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Part of a series on the
Cold War
Origins of the Cold War
World War II
War Conferences
Eastern Bloc
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Cold War (1947–1953)
Cold War (1953–1962)
Cold War (1962–1979)
Cold War (1979–1985)
Cold War (1985–1991)
.The Cold War (Russian: Холо́дная война́) (1947–1991) was the continuing state of political conflict, military tension, proxy wars, and economic competition existing after World War II (1939–1945), primarily between the Soviet Union and its satellite states, and the powers of the Western world, particularly the United States.^ US demobilization after World War II) .
  • Documents Related to the Cold War 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ The United States pledges military and political liaison.
  • Military Heritage in the Cold War 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.usmlm.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The disarmament should be continued and also economical changes in the Soviet Union were discussed.
  • The Cold War 31 January 2010 14:11 UTC www.hpwt.de [Source type: Original source]

.Although the primary participants' military forces never officially clashed directly, they expressed the conflict through military coalitions, strategic conventional force deployments, extensive aid to states deemed vulnerable, proxy wars, espionage, propaganda, a nuclear arms race, economic and technological competitions, such as the Space Race.^ Cold War propaganda, Arms race .
  • Guide to the Francis J. McNamara papers, 1928-1997 Collection NumberC0024 19 November 2009 18:018 UTC sca.gmu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ December 20: Vietnam: Viet Minh forces clash with French forces in beginning of 8-year French Indochina war.
  • Military Heritage in the Cold War 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.usmlm.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Space race: The superpower competition in space exploration technology that paralleled the Cold War competition in arms developments.
  • Military Heritage in the Cold War 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.usmlm.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Despite being allies against the Axis powers and having the most powerful military forces among peer nations, the USSR and the US disagreed about the configuration of the post-war world while occupying most of Europe.^ US demobilization after World War II) .
  • Documents Related to the Cold War 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ The United States and the use of force in the post-Cold War World .
  • V. The International Community & the FRY/Belligerents - revised 19 November 2009 18:018 UTC www.cla.purdue.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ This would increase Europe’s world power relative to the US and China.
  • Robert Scheer: Cold War Hawks Nesting With Obama - Robert Scheer's Columns -Truthdig 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.truthdig.com [Source type: Original source]

.The Soviet Union created the Eastern Bloc with the eastern European countries it occupied, annexing some as Soviet Socialist Republics and maintaining others as satellite states, some of which were later consolidated as the Warsaw Pact (1955–1991).^ After that the Soviet Union and some countries in Eastern Europe made a military alliance in 1955 which was called Warsaw pact.
  • The Cold War 31 January 2010 14:11 UTC www.hpwt.de [Source type: Original source]

^ December: Commonwealth of Independent States created in the fomer Soviet Union.
  • Military Heritage in the Cold War 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.usmlm.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1955 Soviet Union forms competing Warsaw Pact.
  • Military Heritage in the Cold War 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.usmlm.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The US and some western European countries established containment of communism as a defensive policy, establishing alliances such as NATO to that end.^ The fact that it did not expand into a wider war helped confirm the West's policy of containment of Communism, a policy which dominated most international relations during the Cold War.

^ Reagan also thought that the Policy of Dtente is over and he increased the US defense expenses.
  • The Cold War 31 January 2010 14:11 UTC www.hpwt.de [Source type: Original source]

^ Within such a short time all Easteuropean countries abolished communism and so the Eastern Bloc had decayed.
  • The Cold War 31 January 2010 14:11 UTC www.hpwt.de [Source type: Original source]

.Several such countries also coordinated the Marshall Plan, especially in West Germany, which the USSR opposed.^ The urgency was such that Marshall rushed forward his plan.
  • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

^ These student movements were in several countries like the USA, France and Germany.
  • The Cold War 31 January 2010 14:11 UTC www.hpwt.de [Source type: Original source]

^ In june 1947 there was a conference in Paris with all countries which were interested in the Marshall Plan.
  • The Cold War 31 January 2010 14:11 UTC www.hpwt.de [Source type: Original source]

.Elsewhere, in Latin America and Southeast Asia, the USSR assisted and helped foster communist revolutions, opposed by several Western countries and their regional allies; some they attempted to roll back, with mixed results.^ Churchill gave Stalin a sheet of paper where he wrote down in which Easteuropean countries the Soviet Union will have their influence and in which Easteuropean countries the Western Allies will have their influence.
  • The Cold War 31 January 2010 14:11 UTC www.hpwt.de [Source type: Original source]

^ He was confident that the Soviet blockade of Berlin's Western sectors would be enough to force the Allies back to the negotiation table.
  • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

^ On the conferences in Yalta and Potsdam the western Allies wanted the Soviet Union to help them in the war against Japan.
  • The Cold War 31 January 2010 14:11 UTC www.hpwt.de [Source type: Original source]

.Some countries aligned with NATO and the Warsaw Pact, and others formed the Non-Aligned Movement.^ East German Intelligence Assessment of NATO's Intelligence on the Warsaw Pact, December 16, 1985 .
  • Documents Related to the Cold War 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ A direct goal of these efforts was to extend the duration of the conventional phase of a NATO-Warsaw Pact conflict from days to weeks or even months.
  • The Third Battle: Innovation in the U.S. Navy's Silent Cold War Struggle with Soviet Submarines 31 January 2010 14:11 UTC www.navy.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Committee will direct its first efforts at building upon relationships between representatives from NATO and former Warsaw Pact countries that grew out of the Legacy-sponsored International Cold War Conference held in March 1994.
  • Military Heritage in the Cold War 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.usmlm.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Cold War featured periods of relative calm and of international high tension – the Berlin Blockade (1948–1949), the Korean War (1950–1953), the Berlin Crisis of 1961, the Vietnam War (1959–1975), the Cuban Missile Crisis (1962), the Soviet war in Afghanistan (1979–1989), and the Able Archer 83 NATO exercises in November 1983. Both sides sought détente to relieve political tensions and deter direct military attack, which would likely guarantee their mutual assured destruction with nuclear weapons.^ There is not likely to be any Cold War.
  • Robert Scheer: Cold War Hawks Nesting With Obama - Robert Scheer's Columns -Truthdig 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.truthdig.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Anti-Communism, Anti-War, Nuclear weapons .
  • Guide to the Francis J. McNamara papers, 1928-1997 Collection NumberC0024 19 November 2009 18:018 UTC sca.gmu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Sounds like a freezing-cold war to me.
  • CNN Political Ticker: All politics, all the time Blog Archive - McCain: Georgia conflict won’t ‘re-ignite the Cold War’ « - Blogs from CNN.com 31 January 2010 14:11 UTC politicalticker.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: General]

.In the 1980s, the United States increased diplomatic, military, and economic pressures against the USSR, which had already suffered severe economic stagnation.^ The United States remained on high alert against a Soviet nuclear attack.
  • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The United States pledges military and political liaison.
  • Military Heritage in the Cold War 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.usmlm.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The latter conflict produced an abiding counterculture in the United States critical of previous Cold War assumptions about the use of military power against Communist interests.
  • Military Heritage in the Cold War 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.usmlm.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Thereafter, Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev introduced the liberalizing reforms of perestroika ("reconstruction", "reorganization", 1987) and glasnost ("openness", ca.^ Changes in the Soviet Union: Glasnost and Perestroika Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev became Chernenko's successor.
  • The Cold War 31 January 2010 14:11 UTC www.hpwt.de [Source type: Original source]

^ What Mikhail Gorbachev and the journalists wanted to know was: What did Ronald Reagan think about the Soviet Union now?
  • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Gorbachev's policy of 'glasnost' brought pop culture out into the open.
  • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

1985). .The Cold War ended after the Soviet Union collapsed in 1991, leaving the United States as the dominant military power, and Russia possessing most of the Soviet Union's nuclear arsenal.^ Was the war a loss for the UN and the United States?

^ The Soviet Union was devastated by war.
  • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This was the shelter for members of the United States Congress in the event of nuclear war.
  • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

.The Cold War and its events have had a significant impact on the world today, and it is commonly referred to in popular culture.^ Although this usually refers to archeological sites and would not typically be of concern for Cold War properties, such sites are possible.
  • Military Heritage in the Cold War 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.usmlm.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The inventory will survey the significance of Cold War, and technical- and space-related sites at the installation for eligibility to the National Register.
  • Military Heritage in the Cold War 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.usmlm.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ronald Reagan, encouraged by his wife Nancy, consulted Suzanne Massie, a popular writer on Russia, to help him understand his Cold War adversary.
  • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

Contents

Origins of the term

.The first use of the term Cold War [1] describing the post–World War II geopolitical tensions between the USSR and its Western European Allies is attributed to Bernard Baruch, a US financier and presidential advisor.^ US demobilization after World War II) .
  • Documents Related to the Cold War 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Chapter II, "Cold War Historic Resources," describes Cold War historic resource types.
  • Military Heritage in the Cold War 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.usmlm.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This was the first step to the end of the Cold War.
  • The Cold War 31 January 2010 14:11 UTC www.hpwt.de [Source type: Original source]

[2] .In South Carolina, on April 16, 1947, he delivered a speech (by journalist Herbert Bayard Swope)[3] saying, “Let us not be deceived: we are today in the midst of a cold war.”[4] Newspaper reporter-columnist Walter Lippmann gave the term wide currency, with the book Cold War (1947).^ South Carolina The Legacy program has funded a current study of Cold War sites across the State, undertaken by the Public History Program of the University of South Carolina.
  • Military Heritage in the Cold War 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.usmlm.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In late FY 1994 the Task Area will begin to draw together and circulate reports of field studies of Cold War resources.
  • Military Heritage in the Cold War 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.usmlm.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ New York The SHPO is awaiting funding allocation for a State-wide inventory of Cold War missile and communication sites.
  • Military Heritage in the Cold War 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.usmlm.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[5]
.Previously, during the war, George Orwell used the term Cold War in the essay “You and the Atomic Bomb” published October 19, 1945, in the British newspaper Tribune.^ The danger of an atomic war The biggest threat during the Cold War was a nuclear war.
  • The Cold War 31 January 2010 14:11 UTC www.hpwt.de [Source type: Original source]

^ During periods of the Cold War, the military establishment faced the pressures brought about by the extension or reinstatement of the Selective Service System, or draft.
  • Military Heritage in the Cold War 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.usmlm.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But, you know, this didn't solve his problem of the fact that the Cold War was still on, and Reagan was still talking about "Star Wars".
  • Daily Kos: The Legacy of the Cold War Arms Race: An Interview With David E. Hoffman 31 January 2010 14:11 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

.Contemplating a world living in the shadow of the threat of nuclear war, he warned of a “peace that is no peace”, which he called a permanent “cold war”,[6] Orwell directly referred to that war as the ideological confrontation between the Soviet Union and the Western powers.^ Did this mean war between the Soviet Union and the West?
  • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The war between the Soviet Union and the Mujahideen lasted many years.
  • The Cold War 31 January 2010 14:11 UTC www.hpwt.de [Source type: Original source]

^ At each Cold War crisis to come, the nuclear shadow threatened.
  • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

[7] Moreover, in The Observer of March 10, 1946, Orwell wrote that “. . . [a]fter the Moscow conference last December, Russia began to make a ‘cold war’ on Britain and the British Empire.”[8]

Background

American troops in Vladivostok, August 1918, during the Allied intervention in the Russian Civil War
.There is disagreement among historians regarding the starting point of the Cold War.^ There is not likely to be any Cold War.
  • Robert Scheer: Cold War Hawks Nesting With Obama - Robert Scheer's Columns -Truthdig 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.truthdig.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Noam Chomsky has a different point of view regarding many things, though there are particulars he’s written on that I agree with—Israel obviously not being one of them.
  • Robert Scheer: Cold War Hawks Nesting With Obama - Robert Scheer's Columns -Truthdig 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.truthdig.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The SHPO and the Army Corps of Engineers are in consultation with the USAF regarding the planned closure of 26 Air Force sites of Cold War significance.
  • Military Heritage in the Cold War 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.usmlm.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.While most historians trace its origins to the period immediately following World War II, others argue that it began towards the end of World War I, although tensions between the Russian Empire, other European countries and the United States date back to the middle of the 19th century.^ US demobilization after World War II) .
  • Documents Related to the Cold War 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Was the war a loss for the UN and the United States?

^ The United States and the use of force in the post-Cold War World .
  • V. The International Community & the FRY/Belligerents - revised 19 November 2009 18:018 UTC www.cla.purdue.edu [Source type: Academic]

[9]
.As a result of the 1917 Bolshevik Revolution in Russia (followed by its withdrawal from World War I), Soviet Russia found itself isolated in international diplomacy.^ In Russia, famine followed Civil War.
  • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The result of this decision were protests in Western Europe and the Soviet Union itself felt threatened.
  • The Cold War 31 January 2010 14:11 UTC www.hpwt.de [Source type: Original source]

^ George W. Bush is going to start ANOTHER WORLD WAR with Russia and John McCain is ignorantly "FUELING" the fire for another COLD WAR!!!
  • CNN Political Ticker: All politics, all the time Blog Archive - McCain: Georgia conflict won’t ‘re-ignite the Cold War’ « - Blogs from CNN.com 31 January 2010 14:11 UTC politicalticker.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: General]

[10] .Leader Vladimir Lenin stated that the Soviet Union was surrounded by a "hostile capitalist encirclement", and he viewed diplomacy as a weapon to keep Soviet enemies divided, beginning with the establishment of the Soviet Comintern, which called for revolutionary upheavals abroad.^ Vladimir Ilyich Lenin was the leader of the bolsheviks.
  • The Cold War 31 January 2010 14:11 UTC www.hpwt.de [Source type: Original source]

^ May 14: Warsaw Pact signed, calling for the mutual defense of Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Hungary, Poland, Rumania, and the Soviet Union.
  • Military Heritage in the Cold War 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.usmlm.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At the beginning of 1979 Taraki asked the Soviet Union for military support, but the Soviet Union only delivered weapons.
  • The Cold War 31 January 2010 14:11 UTC www.hpwt.de [Source type: Original source]

[11]
Subsequent leader Joseph Stalin, who viewed the Soviet Union as a "socialist island", stated that the Soviet Union must see that "the present capitalist encirclement is replaced by a socialist encirclement."[12] As early as 1925, Stalin stated that he viewed international politics as a bipolar world in which the Soviet Union would attract countries gravitating to socialism and capitalist countries would attract states gravitating toward capitalism, while the world was in a period of "temporary stabilization of capitalism" preceding its eventual collapse.[13]
.Several events fueled suspicion and distrust between the western powers and the Soviet Union: the Bolsheviks' challenge to capitalism;[14] the 1926 Soviet funding of a British general workers strike causing Britain to break relations with the Soviet Union;[15] Stalin's 1927 declaration that peaceful coexistence with "the capitalist countries .^ Feb 9 Soviet Union: Stalin effectively declares on the West.

