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The Fox and the Grapes by Aesop.
^ We see this in Aesop’s famous fable about the fox and the grapes.

^ Aesop's fable of the Fox and the Grapes: I can't get them; therefore, those grapes are probably sour.
  • CD Part VI 10 February 2010 13:35 UTC www.pabia.org [Source type: General]

.When the fox fails to reach the grapes, he decides he doesn't want them anyway, an example of adaptive preference formation designed to reduce cognitive dissonance.^ It reduces the possibility of future cognitive dissonance.
  • Fighting Cognitive Dissonance & The Lies We Tell Ourselves | World of Psychology 10 February 2010 13:35 UTC psychcentral.com [Source type: General]

^ The maximum possible dissonance is equal to the resistance to change of the less "resistant cognition"; therefore, once dissonance reaches a level that overcomes the resistance of one of the cognitions involved, that cognition will be changed or eliminated, and dissonance will be reduced.
  • Cognitive dissonance encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 13:35 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The maximum possible dissonance is equal to the resistance to change of the less resistant cognition; therefore, once dissonance reaches a level that overcomes the resistance of one of the cognitions involved, that cognition will be changed or eliminated, and dissonance will be reduced.
  • Cognitive Dissonance - science Discussion Forum 10 February 2010 13:35 UTC www.amazon.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[1]
.Cognitive dissonance is an uncomfortable feeling caused by holding two contradictory ideas simultaneously.^ Cognitive dissonance also permits us to believe two contradictory ideas at the same time.
  • How Could We Have Believed These Things 10 February 2010 13:35 UTC www.wcg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Now I know that the cognitive dissonance I was feeling caused my collapse.
  • How and Why We Lie to Ourselves: Cognitive Dissonance | PsyBlog 10 February 2010 13:35 UTC www.spring.org.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ Cognitive dissonance is an uncomfortable feeling caused by holding two contradictory ideas simultaneously.

.The theory of cognitive dissonance proposes that people have a motivational drive to reduce dissonance by changing their attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors, or by justifying or rationalizing them.^ FESTINGER, L. A theory of cognitive dissonance .
  • Classics in the History of Psychology -- Festinger & Carlsmith (1959) 10 February 2010 13:35 UTC psychclassics.yorku.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ People have an amazing ability to rationalize their behavior.
  • The Dilbert Blog: Find the Cognitive Dissonance 10 February 2010 13:35 UTC dilbertblog.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In order to do this, we use the theory of cognitive-dissonance.
  • (A�meur E.) Application and Assessment of Cognitive-Dissonance Theory in the Learning Process 10 February 2010 13:35 UTC www.jucs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[2] .It is one of the most influential and extensively studied theories in social psychology.^ Read on for the best social psychology studies .
  • How and Why We Lie to Ourselves: Cognitive Dissonance | PsyBlog 10 February 2010 13:35 UTC www.spring.org.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ Choice rationalization has been considered one of the most well-established theories in social psychology.
  • Monty Hall Meets Cognitive Dissonance - TierneyLab Blog - NYTimes.com 10 February 2010 13:35 UTC tierneylab.blogs.nytimes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Cognitive theories in social psychology.

.Dissonance occurs when a person perceives a logical inconsistency in his beliefs, when one idea implies the opposite of another.^ In A Theory of Cognitive Dissonance (1957) Festinger defines it as: The psychological opposition of irreconcilable ideas (cognitions) held simultaneously by one individual, created a motivated force that would lead, under proper conditions, to the adjustment of one’s belief to fit one’s behavior – instead of changing one’s behavior to fit one’s belief (the sequence conventionally assumed).
  • Cognitive Dissonance and Creative Tension 10 February 2010 13:35 UTC www.cleanlanguage.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Because the experience of dissonance is unpleasant, the person will strive to reduce it—usually by struggling to find a way to change one or both cognitions to make them more consonant with one another.

^ This research suggests that behavior inconsistent with one’s beliefs—if there is insufficient justification for the behaviour—will often bring about modification of those beliefs.
  • motivation (behaviour) :: Cognitive dissonance -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 13:35 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Academic]

For example, a belief in animal rights is inconsistent with eating meat. .Noticing the contradiction may lead to dissonance if the person is not willing to let go of one of his beliefs about the situation, either "Non-human animals are persons who ought to have rights," or "It is okay for me to eat this steak."^ This research suggests that behavior inconsistent with one’s beliefs—if there is insufficient justification for the behaviour—will often bring about modification of those beliefs.
  • motivation (behaviour) :: Cognitive dissonance -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 13:35 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In brief, the theory of cognitive dissonance holds that contradicting cognitions serve as a driving force that compels the human mind to acquire or invent new thoughts or beliefs, or to modify existing beliefs, so as to minimize the amount of dissonance (conflict) between cognitions.
  • The Mormon Curtain - COGNITIVE DISSONANCE 10 February 2010 13:35 UTC www.mormoncurtain.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Right now the McCain campaign is like the coyote in the old cartoons who runs off the cliff but doesn't fall because he hasn't noticed yet.
  • FiveThirtyEight: Politics Done Right: Cognitive Dissonance 10 February 2010 13:35 UTC www.fivethirtyeight.com [Source type: Original source]

.The dissonance might be experienced as guilt, anger, frustration, or embarrassment.^ The cause might be as a result of environmental elements and this can be more difficult to deal with since the individual who is experiencing dissonance must have some measure of control over the environment.
  • Cognitive Dissonance: A Spiritual Perspective 10 February 2010 13:35 UTC www.mediate.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The idea of "sour grapes"—from the fable The Fox and the Grapes by Aesop (ca.^ We see this in Aesop’s famous fable about the fox and the grapes.

^ The grapes are out of reach and so the fox decides that they must be sour, thus relieving himself of anxiety over not being able to have any.

620-564 BCE), where the fox decides that the grapes he is unable to reach are probably not ripe enough to eat anyway—illustrates an example of cognitive dissonance: desiring something, then criticizing it because it proves unattainable, a phenomenon that Jon Elster calls "adaptive preference formation."[1]
.A powerful cause of dissonance is an idea in conflict with a fundamental element of the self-concept, such as "I am a good person" or "I made the right decision". The anxiety that comes with the possibility of having made a bad decision can lead to rationalization, the tendency to create additional reasons or justifications to support one's choices.^ Often one of the ideas is a fundamental element of ego , like "I am a good person" or "I made the right decision."
  • Cognitive dissonance encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 13:35 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The subject is then offered a choice between two objects s/he had rated equally, with the knowledge that choosing any one of the two would mean "missing out" on the possible positive features of the unchosen object, thus inducing dissonance.
  • Cognitive dissonance encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 13:35 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In A Theory of Cognitive Dissonance (1957) Festinger defines it as: The psychological opposition of irreconcilable ideas (cognitions) held simultaneously by one individual, created a motivated force that would lead, under proper conditions, to the adjustment of one’s belief to fit one’s behavior – instead of changing one’s behavior to fit one’s belief (the sequence conventionally assumed).
  • Cognitive Dissonance and Creative Tension 10 February 2010 13:35 UTC www.cleanlanguage.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A person who just spent too much money on a new car might decide that the new vehicle is much less likely to break down than his or her old car.^ If you are at least average looking, but penetrating less than 10 new female orifices each month, then you have not attained your full sexual potential.
  • Cognitive dissonance in the Seduction Community at Larvatus Prodeo 10 February 2010 13:35 UTC larvatusprodeo.net [Source type: General]

^ These people are just running true to form, professionally if not with their blood, and it is really not much more complicated than that.
  • Ed Driscoll » Great Moments In Cognitive Dissonance 10 February 2010 13:35 UTC pajamasmedia.com [Source type: General]

^ The dissonance could also be eliminated by getting rid of the car, but this behaviour is much harder to achieve than changing beliefs.
  • (A�meur E.) Application and Assessment of Cognitive-Dissonance Theory in the Learning Process 10 February 2010 13:35 UTC www.jucs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This belief may or may not be true, but it would reduce dissonance and make the person feel better.^ Because the experience of dissonance is unpleasant, the person will strive to reduce it—usually by struggling to find a way to change one or both cognitions to make them more consonant with one another.

