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A pressor response to exercise has been suggested as a mechanism.
The pain usually moves from the base of the skull through the head towards the frontal lobes. Extremely severe and sharp pain behind the eyes is also a symptom. The headaches usually have an immediate onset, with some gradually worsening during intercourse and others (referred to as "explosive headaches") occurring almost instantaneously at the moment of orgasm. These headaches typically last for a few minutes to a few hours, although it is possible for such headaches to last up to a few days.
Coital cephalalgia can frequently occur in a timeframe that exertion headaches occur.
It is most common for men to experience these headaches for the first time in their early 20s, or between the ages of 35-44; the reason for this is unclear.
More prevalent in men, by a ratio of 3:1, these headaches appear in roughly 1% of the population, though it has been suggested that the prevalence may be higher, due to the embarrassment of presenting with the disorder, especially in cases where spontaneous remission occurs after a few days. Up to 10% of patients taking medication for erectile dysfunction may experience these headaches. It is important to see a doctor if you have such symptoms in order to rule out a potential brain aneurysm, or tumors. In most cases, these headaches are benign. More serious symptoms include a stiff neck, confusion, and dizziness.
As for treatment, a doctor may recommend abstaining from sexual activities and masturbation for a short period of time ranging from a few days to a few weeks. In addition, doctors may recommend medications such as propranolol that can be taken in advance of sexual activity to prevent such headaches. Reduction in weight to a more ideal level and increased exercise may also reduce the likelihood of recurrences.