooking Cookware Home Baking Cooking Food Online 1 February 2010 7:31 UTC www.talkingcooking.com [Source type: General]

.This might of course be due merely to the States containing more coffee-drinkers than other countries, but the average consumption per head in the country is about II to 12 lb per annum, an amount equalled or excelled only in Norway, Sweden and Holland.^ It' true, lutefisk is more popular in the United States than in Norway.
  • The 6 Most Terrifying Foods in the World | Cracked.com 13 January 2010 23:44 UTC www.cracked.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Shade-Grown Coffee Visit our extensive coffee reference section to learn more about Shade-Grown and Bird-Friendly coffees.
  • Coffee Review :: The World's Leading Coffee Buying Guide 12 September 2009 3:56 UTC www.coffeereview.com [Source type: General]

^ Those whose incomes were over three dollars per person per week (not a handsome amount) consumed an average of over 3,000 calories per adult male per day.
  • TheFood Timeline: popular American decade foods, menus, products & party planningtips 13 January 2010 23:44 UTC www.foodtimeline.org [Source type: General]

.Whilst one great branch of the Anglo-Saxon stock is near the head of the list, it is interesting to note that the United Kingdom and also Canada and Australia are almost at the foot, using only about r lb of coffee per head each year.^ About one tablespoon per chicken.
  • Chamorro.com 15 September 2009 5:39 UTC www.chamorro.com [Source type: General]

^ What great coffee is all about.
  • Coffee Review :: The World's Leading Coffee Buying Guide 12 September 2009 3:56 UTC www.coffeereview.com [Source type: General]

^ A survey in the United Kingdom sponsored by the Center for Science in the Public Interest (CSPI) found that the percentage of consumers sensitive to Quorn is probably as great as, or greater than, the percentage sensitive to soy, milk, peanuts, and other common food allergens.
  • Food Additives ~ CSPI’s Food Safety 13 January 2010 23:44 UTC www.cspinet.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Germany, with a consumption of about 6 to 7 lb per person per annum uses considerably less than a quarter of the world's commercial crop.^ For boneless meat such as chops or a boneless roast, you will want to buy about 1/3 pound per person.
  • Cooking Tips - Free Recipes - Baking - Low Fat Cooking 1 February 2010 7:31 UTC cooking.lifetips.com [Source type: General]

^ This slightly sweet ingredient provides less than about half as many calories per gram as fructose or other sugar.
  • Food Additives ~ CSPI’s Food Safety 13 January 2010 23:44 UTC www.cspinet.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Industry produces about 62 pounds (2007) of sugar per person annually.
  • Food Additives ~ CSPI’s Food Safety 13 January 2010 23:44 UTC www.cspinet.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.France, about 5 lb per head, takes about one eighth; and Austria-Hungary, about 2 ib, uses some one-sixteenth.^ About one tablespoon per chicken.
  • Chamorro.com 15 September 2009 5:39 UTC www.chamorro.com [Source type: General]

^ The one I have used, with consistently good results for about eight years, is the BaconWave.

^ I mean when one thinks about, the kind of eggs most people are used to, are basically just embryos.
  • The 6 Most Terrifying Foods in the World | Cracked.com 13 January 2010 23:44 UTC www.cracked.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Holland consumes approximately as much, but with a much smaller population, the Dutch using more per head than any other people - 14 lb to 15 lb per annum.^ We also use more egg whites than normal, which makes for a chewier cookie.

^ There is some concern that drinking more than 5 cups of coffee per day might not be safe for people with heart disease.
  • COFFEE: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings - WebMD 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Large dosages are used to compensate for the small number of animals that can be used (a few hundred is considered a big study, though it is tiny compared to the U.S. population of more than 300 million).
  • Food Additives ~ CSPI’s Food Safety 13 January 2010 23:44 UTC www.cspinet.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Their taste is seen also in the relatively high consumption in South Africa.^ AM lmc2 Pacha is eaten a lot in South Africa, we call it skop, and it is not only Sheep, but cow's and pigs as well, and it tastes great!
  • The 6 Most Terrifying Foods in the World | Cracked.com 13 January 2010 23:44 UTC www.cracked.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Sweden, Belgium and the United Kingdom, follow next in order of total amount used.^ In order to use a library, do the following.