^ Festinger's theory of cognitive dissonance basically says that when people encounter information that challenges their existing beliefs or behavior they will feel tension which they will be motivated to reduce by changing their beliefs or behavior to be more internally consistent.
  • "Believest thou...?": Faith, Cognitive Dissonance, and the Psychology of Religious Experience 10 February 2010 13:35 UTC www.fairlds.org [Source type: Original source]

^ When such conditions occur there is the tendency to make every effort to reduce the dissonance that exist between the persons involved.
  • Cognitive Dissonance: A Spiritual Perspective 10 February 2010 13:35 UTC www.mediate.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Dissonance can also lead to confirmation bias, the denial of disconfirming evidence, and other ego defense mechanisms.^ Also, folks will use defense mechanisms: rationalization, blaming, projecting, denying, etc.
  • Cognitive Dissonance: A Spiritual Perspective 10 February 2010 13:35 UTC www.mediate.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ While cognitive dissonance and confirmation bias are very much normal human traits, the fact that you 'catch yourself' is not.
  • Cognitive Dissonance and Politics : The Frontal Cortex 10 February 2010 13:35 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: General]

^ (This denial of the evidence also contributes to confirmation bias , in which an individual picks and chooses among the “facts” he'll accept as true.
  • How Cognitive Dissonance Skews Marketing Surveys | Advertising Made Simple 10 February 2010 13:35 UTC www.allbusiness.com [Source type: General]

Contents

Examples

The classical version of this idea is expressed in the Aesop fable The Fox and the Grapes, in which a fox sees some high-hanging grapes and wishes to eat them. .Unable to think of a way to reach them, he surmises that the grapes are probably not worth eating anyway (that they are not yet ripe or that they are too sour).^ Furthermore, I think it would be worthwhile to take a closer look at the PUA community because I find that they have an interesting way of making use of their social skills.
  • Predictably Irrational » Blog Archive » Dear Irrational (Does it Pay to Play Hard to Get?) 10 February 2010 13:35 UTC www.predictablyirrational.com [Source type: Original source]

.The dissonance of the desire for something unattainable versus the lack of fulfillment is reduced by irrationally deciding that the grapes must be flawed.^ While there may be something to Lieberman’s speculations we also suspect that East Asians may use different ways to reduce cognitive dissonance.
  • Cognitive Dissonance and Creative Tension 10 February 2010 13:35 UTC www.cleanlanguage.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The most famous case in the early study of cognitive dissonance was described by Leon Festinger and others in the book When Prophecy Fails.^ FESTINGER, L. A theory of cognitive dissonance .
  • Classics in the History of Psychology -- Festinger & Carlsmith (1959) 10 February 2010 13:35 UTC psychclassics.yorku.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1956 Leon Festinger coined the term ‘cognitive dissonance’ in When Prophecy Fails .
  • Cognitive Dissonance and Creative Tension 10 February 2010 13:35 UTC www.cleanlanguage.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For more on Festinger and cognitive dissonance, check out When Prophecy Fails or Mistakes Were Made .
  • Cognitive Dissonance: A Mitt Romney Case Study : The Frontal Cortex 10 February 2010 13:35 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: General]

[3] .The authors infiltrated a group that was expecting the imminent end of the world on a certain date.^ Before the night of December 20, the group had been uninterested in convincing other people that the world was coming to an end.
  • How Could We Have Believed These Things 10 February 2010 13:35 UTC www.wcg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ He found that many members of a group he studied who anticipated the end of the world on a given date actually became even more committed when the date came and went with no apocalypse in sight.
  • "Believest thou...?": Faith, Cognitive Dissonance, and the Psychology of Religious Experience 10 February 2010 13:35 UTC www.fairlds.org [Source type: Original source]

.When that prediction failed, the movement did not disintegrate, but grew instead, as members vied to prove their orthodoxy by recruiting converts (see further discussion below).^ And then we have to live with what we did; which in the case of a vicious spiral creates more cognitive dissonance, and so on (see diagram below).
  • Cognitive Dissonance and Creative Tension 10 February 2010 13:35 UTC www.cleanlanguage.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We, too, did our share of "explaining" why certain predictions failed to come to pass.
  • How Could We Have Believed These Things 10 February 2010 13:35 UTC www.wcg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ While we did manage a few correct calls, we also made more than one hundred prophetic predictions that failed.
  • How Could We Have Believed These Things 10 February 2010 13:35 UTC www.wcg.org [Source type: Original source]

.Smoking is often postulated as an example of cognitive dissonance because it is widely accepted that cigarettes can cause lung cancer, yet virtually everyone wants to live a long and healthy life.^ Cigarette smoking and lung cancer: A study of cognitive dissonance.

^ Everyone else can live life as a corporate serf.

^ The nay-sayers are defending an unsustainable standard of living because they don’t want to change.
  • The Anchoress | A First Things Blog 10 February 2010 13:35 UTC www.firstthings.com [Source type: General]

.In terms of the theory, the desire to live a long life is dissonant with the activity of doing something that will most likely shorten one's life.^ (Most Southerners over the age of 65 were white: a combination of poverty and a lack of healthcare ensured that few African-Americans lived that long.
  • The Health Care Blog: Cognitive dissonance in U.S. health care 10 February 2010 13:35 UTC www.thehealthcareblog.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The victim mentality may make someone feel better in the short term with soothing excuses, but in the long term it religates that someone to a life of underachieving and catch up.
  • Hot Air » Blog Archive » The Democratic dissonance on rich and poor 10 February 2010 13:35 UTC hotair.com [Source type: General]

^ First, Obama likes to execute long-range strategies but suffers from cognitive dissonance when new facts render them inappropriate.
  • Dodge facts, skip details, govern Chicago-style | Washington Examiner 10 February 2010 13:35 UTC www.washingtonexaminer.com [Source type: Original source]

.The tension produced by these contradictory ideas can be reduced by quitting smoking, denying the evidence of lung cancer, or justifying one's smoking.^ Exemplifying intelligent people, who also smoked, or deluding themselves "that a filter traps the all of the cancer- producing materials" (p.179) reduced the smokers' dissonance and made them feel that their actions were justified.
  • Cognitive Processes and Suppression of Sound Scientific Ideas 10 February 2010 13:35 UTC www.gasresources.net [Source type: Academic]

^ For one, people have different ideas about who God is and what he wants and these ideas are often contradictory and irreconciliable.
  • The Faith-Building Power of Cognitive Dissonance « By Common Consent, a Mormon Blog 10 February 2010 13:35 UTC bycommonconsent.com [Source type: Original source]

^ If you see that an investor sold one stock and bought another within a short period of time, then you know that this individual had an idea about the value of these stocks.
  • Cognitive dissonance 10 February 2010 13:35 UTC www.efmoody.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[4] .For example, smokers could rationalize their behavior by concluding that only a few smokers become ill, that it only happens to very heavy smokers, or that if smoking does not kill them, something else will.^ Behavioral Finance: (2007) Modern portfolio theory is premised on a universe of rational actors, but this species is very rare in the real world.
  • Cognitive dissonance 10 February 2010 13:35 UTC www.efmoody.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ How does it help to make getting drugs easier and without the stigma associated with doing something illegal (something which stopped me smoking weed).

^ Only one meteor that was too heavy to move was saved, so today the world has few specimens that predate 1790.
  • Cognitive Processes and Suppression of Sound Scientific Ideas 10 February 2010 13:35 UTC www.gasresources.net [Source type: Academic]

[5] .While chemical addiction may operate in addition to cognitive dissonance for existing smokers, new smokers may exhibit a simpler case of the latter.^ Cognitive dissonance in tobacco smokers.

^ The theory of cognitive dissonance holds that contradicting cognitions serve as a driving force that compels the mind to acquire or invent new thoughts or beliefs, or to modify existing beliefs, so as to reduce the amount of dissonance (conflict) between cognitions.

^ In brief, the theory of cognitive dissonance holds that contradicting cognitions serve as a driving force that compels the human mind to acquire or invent new thoughts or beliefs, or to modify existing beliefs, so as to minimize the amount of dissonance (conflict) between cognitions.
  • The Mormon Curtain - COGNITIVE DISSONANCE 10 February 2010 13:35 UTC www.mormoncurtain.com [Source type: Academic]

.This case of dissonance could also be interpreted in terms of a threat to the self-concept.^ Elliot Aronson argued that "if dissonance exists, the it is the result of cognitions inconsistent with the self-concept" (Aronson, 1968).
  • Cognitive Dissonance and Politics : The Frontal Cortex 10 February 2010 13:35 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: General]

^ Self-perception theory: An alternative interpretation of cognitive dissonance phenomena.

^ Finally, research is showing that the magnitude of dissonance increases exponentially when it poses significant threat to an individual's self-concept.
  • Cognitive Dissonance and Politics : The Frontal Cortex 10 February 2010 13:35 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: General]

[6] .The thought, "I am increasing my risk of lung cancer" is dissonant with the self-related belief, "I am a smart, reasonable person who makes good decisions."^ It's dissonance because it blew right through my supposedly inviolable self-created secret garden .
  • cognitive dissonance@Everything2.com 10 February 2010 13:35 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: Original source]
  • cognitive dissonance@Everything2.com 10 February 2010 13:35 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ But since I know I am a good person, my reason why it’s okay to violate copyright laws is (insert something absurd).
  • The Dilbert Blog: Find the Cognitive Dissonance 10 February 2010 13:35 UTC dilbertblog.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Life events and transitions become turning points when they “close or open opportunities, when they make a lasting change on the individual’s environment, or when they change a person’s self-concept, beliefs, or expectations”.

.Because it is often easier to make excuses than it is to change behavior, dissonance theory leads to the conclusion that humans are rationalizing and not always rational beings.^ The theory is that dissonance, being unpleasant, motivates a person to change his cognition, attitude, or behavior."

^ Because the experience of dissonance is unpleasant, the person will strive to reduce it—usually by struggling to find a way to change one or both cognitions to make them more consonant with one another.