^ In 1949 negotiations began between the Western Allies and the Soviet Union.
  • The Cold War 31 January 2010 14:11 UTC www.hpwt.de [Source type: Original source]

^ Stalin's Soviet Union was revealed as a police state, not a workers' paradise.
  • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

. . is receding into the past";[16] conspiratorial allegations in the .Shakhty show trial of a planned French and British-led coup d'etat;[17] the Great Purge involving a series of campaigns of political repression and persecution in which over half a million Soviets were executed;[18] the Moscow show trials including allegations of British, French, Japanese and German espionage;[19] the controversial death of 6-8 million people in the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic in the 1932-3 Ukrainian famine; western support of the White Army in the Russian Civil War; the US refusal to recognize the Soviet Union until 1933;[20] and the Soviet entry into the Treaty of Rapallo.^ In Russia, famine followed Civil War.
  • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Soviet Union was devastated by war.
  • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Over 20 million Russian have died in the Second World War and the Soviet Union was destroyed.
  • The Cold War 31 January 2010 14:11 UTC www.hpwt.de [Source type: Original source]

[21] .This outcome rendered Soviet–American relations a matter of major long-term concern for leaders in both countries.^ In september 1989 the American foreign minister James Baker and the Soviet foreign minister Eduard Shevardnadze met in the USA. They discussed about disarmament and this meeting also contributed to a better relationship of both countries.
  • The Cold War 31 January 2010 14:11 UTC www.hpwt.de [Source type: Original source]

^ The statement relates in general terms the tenor of Marshall's report to him on progress in the United Nations concerning the Berlin Crisis .
  • Documents Related to the Cold War 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ The Americans stepped up spy flights in sensitive areas along the Soviet Union's long borders.
  • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

[9]

World War II and post-war (1939–47)

Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact (1939-41)

.Soviet relations with the West further deteriorated when, one week prior to the start of the World War II, the Soviet Union and Germany signed the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact, which included a secret agreement to split Poland and Eastern Europe between the two states.^ US demobilization after World War II) .
  • Documents Related to the Cold War 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ This intervention of the Soviet Union led to a deterioration of the relationship between the USA and the Soviet Union.
  • The Cold War 31 January 2010 14:11 UTC www.hpwt.de [Source type: Original source]

^ The Soviet Union was devastated by war.
  • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

[22] .Beginning one week later, in September 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union divided Poland and the rest of Eastern Europe through invasions of the countries ceded to each under the Pact.^ Eastern Poland had been annexed by the Soviet Union.
  • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The USA were very satisfied with this development in Poland and the Soviet Union saw it as a big threat.
  • The Cold War 31 January 2010 14:11 UTC www.hpwt.de [Source type: Original source]

^ Warsaw Pact: Signed in 1955, it codified the East-West split and provided for mutual defense among Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Hungary, Poland, Romania, and the Soviet Union.
  • Military Heritage in the Cold War 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.usmlm.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[23][24]
.For the next year and a half, they engaged in an extensive economic relationship, trading vital war materials[25][26] until Germany broke the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact with Operation Barbarossa, the invasion of the Soviet Union through the territories that the two countries had previously divided.^ The Soviet Union was devastated by war.
  • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The war between the Soviet Union and the Mujahideen lasted many years.
  • The Cold War 31 January 2010 14:11 UTC www.hpwt.de [Source type: Original source]

^ The Soviet Union wanted a weak Germany and so Molotov left this conference.
  • The Cold War 31 January 2010 14:11 UTC www.hpwt.de [Source type: Original source]

[27]

Allies against the Axis (1941-45)

.During their joint war effort, which began thereafter in 1941, the Soviets suspected that the British and the Americans had conspired to allow the Soviets to bear the brunt of the fighting against Nazi Germany.^ Germany and Russia had conspired against her.
  • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Exception was made during the war for independence, when Ben Gurion said he would understand if Arabs didn’t want to take up weapons against their cousins.
  • Robert Scheer: Cold War Hawks Nesting With Obama - Robert Scheer's Columns -Truthdig 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.truthdig.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The arrangement always suffered from conflicting political allegiances within the region, contributed little to the American effort during the Vietnam War, and was dissolved in 1977.
  • Military Heritage in the Cold War 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.usmlm.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.According to this view, the Western Allies had deliberately delayed opening a second anti-German front in order to step in at the last moment and shape the peace settlement.^ The nightmare of the Western Allies was that poverty would drive the Germans towards communism.
  • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It would be far more helpful for people to take a step back from the name calling and think carefully about how a just and lasting peace can be accomplished.
  • Robert Scheer: Cold War Hawks Nesting With Obama - Robert Scheer's Columns -Truthdig 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.truthdig.com [Source type: Original source]

^ But Stalin and his people cried out for more - a second front - an Allied landing in Western Europe, to relieve Soviet suffering.
  • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

[28] .Thus, Soviet perceptions of the West left a strong undercurrent of tension and hostility between the Allied powers.^ During the Berlin Blockade he was elected to the mayor of West Berlin and did everything that the Western Allies do not leave West Berlin to the Soviet Union.
  • The Cold War 31 January 2010 14:11 UTC www.hpwt.de [Source type: Original source]

^ The four occupation powers Great Britain, France, the USA, the Soviet Union and also West and East Germany were involved in these negotiations.
  • The Cold War 31 January 2010 14:11 UTC www.hpwt.de [Source type: Original source]

^ The Intervention left Lenin and Stalin convinced that the West would seize any chance, embrace any ally, in order to destroy Communism.
  • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

[29]

Wartime conferences regarding post-war Europe

The "Big Three" at the Yalta Conference, Winston Churchill, Franklin D. Roosevelt and Joseph Stalin
.The Allies disagreed about how the European map should look, and how borders would be drawn, following the war.^ I would respectfully disagree I feel it shows a knee jerk reaction, that while piloting a war plane is a plus, is a negative in a leader.
  • CNN Political Ticker: All politics, all the time Blog Archive - McCain: Georgia conflict won’t ‘re-ignite the Cold War’ « - Blogs from CNN.com 31 January 2010 14:11 UTC politicalticker.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: General]

^ It would be far more helpful for people to take a step back from the name calling and think carefully about how a just and lasting peace can be accomplished.
  • Robert Scheer: Cold War Hawks Nesting With Obama - Robert Scheer's Columns -Truthdig 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.truthdig.com [Source type: Original source]

^ If you looked into his bag of tricks, about the only thing you'd find in there would be War, Fear, Draft, Negativity, and a big fuzzy thing – oh, that's his memory.
  • CNN Political Ticker: All politics, all the time Blog Archive - McCain: Georgia conflict won’t ‘re-ignite the Cold War’ « - Blogs from CNN.com 31 January 2010 14:11 UTC politicalticker.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: General]

[30] .Each side held dissimilar ideas regarding the establishment and maintenance of post-war security.^ They provide information regarding the Task Area's investigative process in establishing the Cold War Project.
  • Military Heritage in the Cold War 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.usmlm.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Letter from William Clayton to Robert Lovett regarding his talks with British officials and their reactions to U.S. views on aid and post-war Europe (June 30, 1947) .
  • Documents Related to the Cold War 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: Reference]

[30] .The western Allies desired a security system in which democratic governments were established as widely as possible, permitting countries to peacefully resolve differences through international organizations.^ Its government operates as a representative democracy through a congressional system under a set of powers specified by its Constitution.
  • On yahoo answers, how do u get up to a higher level? - Yahoo! Answers 19 November 2009 18:018 UTC answers.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Churchill gave Stalin a sheet of paper where he wrote down in which Easteuropean countries the Soviet Union will have their influence and in which Easteuropean countries the Western Allies will have their influence.
  • The Cold War 31 January 2010 14:11 UTC www.hpwt.de [Source type: Original source]

^ The note accuses the Soviet Government of reneging on negotiated agreements aimed at resolving the Berlin Crisis and pledges to refer the actions of the Soviet Government to the United Nations Security Council.
  • Documents Related to the Cold War 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: Reference]

[31]
.Following Russian historical experiences with frequent invasions[32] and the immense death toll (estimated at 27 million) and destruction the Soviet Union sustained during World War II,[33] the Soviet Union sought to increase security by controlling the internal affairs of countries that bordered it.^ US demobilization after World War II) .
  • Documents Related to the Cold War 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ The Soviet Union was devastated by war.
  • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Over 20 million Russian have died in the Second World War and the Soviet Union was destroyed.
  • The Cold War 31 January 2010 14:11 UTC www.hpwt.de [Source type: Original source]

[30][34] .In April 1945, both Churchill and new American President Harry S. Truman opposed, among other things, the Soviets' decision to prop up the Lublin government, the Soviet-controlled rival to the Polish government-in-exile, whose relations with the Soviets were severed.^ A new American president came to power.
  • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Roosevelt died on the 12 th of april 1945 and Harry Truman became the new president of the USA. At the end of the Potsdam Conference Churchill was replaced by Clement Attlee, because he won the elections in Great Britain.
  • The Cold War 31 January 2010 14:11 UTC www.hpwt.de [Source type: Original source]

^ One thing in it that was new said the Soviet political leadership is in the cross-hairs.
  • Daily Kos: The Legacy of the Cold War Arms Race: An Interview With David E. Hoffman 31 January 2010 14:11 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

[35]
.At the Yalta Conference in February 1945, the Allies failed to reach a firm consensus on the framework for post-war settlement in Europe.^ Upcoming conference topics will include the Cold War in Asia and the Cold War in East Central Europe.
  • Military Heritage in the Cold War 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.usmlm.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In february 1945 Churchill, Roosevelt and Stalin met again in Yalta on the peninsula Crimea.
  • The Cold War 31 January 2010 14:11 UTC www.hpwt.de [Source type: Original source]

^ The Yalta Conference had given Russia control of central Europe.
  • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

[36] .Following the Allied victory in May, the Soviets effectively occupied Eastern Europe,[36] while strong US and Western allied forces remained in Western Europe.^ Beyond that he wanted to reduce the Soviet troops and to remove them from Eastern Europe.
  • The Cold War 31 January 2010 14:11 UTC www.hpwt.de [Source type: Original source]

^ Churchill gave Stalin a sheet of paper where he wrote down in which Easteuropean countries the Soviet Union will have their influence and in which Easteuropean countries the Western Allies will have their influence.
  • The Cold War 31 January 2010 14:11 UTC www.hpwt.de [Source type: Original source]

^ During the Berlin Blockade he was elected to the mayor of West Berlin and did everything that the Western Allies do not leave West Berlin to the Soviet Union.
  • The Cold War 31 January 2010 14:11 UTC www.hpwt.de [Source type: Original source]

.The Soviet Union, United States, Britain and France established zones of occupation and a loose framework for four-power control of occupied Germany.^ The four occupation powers Great Britain, France, the USA, the Soviet Union and also West and East Germany were involved in these negotiations.
  • The Cold War 31 January 2010 14:11 UTC www.hpwt.de [Source type: Original source]

^ America, Britain and France were secretly planning a new German state in their occupation zones.
  • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

^ After the Second World War Germany and Austria were divided into 4 occupation zones (Great Britain, USA, Soviet Union, France).
  • The Cold War 31 January 2010 14:11 UTC www.hpwt.de [Source type: Original source]

[37] .The Allies set up the United Nations for the maintenance of world peace, but the enforcement capacity of its Security Council was effectively paralyzed by individual members' ability to use veto power.^ United Nations POWs were also set free.
  • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

^ US, National Security Council, National Security Study Memorandum 124, "Next Steps Towards the People's Republic of China, "April 19, 1971.
  • Documents Related to the Cold War 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Memorandum of Discussion on the RB-47 Airplane Incident at the 451st Meeting of the National Security Council, Washington, July 15, 1960 .
  • Documents Related to the Cold War 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: Reference]

[38] Accordingly, the UN was essentially converted into an inactive forum for exchanging polemical rhetoric, and the Soviets regarded it almost exclusively as a propaganda tribune.[39]

Beginnings of the Eastern Bloc

.During the final stages of the war, the Soviet Union laid the foundation for the Eastern Bloc by directly annexing several countries as Soviet Socialist Republics that were initially (and effectively) ceded to it by Nazi Germany in the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact.^ The Soviet Union was devastated by war.
  • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Soviet Union wanted a weak Germany and so Molotov left this conference.
  • The Cold War 31 January 2010 14:11 UTC www.hpwt.de [Source type: Original source]

^ Eastern Poland had been annexed by the Soviet Union.
  • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

.These included eastern Poland (incorporated into two different SSRs),[40] Latvia (which became the Latvian SSR)[41],[41][42] Estonia (which became the Estonian SSR),[41][42] Lithuania (which became the Lithuanian SSR),[41][42] part of eastern Finland (which became the Karelo-Finnish SSR)[24] and eastern Romania (which became the Moldavian SSR).^ But to be fully exploited, these new tools needed to be integrated into a combined arms team that still included more traditional tools.
  • The Third Battle: Innovation in the U.S. Navy's Silent Cold War Struggle with Soviet Submarines 31 January 2010 14:11 UTC www.navy.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Later, LOFAR became an integral part of the digital sonar suites that came into the force in the early 1970s.
  • The Third Battle: Innovation in the U.S. Navy's Silent Cold War Struggle with Soviet Submarines 31 January 2010 14:11 UTC www.navy.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By 1949, with the formal establishment of Project Kayo, ASW was included among the potential new missions, and SSKs became a part of the initial response to the Type XXI threat.
  • The Third Battle: Innovation in the U.S. Navy's Silent Cold War Struggle with Soviet Submarines 31 January 2010 14:11 UTC www.navy.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[43][44]
.British Prime Minister Winston Churchill was concerned that, given the enormous size of Soviet forces deployed in Europe at the end of the war, and the perception that Soviet leader Joseph Stalin was unreliable, there existed a Soviet threat to Western Europe.^ The British prime minister pledged his support.
  • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1943 Winston Churchill (British prime minister), Franklin Delano Roosevelt (American president) and Stalin had a conference in Teheran (capital of Iran) and they talked about the division of Europe.
  • The Cold War 31 January 2010 14:11 UTC www.hpwt.de [Source type: Original source]

^ Two photographs of a meeting of President Truman, Prime Minister Winston Churchill, and Premier Joseph Stalin at Potsdam, Germany, July 19, 1945, with notes by President Truman claiming that Stalin did not know about the bomb written on the reverse .
  • Documents Related to the Cold War 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: Reference]

[45] .In April-May 1945, the British War Cabinet's Joint Planning Staff Committee developed Operation Unthinkable, a plan "to impose upon Russia the will of the United States and the British Empire".[46] The plan, however, was rejected by the British Chiefs of Staff Committee as militarily unfeasible.^ Was the war a loss for the UN and the United States?