^ It has been used in the United Kingdom since the 1990s and has also been sold in continental Europe.
  • Food Additives ~ CSPI’s Food Safety 13 January 2010 23:44 UTC www.cspinet.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In many tropical countries much coffee is drunk, but as it is often produced locally exact figures are not available.^ This would have reflected the local tastes and available produce.
  • TheFood Timeline: popular American decade foods, menus, products & party planningtips 13 January 2010 23:44 UTC www.foodtimeline.org [Source type: General]

.The average consumption in the United Kingdom is about 50,000,000 lb per annum; about one-fifth only is produced in the British empire, and of this about nineteen-twentieths come from India and one-twentieth from the British West Indies.^ About one tablespoon per chicken.
  • Chamorro.com 15 September 2009 5:39 UTC www.chamorro.com [Source type: General]

^ Those whose incomes were over three dollars per person per week (not a handsome amount) consumed an average of over 3,000 calories per adult male per day.
  • TheFood Timeline: popular American decade foods, menus, products & party planningtips 13 January 2010 23:44 UTC www.foodtimeline.org [Source type: General]

^ It's bad enough that there's a sign in the shop saying they'll only sell one per customer per week.
  • Tonynet Explorer: Food and Drink Archives 22 September 2009 13:28 UTC www.tonychor.com [Source type: General]

Coffee-leaf Disease

The coffee industry in Ceylon was ruined by the attack of a fungoid disease (Hemileia vastatrix) known as the Ceylon coffee-leaf disease. This has since extended its ravages into every coffee-producing country in the Old World, and added greatly to the difficulties of successful cultivation. The fungus is a microscopic one, the minute spores of which, carried by the wind, settle and germinate upon the leaves of the plant. The ,r FIG. 2. - Coffee-leaf Disease, Hemileia vastatrix. 1, Part of leaf showing diseased patches.
2, Cluster of uredospores.
3, Transverse section of a diseased patch in the leaf showing the hyphae of the fungus pushing between the leaf-cells and tapping them for nourishment. The hyphae have broken through in the upper face and fungal growth spreads through the substance to the leaf, robbing the leaf of its nourishment and causing it to wither and fall. An infected plantation may be cleansed, and the fungus in its nascent state destroyed, by powdering the trees with a mixture of lime and sulphur, but, unless the access of fresh spores brought by the wind can be arrested, the plantations may be readily reinfected when the lime and sulphur are washed off by rain. The separation of plantations by belts of trees to windward is suggested as a check to the spread of the disease.

Microscopic Structure

Raw coffee seeds are tough and horny in structure, and are devoid of the peculiar aroma and taste which are so characteristic of the roasted seeds. .The minute structure of coffee allows it to be readily recognized by means of the microscope, and as roasting does not destroy its distinguishing peculiarities, microscopic examination forms the readiest means of determining the genuineness of any sample.^ Probably as close to a perfect example of this coffee type as this imperfect world allows, tactfully roasted.
  • Coffee Review :: The World's Leading Coffee Buying Guide 12 September 2009 3:56 UTC www.coffeereview.com [Source type: General]

The substance of the seed, according to Dr Hassall, consists "of an assemblage are forming a cluster of spores.
4, Ripe uredospores.
5, A teleutospore.
6, A uredospore germinating, the germ-tube is penetrating the leaf.
7, Uredospore germinating. u, Uredospore.
t, Teleutospore.
2-7, Highly magnified.
of vesicles or cells of an angular form, which adhere so firmly together that they break up into pieces rather than separate into distinct and perfect cells. The cavities of the cells include, in the form of little drops, a considerable quantity of aromatic volatile oil, on the presence of which the fragrance and many of the active principles of the berry depend" (see fig. 3).