^ Festinger's theory of cognitive dissonance basically says that when people encounter information that challenges their existing beliefs or behavior they will feel tension which they will be motivated to reduce by changing their beliefs or behavior to be more internally consistent.
  • "Believest thou...?": Faith, Cognitive Dissonance, and the Psychology of Religious Experience 10 February 2010 13:35 UTC www.fairlds.org [Source type: Original source]

Theory and research

.Most of the research on cognitive dissonance takes the form of "induced compliance without sufficient justification."^ Subjects also take part in two different tests of cognitive ability, which correspond to sub-modules of one of the most widely used IQ tests.
  • Cognitive dissonance 10 February 2010 13:35 UTC www.efmoody.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A behavioral model of consumption patterns : the effects of cognitive dissonance and conformity, Nir, A. (Tilburg University, Center for Economic Research 2004) .
  • Cognitive dissonance 10 February 2010 13:35 UTC www.efmoody.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ From this point they can depart all civilized thought and accept terrorist action against Israel and Jews who support it, without risking cognitive dissonance.
  • Gordon Lynch: A peace rally where they wanted to soldiers to fight on | Comment is free | guardian.co.uk 10 February 2010 13:35 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

.In these studies, participants are asked to write an essay against their beliefs, or to do something unpleasant, without a sufficient justification or incentive.^ BJK expects a disconnect any moment now Faith in general means believing something without reference to evidence, for or against.
  • Cognitive Dissonance and Immortality - ImmInst.org Forums 10 February 2010 13:35 UTC www.imminst.org [Source type: Original source]

.The vast majority of participants comply with these kinds of requests and subsequently experience dissonance.^ The classical experiment in cognitive dissonance involves getting participants to do a boring and meaningless task, and then to try and convince someone (in fact a member of the experimenting team) that the task was in fact interesting .
  • cognitive dissonance@Everything2.com 10 February 2010 13:35 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: Original source]
  • cognitive dissonance@Everything2.com 10 February 2010 13:35 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

.In another procedure, participants are offered a gift and asked to choose between two equally desirable items.^ The first group was asked to choose between a 100% chance of gain8ng $240 vs. More than 3/4 went for the sure gain.
  • Cognitive dissonance 10 February 2010 13:35 UTC www.efmoody.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Would you have any desire to participate in another similar experiment?
  • Classics in the History of Psychology -- Festinger & Carlsmith (1959) 10 February 2010 13:35 UTC psychclassics.yorku.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Then the subjects were given a choice between two of the items.
  • Happy Birthday, Cognitive Dissonance - TierneyLab Blog - NYTimes.com 10 February 2010 13:35 UTC tierneylab.blogs.nytimes.com [Source type: General]

.Because the attractive characteristics of the rejected item are dissonant with the decision to accept the chosen item, participants tend to experience "postdecision dissonance."^ Moreover, Myers noted that experiments indicate that to reduce the dissonance caused in the case of making wrong decisions, an individual will upgrade the substitute and degrade the other one.
  • Cognitive Dissonance: A Spiritual Perspective 10 February 2010 13:35 UTC www.mediate.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Because the experience of dissonance is unpleasant, the person will strive to reduce it by changing their beliefs.

^ Ut: Perhaps we cannot say that cognitive dissonance (CD) because CD itself is the what people will have to experience before they can 'get' the whole immortalist perspective.
  • Cognitive Dissonance and Immortality - ImmInst.org Forums 10 February 2010 13:35 UTC www.imminst.org [Source type: Original source]

Ben Franklin Effect

Benjamin Franklin won over a political opponent by asking him a favor. An excerpt from one of his books:
I did not ... aim at gaining his favour by paying any servile respect to him but, after some time, took this other method. .Having heard that he had in his library a certain very scarce and curious book I wrote a note to him expressing my desire of perusing that book and requesting he would do me the favour of lending it to me for a few days.^ Yet, even if I have done all in my power to educate him properly in the skills and responsibilities of driving, I too, in some way, am very much responsible if my son has an accident.
  • Theodicy: Dissonance in Theory and Praxis 10 February 2010 13:35 UTC www.js.emory.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ He's a rather talented dog trainer that wrote a few books on the psychology of American dogs in particular.
  • Cognitive Dissonance: A Mitt Romney Case Study : The Frontal Cortex 10 February 2010 13:35 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: General]

^ Others have joined the chorus, even as all have commended my courage and expressed high praise for other aspects of the book.
  • Theodicy: Dissonance in Theory and Praxis 10 February 2010 13:35 UTC www.js.emory.edu [Source type: Original source]

.He sent it immediately and I returned it in about a week with another note expressing strongly my sense of the favour.^ I expressed my feelings about JS & my reluctance to accept the BoM as true history etc.....
  • The Mormon Curtain - COGNITIVE DISSONANCE 10 February 2010 13:35 UTC www.mormoncurtain.com [Source type: Academic]

.When we next met in the House he spoke to me (which he had never done before), and with great civility; and he ever after manifested a readiness to serve me on all occasions, so that we became great friends and our friendship continued to his death.^ Or increase social acceptance, through all our individual daily thoughts and actions, and the law will die a quiet death eventually.

^ My ex blew off me and our child, but my friend never did.
  • Daily Kos: Cognitive dissonance 10 February 2010 13:35 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ These relationships, these pearls of great price, are worth the sacrifices and the disappointments and the askance looks of our friends who wonder what we could be thinking.
  • "Believest thou...?": Faith, Cognitive Dissonance, and the Psychology of Religious Experience 10 February 2010 13:35 UTC www.fairlds.org [Source type: Original source]

.This is another instance of the truth of an old maxim I had learned, which says, "He that has once done you a kindness will be more ready to do you another than he whom you yourself has obliged."^ Steve has a long history of putting himself on the line for the causes he supports and sings about-more than most artists you’re ever going to find.
  • Ron Radosh » Cognitive Dissonance in the Left/Folkie World 10 February 2010 13:35 UTC pajamasmedia.com [Source type: General]

^ B.O has said, once you earn over $75k a year the government has the right to take more of your money.
  • Hot Air » Blog Archive » The Democratic dissonance on rich and poor 10 February 2010 13:35 UTC hotair.com [Source type: General]

^ A Hells Angels member Adam may trust another member Bill more than he trusts Carl who is not a member, but at the same time realize that Bill is generally less trustworthy than Carl.
  • Cognitive dissonance 10 February 2010 13:35 UTC www.efmoody.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

After lending Franklin the book, the opponent had to resolve the dissonance of his attitude towards Franklin, whom he also has just done a favor. .He justified doing the favor by telling himself that he actually liked Franklin, and, as a result, he treated him with respect instead of rudeness from then on.^ He can correct the learner in either a weak manner, by telling him that an error was committed and letting him correct it by himself, or in a strong manner, by correcting the error and presenting the solution to the student.
  • (A�meur E.) Application and Assessment of Cognitive-Dissonance Theory in the Learning Process 10 February 2010 13:35 UTC www.jucs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I now see that I was being irrational.” Instead, the more likely result is getting super pissed off at me for being, in your opinion, so incredibly stupid, not to mention greedy.
  • The Dilbert Blog: Find the Cognitive Dissonance 10 February 2010 13:35 UTC dilbertblog.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ That is, all we tell him is what he needs to know in order to do the tasks, and he has no idea of what the experiment is all about, or what it's going to be like, or anything like that.
  • Classics in the History of Psychology -- Festinger & Carlsmith (1959) 10 February 2010 13:35 UTC psychclassics.yorku.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

When Prophecy Fails

.An early version of cognitive dissonance theory appeared in Leon Festinger's 1956 book, When Prophecy Fails.^ The theory of cognitive dissonance: A current perspective.

^ Reference: Cognitive Dissonance Theory , developed by Leon Festinger (1957), is concerned with the relationships among cognitions.
  • Cognitive Dissonance and Immortality - ImmInst.org Forums 10 February 2010 13:35 UTC www.imminst.org [Source type: Original source]

^ An introduction to cognitive dissonance theory and an overview of current perspectives on the theory.

.This book gave an inside account of belief persistence in members of a UFO doomsday cult, and documented the increased proselytization they exhibited after the leader's "end of the world" prophecy failed to come true.^ Social psychologist Leon Festinger first proposed the theory in 1957 after the publication of his book When Prophecy Fails , observing the counterintuitive belief persistence of members of a UFO doomsday cult and their increased proselytization after the leader's prophecy failed.
  • Media Exhibit Cognitive Dissonance Over Global Warming | NewsBusters.org 10 February 2010 13:35 UTC newsbusters.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The failed message of Earth's destruction, purportedly sent by aliens to a woman in 1956, became a disconfirmed expectancy that increased dissonance between cognitions, thereby causing most members of the impromptu cult to lessen the dissonance by accepting a new prophecy: that the aliens had instead spared the planet for their sake.
  • Media Exhibit Cognitive Dissonance Over Global Warming | NewsBusters.org 10 February 2010 13:35 UTC newsbusters.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The sad fact is that for fifty years we predicted the end of the world would come in just four to seven short years.
  • How Could We Have Believed These Things 10 February 2010 13:35 UTC www.wcg.org [Source type: Original source]

.The prediction of the Earth's destruction, supposedly sent by aliens to the leader of the group, became a disconfirmed expectancy that caused dissonance between the cognitions, "the world is going to end" and "the world did not end."^ End of description Cognitive Dissonance.
  • Cognitive Dissonance 10 February 2010 13:35 UTC www.12manage.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The failed message of Earth's destruction, purportedly sent by aliens to a woman in 1956, became a disconfirmed expectancy that increased dissonance between cognitions, thereby causing most members of the impromptu cult to lessen the dissonance by accepting a new prophecy: that the aliens had instead spared the planet for their sake.
  • Media Exhibit Cognitive Dissonance Over Global Warming | NewsBusters.org 10 February 2010 13:35 UTC newsbusters.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The results from this calculation serve to plan external conflicts (between the learner and a troublemaker) in order to make the student aware of internal conflicts, due to cognitive-dissonance, in his model.
  • (A�meur E.) Application and Assessment of Cognitive-Dissonance Theory in the Learning Process 10 February 2010 13:35 UTC www.jucs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Although some members abandoned the group when the prophecy failed, most of the members lessened their dissonance by accepting a new belief, that the planet was spared because of the faith of the group.^ Social psychologist Leon Festinger first proposed the theory in 1957 after the publication of his book When Prophecy Fails , observing the counterintuitive belief persistence of members of a UFO doomsday cult and their increased proselytization after the leader's prophecy failed.
  • Media Exhibit Cognitive Dissonance Over Global Warming | NewsBusters.org 10 February 2010 13:35 UTC newsbusters.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The failed message of Earth's destruction, purportedly sent by aliens to a woman in 1956, became a disconfirmed expectancy that increased dissonance between cognitions, thereby causing most members of the impromptu cult to lessen the dissonance by accepting a new prophecy: that the aliens had instead spared the planet for their sake.
  • Media Exhibit Cognitive Dissonance Over Global Warming | NewsBusters.org 10 February 2010 13:35 UTC newsbusters.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This is not a controversial assumption of course…because I mean, the point of faith in this kind of church is to be able to say, “The church is true.” I mean, why do we accept our loved one and all?
  • The Faith-Building Power of Cognitive Dissonance « By Common Consent, a Mormon Blog 10 February 2010 13:35 UTC bycommonconsent.com [Source type: Original source]