^ He would plan the United States' response.
  • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The United States mobilized for war.
  • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

[45]

Potsdam Conference and defeat of Japan

.At the Potsdam Conference, which started in late July after Germany's surrender, serious differences emerged over the future development of Germany and eastern Europe.^ Truman's Handwritten Notes on the Potsdam Conference from his Diary, 16 July 1945 .
  • Documents Related to the Cold War 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ On the 16 th of july 1945, short before the Potsdam Conference, the USA have tested successfully the first atomic bomb of the world in the desert of New Mexico.
  • The Cold War 31 January 2010 14:11 UTC www.hpwt.de [Source type: Original source]

^ Migrants from different Newly-emerged States of the Former Yugoslavia and Citizenship,” in Small regions in United Europe: Macroregional and Social Policy .
  • V. The International Community & the FRY/Belligerents - revised 19 November 2009 18:018 UTC www.cla.purdue.edu [Source type: Academic]

[47] Moreover, the participants' mounting antipathy and bellicose language served to confirm their suspicions about each others' hostile intentions and entrench their positions.[48] .At this conference Truman informed Stalin that the United States possessed a powerful new weapon.^ The Department of Energy: Defense Programs of the Nuclear Weapons Complex The DoE and its predecessor agencies, have contributed to the national security of the United States since 1942.
  • Military Heritage in the Cold War 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.usmlm.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Recently, the foreign policy of the United States has focused on combating terrorism as well as the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction.
  • On yahoo answers, how do u get up to a higher level? - Yahoo! Answers 19 November 2009 18:018 UTC answers.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ April 25: United States resumes atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons.
  • Military Heritage in the Cold War 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.usmlm.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[49]
.Stalin was aware that the Americans were working on the atomic bomb and, given that the Soviets' own rival program was in place, he reacted to the news calmly.^ The Soviets retaliated by issuing their own new currency, which, they insisted, would include all of Berlin.
  • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The physicist Igor Vasilyevich Kurchatov was the leader of the development of the Soviet atomic bomb.
  • The Cold War 31 January 2010 14:11 UTC www.hpwt.de [Source type: Original source]

^ The USA were shocked, because they thought that the Soviet Union will finish its first atomic bomb in the 50's.
  • The Cold War 31 January 2010 14:11 UTC www.hpwt.de [Source type: Original source]

.The Soviet leader said he was pleased by the news and expressed the hope that the weapon would be used against Japan.^ Exception was made during the war for independence, when Ben Gurion said he would understand if Arabs didn’t want to take up weapons against their cousins.
  • Robert Scheer: Cold War Hawks Nesting With Obama - Robert Scheer's Columns -Truthdig 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.truthdig.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Gomulka said Khrushchov that the people in Poland would oppose the Soviet troops and in fact some people demonstrated.
  • The Cold War 31 January 2010 14:11 UTC www.hpwt.de [Source type: Original source]

^ One thing in it that was new said the Soviet political leadership is in the cross-hairs.
  • Daily Kos: The Legacy of the Cold War Arms Race: An Interview With David E. Hoffman 31 January 2010 14:11 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

[49] .One week after the end of the Potsdam Conference, the US bombed Hiroshima and Nagasaki.^ The Korean War On the 8 th of august 1945, one day before dropping the atomic bomb on Nagasaki, the Soviet Union declared Japan war.
  • The Cold War 31 January 2010 14:11 UTC www.hpwt.de [Source type: Original source]

^ On the 16 th of july 1945, short before the Potsdam Conference, the USA have tested successfully the first atomic bomb of the world in the desert of New Mexico.
  • The Cold War 31 January 2010 14:11 UTC www.hpwt.de [Source type: Original source]

^ On the 6 th of august 1945, a few days after the Potsdam Conference, the first atomic bomb was thrown on Hiroshima.
  • The Cold War 31 January 2010 14:11 UTC www.hpwt.de [Source type: Original source]

.Shortly after the attacks, Stalin protested to US officials when Truman offered the Soviets little real influence in occupied Japan.^ October 1958 A US Air Force RB-47 Stratojet was attacked by Soviet fighters over the Black Sea.

^ November 1958 A US Air Force RB-47 Stratojet was attacked over the Sea of Japan by Soviet fighters.

^ Stalin did not break the agreement from october 1944 with Churchill and he only supported the communists in these countries which should belong according to the agreement to the Soviet sphere of influence.
  • The Cold War 31 January 2010 14:11 UTC www.hpwt.de [Source type: Original source]

[50]

Early blows in the political Cold War

Intelligence

Nazi spy boss Reinhard Gehlen
.At no time during this period and throughout World War II did the Western Allies consider sharing with the Soviet Union their decisive strategic advantage over the enemy, namely the copious and vitally important military intelligence obtained from the ultra-secret interception and decoding of German military signals at every level of command.^ The USA did not trust the Soviet Union.
  • The Cold War 31 January 2010 14:11 UTC www.hpwt.de [Source type: Original source]

^ US demobilization after World War II) .
  • Documents Related to the Cold War 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Did this mean war between the Soviet Union and the West?
  • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

.This operation, one of the most closely guarded secrets of World War II and code-named Ultra, provided the Western Allies with constant and reliable information about the strength, disposition and intentions of the enemy at any given time.^ US demobilization after World War II) .
  • Documents Related to the Cold War 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ When it was clear that Germany will lose the war the allies thought about the time after the Second World War.
  • The Cold War 31 January 2010 14:11 UTC www.hpwt.de [Source type: Original source]

^ One of the countries most in need of help was Greece -- devastated by the Nazi occupation and years of civil war.
  • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

.[51] Armed with this vital intelligence, Western military commanders at pivotal moments of the war in Europe made a series of seemingly inexplicable command decisions, the end results of which served to prolong the fighting in Europe while depriving the Red Army of relief on the Russian-German front where the Soviet Union continued to carry the brunt of the war against Hitler.^ The Cold War military buildup continued.
  • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The result of this decision were protests in Western Europe and the Soviet Union itself felt threatened.
  • The Cold War 31 January 2010 14:11 UTC www.hpwt.de [Source type: Original source]

^ On the Eastern front, Russian armies continued to advance.
  • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

[52] .Even before the war with Germany was officially over, secret arrangements were concluded between American military intelligence and former key figures in the anti-communist section of German military intelligence or Abwher, headed by Major General Reinhard Gehlen.^ The Americans were getting away -- but they had lost the war and now they could not even save thousands of their South Vietnamese friends.
  • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The American military presence, initially a constabulary force, continued to serve as a trip-wire in a confrontation that threatened to become a world war if the Soviet armored host facing them violated the border between the two Germanys that formed the original Iron Curtain.
  • Military Heritage in the Cold War 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.usmlm.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The facilities built or leased by the United States in Germany (the military and political dividing line between East and West) during the Cold War, and the activities that took place on these posts and air bases, are the subject of the Germany Cold War studies.
  • Military Heritage in the Cold War 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.usmlm.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In return for immunity from prosecution for war crimes, Gehlen and other senior Nazi intelligence officers agreed to serve the West as faithfully as they had served Hitler.^ From the 3rd Armored Division CASUALTIES OF THE COLD WAR While the Cold War did not generally produce casualties as other wars do, many soldiers still lost their lives while serving on freedoms frontier.

^ Berlin was always a delicate topic, because the USA did not want to give up West Berlin, but they also did not want to risk a nuclear war with the Soviet Union because of Berlin.
  • The Cold War 31 January 2010 14:11 UTC www.hpwt.de [Source type: Original source]

^ Joint Hearing Before the Select Committee on Intelligence of the United States Senate and Committee on Foreign Relations of the United States Senate: War Crime in the Balkans , 9.
  • V. The International Community & the FRY/Belligerents - revised 19 November 2009 18:018 UTC www.cla.purdue.edu [Source type: Academic]

.With the help of copious German anti-communist intelligence files preserved intact by him, Gehlen commenced to advise the Americans on how to go about establishing their own anti-Soviet networks in Europe.^ If the Americans were going to build one, the Soviets had to build one.
  • Daily Kos: The Legacy of the Cold War Arms Race: An Interview With David E. Hoffman 31 January 2010 14:11 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The allies couldn't easily agree about a German Peace Treaty or on how to carry out agreements reached at Yalta.
  • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Within weeks the first anti-communist prime minister in the Soviet bloc took office.
  • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

[53]

World War III aborted

.In mid-1945 immediately after Germany's defeat, when Stalin warned his advisers on May 16 that Churchill had preserved former German enemy forces in the British Zone of Occupation in Berlin "in full combat readiness and (was) co-operating with them.” [54] Churchill envisioned a future role for the former German soldiers in augmenting Montgomery's Anglo-American 21st Army Group in the event of hostilities with the Soviet Union.^ On the 8 th of may 1945 Germany capitulated.
  • The Cold War 31 January 2010 14:11 UTC www.hpwt.de [Source type: Original source]

^ Berlin was surrounded by the Soviet occupation zone.
  • The Cold War 31 January 2010 14:11 UTC www.hpwt.de [Source type: Original source]

^ The Soviets had failed to drive the British, Americans and French out of Berlin.
  • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

.Montgomery was instructed to be careful in stacking confiscated German arms so that they could be re-issued swiftly to the same former enemy soldiers from whom they had been confiscated.^ Many East German came from East Berlin to West Berlin and from West Berlin they could travel to West Germany.
  • The Cold War 31 January 2010 14:11 UTC www.hpwt.de [Source type: Original source]

^ As in China's long civil war, Mao believed that greater motivation could defeat an enemy with superior arms.
  • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I tried to tell the other side here, but people say "Oh no, they're the 'evil empire', how could they be insecure?"
  • Daily Kos: The Legacy of the Cold War Arms Race: An Interview With David E. Hoffman 31 January 2010 14:11 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

.[55] Churchill instructed the head of the British Army, Field Marshal Viscount Alanbrooke, to investigate the possibility of fighting Russia before British and American forces were demobilised in Europe.^ Navy ships maintained and supported larger overseas deployments of American combat forces, including those of the Army and the Air Force, by contributing to seaborne transport and resupply.
  • Military Heritage in the Cold War 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.usmlm.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The computer was stuck replaying a training exercise from several month before that simulated a Soviet counter-force strike at our ICBM fields.
  • Daily Kos: The Legacy of the Cold War Arms Race: An Interview With David E. Hoffman 31 January 2010 14:11 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It was licked because we fielded a multi-million member army fighting abroad.
  • Robert Scheer: Cold War Hawks Nesting With Obama - Robert Scheer's Columns -Truthdig 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.truthdig.com [Source type: Original source]

.Alanbrooke concluded that war against the Soviet Union was not feasible.^ The Soviet Union was devastated by war.
  • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The American military governor for Germany General Lucius D. Clay wanted to break through the Berlin Blockade with military forces, but the USA did not want to risk a war against the Soviet Union und so an airlift was established.
  • The Cold War 31 January 2010 14:11 UTC www.hpwt.de [Source type: Original source]

^ The atomic physicist Edward Teller was of the opinion that the development of a hydrogen bomb is absolutely necessary as a protection against the Soviet Union.
  • The Cold War 31 January 2010 14:11 UTC www.hpwt.de [Source type: Original source]

[56] .Despite its heavy losses in defeating Germany on the Eastern front, the Red Army was now the world's greatest land power.^ The Red Army was the biggest on Earth, and General Eisenhower came to pay his respects to the world's newest superpower.
  • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This is a world in which the Navy will have to provide a larger portion of national power projection capabilities, while also placing much more emphasis on sea control than it does now.
  • The Third Battle: Innovation in the U.S. Navy's Silent Cold War Struggle with Soviet Submarines 31 January 2010 14:11 UTC www.navy.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On the Eastern front, Russian armies continued to advance.
  • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

.It was stronger in men and conventional weapons than the combined forces of the US, Great Britain, Canada and France.^ Great Britain and France had also a hard time.
  • The Cold War 31 January 2010 14:11 UTC www.hpwt.de [Source type: Original source]

^ US, NSC staffwork on nuclear cooperation with Britain & France, 29 May 1980 .
  • Documents Related to the Cold War 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ It is this combination of inherent survivability and lethality which the SSBN force brought to the nuclear deterrence mission, and given the rapidly growing lethality of modern precision weapons, this is what makes a conventional SSGN force such an important opportunity.
  • The Third Battle: Innovation in the U.S. Navy's Silent Cold War Struggle with Soviet Submarines 31 January 2010 14:11 UTC www.navy.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Red Army had 17 divisions deployed in the Soviet zone of occupation in Berlin alone, whereas the US Army had by then been severely weakened by demobilisation and redeployment, and the British and French forces were preparing respectively to engage in policing actions and counter-insurgency operations against their former communist allies in the colonial territories of the Far East.^ The Soviets had failed to drive the British, Americans and French out of Berlin.
  • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Berlin was surrounded by the Soviet occupation zone.
  • The Cold War 31 January 2010 14:11 UTC www.hpwt.de [Source type: Original source]

^ Germany was divided into four occupation zones -- Soviet, American, British and French.
  • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

[57]

Tensions build

.In February 1946, George F. Kennan's "Long Telegram" from Moscow helped to articulate the US government's increasingly hard line against the Soviets, and became the basis for US strategy toward the Soviet Union for the duration of the Cold War.^ Containment: U.S. Cold War foreign policy toward the Soviet Union, first articulated by George Kennan in 1947 with his famous "X" article in Foreign Affairs.
  • Military Heritage in the Cold War 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.usmlm.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Castro turned to the Soviet Union for help.
  • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Soviet Union was devastated by war.
  • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

[58] That September, the Soviet side produced the Novikov telegram, sent by the Soviet ambassador to the US but commissioned and "co-authored" by Vyacheslav Molotov; it portrayed the US as being in the grip of monopoly capitalists who were building up military capability "to prepare the conditions for winning world supremacy in a new war".[59]
.On September 6, 1946, James F. Byrnes delivered a speech in Germany repudiating the Morgenthau Plan (a proposal to partition and de-industrialize post-war Germany) and warning the Soviets that the US intended to maintain a military presence in Europe indefinitely.^ U.S. MILITARY HOLDINGS OVERSEAS In order to contain Soviet aggression and to defend its allies, the United States stationed thousands of military men and women overseas during the Cold War.
  • Military Heritage in the Cold War 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.usmlm.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The American military governor for Germany General Lucius D. Clay wanted to break through the Berlin Blockade with military forces, but the USA did not want to risk a war against the Soviet Union und so an airlift was established.
  • The Cold War 31 January 2010 14:11 UTC www.hpwt.de [Source type: Original source]