Physiological Action

.Coffee belongs to the medicinal or auxiliary class of food substances, being solely valuable for its stimulant effect upon the nervous and vascular system.^ Stimulant drugs interacts with COFFEE Stimulant drugs speed up the nervous system.
  • COFFEE: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings - WebMD 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The caffeine in coffee can also speed up the nervous system.
  • COFFEE: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings - WebMD 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Ephedrine interacts with COFFEE Stimulant drugs speed up the nervous system.
  • COFFEE: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings - WebMD 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: Academic]

It produces a feeling of buoyancy and exhilaration comparable to a certain stage of alcoholic FIG. 3. - Microscopic structure of intoxication, but which Coffee. does not end in depression or collapse. It increases the frequency of the pulse, lightens the sensation of fatigue, and it sustains the strength under prolonged and severe muscular exertion. The value of its hot infusion under the rigours of Arctic cold has been demonstrated in the experience of all Arctic explorers, and it is scarcely less useful in tropical regions, where it beneficially stimulates the action of the skin.
.The physiological action of coffee mainly depends on the presence of the alkaloid caffeine, which occurs also in tea, Paraguay tea, and cola nuts, and is very similar to theobromine, the active principle in cocoa.^ There is evidence that people who drink caffeinated beverages such as coffee, tea, and cola have a decreased risk of Parkinson's disease.
  • COFFEE: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings - WebMD 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Michels KB, Holmberg L, Bergkvist L, Wolk A. Coffee, tea, and caffeine consumption and breast cancer incidence in a cohort of Swedish women.
  • COFFEE: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings - WebMD 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ CAFFEINE Stimulant: Naturally occurring in coffee, tea, cocoa, coffee-flavored yogurt and frozen desserts.
  • Food Additives ~ CSPI’s Food Safety 13 January 2010 23:44 UTC www.cspinet.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The percentage of caffeine present varies in the different species of Coffea. In Arabian coffee it ranges from about 0.7 to 1.6%; in Liberian coffee from I o to 1.5%.^ This amount of coffee provides about 200 mg of caffeine.
  • COFFEE: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings - WebMD 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: Academic]

.Sierra Leone coffee (C. stenophylla) contains from 1.52 to I-70%; in C. excelsa 1.89% is recorded, and as much as 1.97% in C. canephora. Four species have been shown by M. G. Bertrand to contain no caffeine at all, but instead a considerable quantity of a bitter principle.^ Coffee contains caffeine.
  • COFFEE: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings - WebMD 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Subject: American Bacon My father tells me that when he was growing up (in 1030's Missouri) bacon was pretty much all fat and little or no meat.

^ Coffee containing caffeine can cause insomnia, nervousness and restlessness, stomach upset, nausea and vomiting, increased heart and breathing rate, and other side effects.
  • COFFEE: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings - WebMD 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: Academic]

All these four species are found only in Madagascar or the neighbouring islands. .Other coffees grown there contain caffeine as usual.^ Coffee contains caffeine.
  • COFFEE: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings - WebMD 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ There is evidence that people who drink caffeinated beverages such as coffee, tea, and cola have a decreased risk of Parkinson's disease.
  • COFFEE: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings - WebMD 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Coffee containing caffeine can cause insomnia, nervousness and restlessness, stomach upset, nausea and vomiting, increased heart and breathing rate, and other side effects.
  • COFFEE: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings - WebMD 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: Academic]

Coffee, with the caffeine extracted, has also been recently prepared for the market. .The commercial value of coffee is determined by the amount of the aromatic oil, caffeone, which develops in it by the process of roasting.^ Roasting process to pump up cancer fighting properties of coffee unveiled by oncology sciences corp.
  • COFFEE: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings - WebMD 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: Academic]

.By prolonged keeping it is found that the richness of any seeds in this peculiar oil is increased, and with increased aroma the coffee also yields a blander and more mellow beverage.^ Drinking caffeinated beverages like coffee seems to increase blood pressure in elderly people who experience dizziness after meals.
  • COFFEE: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings - WebMD 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Drinking coffee and other beverages that contain caffeine throughout the day seems to increase alertness and clear thinking.
  • COFFEE: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings - WebMD 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: Academic]

