# Encyclopedia

Cold refers to the condition or perception of having low temperature; it is the absence of heat or warmth. Many things are associated with cold, such as ice and the color blue. Fluids used to cool objects are commonly called coolants.
The coldest possible theoretical temperature that can be reached is absolute zero, which is 0 K on the Kelvin scale, a thermodynamic temperature scale, and −273.15° on the Celsius scale. Absolute zero is also precisely equivalent to 0 °R on the Rankine scale (also a thermodynamic temperature scale), and −459.67 degrees on the Fahrenheit scale.

## Cooling

Cooling refers to the process of becoming cold, or lowering in temperature. This could be accomplished by removing heat from a system, or exposing the system to an environment with a lower temperature.
Air cooling is the process of cooling an object by exposing it to air. This will only work if the air is at a lower temperature than the object, and the process can be enhanced by increasing the surface area of decreasing the mass of the object.
Another common method of cooling is exposing an object to ice, dry ice, or liquid nitrogen. This works by convection; the heat is transferred from the relatively warm object to the relatively cold coolant.

# 1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010
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# Simple English

Simple English Wiktionary has the word meaning for:

Cold is a relative term used in comparison with the adjective warm. Because it is relative, there is no range in coldness. The temperatures in the winter season are often categorized as being cold. Cold is the opposite of hot.

The coldest possible temperature is −273.15 °C, which can be expressed as about -459.67 °F on the Fahrenheit scale. This is called absolute zero. Absolute zero is also 0 K on the Kelvin scale and 0 °R on the Rankine scale

## Cooling

Cooling is when an object gets cold, or lowers in temperature. This can happen by taking away heat, or by putting something in a place with a lower temperature. Fluids used to cool objects are called coolants.

Air cooling making the temperature of an object lower using air. This will only work if the air is at a lower temperature than the object. The process will work better if there is more surface area on the object or if the item's mass can be made smaller.

Other ways to cool objects include using ice, dry ice, or liquid nitrogen. This works by convection; the heat is taken from the relatively warm object to the relatively cold coolant.

## Cold locations and objects

• The Boomerang Nebula is the coldest known place in the universe. Scientists believe the temperature is 1 K (kelvin) (−272.15 °C/−457.87 °F).[1]
• Herschel Space Observatory equipment is kept at temperatures below 2 K, using a large helium tank for cooling.[2]
• Neptune's moon Triton has a surface temperature of −235 °C (−390 °F).
• Uranus has an atmospheric temperature of −215 °C (−355 °F).[3]
• Saturn has a temperature of −175 °C (−285 °F) at cloud tops.[4]
• Mercury, even though it is close to the Sun, is actually cold during the night. It has a temperature of about −170 °C (−275 °F). Mercury is cold at night because it has no atmosphere to trap in heat from the Sun.[5]
• Jupiter has a temperature of −145 °C (−230 °F) at the cloud tops.[6]
• Mars has a temperature of about −125 °C (−195 °F).[7]
• The coldest continent on Earth is Antarctica.[8] The coldest place on Earth is the Antarctic Plateau,[9] an area of Antarctica around the South Pole that has an altitude of around 3000 meters. The lowest measured temperature on Earth,
1. REDIRECT Template:Convert/°C, was recorded at Vostok Station on 21 July 1983.[10]

## References

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
1. "Boomerang Nebula boasts the coolest spot in the Universe". NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. June 20, 1997. Retrieved July 8, 2009.
2. Jonathan Amos (9 February 2009). "'Silver Sensation' Seeks Cold Cosmos". BBC News. Retrieved 2009-03-06.
3. http://www.nasa.gov/worldbook/uranus_worldbook.html
4. http://www.nasa.gov/worldbook/saturn_worldbook.html
5. http://www.nasa.gov/worldbook/mercury_worldbook.html
6. http://www.nasa.gov/worldbook/jupiter_worldbook.html
7. http://www.nasa.gov/worldbook/mars_worldbook.html
8. http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/IOTD/view.php?id=8070
9. Bignell, Paul (2007-01-21). "Polar explorers reach coldest place on Earth". The Independent (London). Retrieved 2010-04-30.
10. Budretsky, A.B. (1984). "New absolute minimum of air temperature" (in Russian). Bulletin of the Soviet Antarctic Expedition (Leningrad: Gidrometeoizdat) (105).

# Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 09, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Chile, which are similar to those in the above article.