^ That’s a common myth pushed on us by post-war Republicans who wanted to roll back the significant changes accomplished by FDR in the 1930s.
  • Robert Scheer: Cold War Hawks Nesting With Obama - Robert Scheer's Columns -Truthdig 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.truthdig.com [Source type: Original source]

[60] As Byrnes admitted a month later, "The nub of our program was to win the German people [...] it was a battle between us and Russia over minds [...]"[61]
.A few weeks after the release of this "Long Telegram", former British Prime Minister Winston Churchill delivered his famous "Iron Curtain" speech in Fulton, Missouri.^ March 5: Iron curtain: Winston Churchill, in a speech at Westminster College, Fulton, Missouri, says an "iron curtain" has come down across Europe.
  • Military Heritage in the Cold War 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.usmlm.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On the 5 th of march 1946 Churchill had a meeting with Truman in Fulton in Missouri and in his speech he said that Europe is now divided by an iron curtain.
  • The Cold War 31 January 2010 14:11 UTC www.hpwt.de [Source type: Original source]

^ IN ‘88 when Dalai lama, at the height of Tibetan disturbances, visited west, the then british prime minister refused to meet Him.
  • Robert Scheer: Cold War Hawks Nesting With Obama - Robert Scheer's Columns -Truthdig 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.truthdig.com [Source type: Original source]

[62] The speech called for an Anglo-American alliance against the Soviets, whom he accused of establishing an "iron curtain" from "Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste in the Adriatic".[63][64]

Containment through the Korean War (1947–53)

Soviet satellite states

Formation of the Eastern Bloc
.After annexing several occupied countries as Soviet Socialist Republics at the end of World War II, other occupied states were added to the Eastern Bloc by converting them into puppet Soviet Satellite states,[64] such as East Germany,[65] the People's Republic of Poland, the People's Republic of Hungary,[66] the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic,[67] the People's Republic of Romania and the People's Republic of Albania.^ These are not countries like Poland, Hungary, Romainia, and other States like the Baltic States that the Russians occupied sfter World War 2.
  • CNN Political Ticker: All politics, all the time Blog Archive - McCain: Georgia conflict won’t ‘re-ignite the Cold War’ « - Blogs from CNN.com 31 January 2010 14:11 UTC politicalticker.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: General]

^ Several people died and therefore this action was criticized by other countries.
  • The Cold War 31 January 2010 14:11 UTC www.hpwt.de [Source type: Original source]

^ Warsaw Pact: Signed in 1955, it codified the East-West split and provided for mutual defense among Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Hungary, Poland, Romania, and the Soviet Union.
  • Military Heritage in the Cold War 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.usmlm.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[68]
.The Soviet-style regimes that arose in the Bloc not only reproduced Soviet command economies, but also adopted the brutal methods employed by Joseph Stalin and Soviet secret police to suppress real and potential opposition.^ Stalin's Soviet Union was revealed as a police state, not a workers' paradise.
  • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In time-honored fashion, the threat of the truly quiet Soviet nuclear submarine really sank in the larger political environment only when it was associated with an accompanying nuclear weapon threat.
  • The Third Battle: Innovation in the U.S. Navy's Silent Cold War Struggle with Soviet Submarines 31 January 2010 14:11 UTC www.navy.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Stalin moves to eradicate opposition and to consolidate the Soviet position in Hungary.
  • Military Heritage in the Cold War 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.usmlm.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[69] .In Asia, the Red Army had overrun Manchuria in the last month of the war, and went on to occupy the large swath of Korean territory located north of the 38th parallel.^ North of the 38th parallel, the Russians were in control.
  • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In brief, the Korean War began with the invasion of the South by North Korean troops.

^ January 1955 A US Army L-20 Beaver was shot down by North Korean fire over the Korean demilitarized zone and the crew of two were killed.

[70]
.In September 1947, the Soviets created Cominform, the purpose of which was to enforce orthodoxy within the international communist movement and tighten political control over Soviet satellites through coordination of communist parties in the Eastern Bloc.^ That September 1947, Stalin revived the prewar Communist International as the Cominform.
  • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Through it, Stalin planned to control the countries of the Eastern bloc.
  • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Letter from five Communist Party officials to Soviet leader, Brezhnev, requesting Soviet intervention, August 1968 .
  • Documents Related to the Cold War 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: Reference]

[71] .Cominform faced an embarrassing setback the following June, when the Tito–Stalin split obliged its members to expel Yugoslavia, which remained Communist but adopted a non-aligned position.^ The split came in 1948 when Stalin expelled Tito from the Cominform.
  • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Anne Burlak Timpson remained a member of the Communist Party to the day she died, 9 July 2002, at the age of 91 in East Longmeadow, Massachusetts.
  • Anne Burlak Timpson Papers, 1886-2003 (bulk 1912-2003) 19 November 2009 18:018 UTC asteria.fivecolleges.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Soviet Bloc and the Initial Stage of the Cold War: Archival Documents on Stalin's Meetings with Communist Leaders of Yugoslavia and Bulgaria, 1946-1948, by Leonid Gibianskii .
  • Documents Related to the Cold War 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: Reference]

[72]
.As part of the Soviet domination of the Eastern Bloc, the NKVD, led by Lavrentiy Beria, supervised the establishment of Soviet-style secret police systems in the Bloc that were supposed to crush anti-communist resistance.^ Reagan intended to support all anti-communist movements in the world also in countries which belonged to the Soviet sphere of influence.
  • The Cold War 31 January 2010 14:11 UTC www.hpwt.de [Source type: Original source]

^ By 1989, Gorbachev was determined to loosen Soviet control over the nations in the Communist bloc.
  • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

^ October 23-November 4: Hungarians revolt against Communist rule and make futile pleas for U.S. assistance as Soviet forces crush the resistance.
  • Military Heritage in the Cold War 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.usmlm.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[73] .When the slightest stirrings of independence emerged in the Bloc, Stalin's strategy matched that of dealing with domestic pre-war rivals: they were removed from power, put on trial, imprisoned, and in several instances, executed.^ Many political prisoners, who were imprisoned during Stalin's power, were released.
  • The Cold War 31 January 2010 14:11 UTC www.hpwt.de [Source type: Original source]

^ In Korea, for instance, DoD occupies land previously held by the pre-World War II Japanese military occupation.
  • Military Heritage in the Cold War 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.usmlm.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They feared Stalin might risk war to achieve it.
  • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

[74]

Containment and the Truman Doctrine

European military alliances
.By 1947, US president Harry S. Truman's advisers urged him to take immediate steps to counter the Soviet Union's influence, citing Stalin's efforts (amid post-war confusion and collapse) to undermine the US by encouraging rivalries among capitalists that could precipitate another war.^ The Soviet Union was devastated by war.
  • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

^ August 13th, 2008 4:05 pm ET Guess what an adviser has just told McCain to cool his war rhetoric as it's giving him a scary image.
  • CNN Political Ticker: All politics, all the time Blog Archive - McCain: Georgia conflict won’t ‘re-ignite the Cold War’ « - Blogs from CNN.com 31 January 2010 14:11 UTC politicalticker.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: General]

^ Novikov cautions the Soviet leadership that the Truman administration is bent on imposing US political, military and economic domination around the world.
  • Documents Related to the Cold War 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: Reference]

[75] .In February 1947, the British government announced that it could no longer afford to finance the Greek monarchical military regime in its civil war against communist-led insurgents.^ The British could no longer afford all their heavy commitments in the Mediterranean.
  • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Draft of note from the Greek government to the United States Government, May 22, 1947 .
  • Documents Related to the Cold War 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Many such weapon systems, structures, sites, and equipment, so crucial to carrying out the military mission during the Cold War, are no longer in service.
  • Military Heritage in the Cold War 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.usmlm.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The American government's response to this announcement was the adoption of containment,[76] the goal of which was to stop the spread of communism.^ One element of the Navy's response to the Charlie threat was the long-postponed embrace by the American surface ASW community of the passive acoustic approach to ASW. .
  • The Third Battle: Innovation in the U.S. Navy's Silent Cold War Struggle with Soviet Submarines 31 January 2010 14:11 UTC www.navy.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Truman delivered a speech that called for the allocation of $400 million to intervene in the war and unveiled the Truman Doctrine, which framed the conflict as a contest between free peoples and totalitarian regimes.^ Speech Announcing the "Truman Doctrine," 1947 .
  • Documents Related to the Cold War 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Joseph M. Jones's Memo to Mr. Russell regarding the need to clarify relationship between Truman Doctrine and Marshall Plan, July 7, 1947 .
  • Documents Related to the Cold War 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ March 12: Truman Doctrine: Truman asks Congress to support "free peoples who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or outside pressures."
  • Military Heritage in the Cold War 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.usmlm.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[76] .Even though the insurgents were helped by Josip Broz Tito's Yugoslavia,[20] US policymakers accused the Soviet Union of conspiring against the Greek royalists in an effort to expand Soviet influence.^ Search and rescue efforts by US, Turkish, and Soviet forces discovered parts of the aircraft, but no survivors or remains.

^ The Disintegration of Yugoslavia and the Soviet Union .
  • V. The International Community & the FRY/Belligerents - revised 19 November 2009 18:018 UTC www.cla.purdue.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Linz Juan J. and Stepan Alfred, “Political Identities and Electoral Sequences: Spain, the Soviet Union, and Yugoslavia”, Daedalus, vol.
  • V. The International Community & the FRY/Belligerents - revised 19 November 2009 18:018 UTC www.cla.purdue.edu [Source type: Academic]

[77]
.Enunciation of the Truman Doctrine marked the beginning of a US bipartisan defense and foreign policy consensus between Republicans and Democrats focused on containment and deterrence that weakened during and after the Vietnam War, but ultimately held steady.^ June 8: Nixon Doctrine and " Vietnamization " begins.
  • Military Heritage in the Cold War 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.usmlm.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The war in Iraq has weakened us.
  • CNN Political Ticker: All politics, all the time Blog Archive - McCain: Georgia conflict won’t ‘re-ignite the Cold War’ « - Blogs from CNN.com 31 January 2010 14:11 UTC politicalticker.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: General]

^ December 20: Vietnam: Viet Minh forces clash with French forces in beginning of 8-year French Indochina war.
  • Military Heritage in the Cold War 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.usmlm.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[78][79] .Moderate and conservative parties in Europe, as well as social democrats, gave virtually unconditional support to the Western alliance,[80] while European and American Communists, paid by the KGB and involved in its intelligence operations,[81] adhered to Moscow's line, although dissent began to appear after 1956. Other critiques of consensus politics came from anti-Vietnam War activists, the CND and the nuclear freeze movement.^ Most Americans still supported President Johnson's war in Vietnam.
  • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Western alliance began to take shape.
  • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Anti-Communism, Anti-War, Nuclear weapons .
  • Guide to the Francis J. McNamara papers, 1928-1997 Collection NumberC0024 19 November 2009 18:018 UTC sca.gmu.edu [Source type: Academic]

[82]

Marshall Plan and Czechoslovak coup d'état

.
Map of Cold-War era Europe and the Near East showing countries that received Marshall Plan aid.
^ Cold War era.
  • Military Heritage in the Cold War 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.usmlm.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He lives in the 60's and the cold war era.
  • CNN Political Ticker: All politics, all the time Blog Archive - McCain: Georgia conflict won’t ‘re-ignite the Cold War’ « - Blogs from CNN.com 31 January 2010 14:11 UTC politicalticker.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: General]

^ Europe's purchase of American goods and machinery redirected many Marshall aid dollars back into American industry, fueling a postwar boom.
  • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

The red columns show the relative amount of total aid per nation.
European economic alliances
.In early 1947, Britain, France and the United States unsuccessfully attempted to reach an agreement with the Soviet Union for a plan envisioning an economically self-sufficient Germany, including a detailed accounting of the industrial plants, goods and infrastructure already removed by the Soviets.^ The Soviet Union proclaimed its self-confidence.
  • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Planning and meetings are currently underway between the United States and the former Soviet Union.
  • Military Heritage in the Cold War 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.usmlm.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He would plan the United States' response.
  • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

[83] .In June 1947, in accordance with the Truman Doctrine, the United States enacted the Marshall Plan, a pledge of economic assistance for all European countries willing to participate, including the Soviet Union.^ Speech Announcing the "Truman Doctrine," 1947 .
  • Documents Related to the Cold War 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ He would plan the United States' response.
  • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In an example of realpolitik, the United States also established diplomatic relations with Communist countries that were antagonistic to the Soviet Union, like the People's Republic of China during the Sino-Soviet split.
  • On yahoo answers, how do u get up to a higher level? - Yahoo! Answers 19 November 2009 18:018 UTC answers.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[83]
.The plan's aim was to rebuild the democratic and economic systems of Europe and to counter perceived threats to Europe's balance of power, such as communist parties seizing control through revolutions or elections.^ He also instructed Communist parties in the West to take the initiative in seizing power.
  • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

^ August 24: Communist Party outlawed in United States as Eisenhower signs Communist Control Act.
  • Military Heritage in the Cold War 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.usmlm.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The threat to the US power structure is that Western Europe turns toward Russia rather than the US, including Russia and Europe in the Common Market.
  • Robert Scheer: Cold War Hawks Nesting With Obama - Robert Scheer's Columns -Truthdig 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.truthdig.com [Source type: Original source]

[84] .The plan also stated that European prosperity was contingent upon German economic recovery.^ On his return from Moscow, he instructed the State Department to begin preparing ideas for a European rescue plan.
  • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He didn't like the Germans but believed that European recovery depended on them.
  • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

^ America, Britain and France were secretly planning a new German state in their occupation zones.
  • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

[85] .One month later, Truman signed the National Security Act of 1947, creating a unified Department of Defense, the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), and the National Security Council.^ CIA lawyers studied the wording of the new National Security Act.
  • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

^ National Security Council , 1969-1982 .
  • Guide to the Francis J. McNamara papers, 1928-1997 Collection NumberC0024 19 November 2009 18:018 UTC sca.gmu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ July 26: National Security Act creates DoD, and several new agencies, including the National Military Establishment with three separate departments of the Army, the Navy and the new U.S. Air Force, National Security Council (NSC), CIA, and the Joint Chiefs of Staff.
  • Military Heritage in the Cold War 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.usmlm.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.These would become the main bureaucracies for US policy in the Cold War.^ The Cold War has become a hot war.
  • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Cold War and the war in Vietnam would continue.
  • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Although this usually refers to archeological sites and would not typically be of concern for Cold War properties, such sites are possible.
  • Military Heritage in the Cold War 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.usmlm.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[86]
.Stalin believed that economic integration with the West would allow Eastern Bloc countries to escape Soviet control, and that the US was trying to buy a pro-US re-alignment of Europe.^ Through it, Stalin planned to control the countries of the Eastern bloc.
  • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Stalin would annex Eastern Poland.
  • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Novikov cautions the Soviet leadership that the Truman administration is bent on imposing US political, military and economic domination around the world.
  • Documents Related to the Cold War 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: Reference]