.Stored coffee loses weight at first with great rapidity, as much as 8% having been found to dissipate in the first year of keeping, 5% in the second, and 2% in the third; but such loss of weight is more than compensated by improvement in quality and consequent enhancement of value.^ And those Americans were much more likely to order coffee or a sweet, inexpensive soft drink rather than unfamiliar and expensive wine to wash down their food.
  • TheFood Timeline: popular American decade foods, menus, products & party planningtips 13 January 2010 23:44 UTC www.foodtimeline.org [Source type: General]

^ There is some concern that drinking more than 5 cups of coffee per day might not be safe for people with heart disease.
  • COFFEE: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings - WebMD 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ THE GREAT FAIRYS SWORD!This sword is more than twice the length of your nomal sword.
  • The Legend of Zelda: Majora's Mask N64 Cheats 25 September 2009 5:05 UTC www.neoseeker.com [Source type: General]

Roasting

.In the process of roasting, coffee seeds swell up by the liberation of gases within their substance, - their weight decreasing in proportion to the extent to which the operation is carried.^ Roasting process to pump up cancer fighting properties of coffee unveiled by oncology sciences corp.
  • COFFEE: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings - WebMD 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: Academic]

Roasting also develops with the aromatic caffeone above alluded to a bitter soluble principle, and it liberates a portion of the caffeine from its combination with the caffetannic acid. .Roasting is an operation of the greatest nicety, and one, moreover, of a crucial nature, for equally by insufficient and by excessive roasting much of the aroma of the coffee is lost; and its infusion is neither agreeable to the palate nor exhilarating in its influence.^ Recent Reviews 100% Ka'u Medium Roast (92 points) from Rusty's Hawaiian Coffee is one of many impressive coffees recently reviewed that did not appear in a featured article.
  • Coffee Review :: The World's Leading Coffee Buying Guide 12 September 2009 3:56 UTC www.coffeereview.com [Source type: General]

The roaster must judge of the amount of heat required for the adequate roasting of different qualities, and while that is variable, the range of roasting temperature proper for individual kinds is only narrow. In continental countries it is the practice to roast in small quantities, and thus the whole charge is well under the control of the roaster; but in Britain large roasts are the rule, in dealing with which much difficulty is experienced in producing uniform torrefaction, and in stopping the process at the proper moment. .The coffee-roasting apparatus is usually a malleable iron cylinder mounted to revolve over the fire on a hollow axle which allows the escape of gases generated during torref action.^ Probably as close to a perfect example of this coffee type as this imperfect world allows, tactfully roasted.
  • Coffee Review :: The World's Leading Coffee Buying Guide 12 September 2009 3:56 UTC www.coffeereview.com [Source type: General]

.The roasting of coffee should be done as short a time as practicable before the grinding for use, and as ground coffee especially parts rapidly with its aroma, the grinding should only be done when coffee is about to be prepared.^ All in all it takes about 5 to 10 minutes off of the conventional time it takes just cooking in the pan, which can be important when you are preparing complimentary dishes that take less time to cook.

^ As I've blogged about several times before, the Root Connection is a share farm where members "subscribe" to the farm's crop.
  • Tonynet Explorer: Food and Drink Archives 22 September 2009 13:28 UTC www.tonychor.com [Source type: General]

^ Postmenopausal women who have an inherited condition that keeps them from processing vitamin D normally, should be especially cautious when using caffeine.
  • COFFEE: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings - WebMD 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: Academic]

Adulteration

.Although by microscopic, physical and chemical tests the purity of coffee can be determined with perfect certainty, yet ground coffee is subjected to many and extensive adulterations (see also Adulteration).^ Most people may not be able to pronounce the names of many of these chemicals, but they still want to know what the chemicals do and which ones are safe and which are poorly tested or possibly dangerous.
  • Food Additives ~ CSPI’s Food Safety 13 January 2010 23:44 UTC www.cspinet.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Chief among the adulterant substances, if it can be so called, is chicory; but it occupies a peculiar position, since very many people on the European continent as well as in Great Britain deliberately prefer a mixture of chicory with coffee to pure coffee. .Chicory is indeed destitute of the stimulant alkaloid and essential oil for which coffee is valued; but the facts that it has stood the test of prolonged and extended use, and that its infusion is, in some localities, used alone, indicate that it performs some useful function in connexion with coffee, as used at least by Western communities.^ Some medications used for depression can also stimulate the body.
  • COFFEE: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings - WebMD 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Use filtered coffee to avoid some unwanted side effects.
  • COFFEE: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings - WebMD 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Stop consuming coffee or other caffeine-containing products at least 24 hours before a cardiac stress test.
  • COFFEE: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings - WebMD 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: Academic]