[7]

Boring task experiment

.In Festinger and Carlsmith's classic 1959 experiment, students were asked to spend an hour on boring and tedious tasks (e.g.^ The classic experiment here comes from psychologists Leon Festinger and James Carlsmith, who had participants perform a boring task and then paid them either $20 or $1 to convince someone else that the task had been great fun.
  • Predictably Irrational » Blog Archive » Dear Irrational (Does it Pay to Play Hard to Get?) 10 February 2010 13:35 UTC www.predictablyirrational.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The hour which the S spent working on the repetitive, monotonous tasks was intended to provide, for each S uniformly, an experience about which he would have a somewhat negative opinion .
  • Classics in the History of Psychology -- Festinger & Carlsmith (1959) 10 February 2010 13:35 UTC psychclassics.yorku.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In this course, students are required to spend a certain number of hours as subjects ( S s) in experiments.
  • Classics in the History of Psychology -- Festinger & Carlsmith (1959) 10 February 2010 13:35 UTC psychclassics.yorku.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

turning pegs a quarter turn, over and over again). The tasks were designed to generate a strong, negative attitude. .Once the subjects had done this, the experimenters asked some of them to do a simple favour.^ Since we have that extra time, the introductory psychology people asked if they could interview some our subjects.
  • Classics in the History of Psychology -- Festinger & Carlsmith (1959) 10 February 2010 13:35 UTC psychclassics.yorku.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.They were asked to talk to another subject (actually an actor) and persuade them that the tasks were interesting and engaging.^ Certainly, the more interesting and enjoyable they felt the tasks were, the greater would be their desire to participate in a similar experiment.
  • Classics in the History of Psychology -- Festinger & Carlsmith (1959) 10 February 2010 13:35 UTC psychclassics.yorku.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Public vs. They're asking for another four years -- in a just world, they'd get 10 to 20.
  • Open Left:: Our Cognitive Dissonance on Both Hiring, and Firing, Teachers En Masse 10 February 2010 13:35 UTC www.openleft.com [Source type: General]

^ In Brehm’s study and its modern variants, subjects are first asked to rate or rank a bunch of goods based on how much they like them.
  • Monty Hall Meets Cognitive Dissonance - TierneyLab Blog - NYTimes.com 10 February 2010 13:35 UTC tierneylab.blogs.nytimes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Some participants were paid $20 (inflation adjusted to 2009, this equates to $148.40) for this favor, another group was paid $1 (or $7.42 in '2009 dollars'), and a control group was not asked to perform the favour.^ The classic experiment here comes from psychologists Leon Festinger and James Carlsmith, who had participants perform a boring task and then paid them either $20 or $1 to convince someone else that the task had been great fun.
  • Predictably Irrational » Blog Archive » Dear Irrational (Does it Pay to Play Hard to Get?) 10 February 2010 13:35 UTC www.predictablyirrational.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Himalayan Glaciers Seem to Be Growing: Discovery News 5 May 2009 … In the Western Himalayas, a group of some 230 glaciers are bucking the global warming trend.
  • Jennifer Marohasy » Melting Glaciers and Cognitive Dissonance 10 February 2010 13:35 UTC jennifermarohasy.com [Source type: General]

^ Jan 13, 2009 - 10:42 am 40.
  • Ron Radosh » Cognitive Dissonance in the Left/Folkie World 10 February 2010 13:35 UTC pajamasmedia.com [Source type: General]

.When asked to rate the boring tasks at the conclusion of the study (not in the presence of the other "subject"), those in the $20 group rated them more positively than those in the $1 and control groups.^ The first group was asked to choose between a 100% chance of gain8ng $240 vs. More than 3/4 went for the sure gain.
  • Cognitive dissonance 10 February 2010 13:35 UTC www.efmoody.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Before the coin has spun through more than a few revolutions, the computer reports the expected full trajectory of the coin and its final resting position at heads or tails.

^ Before the night of December 20, the group had been uninterested in convincing other people that the world was coming to an end.
  • How Could We Have Believed These Things 10 February 2010 13:35 UTC www.wcg.org [Source type: Original source]

.This was explained by Festinger and Carlsmith as evidence for cognitive dissonance.^ Festinger and Carlsmith - cognitive dissonance Cognitive consequences of forced compliance .
  • Festinger & Carlsmith Cognitive dissonance consequences of forced compliance 10 February 2010 13:35 UTC www.age-of-the-sage.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Start of Cognitive dissonance : Festinger and Carlsmith .
  • Festinger & Carlsmith Cognitive dissonance consequences of forced compliance 10 February 2010 13:35 UTC www.age-of-the-sage.org [Source type: Academic]

^ L. Festinger, A theory of cognitive dissonance .
  • Citations: A Theory of Cognitive Dissonance - Festinger (ResearchIndex) 10 February 2010 13:35 UTC citeseer.ist.psu.edu [Source type: Academic]

.The researchers theorized that people experienced dissonance between the conflicting cognitions, "I told someone that the task was interesting", and "I actually found it boring."^ When people experience such conflicts between deeply-felt convictions and evidence that contradicts them, a state of cognitive dissonance can arise in which various psychological strategies are deployed to protect those convictions and to neutralise the effects of contradictory evidence.
  • Gordon Lynch: A peace rally where they wanted to soldiers to fight on | Comment is free | guardian.co.uk 10 February 2010 13:35 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

^ While the $20 group could explain away the dissonance between their action (“I told someone the task was riveting”) and their belief (“It actually bored me to tears”) via money (“I was paid to promote the task”), the $1 individuals could not because they could not justify misleading others for such a small amount of money– so they changed their initial belief (“I must really like the task, to have promoted it”) and they ended up rating the task more positively.
  • Predictably Irrational » Blog Archive » Dear Irrational (Does it Pay to Play Hard to Get?) 10 February 2010 13:35 UTC www.predictablyirrational.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The theory of cognitive dissonance holds that contradicting cognitions serve as a driving force that compels the mind to acquire or invent new thoughts or beliefs, or to modify existing beliefs, so as to reduce the amount of dissonance (conflict) between cognitions.

.When paid only $1, students were forced to internalize the attitude they were induced to express, because they had no other justification.^ I guess that is because the only people they know are libs and all of them will swallow whatever crap is placed in front of them by their own propaganda machine.
  • Jonathan Martin's Blog: Cognitive dissonance on the right - Politico.com 10 February 2010 13:35 UTC www.politico.com [Source type: General]

^ More specifically, risk attitudes, risk perceptions and beliefs only allow us to predict investors' risk taking behavior if they are elicited in an investment related context.
  • Cognitive dissonance 10 February 2010 13:35 UTC www.efmoody.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ (If he’s not obligated to do it every time, then there’s no way to know if switching pays or not, because he might reveal the goat and offer the switch only when the player would lose by switching.
  • Monty Hall Meets Cognitive Dissonance - TierneyLab Blog - NYTimes.com 10 February 2010 13:35 UTC tierneylab.blogs.nytimes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Those in the $20 condition, however, had an obvious external justification for their behaviour, and thus experienced less dissonance.^ In the Twenty Dollar condition, where less dissonance was created experimentally because of the greater importance of the consonant relations, there is correspondingly less evidence of dissonance reduction.
  • Classics in the History of Psychology -- Festinger & Carlsmith (1959) 10 February 2010 13:35 UTC psychclassics.yorku.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[8]
In subsequent experiments, an alternative method of "inducing dissonance" has become common. In this research, experimenters use counter-attitudinal essay-writing, in which people are paid varying amounts of money (e.g. one or ten dollars) for writing essays expressing opinions contrary to their own. .People paid only a small amount of money have less justification for their inconsistency and tend to experience more dissonance.^ The amount of money paid the subject was varied.
  • Classics in the History of Psychology -- Festinger & Carlsmith (1959) 10 February 2010 13:35 UTC psychclassics.yorku.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The more scientifically important they considered the experiment to be, the less was the total magnitude of dissonance.
  • Classics in the History of Psychology -- Festinger & Carlsmith (1959) 10 February 2010 13:35 UTC psychclassics.yorku.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Not only do we tend to select reading material and television programs that are consistent with our existing beliefs, we usually choose to be with people who are like us.
  • Cognitive Dissonance and Immortality - ImmInst.org Forums 10 February 2010 13:35 UTC www.imminst.org [Source type: Original source]

Forbidden toy experiment

.An experiment by Aronson and Carlsmith in 1963 examined self-justification in children.^ Cited by 24 ] (?/year) CARLSMITH, J.M. and E. ARONSON, 1963.