[71] .Stalin therefore prevented Eastern Bloc nations from receiving Marshall Plan aid.^ Through it, Stalin planned to control the countries of the Eastern bloc.
  • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

^ June 5: Marshall Plan: Secretary of State George C. Marshall calls on European nations to draft plan for European economic recovery, offering aid in planning and "later support."
  • Military Heritage in the Cold War 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.usmlm.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Marshall Plan was born from the need to feed the hungry, and to prevent communism spreading over Europe.
  • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

[71] .The Soviet Union's alternative to the Marshall plan, which was purported to involve Soviet subsidies and trade with eastern Europe, became known as the Molotov Plan (later institutionalized in January 1949 as the Comecon).^ Eastern Poland had been annexed by the Soviet Union.
  • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Interview with Mr. Paul Hoffman on the Marshall Plan, January 28, 1953 .
  • Documents Related to the Cold War 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ The United States promoted liberal democracy and capitalism, while the Soviet Union communism and a centrally planned economy.
  • On yahoo answers, how do u get up to a higher level? - Yahoo! Answers 19 November 2009 18:018 UTC answers.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[20] .Stalin was also fearful of a reconstituted Germany; his vision of a post-war Germany did not include the ability to rearm or pose any kind of threat to the Soviet Union.^ The Soviet Union was devastated by war.
  • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Soviet Union did nothing.
  • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Did this mean war between the Soviet Union and the West?
  • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

[87]
.In early 1948, following reports of strengthening "reactionary elements", Soviet operatives executed a coup d'état of 1948 in Czechoslovakia, the only Eastern Bloc state that the Soviets had permitted to retain democratic structures.^ Draft of classified CIA report, dated June 14, 1948, titled "Effect of Soviet Restrictions on the U.S. Position in Berlin."
  • Documents Related to the Cold War 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ The only solution: two states side by sidek followed by a Middle Eastern Union similar to the EU. Once the Jews, Arabs and Turks get together they could clean everyone elses’s clocks commercially.
  • Robert Scheer: Cold War Hawks Nesting With Obama - Robert Scheer's Columns -Truthdig 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.truthdig.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Mississippi The SHPO reports that the military installations in the State are looking only at World War II-era resources.
  • Military Heritage in the Cold War 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.usmlm.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[88][89] .The public brutality of the coup shocked Western powers more than any event up to that point, set in a motion a brief scare that war would occur and swept away the last vestiges of opposition to the Marshall Plan in the United States Congress.^ Was the war a loss for the UN and the United States?

^ The United States Congress is a bicameral legislature.
  • On yahoo answers, how do u get up to a higher level? - Yahoo! Answers 19 November 2009 18:018 UTC answers.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This was the shelter for members of the United States Congress in the event of nuclear war.
  • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

[90]
.The twin policies of the Truman Doctrine and the Marshall Plan led to billions in economic and military aid for Western Europe, and Greece and Turkey.^ Europe's purchase of American goods and machinery redirected many Marshall aid dollars back into American industry, fueling a postwar boom.
  • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The French Fourth Republic would now receive Marshall aid: $2.7 billion of it.
  • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In the four years of the Plan, the Marshall agency spent $13.5 billion in 16 countries.
  • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

.With US assistance, the Greek military won its civil war,[86] The Italian Christian Democrats defeated the powerful Communist-Socialist alliance in the elections of 1948.^ The Christian Democrats won a landslide victory.
  • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It dominated the activities of military assistance advisory groups (MAAGs) who managed military assistance programs (MAPs) for signatories of defensive alliances and other clients.
  • Military Heritage in the Cold War 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.usmlm.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He had backed Churchill's intervention in the Greek civil war.
  • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

[91] Increases occurred in intelligence and espionage activities, Eastern Bloc defections and diplomatic expulsions.[92]

Berlin Blockade and airlift

C-47s unloading at Tempelhof Airport in Berlin during the Berlin Blockade.
.The United States and Britain merged their western German occupation zones into "Bizonia" (later "trizonia" with the addition of France's zone).^ America, Britain and France were secretly planning a new German state in their occupation zones.
  • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Many nations, including the United States and Britain, sent troops to fight the Russian Revolution.
  • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

^ At Munich, Britain, France and Italy licensed Hitler to seize the Czech Sudetenland, with its German minority.
  • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

[93] .As part of the economic rebuilding of Germany, in early 1948, representatives of a number of Western European governments and the United States announced an agreement for a merger of western German areas into a federal governmental system.^ In 1950, he signed an agreement with the United States government.
  • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Draft of note from the Greek government to the United States Government, May 22, 1947 .
  • Documents Related to the Cold War 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Columbia remained a popular name for the United States until the early twentieth century, when it fell into relative disuse; but it is still used poetically and appears in various names and titles.
  • On yahoo answers, how do u get up to a higher level? - Yahoo! Answers 19 November 2009 18:018 UTC answers.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[94] .In addition, in accordance with the Marshall Plan, they began to re-industrialize and rebuild the German economy, including the introduction of a new Deutsche Mark currency to replace the old Reichsmark currency that the Soviets had debased.^ The Soviets retaliated by issuing their own new currency, which, they insisted, would include all of Berlin.
  • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It would wipe out black market profiteers by making old currency valueless, and it would tie Germans to the West.
  • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The old shah, thought to be pro-German, was dethroned and replaced by his son, Mohammed Reza Pahlevi.
  • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

[95]
.Shortly thereafter, Stalin instituted the Berlin Blockade, one of the first major crises of the Cold War, preventing food, materials and supplies from arriving in West Berlin.^ One of the defining battles of the Cold War.
  • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

^ On the one hand, it prevented a major war.

^ West Berliners arrived from the other direction.
  • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

[96] .The United States, Britain, France, Canada, Australia, New Zealand and several other countries began the massive "Berlin airlift", supplying West Berlin with food and other provisions.^ West Berliners arrived from the other direction.
  • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Architecture Other United States territory .
  • On yahoo answers, how do u get up to a higher level? - Yahoo! Answers 19 November 2009 18:018 UTC answers.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Berlin airlift began at the end of June.
  • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

[97]
.The Soviets mounted a public relations campaign against the policy change, communists attempted to disrupt the elections of 1948 preceding large losses therein,[98] 300,000 Berliners demonstrated and urged the international airlift to continue,[99] and the US accidentally created "Operation Vittles", which supplied candy to German children.^ The church too, mounted a powerful campaign against the communists.
  • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

^ And in a change of policy, he recognised the Soviet Union.
  • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

^ That evening the demonstrations in Berlin continued.
  • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

[100] .In May 1949, Stalin backed down and lifted the blockade.^ On May 12, 1949, Stalin called it quits.
  • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Statement, dated May 3, 1949, by President Harry S. Truman upon acceding to General Lucius Clay's request to be discharged from service in the U.S. Military Government in Germany, following the agreement to lift the Berlin blockade.
  • Documents Related to the Cold War 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: Reference]

[73][101]

NATO beginnings and Radio Free Europe

President Truman signs the National Security Act Amendment of 1949 with guests in the Oval Office.
.Britain, France, the United States, Canada and eight other western European countries signed the North Atlantic Treaty of April 1949, establishing the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO).^ Architecture Other United States territory .
  • On yahoo answers, how do u get up to a higher level? - Yahoo! Answers 19 November 2009 18:018 UTC answers.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ North Atlantic Treaty Organization The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), with its 12 original signatory countries - Belgium, Canada, Denmark, France, Great Britain, Iceland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, and the United States - was created to form a defensive alliance against Soviet aggression.
  • Military Heritage in the Cold War 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.usmlm.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Telegram From the Department of State to the Mission to the North Atlantic Treaty Organization and European Regional Organizations on Soviet Plan to reduce the size of its armed forces, Washington, January 9, 1958, 8:14 p.m.
  • Documents Related to the Cold War 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: Reference]

[73] .That August, Stalin ordered the detonation of the first Soviet atomic device.^ August 29, 1949 -- the Soviets detonated their first atomic bomb.
  • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Soviets detonated their first atom bomb.
  • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

^ October 16: China detonates its first atomic bomb.
  • Military Heritage in the Cold War 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.usmlm.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[20] .Following Soviet refusals to participate in a German rebuilding effort set forth by western European countries in 1948,[94][102] the US, Britain and France spearheaded the establishment of West Germany from the three Western zones of occupation in May 1949.[47] The Soviet Union proclaimed its zone of occupation in Germany the German Democratic Republic that October.^ America, Britain and France were secretly planning a new German state in their occupation zones.
  • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Soviet Union proclaimed its self-confidence.
  • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The new weaponry alarmed East Germany -- the German Democratic Republic.
  • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

[47]
.Media in the Eastern Bloc was an organ of the state, completely reliant on and subservient to the communist party, with radio and television organizations being state-owned, while print media was usually owned by political organizations, mostly by the local communist party.^ March 27: Khrushchev becomes Soviet Premier in addition to being First Secretary of the Communist Party.
  • Military Heritage in the Cold War 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.usmlm.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ August 24: Communist Party outlawed in United States as Eisenhower signs Communist Control Act.
  • Military Heritage in the Cold War 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.usmlm.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As the Leipzig demonstration moved off, the local Communist Party leaders realized that 70,000 people were already on the streets.
  • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

[103] .Soviet propaganda used Marxist philosophy to attack capitalism, claiming labor exploitation and war-mongering imperialism were inherent in the system.^ The Army's Aberdeen Proving Grounds showcases United States and Soviet tanks in use through the Cold War period.
  • Military Heritage in the Cold War 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.usmlm.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Then, in cloudy words, he warned that capitalism and imperialism made future wars inevitable.
  • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Harry Schwartz, "A Propaganda Triumph: A View That Soviets Will Stress Satellite to Buttress Claims of Military Power," New York Times , 6 October 1957 .
  • Documents Related to the Cold War 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: Reference]

[104]
.Along with the broadcasts of the British Broadcasting Company and the Voice of America to Eastern Europe,[105] a major propaganda effort begun in 1949 was Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, dedicated to bringing about the peaceful demise of the Communist system in the Eastern Bloc.^ The repubs need to stop talking funny and support Medvedev for his effort to bring peace in the region.
  • CNN Political Ticker: All politics, all the time Blog Archive - McCain: Georgia conflict won’t ‘re-ignite the Cold War’ « - Blogs from CNN.com 31 January 2010 14:11 UTC politicalticker.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: General]

^ Memorandum from William Leahy to Secretary of State Stettinius regarding British officials' thoughts on Soviet claims in Poland and Eastern Europe (May 11, 1945) .
  • Documents Related to the Cold War 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ As membership of the Communist Party reaches 2 million, America fears that Italy, and Western Europe, could fall to communism.
  • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

[106] Radio Free Europe attempted to achieve these goals by serving as a surrogate home radio station, an alternative to the controlled and party-dominated domestic press.[106] .Radio Free Europe was a product of some of the most prominent architects of America's early Cold War strategy, especially those who believed that the Cold War would eventually be fought by political rather than military means, such as George F. Kennan.^ The Cold War and the war in Vietnam would continue.
  • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Cold War military buildup continued.
  • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

^ During periods of the Cold War, the military establishment faced the pressures brought about by the extension or reinstatement of the Selective Service System, or draft.
  • Military Heritage in the Cold War 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.usmlm.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[107]
.American policymakers, including Kennan and John Foster Dulles, acknowledged that the Cold War was in its essence a war of ideas.^ June 10: Kennedy, in speech at American University, calls for reconsideration of Cold War as "holy war."
  • Military Heritage in the Cold War 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.usmlm.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Therefore the possibilities for preservation of American Cold War sites in the United Kingdom may be promising.
  • Military Heritage in the Cold War 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.usmlm.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Containment: U.S. Cold War foreign policy toward the Soviet Union, first articulated by George Kennan in 1947 with his famous "X" article in Foreign Affairs.
  • Military Heritage in the Cold War 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.usmlm.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[107] .The United States, acting through the CIA, funded a long list of projects to counter the Communist appeal among intellectuals in Europe and the developing world.^ Indeed, it is arguable that this is the security environment the United States is already beginning to face along the long arc of the Indian and Pacific ocean littorals.
  • The Third Battle: Innovation in the U.S. Navy's Silent Cold War Struggle with Soviet Submarines 31 January 2010 14:11 UTC www.navy.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In South Vietnam, the United States underwrote the regime of President Diem, an anti-communist, determined to resist Hanoi.
  • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Immigration helped spur the American economy.At the start of the First World War, in 1914, the United States remained neutral.
  • On yahoo answers, how do u get up to a higher level? - Yahoo! Answers 19 November 2009 18:018 UTC answers.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[108]
In the early 1950s, the US worked for the rearmament of West Germany and, in 1955, secured its full membership of NATO.[47] In May 1953, Beria, by then in a government post, had made an unsuccessful proposal to allow the reunification of a neutral Germany to prevent West Germany's incorporation into NATO.[109]

Chinese Civil War and SEATO

.In 1949, Mao's People's Liberation Army defeated Chiang's US-backed Kuomintang (KMT) Nationalist Government in China, and the Soviet Union promptly created an alliance with the newly-formed People's Republic of China.^ October 1: People's Republic of China is established.
  • Military Heritage in the Cold War 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.usmlm.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Mao Tse-tung proclaimed the People's Republic of China.
  • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

^ June 1953 A US Navy PBM-5S2 Mariner from VP-46 was fired on by People's Republic of China surface ships in the Formosa Strait.

[110] .The Nationalist Government retreated to the island of Taiwan.^ The U.S. Navy also sailed in contested waters separating the Chinese Nationalist Government on Taiwan and its Communist counterpart on the mainland of China.
  • Military Heritage in the Cold War 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.usmlm.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ December 7: The Chinese Nationalist government retires to Taipei, Taiwan.
  • Military Heritage in the Cold War 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.usmlm.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Confronted with the Communist takeover of mainland China and the end of the US atomic monopoly in 1949, the Truman administration quickly moved to escalate and expand the containment policy.^ China - Communist Publications, 1949-1952 .
  • Guide to the Francis J. McNamara papers, 1928-1997 Collection NumberC0024 19 November 2009 18:018 UTC sca.gmu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Novikov cautions the Soviet leadership that the Truman administration is bent on imposing US political, military and economic domination around the world.
  • Documents Related to the Cold War 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ The fact that it did not expand into a wider war helped confirm the West's policy of containment of Communism, a policy which dominated most international relations during the Cold War.