.For one thing, it yields a copious amount of soluble matter in infusion with hot water, and thus gives a specious appearance of strength and substance to what maybe really only a very weak preparation of coffee.^ Deviled eggs, sardine sandwiches, olives, spreading cheese and green pepper sandwiches, fruit, hot water gingerbread, coffee.
  • TheFood Timeline: popular American decade foods, menus, products & party planningtips 13 January 2010 23:44 UTC www.foodtimeline.org [Source type: General]

^ That's why it yields only about one-third as many calories and why large amounts cause diarrhea, nausea, and flatulence.
  • Food Additives ~ CSPI’s Food Safety 13 January 2010 23:44 UTC www.cspinet.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Though the amounts of benzene that form are small, leading to only a very small risk of cancer, there is no need for consumers to experience any risk.
  • Food Additives ~ CSPI’s Food Safety 13 January 2010 23:44 UTC www.cspinet.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The mixture of chicory with coffee is easily detected by the microscope, the structure of both, which they retain after torrefaction, being very characteristic and distinct. .The granules of coffee, moreover, remain hard and angular when mixed with water, to which they communicate but little colour; chicory, on the other hand, swelling up and softening, yields a deep brown colour to water in which it is thrown.^ I got off to a nice start with some lilikoi (passionfruit) juice; I love the stuff and have a hard time finding it in Seattle (except mixed with other juices).
  • Tonynet Explorer: Food and Drink Archives 22 September 2009 13:28 UTC www.tonychor.com [Source type: General]

^ As part of the release, they have a little party with wine and some food in addition to letting people people up their wine.
  • Tonynet Explorer: Food and Drink Archives 22 September 2009 13:28 UTC www.tonychor.com [Source type: General]

^ Mix all of the ingredients together with your hands until they form a dough.
  • Cooking Tips - Free Recipes - Baking - Low Fat Cooking 1 February 2010 7:31 UTC cooking.lifetips.com [Source type: General]

.The specific gravity of an infusion of chicory is also much higher than that of coffee.^ They think it contains much higher levels of nutrients than non-organic produce.....
  • NELA Live: Food and Drink 22 September 2009 13:28 UTC www.nelalive.net [Source type: General]

.Among the numerous other substances used to adulterate coffee are roasted and ground roots of the dandelion, carrot, parsnip and beet; beans, lupins and other leguminous seeds; wheat, rice and various cereal grains; the seeds of the broom, fenugreek and iris; acorns; "negro coffee," the seeds of Cassia occidentalis, the seeds of the ochro (Hibiscus esculentus), and also the soja or soy bean (Glycine Soya). Not only have these with many more similar substances been used as adulterants, but under various high-sounding names several of them have been introduced as substitutes for coffee; but they have neither merited nor obtained any success, and their sole effect has been to bring coffee into undeserved disrepute with the public.^ More evidence is needed to rate the effectiveness of coffee for these uses.
  • COFFEE: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings - WebMD 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Using coffee filters helps to reduce these effects on cholesterol.
  • COFFEE: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings - WebMD 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ For scarce wheat, they substituted barley, oats, for corn; for butter they used vegetable oil."
  • TheFood Timeline: popular American decade foods, menus, products & party planningtips 13 January 2010 23:44 UTC www.foodtimeline.org [Source type: General]

.Not only is ground coffee adulterated, but such mixtures as flour, chicory and coffee, or even bran and molasses, have been made up to simulate coffee beans and sold as such.^ I figured I had nothing to lose by buying two, so I picked them up along with some coffee beans (how can you not buy coffee when you're on the island of Java?
  • Tonynet Explorer: Food and Drink Archives 22 September 2009 13:28 UTC www.tonychor.com [Source type: General]