[9] In this experiment, children were left in a room with a variety of toys, including a highly desirable toy steam-shovel (or other toy). .Upon leaving the room, the experimenter told half the children that there would be a severe punishment if they played with that particular toy and told the other half that there would be a mild punishment.^ If teachers really cared about others they would support more radical candidates.
  • Open Left:: Our Cognitive Dissonance on Both Hiring, and Firing, Teachers En Masse 10 February 2010 13:35 UTC www.openleft.com [Source type: General]

^ They play a lot upon politeness as well.
  • Cognitive dissonance in the Seduction Community at Larvatus Prodeo 10 February 2010 13:35 UTC larvatusprodeo.net [Source type: General]

^ There is the likelihood that a household would follow the lead of other investors was greatest when they lived nearby.
  • Cognitive dissonance 10 February 2010 13:35 UTC www.efmoody.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

All of the children in the study refrained from playing with the toy. .Later, when the children were told that they could freely play with whatever toy they wanted, the ones in the mild punishment condition were less likely to play with the toy, even though the threat had been removed.^ Less trusting individuals are less likely to buy stock and, conditional on buying stock, they will buy less.
  • Cognitive dissonance 10 February 2010 13:35 UTC www.efmoody.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ So, I don’t like being told to eat less meat, to use stupid lamps in places where they don’t suit, that I can’t use water.

^ Participants reported telling their serious lies to get what they wanted or to do what they thought they were entitled to do, or to avoid punishment.
  • Cognitive dissonance 10 February 2010 13:35 UTC www.efmoody.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

This is another example of insufficient justification. .The children who were only mildly threatened had to justify to themselves why they did not play with the toy.^ Among the Hillary dead-enders, I concede there are some progressive activists, but the question is who did they vote for before.
  • FiveThirtyEight: Politics Done Right: Cognitive Dissonance 10 February 2010 13:35 UTC www.fivethirtyeight.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Who likes talking to anonymous people who drone on and on about issues when they don't reveal enough about themselves to let others know why they talk about such issues?

^ And as we have to keep pointing out, most people have no idea who Sarah Palin is and why they should pay attention to her mean girl act.
  • FiveThirtyEight: Politics Done Right: Cognitive Dissonance 10 February 2010 13:35 UTC www.fivethirtyeight.com [Source type: Original source]

.The degree of punishment by itself was not strong enough, so the children had to convince themselves that the toy was not worth playing with in order to resolve their dissonance.^ The problem is that most of the people opposing what “greenies” mean by “sustainable living” seem to have convinced themselves that their own lifestyle is itself actually sustainable.

^ Specifically, such workers would suffer from cognitive dissonance and convince themselves that the industry where they were working was safe.
  • Cognitive dissonance 10 February 2010 13:35 UTC www.efmoody.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[9]

Postdecision dissonance

.In a different type of experiment conducted by Jack Brehm, 225 female students rated a series of common appliances and were then allowed to choose one of two appliances to take home as a gift.^ Subjects also take part in two different tests of cognitive ability, which correspond to sub-modules of one of the most widely used IQ tests.
  • Cognitive dissonance 10 February 2010 13:35 UTC www.efmoody.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In this section we have highlighted the different types of conflict that can occur in ITS. In the discussion that follows, we are interested only in the first two types of conflict.
  • (A�meur E.) Application and Assessment of Cognitive-Dissonance Theory in the Learning Process 10 February 2010 13:35 UTC www.jucs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Also, there are hundreds of studies using slightly different variants of this experiment, and many test more complex predictions than the one I have discussed here.
  • Monty Hall Meets Cognitive Dissonance - TierneyLab Blog - NYTimes.com 10 February 2010 13:35 UTC tierneylab.blogs.nytimes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A second round of ratings showed that the participants increased their ratings of the item they chose, and lowered their ratings of the rejected item.^ The results of the second experiment showed again that participants rated behavior as less ethical when it led to undesirable consequences, even if they saw that behavior as acceptable before they knew its consequences.
  • Cognitive dissonance 10 February 2010 13:35 UTC www.efmoody.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Second, contemplation costs may be increasing in the size of the choice set, making smaller sets more desirable even when they do not provide any information to the agent.
  • Cognitive dissonance 10 February 2010 13:35 UTC www.efmoody.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The subgroup of participants planning a career in finance showed an even more pronounced interest in gambling and a lower level of emotional intelligence.
  • Cognitive dissonance 10 February 2010 13:35 UTC www.efmoody.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[10] .This can be explained in terms of cognitive dissonance.^ The term "cognitive dissonance" is key and has been mentioned many times when describing AA members.
  • Cognitive Dissonance and Politics : The Frontal Cortex 10 February 2010 13:35 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: General]

^ A Cognitive Dissonance is a theory that explains consistency in relationships among human thoughts.
  • Cognitive Dissonance 10 February 2010 13:35 UTC www.12manage.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Long-term behavioral effects of cognitive dissonance .

.When making a difficult decision, there are always aspects of the rejected choice that one finds appealing and these features are dissonant with choosing something else.^ Because the experience of dissonance is unpleasant, the person will strive to reduce it—usually by struggling to find a way to change one or both cognitions to make them more consonant with one another.

^ Even at low levels, these five emotions have the potential to influence investors to make less than optimal investment decisions.
  • Cognitive dissonance 10 February 2010 13:35 UTC www.efmoody.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Cognitive dissonance is one of the most influential theories in psychology, and its oldest experiential realization is choice-induced dissonance.
  • Cognitive dissonance 10 February 2010 13:35 UTC www.efmoody.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In other words, the cognition, "I chose X" is dissonant with the cognition, "There are some things I like about Y." More recent research has found similar results in four-year-old children and capuchin monkeys.^ The fascinating thing about cognitive dissonance is that it’s immune to intelligence.
  • The Dilbert Blog: Find the Cognitive Dissonance 10 February 2010 13:35 UTC dilbertblog.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Some of the things he talked about bothered them.
  • The Mormon Curtain - COGNITIVE DISSONANCE 10 February 2010 13:35 UTC www.mormoncurtain.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Talk about cognitive dissonance!
  • How Could We Have Believed These Things 10 February 2010 13:35 UTC www.wcg.org [Source type: Original source]

[11]

Challenges and qualifications

.Daryl Bem was an early critic of cognitive dissonance theory.^ In order to do this, we use the theory of cognitive-dissonance.
  • (A�meur E.) Application and Assessment of Cognitive-Dissonance Theory in the Learning Process 10 February 2010 13:35 UTC www.jucs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The theory of cognitive dissonance: A current perspective.

^ An introduction to cognitive dissonance theory and an overview of current perspectives on the theory.

He proposed self-perception theory as a more parsimonious alternative explanation of the experimental results. .According to Bem, people do not think much about their attitudes, let alone whether they are in conflict.^ So much for caring about the American people.
  • Firedoglake » Cognitive Dissonance 10 February 2010 13:35 UTC firedoglake.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Thus, I have one question: If people claim that they are good, then what standard are they using to determine whether or not they are good?
  • The Dilbert Blog: Find the Cognitive Dissonance 10 February 2010 13:35 UTC dilbertblog.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ "Cognitive dissonance is the mental conflict that people experience when they are presented with evidence that their beliefs or assumptions are wrong."

.Bem interpreted people in the Festinger and Carlsmith study as inferring their attitudes from their behavior.^ To further gauge attitudes, the moderator asked for reactions to a study demonstrating that relationships with industry influenced physician behavior.
  • Physicians and Drug Representatives: Exploring the Dynamics of the Relationship 10 February 2010 13:35 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Thus, when asked "Did you find the task interesting?"^ Reply AZ Matt May 31st, 2007 at 6:36 am 88 How badly did George Will escape from reality today you ask?
  • Firedoglake » Cognitive Dissonance 10 February 2010 13:35 UTC firedoglake.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ (This was, of course, the good ol' days of Clinton, and I did go to school in CA.) Find a local farmers market near you.
  • Daily Kos: Cognitive dissonance 10 February 2010 13:35 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ So first I ask: what would you think of girls who express their interest in the men they are interested in?

they decided that they must have found it interesting because that is what they told someone. .Bem suggested that people paid $20 had a salient, external incentive for their behavior and were likely to perceive the money as their reason for saying the task was interesting, rather than concluding that they actually found it interesting.^ They seem like people as much or more than fetuses.
  • Daily Kos: Cognitive dissonance 10 February 2010 13:35 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ While the $20 group could explain away the dissonance between their action (“I told someone the task was riveting”) and their belief (“It actually bored me to tears”) via money (“I was paid to promote the task”), the $1 individuals could not because they could not justify misleading others for such a small amount of money– so they changed their initial belief (“I must really like the task, to have promoted it”) and they ended up rating the task more positively.
  • Predictably Irrational » Blog Archive » Dear Irrational (Does it Pay to Play Hard to Get?) 10 February 2010 13:35 UTC www.predictablyirrational.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The acceptance [of gifts] is a relative conflict of interest from the standpoint that it costs the pharmaceutical companies money to provide whatever it is they are providing, and that is added to the cost of the medication for the patient.
  • Physicians and Drug Representatives: Exploring the Dynamics of the Relationship 10 February 2010 13:35 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

[12][13]
.In many experimental situations, Bem's theory and Festinger's theory make identical predictions, but only dissonance theory predicts the presence of unpleasant tension or arousal.^ The most important of these theories were the theory of cognitive-dissonance [ Festinger, 57 ], Heider's theory of equilibrium [ Heider, 58 ] and Osgood and Tannenbaum's theory of congruence [ Osgood and Tannenbaum, 55 ].
  • (A�meur E.) Application and Assessment of Cognitive-Dissonance Theory in the Learning Process 10 February 2010 13:35 UTC www.jucs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Leon Festinger’s theory of attitude change based on the notion that we are motivated to adjust our attitudes to relieve COGNITIVE DISSONANCE. Also called dissonance theory .