[20] .In NSC-68, a secret 1950 document,[111] the National Security Council proposed to reinforce pro-Western alliance systems and quadruple spending on defense.^ The Department of Energy: Defense Programs of the Nuclear Weapons Complex The DoE and its predecessor agencies, have contributed to the national security of the United States since 1942.
  • Military Heritage in the Cold War 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.usmlm.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The reply concludes that a negotiated settlement with the USSR over Berlin is not possible and pledges to refer the matter to the United Nations Security Council .
  • Documents Related to the Cold War 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ The note accuses the Soviet Government of reneging on negotiated agreements aimed at resolving the Berlin Crisis and pledges to refer the actions of the Soviet Government to the United Nations Security Council.
  • Documents Related to the Cold War 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: Reference]

[20]
.US officials moved thereafter to expand containment into Asia, Africa, and Latin America, in order to counter revolutionary nationalist movements, often led by Communist parties financed by the USSR, fighting against the restoration of Europe's colonial empires in South-East Asia and elsewhere.^ Containment also led to massive infusions of economic and military aid by leading nations of both the Communist and Western worlds into developing nations considered to be of strategic importance, while others were bypassed.

^ Letter from five Communist Party officials to Soviet leader, Brezhnev, requesting Soviet intervention, August 1968 .
  • Documents Related to the Cold War 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Current demographic trends include the immigration of Hispanics from Latin America into the Southwest, a region that is home to about 60% of the 35 million Hispanics in the United States.
  • On yahoo answers, how do u get up to a higher level? - Yahoo! Answers 19 November 2009 18:018 UTC answers.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[112] .In the early 1950s (a period sometimes known as the "Pactomania"), the US formalized a series of alliances with Japan, Australia, New Zealand, Thailand and the Philippines (notably ANZUS and SEATO), thereby guaranteeing the United States a number of long-term military bases.^ United States also negotiates mutual security agreement with Philippines, Australia, New Zealand (ANZUS Pact).
  • Military Heritage in the Cold War 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.usmlm.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ United States retains military presence for defense of Japan.
  • Military Heritage in the Cold War 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.usmlm.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ September 7: SEATO: Australia, Britain, France, Pakistan, the Philippines, Thailand, New Zealand, and the United States form an anti-communist alliance against "massive military aggression."
  • Military Heritage in the Cold War 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.usmlm.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[47]

Korean War

.One of the more significant impacts of containment was the outbreak of the Korean War.^ Third, it was in 1950 with the outbreak of the Korean War that the U.S.-Soviet Cold War truly began.
  • The Third Battle: Innovation in the U.S. Navy's Silent Cold War Struggle with Soviet Submarines 31 January 2010 14:11 UTC www.navy.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, the 1950s represents one of the most progressive decades in U.S. history and most economists believe it would have been even more productive without the Korean War.
  • Robert Scheer: Cold War Hawks Nesting With Obama - Robert Scheer's Columns -Truthdig 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.truthdig.com [Source type: Original source]

.In June 1950, Kim Il-Sung's North Korean People's Army invaded South Korea.^ The building is "layered" with history, having served the Japanese occupation of Korea, the Korean military, and the Eighth U.S. Army command since the Korean War.
  • Military Heritage in the Cold War 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.usmlm.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In brief, the Korean War began with the invasion of the South by North Korean troops.

^ Almost half of the Korean Peoples Army was massed close to the border of the DMZ. And almost daily issued reports of American brutality and wrong doing.

[113] .To Stalin's surprise,[20] the UN Security Council backed the defense of South Korea, though the Soviets were then boycotting meetings to protest that Taiwan and not Communist China held a permanent seat on the Council.^ In South Korea, the U.N. held 130,000 communist prisoners.
  • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

^ US, National Security Council, National Security Study Memorandum 124, "Next Steps Towards the People's Republic of China, "April 19, 1971.
  • Documents Related to the Cold War 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Memorandum of Discussion on the RB-47 Airplane Incident at the 451st Meeting of the National Security Council, Washington, July 15, 1960 .
  • Documents Related to the Cold War 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: Reference]

[114] .A UN force of personnel from South Korea, the United States, the United Kingdom, Turkey, Canada, Australia, France, the Philippines, the Netherlands, Belgium, New Zealand and other countries joined to stop the invasion.^ But the United States was not prepared to abandon the South.
  • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Architecture Other United States territory .
  • On yahoo answers, how do u get up to a higher level? - Yahoo! Answers 19 November 2009 18:018 UTC answers.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Was the war a loss for the UN and the United States?

[115]
.Among other effects, the Korean War galvanised NATO to develop a military structure.^ The building is "layered" with history, having served the Japanese occupation of Korea, the Korean military, and the Eighth U.S. Army command since the Korean War.
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^ A number of structures built during the Cold War were "sheds" or "shells" that housed equipment or research and development projects that supported the military mission.
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^ Many such weapon systems, structures, sites, and equipment, so crucial to carrying out the military mission during the Cold War, are no longer in service.
  • Military Heritage in the Cold War 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.usmlm.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[116] .Public opinion in countries involved, such as Great Britain, was divided for and against the war.^ As the country's first intercontinental missile, the Snark has great Cold War significance.
  • Military Heritage in the Cold War 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.usmlm.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Such a draft exists in Israel and Zionists want to intoduce it here to continue the War against Muslims.
  • Robert Scheer: Cold War Hawks Nesting With Obama - Robert Scheer's Columns -Truthdig 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.truthdig.com [Source type: Original source]

British Attorney General Sir Hartley Shawcross repudiated the sentiment of those opposed when he said:[117]
.
I know there are some who think that the horror and devastation of a world war now would be so frightful, whoever won, and the damage to civilization so lasting, that it would be better to submit to Communist domination.^ The last verse with the "Knock knock who's there?"

^ He's been there before and he knows whats what i think he would be a great president.
  • CNN Political Ticker: All politics, all the time Blog Archive - McCain: Georgia conflict won’t ‘re-ignite the Cold War’ « - Blogs from CNN.com 31 January 2010 14:11 UTC politicalticker.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: General]

^ One of the countries most in need of help was Greece -- devastated by the Nazi occupation and years of civil war.
  • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

I understand that view–but I reject it.
.Even though the Chinese and North Koreans were exhausted by the war and were prepared to end it by late 1952, Stalin insisted that they continue fighting, and a cease-fire was approved only in July 1953, after Stalin's death.^ The Korean War finally ended in July 1953.

^ July 27: Armistice is signed ending the Korean War.
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^ May 1965 A US Army aircraft was shot down by North Korean ground fire.

[47] .In North Korea, Kim Il Sung created a highly centralized and brutal dictatorship, according himself unlimited power and generating a formidable cult of personality.^ Memorandum of Conversation between Soviet Ambassador to North Korea Vasily Moskovsky and Kim Il Sung, November 10 1962 .
  • Documents Related to the Cold War 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Memorandum of Conversation between Soviet Ambassador to North Korea Vasily Moskovsky and Kim Il Sung, August 14 1962 .
  • Documents Related to the Cold War 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Kim Il Sung was determined to embarrss the U.S., and starting in March there were more incidents of shooting along the border.

[118][119]

Crisis and escalation (1953–62)

Khrushchev, Eisenhower and De-Stalinization

.In 1953, changes in political leadership on both sides shifted the dynamic of the Cold War.^ Worse, Dubcek might change sides in the Cold War.
  • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Throughout the Cold War, spies were used by both sides.
  • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Throughout the war, both sides committed horrible atrocities.
  • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

[86] .Dwight D. Eisenhower was inaugurated president that January.^ US, President Dwight Eisenhower, Inaugural Speech, 20 January 1953 .
  • Documents Related to the Cold War 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ January 5: Eisenhower Doctrine presented to Congress, allowing the President to commit troops to the Middle East to prevent Communist aggression there.
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^ President Ronald Reagan, Inaugural Address, West Front of the U.S. Capitol, January 20, 1981 .
  • Documents Related to the Cold War 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: Reference]

.During the last 18 months of the Truman administration, the US defense budget had quadrupled, and Eisenhower moved to reduce military spending by a third while continuing to fight the Cold War effectively.^ The Cold War military buildup continued.
  • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This, at last, was the official declaration of the Cold War.
  • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Cold War Project administration.
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[20]
.After the death of Joseph Stalin, Nikita Khrushchev became the Soviet leader following the deposition and execution of Lavrentiy Beria and the pushing aside of rivals Georgy Malenkov and Vyacheslav Molotov.^ Letter from Lavrentii Beria to Georgii Malenkov Reflecting on the Events of Spring 1953 in East Germany, 1 July 1953 .
  • Documents Related to the Cold War 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ But Nikita Khrushchev, the Soviet leader, was delighted to embrace a new revolutionary and offered him economic assistance.
  • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

^ February 14: Khrushchev denounces Stalin in speech to the 20th Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union.
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.On February 25, 1956, Khrushchev shocked delegates to the 20th Congress of the Soviet Communist Party by cataloguing and denouncing Stalin's crimes.^ February 14: Khrushchev denounces Stalin in speech to the 20th Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union.
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^ February 25: Czechoslovakia: Communist Coup.
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^ In the Soviet zone, Stalin had merged the Socialist and Communist parties.
  • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

[120] .As part of a campaign of de-Stalinization, he declared that the only way to reform and move away from Stalin's policies would be to acknowledge errors made in the past.^ I knew in vaguely intellectual way that doom was potentially only an hour away.
  • Daily Kos: The Legacy of the Cold War Arms Race: An Interview With David E. Hoffman 31 January 2010 14:11 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

[86]
.On November 18, 1956, while addressing Western ambassadors at a reception at the Polish embassy in Moscow, Khrushchev used his famous "Whether you like it or not, history is on our side.^ Shepilov pledges to investigate the circumstances surrounding tank fire near the Yugoslav embassy in Budapest, November 07 1956 .
  • Documents Related to the Cold War 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Everything is crooked now and the signs all point you the wrong way - it's like we're living at the time of the Tower Of Babel, all our tongues are confused.

^ Nikita Khrushchev, "The Cult of the Individual," (The Secret Speech), Speech delivered to the 20th congress of the Communist party of the USSR in Moscow on February 25 1956.
  • Documents Related to the Cold War 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: Reference]

We will bury you" expression, shocking everyone present.[121] .However, he had not been talking about nuclear war, he later claimed, but rather about the historically determined victory of communism over capitalism.^ Reagan made a grand, idealistic statement about rendering nuclear weapons "impotent and obsolete" in the speech announcing Star Wars in 1983.
  • Daily Kos: The Legacy of the Cold War Arms Race: An Interview With David E. Hoffman 31 January 2010 14:11 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The significance of many Cold War resources that have been modified and reused lies in their function rather than their original historic integrity.
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^ Recommended by: G2geek , GenXangster I'm a few years older, and spent much of my childhood worrying about nuclear war, and paying a lot of attention to the news.
  • Daily Kos: The Legacy of the Cold War Arms Race: An Interview With David E. Hoffman 31 January 2010 14:11 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

[122] He then declared in 1961 that even if the USSR might indeed be behind the West, within a decade its housing shortage would disappear, consumer goods would be abundant, its population would be "materially provided for", and within two decades, the Soviet Union "would rise to such a great height that, by comparison, the main capitalist countries will remain far below and well behind".[123]
.Eisenhower's secretary of state, John Foster Dulles, initiated a "New Look" for the containment strategy, calling for a greater reliance on nuclear weapons against US enemies in wartime.^ Dulles, John Foster, 1950-1953 .
  • Guide to the Francis J. McNamara papers, 1928-1997 Collection NumberC0024 19 November 2009 18:018 UTC sca.gmu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Secretary of State Dean Rusk, Memorandum to the President, "Letter to Prime Minister Eshkol on NPT," on Israeli nuclear program, 19 April 1968 .
  • Documents Related to the Cold War 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ The United States remained on high alert against a Soviet nuclear attack.
  • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

[86] .Dulles also enunciated the doctrine of "massive retaliation", threatening a severe US response to any Soviet aggression.^ Massive retaliation: Eisenhower's military doctrine of threatening a full nuclear retaliatory response to any perceived aggression against U.S. interests; later replaced by flexible response because of its lack of credibility.
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^ It has been assumed that the Soviets lost several advisors and/or pilots when the US started bombing Hanoi.

^ Flexible response: A military strategy adopted by President Kennedy and Defense Secretary McNamara calling for a graduated escalation of force in response to aggression, in contrast to the previous doctrine of massive retaliation.
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.Possessing nuclear superiority, for example, allowed Eisenhower to face down Soviet threats to intervene in the Middle East during the 1956 Suez Crisis.^ October 25, 1962, Volk Field Base, Wisconsin An alarm bell indicating that a nuclear war with the Soviet Union was beginning went off accidentally during the height of the Cuban missile crisis.

^ The last section will be brought through to the late 1970s, when the very quiet Soviet nuclear submarine threat does finally begin to appear.
  • The Third Battle: Innovation in the U.S. Navy's Silent Cold War Struggle with Soviet Submarines 31 January 2010 14:11 UTC www.navy.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Any assessment of the American response to this Soviet challenge is complicated by the fact that the fast, deep diving nuclear submarine threat proved in many ways to be a false alarm.
  • The Third Battle: Innovation in the U.S. Navy's Silent Cold War Struggle with Soviet Submarines 31 January 2010 14:11 UTC www.navy.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[20]

Warsaw Pact and Hungarian Revolution

Map of the Warsaw Pact countries
.While Stalin's death in 1953 slightly relaxed tensions, the situation in Europe remained an uneasy armed truce.^ In March 1953, the communist world mourned the death of Stalin.
  • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In each instance, Dylan cannot move on with his life because the positive and negative tensions remain, keeping him from relaxing in or out of the friendships.