^ Coffee is a drink made from coffee beans, which are the roasted fruit of the Coffea arabica bush.
  • COFFEE: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings - WebMD 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ These are home made potato chips made with a vegetable peeler so there's even less to clean up.
  • Tonynet Explorer: Food and Drink Archives 22 September 2009 13:28 UTC www.tonychor.com [Source type: General]

.The leaves of the coffee tree contain caffeine in larger proportion than the seeds themselves, and their use as a substitute for tea has frequently been suggested.^ Coffee contains caffeine.
  • COFFEE: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings - WebMD 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Saccharin (Sweet ’N Low) is 350 times sweeter than sugar and is used in diet foods or as a tabletop sugar substitute.
  • Food Additives ~ CSPI’s Food Safety 13 January 2010 23:44 UTC www.cspinet.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There is evidence that people who drink caffeinated beverages such as coffee, tea, and cola have a decreased risk of Parkinson's disease.
  • COFFEE: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings - WebMD 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: Academic]

.The leaves are actually so used in Sumatra, but being destitute of any attractive aroma such as is possessed by both tea and coffee, the infusion is not palatable.^ Such spread-your-owns are excellent too as an afternoon snack, served with tea or coffee."
  • TheFood Timeline: popular American decade foods, menus, products & party planningtips 13 January 2010 23:44 UTC www.foodtimeline.org [Source type: General]

^ There is evidence that people who drink caffeinated beverages such as coffee, tea, and cola have a decreased risk of Parkinson's disease.
  • COFFEE: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings - WebMD 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Quick tip: Use an iced tea made from real tea leaves so you’re getting those natural tea antioxidants.
  • Savvy Cooking – Food & Recipes with Pictures 1 February 2010 7:31 UTC cooking.savvy-cafe.com [Source type: General]

.It is, moreover, not practicable to obtain both seeds and leaves from the same plant, and as the commercial demand is for the seed alone, no consideration either of profit or of any dietetic or economic advantage is likely to lead to the growth of coffee trees on account of their leaves.^ Bigger eggplants can occasionally get bitter, but there was no danger of that with these cuties, and they had very few seeds (which can also lead to bitterness).
  • NELA Live: Food and Drink 22 September 2009 13:28 UTC www.nelalive.net [Source type: General]

(A. B. R.; W. G. F.)


Simple English

File:A small cup of
A cup of coffee

Coffee is a plant and the name of the drink that is made from this plant. The coffee plant is a bush or tree that can grow up to ten metres (about 32 feet) high, but is usually cut shorter. Coffee plants originally grew in Africa, and now also grow in South America, Central America and Southeast Asia. They are an important crop for the economies of many countries.

The drink is made from the seeds of the coffee plant, called coffee beans. Coffee is usually served hot, and is a popular drink in many countries. Coffee contains a chemical called caffeine, a mild drug that keeps people awake.

To make a drink from coffee beans, the beans must first be specially prepared by roasting. The beans are usually roasted a short time after they are picked. This dries them out, makes them last longer, and makes them ready to be packed. Before the beans are made into a drink, they are ground (crushed into tiny pieces in a coffee mill). When the ground coffee is placed into boiling water, the flavour and dark brown colour of the beans goes into the water. Making coffee is called brewing coffee. There are several different ways that coffee can be brewed.

Contents

Coffee types

[[File:|thumb|right | Coffee trees in Brazil]]

There are two main types of coffee plant. The Coffea Arabica, the most common. Most of the world's coffee is made from Arabica beans,[1] and the Coffea Robusta, which is easier to grow in places where Arabica will not grow.

Robusta is cheaper and has more caffeine than Arabica[2] and it is used in many commercial coffee products. But Robusta tastes bitter and acidic, so people only drink it with other things. Better quality Robustas are in some espresso blends.

In the past, people gave names to new Arabica coffees from the port they came from. The two oldest Arabica coffees are "Mocha" and "Java". Today, names are more specific. They tell us the country, region, and sometimes even the property where they come from.