^ Cognitive-dissonance is a theory originally developed by Festinger which had a great impact on the social psychology community.
  • (A�meur E.) Application and Assessment of Cognitive-Dissonance Theory in the Learning Process 10 February 2010 13:35 UTC www.jucs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Lab experiments have verified the presence of arousal in dissonance situations.[14][15] .This provides support for cognitive dissonance theory and makes it unlikely that self-perception by itself can account for all the laboratory findings.^ In order to do this, we use the theory of cognitive-dissonance.
  • (A�meur E.) Application and Assessment of Cognitive-Dissonance Theory in the Learning Process 10 February 2010 13:35 UTC www.jucs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The theory of cognitive dissonance: A current perspective.

^ Self-perception theory: An alternative interpretation of cognitive dissonance phenomena.

.In 1969, Elliot Aronson reformulated the basic theory by linking it to the self-concept.^ Elliot Aronson argued that "if dissonance exists, the it is the result of cognitions inconsistent with the self-concept" (Aronson, 1968).
  • Cognitive Dissonance and Politics : The Frontal Cortex 10 February 2010 13:35 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: General]

.According to this new interpretation, cognitive dissonance does not arise because people experience dissonance between conflicting cognitions.^ Cognitive Dissonance What is, does not imply what ought to be.

^ What does a gift do to the cognitive dissonance?
  • Predictably Irrational » Blog Archive » Dear Irrational (Does it Pay to Play Hard to Get?) 10 February 2010 13:35 UTC www.predictablyirrational.com [Source type: Original source]

^ If someone experiences dissonance, can think and add a new cognition.
  • Cognitive Dissonance 10 February 2010 13:35 UTC www.12manage.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Instead, it occurs when people see their actions as conflicting with their normally positive view of themselves.^ Further, people can be impulsive, shortsighted, trusting, and vengeful; they often have mistaken intuitions about their behavior; and they frequently effect outcomes they themselves view as bad.
  • Cognitive dissonance 10 February 2010 13:35 UTC www.efmoody.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Thus, in the original Festinger and Carlsmith study, Aronson stated that the dissonance was between the cognition, "I am an honest person" and the cognition, "I lied to someone about finding the task interesting."^ COGNITIVE DISSONANCE Total Articles: 2 Cognitive dissonance is a state of opposition between cognitions.
  • The Mormon Curtain - COGNITIVE DISSONANCE 10 February 2010 13:35 UTC www.mormoncurtain.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Talk about cognitive dissonance!
  • How Could We Have Believed These Things 10 February 2010 13:35 UTC www.wcg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Talk about cognitive dissonance.
  • The Anchoress | A First Things Blog 10 February 2010 13:35 UTC www.firstthings.com [Source type: General]
  • Jonathan Martin's Blog: Cognitive dissonance on the right - Politico.com 10 February 2010 13:35 UTC www.politico.com [Source type: General]

[6] .Other psychologists have argued that maintaining cognitive consistency is a way to protect public self-image, rather than private self-concept.^ Cognitive Dissonance concept has been proposed by Leon Festinger in his 1957 publishing A Theory of Cognitive Dissonance, US. Opposite to Cognitive Balance, Cognitive Dissonance Theory (CDT), together with Balance Theory and Congruity Theory is part of the so called Consistency Theories .
  • Cognitive Dissonance 10 February 2010 13:35 UTC www.12manage.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "A concept put forward by Festinger, in which the main proposal is that each individual strives to maintain consistency between their differing cognitions.

^ In 1956 the US psychologist Leon Festinger introduced a new concept in social psychology: the theory of cognitive dissonance .

[16]
.During the 1980s, Cooper and Fazio argued that dissonance was caused by aversive consequences, rather than inconsistency.^ Elliot Aronson argued that "if dissonance exists, the it is the result of cognitions inconsistent with the self-concept" (Aronson, 1968).
  • Cognitive Dissonance and Politics : The Frontal Cortex 10 February 2010 13:35 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: General]

^ Cooper and Fazio's "New Look" at cognitive dissonance theory postulated that dissonance is the result of the feeling personally responsible for an aversive event.
  • Cognitive Dissonance and Politics : The Frontal Cortex 10 February 2010 13:35 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: General]

^ That the Production of Aversive Consequences Is Not Necessary to Create Cognitive Dissonance .

.According to this interpretation, the fact that lying is wrong and hurtful, not the inconsistency between cognitions, is what makes people feel bad.^ The results from this calculation serve to plan external conflicts (between the learner and a troublemaker) in order to make the student aware of internal conflicts, due to cognitive-dissonance, in his model.
  • (A�meur E.) Application and Assessment of Cognitive-Dissonance Theory in the Learning Process 10 February 2010 13:35 UTC www.jucs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "Cognitive dissonance is the mental conflict that people experience when they are presented with evidence that their beliefs or assumptions are wrong."

^ Make teachers feel valued and fund them competitively with equally valuable jobs and then see how much of a bad teacher problem is left over - I'd guess it will be pretty small.
  • Open Left:: Our Cognitive Dissonance on Both Hiring, and Firing, Teachers En Masse 10 February 2010 13:35 UTC www.openleft.com [Source type: General]

[17] .Subsequent research, however, found that people experience dissonance even when they feel they have not done anything wrong.^ And in that sense, it’s challenging the basic premise that we have of an enlightened, democratic, modern society.” Norgaard studied this shift in public opinion and found that as people start to feel overwhelmed by the scope of the problem, they simply turn away from the topic.
  • The Anchoress | A First Things Blog 10 February 2010 13:35 UTC www.firstthings.com [Source type: General]

^ And, to be fair, I understand why they might think this: they purely mean to wish the best for me and they feel that the church offers that (because that’s been their experience).
  • The Faith-Building Power of Cognitive Dissonance « By Common Consent, a Mormon Blog 10 February 2010 13:35 UTC bycommonconsent.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Causing pain to tiny people who can't talk hurts then less than delaying the painful experience until they would punch you out.
  • The Dilbert Blog: Find the Cognitive Dissonance 10 February 2010 13:35 UTC dilbertblog.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

[18]

Modelling in neural networks

.Neural network models of cognition have provided the necessary framework to integrate the empirical research done on cognitive dissonance and attitudes into one model of explanation of attitude formation and change.^ Cognitive models of stereotype change.

^ Culture, cognitive dissonance and the management of change .

^ Because the experience of dissonance is unpleasant, the person will strive to reduce it—usually by struggling to find a way to change one or both cognitions to make them more consonant with one another.

[19]
.Various neural network models have been developed to predict how cognitive dissonance will influence an individual's attitude and behaviour.^ The results from this calculation serve to plan external conflicts (between the learner and a troublemaker) in order to make the student aware of internal conflicts, due to cognitive-dissonance, in his model.
  • (A�meur E.) Application and Assessment of Cognitive-Dissonance Theory in the Learning Process 10 February 2010 13:35 UTC www.jucs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A number of specific observable behaviours are associated with any given stage whose key is cognitive-dissonance.
  • (A�meur E.) Application and Assessment of Cognitive-Dissonance Theory in the Learning Process 10 February 2010 13:35 UTC www.jucs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Should a noticeable inconsistency arise, this will produce a state of cognitive dissonance, which the individual experiences as uncomfortable and attempts to correct.

These include:

Cognitive dissonance in the brain

.Using fMRI, Van Veen and colleagues investigated the neural basis of cognitive dissonance in a modified version of the classic Festinger and Carlsmith study.^ In order to do this, we use the theory of cognitive-dissonance.
  • (A�meur E.) Application and Assessment of Cognitive-Dissonance Theory in the Learning Process 10 February 2010 13:35 UTC www.jucs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Festinger's definition of cognitive-dissonance is the perception, by a subject, of a difference, of variable intensity, between what has been previously perceived and learned and new information.
  • (A�meur E.) Application and Assessment of Cognitive-Dissonance Theory in the Learning Process 10 February 2010 13:35 UTC www.jucs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The most important of these theories were the theory of cognitive-dissonance [ Festinger, 57 ], Heider's theory of equilibrium [ Heider, 58 ] and Osgood and Tannenbaum's theory of congruence [ Osgood and Tannenbaum, 55 ].
  • (A�meur E.) Application and Assessment of Cognitive-Dissonance Theory in the Learning Process 10 February 2010 13:35 UTC www.jucs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

While in the scanner, participants "argued" that the uncomfortable MRI environment was nevertheless a pleasant experience. .The researchers replicated the basic Festinger findings; participants in an experimental group enjoyed the scanner more than participants in a control group who simply were paid to make their argument.^ I make more than that and I’m poor as dirt.
  • Hot Air » Blog Archive » The Democratic dissonance on rich and poor 10 February 2010 13:35 UTC hotair.com [Source type: General]

^ A little more than 40 years ago, Leon Festinger published A Theory of Cognitive Dissonance (1957).
  • Cognitive Dissonance and Immortality - ImmInst.org Forums 10 February 2010 13:35 UTC www.imminst.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Steve has a long history of putting himself on the line for the causes he supports and sings about-more than most artists you’re ever going to find.
  • Ron Radosh » Cognitive Dissonance in the Left/Folkie World 10 February 2010 13:35 UTC pajamasmedia.com [Source type: General]