[124] The Soviets, who had already created a network of mutual assistance treaties in the Eastern Bloc by 1949,[125] established a formal alliance therein, the Warsaw Pact, in 1955.[47]
.The Hungarian Revolution of 1956 occurred shortly after Khrushchev arranged the removal of Hungary's Stalinist leader Mátyás Rákosi.^ Csaba Békés, "The International background of the 1956 Hungarian Revolution and that of the Prague Spring in 1968: A comparative analysis," The Institute for the History of the 1956 Hungarian Revolution .
  • Documents Related to the Cold War 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Cable from Italian Communist leader Togliatti on Imre Nagy's Hungary, October 30 1956 .
  • Documents Related to the Cold War 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Note from N. Khrushchev to the CPSU CC Presidium regarding conversations with Yugoslav leaders in the Crimea, October 08 1956 .
  • Documents Related to the Cold War 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: Reference]

[126] .In response to a popular uprising,[127] the new regime formally disbanded the secret police, declared its intention to withdraw from the Warsaw Pact and pledged to re-establish free elections.^ By 1949, with the formal establishment of Project Kayo, ASW was included among the potential new missions, and SSKs became a part of the initial response to the Type XXI threat.
  • The Third Battle: Innovation in the U.S. Navy's Silent Cold War Struggle with Soviet Submarines 31 January 2010 14:11 UTC www.navy.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Soviet Red Army invaded.^ For the reasons mentioned above, along with numerous other complex intelligence issues, the casualties of ‘The Red Army’ and it’s predecessors from the former Soviet Union have been estimated but unverified.

[128] .Thousands of Hungarians were arrested, imprisoned and deported to the Soviet Union,[129] and approximately 200,000 Hungarians fled Hungary in the chaos.^ Kennan's Moscow Embassy cable became history: an 8,000-word prophecy that the Soviet Union was in the mood to expand across the world and must be contained.
  • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Not just machines, thousands of craftsmen and scientists were kidnapped and taken to the Soviet Union.
  • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

^ May 14: Warsaw Pact signed, calling for the mutual defense of Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Hungary, Poland, Rumania, and the Soviet Union.
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[130] .Hungarian leader Imre Nagy and others were executed following secret trials.^ Imre Nagy and the other leaders of the uprising were executed.
  • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Cable from Italian Communist leader Togliatti on Imre Nagy's Hungary, October 30 1956 .
  • Documents Related to the Cold War 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: Reference]

[131]
From 1957 through 1961, Khrushchev openly and repeatedly threatened the West with nuclear annihilation. .He claimed that Soviet missile capabilities were far superior to those of the United States, capable of wiping out any American or European city.^ Native American population in the United States.
  • On yahoo answers, how do u get up to a higher level? - Yahoo! Answers 19 November 2009 18:018 UTC answers.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ United States threatens to invade Cuba if the bases are not dismantled and warns that a nuclear attack launched from Cuba would be considered a Soviet attack requiring full retaliation.
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^ U.S. MILITARY HOLDINGS OVERSEAS In order to contain Soviet aggression and to defend its allies, the United States stationed thousands of military men and women overseas during the Cold War.
  • Military Heritage in the Cold War 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.usmlm.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, Khrushchev rejected Stalin's belief in the inevitability of war, and declared his new goal was to be "peaceful coexistence".[132] This formulation modified the Stalin-era Soviet stance, where international class struggle meant the two opposing camps were on an inevitable collision course where Communism would triumph through global war; now, peace would allow capitalism to collapse on its own,[133] as well as giving the Soviets time to boost their military capabilities,[134] which remained for decades until Gorbachev's later "new thinking" envisioning peaceful coexistence as an end in itself rather than a form of class struggle.^ We are not the only generation to have lived in troubled but interesting times, or whose story will be sifted and retold well past our own lifetimes.
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^ U.S. MILITARY HOLDINGS OVERSEAS In order to contain Soviet aggression and to defend its allies, the United States stationed thousands of military men and women overseas during the Cold War.
  • Military Heritage in the Cold War 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.usmlm.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Thanks to détente, rockets could now point the way to coexistence, rather than war.
  • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

[135]
US pronouncements concentrated on American strength abroad and the success of liberal capitalism.[136] .However, by the late 1960s, the "battle for men's minds" between two systems of social organization that Kennedy spoke of in 1961 was largely over, with tensions henceforth based primarily on clashing geopolitical objectives rather than ideology.^ The American monopoly on nuclear power was broken with the Soviet acquisition of an atomic weapon in 1949 and by the late 1960s, a deliberately contrived nuclear weapons parity existed between the two superpowers.
  • Military Heritage in the Cold War 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.usmlm.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I remember two soldiers who died as the result of drowning in the fire pond that was located between our old buildings in the middle of the base.

^ November: Battle of the Ia Drang Valley, the first major clash between the United States and North Vietnamese Army.
  • Military Heritage in the Cold War 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.usmlm.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[137]

Berlin ultimatum and European integration

.During November 1958, Khrushchev made an unsuccessful attempt to turn all of Berlin into an independent, demilitarized "free city", giving the United States, Great Britain, and France a six-month ultimatum to withdraw their troops from the sectors they still occupied in West Berlin, or he would transfer control of Western access rights to the East Germans.^ But the talks persuaded Khrushchev to shelve his Berlin ultimatum and head West.
  • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He would plan the United States' response.
  • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

^ And then I’d play a sweet one, and they all turned into angels."

.Khrushchev earlier explained to Mao Tse-tung that "Berlin is the testicles of the West.^ But the talks persuaded Khrushchev to shelve his Berlin ultimatum and head West.
  • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In November 1958, the West rejected Khrushchev's Berlin proposals.
  • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Mao Tse-tung proclaimed the People's Republic of China.
  • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

.Every time I want to make the West scream, I squeeze on Berlin."^ The West had no intention of budging from Berlin but knew the Soviets wanted them out.
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^ Berlin's open border gave East Germans access to the glittering West -- which Soviet and East German leaders wanted to end.
  • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Every month, thousands of East Germans fled across the open Berlin border and took refuge in the West.
  • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

[138] .NATO formally rejected the ultimatum in mid-December and Khrushchev withdrew it in return for a Geneva conference on the German question.^ July 18: Geneva Summit Conference: Eisenhower, Khrushchev, and Eden discuss disarmament and European security.
  • Military Heritage in the Cold War 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.usmlm.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[139]
.More broadly, one hallmark of the 1950s was the beginning of European integration—a fundamental by-product of the Cold War that Truman and Eisenhower promoted politically, economically, and militarily, but which later administrations viewed ambivalently, fearful that an independent Europe would forge a separate détente with the Soviet Union, which would use this to exacerbate Western disunity.^ One of the defining battles of the Cold War.
  • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Cold War Project administration.
  • Military Heritage in the Cold War 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.usmlm.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Cold War and the war in Vietnam would continue.
  • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

[140]

Worldwide competition

Nationalist movements in some countries and regions, notably Guatemala, Iran, the Philippines, and Indochina were often allied with communist groups—or at least were perceived in the West to be allied with communists.[86] .In this context, the US and the Soviet Union increasingly competed for influence by proxy in the Third World as decolonization gained momentum in the 1950s and early 1960s;[141] additionally, the Soviets saw continuing losses by imperial powers as presaging the eventual victory of their ideology.^ Novikov cautions the Soviet leadership that the Truman administration is bent on imposing US political, military and economic domination around the world.
  • Documents Related to the Cold War 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Kim Il Sung, who had spent the war in the Soviet Union, was groomed for power.
  • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Kennan's Moscow Embassy cable became history: an 8,000-word prophecy that the Soviet Union was in the mood to expand across the world and must be contained.
  • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

[142]
.The US government utilized the CIA in order to remove a string of unfriendly Third World governments and to support allied ones.^ July: Nixon Doctrine: Nixon reaffirms U.S. commitment to defend its allies, but calls on Third World nations to assume primary responsibility for their security.
  • Military Heritage in the Cold War 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.usmlm.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There are three strands to the story of the World War II ASW team which continued from the first phase of the Third Battle into the second one.
  • The Third Battle: Innovation in the U.S. Navy's Silent Cold War Struggle with Soviet Submarines 31 January 2010 14:11 UTC www.navy.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Queiser MoralesWaltraud, “US Intervention and the New World Order: Lessons from the Cold War and post-Cold War Cases,” Third World Quarterly, Journal of Emerging Areas, 15 (March 1994), no.
  • V. The International Community & the FRY/Belligerents - revised 19 November 2009 18:018 UTC www.cla.purdue.edu [Source type: Academic]

[86] .The US used the CIA to overthrow governments suspected by Washington of turning pro-Soviet, including Iran's first democratically elected government under Prime Minister Mohammed Mosaddeq in 1953 (see 1953 Iranian coup d'état) and Guatemala's democratically elected president Jacobo Arbenz Guzmán in 1954 (see 1954 Guatemalan coup d'état).^ In the democratically elected government, a third of the ministers were communists.
  • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Memorandum for the Record, Meeting between Representatives of the CIA and the State Department, Subject: Reservations on the Plan to Overthrow the guatemalan Government, Washington, October 8, 1952, 4 p.m.
  • Documents Related to the Cold War 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ In the first years of Reagan's presidency, the Soviet Union's armed might appeared to be at its peak.
  • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

[111] .Between 1954 and 1961, the US sent economic aid and military advisors to stem the collapse of South Vietnam's pro-Western regime.^ The stage was set for confrontation between the Socialist Unity Party and their pro-Western opponents.
  • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Military-industrial complex: A phrase first coined by President Eisenhower in his 1961 farewell address describing the close linkage between the U.S. military and private contractors in the military industry.
  • Military Heritage in the Cold War 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.usmlm.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Novikov cautions the Soviet leadership that the Truman administration is bent on imposing US political, military and economic domination around the world.
  • Documents Related to the Cold War 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: Reference]

[20]
.Many emerging nations of Asia, Africa, and Latin America rejected the pressure to choose sides in the East-West competition.^ On the other hand, it led to a seemingly endless string of small, bloody battles all over the world: Cuba, Central Africa, South East Asia, Afghanistan, and many others.

^ In theory, relocation was supposed to be voluntary (and many Native Americans did remain in the East), but in practice great pressure was put on Native American leaders to sign removal treaties.
  • On yahoo answers, how do u get up to a higher level? - Yahoo! Answers 19 November 2009 18:018 UTC answers.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In 1955, at the Bandung Conference in Indonesia, dozens of Third World governments resolved to stay out of the Cold War.^ In addition, a conference co-sponsored with the Nuclear History Program will focus on the Cold War in Germany.
  • Military Heritage in the Cold War 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.usmlm.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Upcoming conference topics will include the Cold War in Asia and the Cold War in East Central Europe.
  • Military Heritage in the Cold War 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.usmlm.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Many such weapon systems, structures, sites, and equipment, so crucial to carrying out the military mission during the Cold War, are no longer in service.
  • Military Heritage in the Cold War 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.usmlm.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[143] .The consensus reached at Bandung culminated with the creation of the Non-Aligned Movement in 1961.[86] Meanwhile, Khrushchev broadened Moscow's policy to establish ties with India and other key neutral states.^ The United States also has a low literacy rate compared to other developed countries, with a reading literacy rate at 86 - 98% of the population over age 15.
  • On yahoo answers, how do u get up to a higher level? - Yahoo! Answers 19 November 2009 18:018 UTC answers.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ White established that states do not have the right to secede, and, under the Constitution, they are not allowed to conduct foreign policy.
  • On yahoo answers, how do u get up to a higher level? - Yahoo! Answers 19 November 2009 18:018 UTC answers.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Independence movements in the Third World transformed the post-war order into a more pluralistic world of decolonized African and Middle Eastern nations and of rising nationalism in Asia and Latin America.^ This is a world in which the Navy will have to provide a larger portion of national power projection capabilities, while also placing much more emphasis on sea control than it does now.
  • The Third Battle: Innovation in the U.S. Navy's Silent Cold War Struggle with Soviet Submarines 31 January 2010 14:11 UTC www.navy.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In this international setting, underdeveloped areas and emerging nations in the so-called Third World sought to broker their own independent futures, often with the superpower aid and assistance.
  • Military Heritage in the Cold War 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.usmlm.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ July: Nixon Doctrine: Nixon reaffirms U.S. commitment to defend its allies, but calls on Third World nations to assume primary responsibility for their security.
  • Military Heritage in the Cold War 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.usmlm.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[20]

Sino-Soviet split, space race, ICBMs

Charting the Space Race in context of Sputnik and other nuclear threats.
.The period after 1956 was marked by serious setbacks for the Soviet Union, most notably the breakdown of the Sino-Soviet alliance, beginning the Sino-Soviet split.^ The Poles agreed to a close alliance with the Soviet Union.
  • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

^ But most people in the Soviet Union still lived in hardship and overcrowding.
  • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In an example of realpolitik, the United States also established diplomatic relations with Communist countries that were antagonistic to the Soviet Union, like the People's Republic of China during the Sino-Soviet split.
  • On yahoo answers, how do u get up to a higher level? - Yahoo! Answers 19 November 2009 18:018 UTC answers.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Mao had defended Stalin when Khrushchev attacked him after his death in 1956, and treated the new Soviet leader as a superficial upstart, accusing him of having lost his revolutionary edge.^ But Nikita Khrushchev, the Soviet leader, was delighted to embrace a new revolutionary and offered him economic assistance.
  • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Stalin promised to defend the new Polish frontiers against any German attempt to win back the lost territories.
  • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Castro sent a message to Khrushchev v He said a U.S. attack was just hours away, and once launched, the Soviet Union should retaliate immediately with "an annihilating strike."
  • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

[144]
.After this, Khrushchev made many desperate attempts to reconstitute the Sino-Soviet alliance, but Mao considered it useless and denied any proposal.^ At time of its release, NCI made it clear that their 1997 report did not attempt to measure fallout from nuclear testing conducted in the former Soviet Union or by U.S. tests in the Pacific.

^ An alternative view, and the one eventually adopted, was that an explicit attempt should be made to go forward and hold Soviet SSBNs at risk.
  • The Third Battle: Innovation in the U.S. Navy's Silent Cold War Struggle with Soviet Submarines 31 January 2010 14:11 UTC www.navy.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[144] .The Chinese and the Soviets waged an intra-Communist propaganda war.^ The Soviet Bloc and the Initial Stage of the Cold War: Archival Documents on Stalin's Meetings with Communist Leaders of Yugoslavia and Bulgaria, 1946-1948, by Leonid Gibianskii .
  • Documents Related to the Cold War 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: Reference]

[145] Further on, the Soviets focused on a bitter rivalry with Mao's China for leadership of the global communist movement,[146] and the two clashed militarily in 1969.[147]
.On the nuclear weapons front, the US and the USSR pursued nuclear rearmament and developed long-range weapons with which they could strike the territory of the other.^ Bent Spear Any nuclear weapon significant incidents other than nuclear weapons accidents or war risk detonations, actual or possible.

^ A nuclear weapon mounted on the aircraft's centerline pylon was badly damaged before the fire could be put out.