Preparing coffee

[[File:|thumb|Coffee fruit (beans)]]

File:Unroasted coffee .jpg
Coffee beans before roasting
File:Roasted coffee
Coffee beans after roasting

Aging

Some sorts of coffee taste better if the beans are "aged". This means that after they are picked, the beans are kept from three to eight years. This "aging" gives the coffee a less acidic taste.[3] Coffee that has been aged is often mixed or "blended" with other coffee that is not aged.

Roasting

"Roasting" is one of the important stages in making coffee beans into coffee. When a coffee bean is roasted, it grows nearly two times bigger and changes from green to yellow to brown.

The length of time that the coffee beans are roasted makes the coffee taste different. Some types of coffee, such as Mocha and Java, are roasted for a short time. It is easy to tell from the flavour where the coffee is from. When coffee is roasted for a long time, it is harder to tell the different types apart. Green coffee beans can be bought and roasted at home in the oven.

Grinding

Before the coffee is made into a drink, it is "ground" in a small grinding machine called a "coffee mill". The coffee mill breaks the beans into very small pieces. Coffee is turned into a drink in several different ways. For some ways of making coffee, such as "espresso" it is best to have the coffee ground into fine powder but for other types of coffee-making, such as "filtered coffee", the coffee is in larger pieces to stop it going through the filter. Finely ground coffee makes a stronger taste.

Brewing

Coffee is made into a drink by putting the coffee into boiling water. This is called "brewing" coffee. There are many ways to brew coffee. Four of the most popular are:

  • Boiling: The coffee and the water are put into a pot on top of the stove and boiled slowly together. This way of making coffee has been used for hundreds of years. It is the way that coffee is usually made in the Middle East, North Africa, Turkey and Greece.[4]
  • Pressure: The boiling water is forced through the ground coffee by a machine. This type of coffee is called Espresso and the machine is called an "Espresso machine" or "Coffee system". Espresso machines are often found in cafes and restaurants. Espresso is a very strong coffee that can be used to make other coffee drinks. [5]
  • Gravity: Filtered coffee is made by gravity because the boiling water falls from a machine onto the coffee. The coffee grounds are held in a paper or metal "filter" that the water can run through, but the little coffee pieces cannot. The water becomes coloured and flavoured as it runs through the coffee and into a coffee pot.[6]
  • Steeping: Boiling water is poured onto the coffee and it is allowed to stand for a little while, until the water has taken the colour and flavour. This is often done in a cafetière, which is a tall glass or coffee pot which has a special filter inside that can be pushed down when the coffee is ready so that the person does not drink the coffee grounds. Another way of steeping coffee is to have coffee grounds in a small satchel or packet, the right size to make one cup of coffee. The packet is placed in the cup and water poured over it. Then the packet is removed.[7]

How people drink their coffee

[[File:|thumb|Coffee can be drunk with food]]

File:Latte
"Flat white" coffee is often decorated.
  • Black coffee is coffee with no milk in it.
  • White coffee is coffee with milk in it.
  • Café au lait is coffee made with a lot of hot milk. It is often sweet.
  • Espresso is very strong coffee. It is often called a "short black".
  • Cappuccino is espresso with frothed milk (milk mixed with air). A well-made cappuccino should be made of strong coffee. When the frothy milk is poured gently into the coffee cup, it should be white on top and have a ring of darker coffee around the edge, like the ring of hair on the head of a monk. Cappuccino coffee sometimes has cocoa sprinkled on top.
  • Flat white is made like a cappuccino but with a very thin layer of foam. If the foam is added carefully, it can be made into patterns of hearts, leaves or feathers.
  • Latte is espresso with hot milk.
  • Americano is espresso with a lot of hot water. It is weaker than espresso, and tastes different.
  • Irish coffee is coffee with whiskey and with cream on the top.
  • Iced coffee is espresso in a tall glass with crushed ice, cold milk and ice cream.
  • Vietnamese style coffee (Cafe Sua Da) is filtered coffee poured over ice into a glass with sweet condensed milk (thick milk which has had the water removed).
  • Baby-cino is a little espresso cup filled with frothed milk, sprinkled with cocoa and served with a spoon. There is no coffee in a baby-cino. They are made to keep babies happy while their mothers are drinking coffee.