.Importantly, responding counterattitudinally activated the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex and the anterior insular cortex; furthermore, the degree to which these regions were activated predicted individual participants' degree of attitude change.^ In this respect, dissonance theory is contradictory to most behavioral theories which would predict greater attitude change with increased incentive (i.e., reinforcement).
  • Cognitive Dissonance and Immortality - ImmInst.org Forums 10 February 2010 13:35 UTC www.imminst.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Furthermore, attitude change is more likely in the direction of less incentive since this results in lower dissonance.
  • Cognitive Dissonance and Immortality - ImmInst.org Forums 10 February 2010 13:35 UTC www.imminst.org [Source type: Original source]

^ If individuals can be made to act in ways that are inconsistent with their attitudes, they may change their thoughts to bring them into agreement with their actions.
  • How Could We Have Believed These Things 10 February 2010 13:35 UTC www.wcg.org [Source type: Original source]

.Van Veen and colleagues argue that these findings support the original dissonance theory by Festinger, and support the "conflict theory" of anterior cingulate functioning.^ The most important of these theories were the theory of cognitive-dissonance [ Festinger, 57 ], Heider's theory of equilibrium [ Heider, 58 ] and Osgood and Tannenbaum's theory of congruence [ Osgood and Tannenbaum, 55 ].
  • (A�meur E.) Application and Assessment of Cognitive-Dissonance Theory in the Learning Process 10 February 2010 13:35 UTC www.jucs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Leon Festinger’s theory of attitude change based on the notion that we are motivated to adjust our attitudes to relieve COGNITIVE DISSONANCE. Also called dissonance theory .

^ Cognitive-dissonance is a theory originally developed by Festinger which had a great impact on the social psychology community.
  • (A�meur E.) Application and Assessment of Cognitive-Dissonance Theory in the Learning Process 10 February 2010 13:35 UTC www.jucs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[23]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b Elster, Jon. Sour Grapes: Studies in the Subversion of Rationality. Cambridge 1983, p. 123ff.
  2. ^ Festinger, L. (1957). .A theory of cognitive dissonance.^ FESTINGER, L. A theory of cognitive dissonance .
    • Classics in the History of Psychology -- Festinger & Carlsmith (1959) 10 February 2010 13:35 UTC psychclassics.yorku.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ A theory of cognitive dissonance ."
    • Citations: A Theory of Cognitive Dissonance - Festinger (ResearchIndex) 10 February 2010 13:35 UTC citeseer.ist.psu.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ In order to do this, we use the theory of cognitive-dissonance.
    • (A�meur E.) Application and Assessment of Cognitive-Dissonance Theory in the Learning Process 10 February 2010 13:35 UTC www.jucs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
  3. ^ Festinger, L. (1956). When Prophecy Fails: A Social and Psychological Study of A Modern Group that Predicted the Destruction of the World, by Leon Festinger, Henry Riecken, and Stanley Schachter. Harper-Torchbooks, Jan. 1956. ISBN 0061311324
  4. ^ Aronson, E., Akert, R. D., & Wilson, T. D. (2006). Social psychology (6th Ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.
  5. ^ Baron, R. A., & Byrne, D. (2004). Social Psychology (10th Ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson Education, Inc.
  6. ^ a b Aronson, E. (1969). .The theory of cognitive dissonance: A current perspective.^ In order to do this, we use the theory of cognitive-dissonance.
    • (A�meur E.) Application and Assessment of Cognitive-Dissonance Theory in the Learning Process 10 February 2010 13:35 UTC www.jucs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Cognitive dissonance theory .
    • Chapter Eight 10 February 2010 13:35 UTC facpub.stjohns.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The theory of cognitive dissonance: A current perspective.
    • Cognitive dissonance encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 13:35 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]

    In L. Berkowitz (Ed.). Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, Vol. 4, pp. 1-34. New York: Academic Press.
  7. ^ Festinger, L., Riecken, H. W., & Schachter, S. (1956). When prophecy fails. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
  8. ^ Festinger, L., & Carlsmith, J. M. (1959). Cognitive consequences of forced compliance. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 58(2), 203-210.
  9. ^ a b Aronson, E., & Carlsmith, J. M. (1963). Effect of the severity of threat on the devaluation of forbidden behavior. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 66(6), 584–588.
  10. ^ Brehm, J. (1956). .Post-decision changes in desirability of alternatives.^ Post-decision changes in desirability of alternatives.
    • Cognitive dissonance encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 13:35 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ When he says, "If you change a persons behavior, his thoughts and feelings will change to minimize the dissonance" (Groenveld, 1999), he is referring to not only selective exposure and post-decision dissonance but also to minimal justification.
    • Cognitive Dissonance Theory 10 February 2010 13:35 UTC www.colorado.edu [Source type: Original source]

    Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 52(3), 384-389.
  11. ^ Egan, L. C., Santos, L. R., & Bloom, P. (2007). The origins of cognitive dissonance: Evidence from children and monkeys. Psychological Science, 18(11), 978-983.
  12. ^ Bem, D. J. (1965). .An experimental analysis of self-persuasion.^ An experimental analysis of self-persuasion.
    • Cognitive dissonance encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 13:35 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]

    Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 1(3), 199-218.
  13. ^ Bem, D. J. (1967). .Self-perception: An alternative interpretation of cognitive dissonance phenomena.^ Self-perception theory: An alternative interpretation of cognitive dissonance phenomena.

    ^ Self-perception: An alternative explanation of cognitive dissonance phenomena.

    ^ Self-perception: An alternative interpretation of cognitive dissonance phenomena .

    Psychological Review, 74(3), 183-200.
  14. ^ Zanna, M., & Cooper, J. (1974). Dissonance and the pill: An attribution approach to studying the arousal properties of dissonance. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 29(5), 703-709.
  15. ^ Kiesler, C. A., & Pallak, M. S. (1976). Arousal properties of dissonance manipulations. Psychological Bulletin, 83(6), 1014-1025.
  16. ^ Tedeschi, J. T., Schlenker, B. R., & Bonoma, T. V. (1971). .Cognitive dissonance: Private ratiocination or public spectacle?^ Cognitive dissonance: Private ratiocination or public spectacle?
    • Cognitive dissonance encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 13:35 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Cognitive dissonance: Private ratiocination or public spectacle.

    ^ All three of their arguments identified cognitive dissonance as a source of potential market failure and suggested public-sector action to alter the behavioral outcomes.
    • Managing Dissonance in the Iron Triangle | The Freeman | Ideas On Liberty 10 February 2010 13:35 UTC www.thefreemanonline.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    American Psychologist, 26(8), 685-695.
  17. ^ Cooper, J., & Fazio, R. H. (1984). A new look at dissonance theory. In L. Berkowitz (Ed.), Advances in experimental social psychology (Vol. 17, pp. 229-266). New York: Academic Press.
  18. ^ Harmon-Jones, E., Brehm, J. W., Greenberg, J., Simon, L., & Nelson, D. E. (1996). .Evidence that the production of aversive consequences is not necessary to create cognitive dissonance.^ This invariably creates cognitive dissonance.
    • Cognitive Dissonance and Creative Tension 10 February 2010 13:35 UTC www.cleanlanguage.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Evidence that the production of aversive consequences is not necessary to create cognitive dissonance.
    • Cognitive dissonance encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 13:35 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Toward an understanding of the motivation underlying dissonance effects: Is the production of aversive consequences necessary.
    • Speculations on a privileged state of cognitive dissonance - Cogprints 10 February 2010 13:35 UTC cogprints.org [Source type: Academic]

    Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 70(1), 5-16.
  19. ^ a b Read, S. J., Vanman, E. J., & Miller L. C. (1997). Connectionism, parallel constraint satisfaction processes, and Gestalt principles: (Re)Introducing cognitive dynamics to social psychology. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 1(1), 26-53.
  20. ^ Petty, R. E., Briñol, P., & DeMarree, K. G. (2007). The Meta-Cognitive Model (MCM) of attitudes: Implications for attitude measurement, change, and strength. Social Cognition, 25(5), 657-686.
  21. ^ Van Overwalle, F., & Jordens, K. (2002). An adaptive connectionist model of cognitive dissonance. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 6(3), 204-231.
  22. ^ Monroe, B. M., & Read, S. J. (2008). A general connectionist model of attitude structure and change: The ACS (Attitudes as Constraint Satisfaction) Model, Psychological Review, 115(3), 733-759.
  23. ^ Van Veen, V., Krug, M. K., Schooler, J. W., & Carter, C. S. (2009). Neural activity predicts attitude change in cognitive dissonance. Nature Neuroscience, 12(11), 1469-1474.