Instant coffee

"Instant coffee" is a very quick way to make a cup of coffee to drink. It is made in a factory and sold in jars or packets. First, strong coffee is made using ground coffee and boiling water. Then, the coffee grounds are filtered out. The coffee liquid is dried out until nothing is left except granules (little crunchy pieces), or fine powder. This is then put into jars or packets. As soon as a spoonful of "instant coffee" is added to boiling water, it dissolves in the water to make coffee to drink. The taste can be very different from fresh coffee. Part of the reason for the different taste is that Robusta coffee beans are usually used for making instant coffee. Robusta coffee beans do not cost as much as Arabica.

When people drink coffee

File:Aix- café des deux garç
A coffee shop in France

The United States buys the most coffee; Germany is next. People in Sweden drink the most coffee for each person. In Canada, the United States and Europe, some restaurants sell mainly coffee; they are referred to as "cafés" or "coffeehouses". Cafés often sell food, but the type of food is different from one country to another.

In some countries, for example, those in northern Europe, people like having coffee parties. At these parties, people have coffee and cake.

In many countries, people drink coffee at work; in the United States and England, for example, people drink it in the morning. In other countries, such as Mexico, people drink it in the evening to help them stay awake.

Health problems

Coffee contains the drug caffeine. Caffeine is a mild stimulant which helps to keep people awake. Caffeine, like many drugs, can be addictive and can cause health problems.[8]

Some studies have looked at the health risks of coffee. In February 2003, there was a study in Denmark of 18,478 women to find out if coffee had an effect on pregnancy and birth. It was found that if a woman drank between four and seven cups of coffee a day, it did not seem to make a big change to the number of babies that were born dead, (stillborn). But the women in the study who drank eight or more cups of coffee a day had three times as much chance of having a stillborn baby.[9][10]

For this, and other reasons, some people drink coffee substitutes instead.

References

  1. "Botanical Aspects". International Coffee Organization. http://www.ico.org/botanical.asp. Retrieved 2007-07-19. 
  2. Reynolds, Richard. "Robusta's Rehab". Coffee Geek. http://www.coffeegeek.com/opinions/cafestage/02-01-2006. Retrieved 2007-07-31. 
  3. "Coffee Aging". Ring Surf. Retrieved December 11, 2007.
  4. Ukers, William Harrison (January 1, 1993). All about Coffee. Gale Research; 2d ed edition. pp. 725. ISBN 978-0810340923. http://books.google.com/books?id=Y5tXt7aoLNoC&pg=PA725&dq=. 
  5. Rothstein, Scott. "Brewing Techniques". http://www.thecoffeefaq.com/3brewingtechniques.html. Retrieved 2007-07-19. 
  6. Levy, Joel (November 2002). Really Useful: The Origins of Everyday Things. Firefly Books. pp. 1948. ISBN 978-1552976227. http://books.google.com/books?id=fyBb_Xh5hqIC&pg=PA1948&dq=Coffee+%2B+percolator+%2B+filter&sig=ItgZl7dugXO0nOCRit70b4-06RQ. 
  7. Davids, Kenneth (1991). Coffee: A Guide to Buying, Brewing, and Enjoying. 101 Productions. pp. 128. ISBN 978-1564265005. http://books.google.com/books?id=IqJsIcYOPcQC&pg=PA128&dq=Coffee+%2B+french+press&sig=HA4Swu6PH_9_geJWAN8_jK8iHLQ#PPA128,M1. 
  8. James, JE; KP Stirling (September 1983). [Expression error: Unexpected < operator "Caffeine: A summary of some of the known and suspected deleterious effects of habitual use"]. British Journal of Addiction 78 (3): 251-8. PMID 6354232. 
  9. "Big coffee drinkers 'double risk of stillbirth', Daily Telegraph". 21 February 2003. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/main.jhtml?xml=/news/2003/02/21/ncoff21.xml. 
  10. "Maternal consumption of coffee during pregnancy and stillbirth and infant death in first year of life: prospective study, British Medical Journal". 22 February 2003. http://www.bmj.com/cgi/content/full/326/7386/420. 

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