Further reading

  • Cooper, J. (2007). .Cognitive dissonance: 50 years of a classic theory.^ In order to do this, we use the theory of cognitive-dissonance.
    • (A�meur E.) Application and Assessment of Cognitive-Dissonance Theory in the Learning Process 10 February 2010 13:35 UTC www.jucs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The most important of these theories were the theory of cognitive-dissonance [ Festinger, 57 ], Heider's theory of equilibrium [ Heider, 58 ] and Osgood and Tannenbaum's theory of congruence [ Osgood and Tannenbaum, 55 ].
    • (A�meur E.) Application and Assessment of Cognitive-Dissonance Theory in the Learning Process 10 February 2010 13:35 UTC www.jucs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Cognitive dissonance is one of the most influential theories in psychology, and its oldest experiential realization is choice-induced dissonance.
    • Cognitive dissonance 10 February 2010 13:35 UTC www.efmoody.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    London: Sage publications.
  • Harmon-Jones, E., & J. Mills (1999). .Cognitive Dissonance: Progress on a Pivotal Theory in Social Psychology.^ Festinger, L.: "A theory of cognitive-dissonance"; Standford University Press.
    • (A�meur E.) Application and Assessment of Cognitive-Dissonance Theory in the Learning Process 10 February 2010 13:35 UTC www.jucs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ In order to do this, we use the theory of cognitive-dissonance.
    • (A�meur E.) Application and Assessment of Cognitive-Dissonance Theory in the Learning Process 10 February 2010 13:35 UTC www.jucs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The most important of these theories were the theory of cognitive-dissonance [ Festinger, 57 ], Heider's theory of equilibrium [ Heider, 58 ] and Osgood and Tannenbaum's theory of congruence [ Osgood and Tannenbaum, 55 ].
    • (A�meur E.) Application and Assessment of Cognitive-Dissonance Theory in the Learning Process 10 February 2010 13:35 UTC www.jucs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
  • Tavris, Carol; Eliot Aronson (2007). .Mistakes were made (but not by me): Why we justify foolish beliefs, bad decisions, and hurtful acts.^ So if the government is capable of making such a bad decision, and misuse so much of the American peoples' money, why do you trust the government with the entire healthcare system?
    • The Health Care Blog: Cognitive dissonance in U.S. health care 10 February 2010 13:35 UTC www.thehealthcareblog.com [Source type: Original source]

    Orlando, FL: Harcourt. ISBN 978-0-15-101098-1.
     

External links


Study guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiversity

Can you predict the outcome of this research?
.Suppose you had volunteered to participate in a psychology experiment on campus.^ Subjects in all experimental groups, after blindly volunteering to participate in the experiment were told that the task they would be asked to complete was totally voluntary and they didn't have to participate.
  • Distraction and Dissonance Chapter 3: Cognitive Distraction 10 February 2010 13:35 UTC foulger.info [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Little do you know, the experiment will actually become a classic in social psychology.
  • How and Why We Lie to Ourselves: Cognitive Dissonance | PsyBlog 10 February 2010 13:35 UTC www.spring.org.uk [Source type: Original source]

.On arrival, you were seated at a table and asked to undertake a series of dull, meaningless tasks for about an hour.^ You ask her about the task with the spools and pegs: .
  • How and Why We Lie to Ourselves: Cognitive Dissonance | PsyBlog 10 February 2010 13:35 UTC www.spring.org.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ After an hour of working on the tasks, participants were asked to persuade another subject (who was actually a confederate) that the dull, boring tasks the subject had just completed were actually interesting and engaging.
  • Cognitive Dissonance : Viewzone 10 February 2010 13:35 UTC viewzone.com [Source type: Original source]

^ You are asked to move some spools around in a box for half an hour, then for the next half an hour you move pegs around a board.
  • How and Why We Lie to Ourselves: Cognitive Dissonance | PsyBlog 10 February 2010 13:35 UTC www.spring.org.uk [Source type: Original source]

.Afterward, the experimenter convinced you to extol the virtues of the tasks you had performed by describing them to other potential participants as highly worthwhile, interesting and educational.^ After an hour of working on the tasks, participants were asked to persuade another subject (who was actually a confederate) that the dull, boring tasks the subject had just completed were actually interesting and engaging.
  • Cognitive Dissonance : Viewzone 10 February 2010 13:35 UTC viewzone.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The classic experiment here comes from psychologists Leon Festinger and James Carlsmith, who had participants perform a boring task and then paid them either $20 or $1 to convince someone else that the task had been great fun.
  • Predictably Irrational » Blog Archive » Dear Irrational (Does it Pay to Play Hard to Get?) 10 February 2010 13:35 UTC www.predictablyirrational.com [Source type: Original source]

^ People who were paid the large amount have an obvious external justification for their actions (the action is describing the task as interesting, not merely doing it), and they will have little dissonance in telling you that it was boring.
  • cognitive dissonance@Everything2.com 10 February 2010 13:35 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: Original source]
  • cognitive dissonance@Everything2.com 10 February 2010 13:35 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

You were paid either $1 or $20 to do this. .Suppose you were then asked to privately rate your enjoyment of the tasks on a questionnaire.^ Suppose that you're middle management at a private company that's going through a growth spurt.
  • Open Left:: Our Cognitive Dissonance on Both Hiring, and Firing, Teachers En Masse 10 February 2010 13:35 UTC www.openleft.com [Source type: General]

^ You must enter a subject for your comment I am absolutely opposed to the privatization of my schools.
  • Open Left:: Our Cognitive Dissonance on Both Hiring, and Firing, Teachers En Masse 10 February 2010 13:35 UTC www.openleft.com [Source type: General]

^ Would you rate your opinion on this matter on a scale from 0 to 10 where 0 means the results have no scientific value or importance and 10 means they have a great deal of value and importance.
  • Classics in the History of Psychology -- Festinger & Carlsmith (1959) 10 February 2010 13:35 UTC psychclassics.yorku.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

After which amount do you believe your enjoyment rating of the tasks would be higher - $1 or $20?
Students can provide their answers either by a show of hands or writing them down. .Give the collective results in class before disclosing the research answer.^ The researcher will prep participants for collection of physiological data and then will give instructions for completing self-report measures.
  • Cognitive and Emotional Correlates of Social Comparison and Cognitive Dissonance During Exposure to TV Ads 10 February 2010 13:35 UTC www.allacademic.com [Source type: Academic]

Osberg reports that almost all students will intuitively indicate the $20 payment.
.Finally, report that Festinger and Carlsmith found that those receiving $1 rated the tasks as more enjoyable than those paid $20. Ask the students why this might be.^ When asked to rate the peg-turning tasks later, those in the $1 group rated them more positively than those in the $20 group and control group.
  • Cognitive dissonance encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 13:35 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]

^ When asked to rate the boring tasks at the conclusion of the study, those in the $1 group rated them more positively than those in the $20 and control groups.
  • Cognitive Dissonance : Viewzone 10 February 2010 13:35 UTC viewzone.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In Festinger and Carlsmith 's classic 1959 experiment, students were made to perform tedious and meaningless tasks, consisting of turning pegs quarter-turns and, another one, putting spools onto a tray, emptying the tray, refilling it with spools, and so on.
  • Cognitive dissonance encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 13:35 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]

.The authors explained it in terms of cognitive dissonance – those who received only $1 presumably had insufficient justification for their behaviour (doing the experiments) which led to dissonance, which in turn produced a change in attitude about the tasks to relieve the cognitive dissonance.^ Cognitive dissonance is a subjective experience.
  • CD Part VI 10 February 2010 13:35 UTC www.pabia.org [Source type: General]

^ Cognitive dissonance and climate change skepticism .
  • How the two are related | Grist 10 February 2010 13:35 UTC www.grist.org [Source type: General]

^ Cognitive dissonance: Experiments and theory.
  • Cognitive dissonance encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 13:35 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]

.Ask students to think about ways they have overcome their own cognitive dissonance, e.g., I tell myself it would be rude to refuse a piece of chocolate cake I’m offered.^ Of course they'd think that would be the objective stance: because it's their own stance.

^ But I think it is related to the cognitive dissonance though.
  • Cognitive Dissonance and Immortality - ImmInst.org Forums 10 February 2010 13:35 UTC www.imminst.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Talk about cognitive dissonance!
  • How Could We Have Believed These Things 10 February 2010 13:35 UTC www.wcg.org [Source type: Original source]

.This allows me to overcome the dissonance I feel between wanting to eat the cake and believing I’d be healthier if I didn’t.^ These new cognitions allow for the lessening of dissonance, as I now have multiple cognitions that say ice cream is okay, and only one, which says I shouldn't eat it.
  • CRInfo: The Conflict Resolution Information Source - 10 February 2010 13:35 UTC crinfo.beyondintractability.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Cognitive Dissonance : Viewzone 10 February 2010 13:35 UTC viewzone.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The child feels dissonance because they want to play inappropriately but know its not their parent's wishes.
  • Dissonance - a knol by Kevin Spaulding 10 February 2010 13:35 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Indeed, it allows us to usefully refine Festinger's (1967) hypothesis: an individual who feels dissonance when acting in a dissonant situation will attempt to reduce that dissonance .
  • Distraction and Dissonance Chapter 3: Cognitive Distraction 10 February 2010 13:35 UTC foulger.info [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

See also

Wikipedia-logo.png .Run a search on Cognitive dissonance at Wikipedia.^ Scott B. Says: June 2, 2009 at 8:17 pm Perhaps a distinction should be made between perceived long-run and short-run cognitive dissonance.
  • The Faith-Building Power of Cognitive Dissonance « By Common Consent, a Mormon Blog 10 February 2010 13:35 UTC bycommonconsent.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Wikipedia: Cognitive dissonance The Skeptic's Dictionary: cognitive dissonance Bibliography .

^ People may run into problems with cognitive dissonance because it can be, in its most basic form, a sort of lie to oneself.
  • Fighting Cognitive Dissonance & The Lies We Tell Ourselves | World of Psychology 10 February 2010 13:35 UTC psychcentral.com [Source type: General]


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 25, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Cognitive dissonance, which are similar to those in the above article.








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