^ Was there seismic and other evidence of incoming nuclear strikes?
  • Daily Kos: The Legacy of the Cold War Arms Race: An Interview With David E. Hoffman 31 January 2010 14:11 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

[47] .In August 1957, the Soviets successfully launched the world's first intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM)[148] and in October, launched the first Earth satellite, Sputnik.^ October 4: Soviet Union launches Sputnik, first satellite to orbit Earth.
  • Military Heritage in the Cold War 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.usmlm.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ ICBM: Intercontinental ballistic missile.
  • Military Heritage in the Cold War 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.usmlm.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Indeed, the U.S. Navy had already experimented successfully in 1947 with launching a V-1-type cruise missile from the Cusk, a converted Gato class diesel submarine.
  • The Third Battle: Innovation in the U.S. Navy's Silent Cold War Struggle with Soviet Submarines 31 January 2010 14:11 UTC www.navy.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[149] .The launch of Sputnik inaugurated the Space Race.^ November 3: Soviet Union launches Sputnik 2, which carries the first living creature (a dog) into space.
  • Military Heritage in the Cold War 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.usmlm.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This culminated in the Apollo Moon landings, which astronaut Frank Borman later described as "just a battle in the Cold War"[150] with superior spaceflight rockets indicating superior ICBMs.^ One of the defining battles of the Cold War.
  • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Chapter II, "Cold War Historic Resources," describes Cold War historic resource types.
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^ The battle lines of the Cold War were being drawn.
  • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

Berlin Crisis of 1961

Soviet tanks face US tanks at Checkpoint Charlie, on October 27, during the Berlin Crisis of 1961
.The Berlin Crisis of 1961 was the last major incident in the Cold War regarding the status of Berlin and post-World War II Germany.^ US demobilization after World War II) .
  • Documents Related to the Cold War 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ This, at last, was the official declaration of the Cold War.
  • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The United States and the use of force in the post-Cold War World .
  • V. The International Community & the FRY/Belligerents - revised 19 November 2009 18:018 UTC www.cla.purdue.edu [Source type: Academic]

.By the early 1950s, the Soviet approach to restricting emigration movement was emulated by most of the rest of the Eastern Bloc.^ September-December: Eastern European nations leave Soviet Bloc, renounce ties to Moscow.
  • Military Heritage in the Cold War 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.usmlm.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ American passions flared over restrictions on the emigration of Soviet Jews.
  • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Soviet Union's successes in consolidating and controlling a bloc in eastern Europe in the early years of the Cold War and the victory of Chinese Communism in the same period contributed to a pervasive sense of danger and threat in the United States.
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[151] .However, hundreds of thousands of East Germans annually emigrated to West Germany through a "loophole" in the system that existed between East and West Berlin, where the four occupying World War II powers governed movement.^ US demobilization after World War II) .
  • Documents Related to the Cold War 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Its government operates as a representative democracy through a congressional system under a set of powers specified by its Constitution.
  • On yahoo answers, how do u get up to a higher level? - Yahoo! Answers 19 November 2009 18:018 UTC answers.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The SQS-23 was also too large to be fitted to all but the largest fleet destroyers of World War II, and the anticipated follow on to the SQS-23, the 3.5 kHz SQS-26, made matters even worse with an even larger transducer and greater power requirements.
  • The Third Battle: Innovation in the U.S. Navy's Silent Cold War Struggle with Soviet Submarines 31 January 2010 14:11 UTC www.navy.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[152]
.The emigration resulted in a massive "brain drain" from East Germany to West Germany of younger educated professionals, such that nearly 20% of East Germany's population had migrated to West Germany by 1961.[153] That June, the Soviet Union issued a new ultimatum demanding the withdrawal of Allied forces from West Berlin.^ Draft of classified CIA report, dated June 14, 1948, titled "Effect of Soviet Restrictions on the U.S. Position in Berlin."
  • Documents Related to the Cold War 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ March 1964 A US Air Force RB-66 Destroyer from the 10 TRW, based at Toul-Rosieres France, was shot down over East Germany by Soviet MiGs.

^ Feb 9 Soviet Union: Stalin effectively declares on the West.

[154] .The request was rebuffed, and in August, East Germany erected a barbed-wire barrier that would eventually be expanded through construction into the Berlin Wall, effectively closing the loophole.^ Chapter VI: The Wall 1958-1963 v  It started as a barbed wire fence.
  • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Teams of workers under armed guard started erecting a barbed wire barrier through the center.
  • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

^ An American troop convoy was sent to Berlin up the autobahn across East Germany.
  • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

[155]

Cuban Missile Crisis and Khrushchev ouster

.The Soviet Union formed an alliance with Fidel Castro-led Cuba after the Cuban Revolution in 1959.[156] In 1962, President John F. Kennedy responded to the installation of nuclear missiles in Cuba with a naval blockade.^ January 1: Cuban Revolution; Fidel Castro becomes premier of Cuba on January 6.
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^ Castro turned to the Soviet Union for help.
  • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

^ October 25, 1962, Volk Field Base, Wisconsin An alarm bell indicating that a nuclear war with the Soviet Union was beginning went off accidentally during the height of the Cuban missile crisis.

.The Cuban Missile Crisis brought the world closer to nuclear war than ever before.^ Bent Spear Any nuclear weapon significant incidents other than nuclear weapons accidents or war risk detonations, actual or possible.

^ The Corps is looking at buildings built prior to 1946 to determine the eligibility for the National Register, but is also paying special attention to the Cold War significance of the structures and station itself, mainly stemming from the Cuban Missile Crisis.
  • Military Heritage in the Cold War 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.usmlm.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ October 25, 1962, Volk Field Base, Wisconsin An alarm bell indicating that a nuclear war with the Soviet Union was beginning went off accidentally during the height of the Cuban missile crisis.

[157] .It further demonstrated the concept of mutually assured destruction, that neither nuclear power was prepared to use nuclear weapons fearing total destruction via nuclear retaliation.^ Strange as it may sound to a generation of Americans used to concepts such as nuclear deterrence and mutual assured destruction, the early Cold War years were witness to many attempts to preserve the societal invulnerability which geography and political isolation had bestowed on the United States before the arrival of nuclear weapons.
  • The Third Battle: Innovation in the U.S. Navy's Silent Cold War Struggle with Soviet Submarines 31 January 2010 14:11 UTC www.navy.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "USAFE", 26 May 1964, on the problem of first-use of nuclear weapons, possibly prepared by Seymour Weiss, Bureau of Politico-Military Affairs, Department of State .
  • Documents Related to the Cold War 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ It is going to start a direct HOT war that had been avoided by leaders of both countries for fear of mutual destruction.
  • CNN Political Ticker: All politics, all the time Blog Archive - McCain: Georgia conflict won’t ‘re-ignite the Cold War’ « - Blogs from CNN.com 31 January 2010 14:11 UTC politicalticker.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: General]

[158] The aftermath of the crisis led to the first efforts in the nuclear arms race at nuclear disarmament and improving relations,[124] although the Cold War's first arms control agreement, the Antarctic Treaty, had come into force in 1961.[159]
In 1964, Khrushchev's Kremlin colleagues managed to oust him, but allowed him a peaceful retirement.[160] .Accused of rudeness and incompetence, he was also credited with ruining Soviet agriculture and bringing the world to the brink of nuclear war.^ Before turning to that discussion, it is important to establish the context established by the first Soviet nuclear detonation and the Korean War.
  • The Third Battle: Innovation in the U.S. Navy's Silent Cold War Struggle with Soviet Submarines 31 January 2010 14:11 UTC www.navy.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A-20s had been supplied in quantity to the Soviets on Lend-Lease during World War 2, and this unit had had extensive experience during the war as torpedo bombers .

^ The result was a series of proxy wars, including the Korean War, the Vietnam War, the tense nuclear showdown of the Cuban Missile Crisis, and the Soviet war in Afghanistan.
  • On yahoo answers, how do u get up to a higher level? - Yahoo! Answers 19 November 2009 18:018 UTC answers.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[160] .Khrushchev had become an international embarrassment when he authorised construction of the Berlin Wall, a public humiliation for Marxism-Leninism.^ This piece of the Berlin Wall - a quintessential Cold War symbol - was transferred to Ramstein Air Base, Germany, for public display.
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[160]

Confrontation through détente (1962–79)

The United States reached the moon in 1969—a symbolic milestone in the space race.
United States Navy F-4 Phantom II intercepts a Soviet Tupolev Tu-95 D aircraft in the early 1970s
.In the course of the 1960s and '70s, Cold War participants struggled to adjust to a new, more complicated pattern of international relations in which the world was no longer divided into two clearly opposed blocs.^ A new Cold War is possible, Anarcissie.
  • Robert Scheer: Cold War Hawks Nesting With Obama - Robert Scheer's Columns -Truthdig 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.truthdig.com [Source type: Original source]

^ New Hampshire The SHPO has no plans for Cold War resources.
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^ Cambridge Review of International Relations 11, no.
  • V. The International Community & the FRY/Belligerents - revised 19 November 2009 18:018 UTC www.cla.purdue.edu [Source type: Academic]

[86] .From the beginning of the post-war period, Western Europe and Japan rapidly recovered from the destruction of World War II and sustained strong economic growth through the 1950s and '60s, with per capita GDPs approaching those of the United States, while Eastern Bloc economies stagnated.^ US demobilization after World War II) .
  • Documents Related to the Cold War 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ The United States mobilized for war.
  • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Was the war a loss for the UN and the United States?

[86][161]
.As a result of the 1973 oil crisis, combined with the growing influence of Third World alignments such as the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) and the Non-Aligned Movement, less-powerful countries had more room to assert their independence and often showed themselves resistant to pressure from either superpower.^ This is a world in which the Navy will have to provide a larger portion of national power projection capabilities, while also placing much more emphasis on sea control than it does now.
  • The Third Battle: Innovation in the U.S. Navy's Silent Cold War Struggle with Soviet Submarines 31 January 2010 14:11 UTC www.navy.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In this international setting, underdeveloped areas and emerging nations in the so-called Third World sought to broker their own independent futures, often with the superpower aid and assistance.
  • Military Heritage in the Cold War 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.usmlm.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ More secure within his own country, he sought to export revolution to the rest of Latin America.
  • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

[112] .Moscow, meanwhile, was forced to turn its attention inward to deal with the Soviet Union's deep-seated domestic economic problems.^ Castro turned to the Soviet Union for help.
  • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Kennan's Moscow Embassy cable became history: an 8,000-word prophecy that the Soviet Union was in the mood to expand across the world and must be contained.
  • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

^ April 1: Berlin Blockade: The Soviet Union blockades all highway, river, and rail traffic into Western-controlled West Berlin to force the Western powers out of Berlin.
  • Military Heritage in the Cold War 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.usmlm.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[86] .During this period, Soviet leaders such as Alexey Kosygin and Leonid Brezhnev embraced the notion of détente.^ Letter from five Communist Party officials to Soviet leader, Brezhnev, requesting Soviet intervention, August 1968 .
  • Documents Related to the Cold War 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ In May, a grim Soviet prime minister, Alexei Kosygin, visited the Czechs.
  • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In February 1965 Hanoi gave Soviet Premier Alexei Kosygin a warm welcome.
  • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

[86]

Dominican Republic and French NATO withdrawal

.President Lyndon B. Johnson landed 22,000 troops in the Dominican Republic in Operation Power Pack, citing the threat of the emergence of a Cuban-style revolution in Latin America.^ Global Security.org, "Operation Powerpack," US Intervention in the Dominican Republic, April 1965 .
  • Documents Related to the Cold War 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ May 2: Johnson sends troops to the Dominican Republic to "prevent another Communist state in this hemisphere."
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^ April 17: Bay of Pigs landing by more than 1,000 CIA-trained Cuban refugees fails in its attempt to "liberate" Cuba.
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[20] .NATO countries remained primarily dependent on the US military for its defense against any potential Soviet invasion, a status most vociferously contested by France's Charles de Gaulle, who in 1966 withdrew from NATO's military structures and expelled NATO troops from French soil.^ This is why ASW will always remain the most important element of the US Navy's core mission - Sea Control.
  • The Third Battle: Innovation in the U.S. Navy's Silent Cold War Struggle with Soviet Submarines 31 January 2010 14:11 UTC www.navy.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It dominated the activities of military assistance advisory groups (MAAGs) who managed military assistance programs (MAPs) for signatories of defensive alliances and other clients.
  • Military Heritage in the Cold War 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.usmlm.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ North Atlantic Treaty Organization The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), with its 12 original signatory countries - Belgium, Canada, Denmark, France, Great Britain, Iceland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, and the United States - was created to form a defensive alliance against Soviet aggression.
  • Military Heritage in the Cold War 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.usmlm.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[162]

Czechoslovakia invasion

.In 1968, a period of political liberalization in Czechoslovakia called the Prague Spring took place that included "Action Program" of liberalizations, which described increasing freedom of the press, freedom of speech and freedom of movement, along with an economic emphasis on consumer goods, the possibility of a multiparty government, limiting the power of the secret police[163][164] and potentially withdrawing from the Warsaw Pact.^ As originally articulated, the policy called for a vigilant but patient reaction to Soviet expansionism, emphasizing political and economic tools over military force.
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^ January: Prague Spring reforms led by Alexander Dubcek in Czechoslovakia to bring about "socialism with a human face."
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^ In the early summer, Warsaw Pact troops staged very public maneuvers in Czechoslovakia.
  • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

[165]
.The Soviet Red Army, together with most of their Warsaw Pact allies, invaded Czechoslovakia.^ Soviet and Warsaw Pact armies burst through the Czechoslovak frontiers.
  • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Warsaw Pact: Signed in 1955, it codified the East-West split and provided for mutual defense among Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Hungary, Poland, Romania, and the Soviet Union.
  • Military Heritage in the Cold War 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.usmlm.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ May 14: Warsaw Pact signed, calling for the mutual defense of Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Hungary, Poland, Rumania, and the Soviet Union.
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[166] .The invasion was followed by a wave of emigration, including an estimated 70,000 Czechs initially fleeing, with the total eventually reaching 300,000.[167] The invasion sparked intense protests from Yugoslavia, Romania and China, and from Western European communist parties.^ As membership of the Communist Party reaches 2 million, America fears that Italy, and Western Europe, could fall to communism.
  • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

^ As the Leipzig demonstration moved off, the local Communist Party leaders realized that 70,000 people were already on the streets.
  • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He also instructed Communist parties in the West to take the initiative in seizing power.
  • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

[168]

Brezhnev Doctrine

Brezhnev and Nixon during Brezhnev's June 1973 visit to Washington; this was a high-water mark in détente between the United States and the Soviet Union.
.In September 1968, during a speech at the Fifth Congress of the Polish United Workers' Party one month after the invasion of Czechoslovakia, Brezhnev outlined the Brezhnev Doctrine, in which he claimed the right to violate the sovereignty of any country attempting to replace Marxism-Leninism with capitalism.^ Speech by Leonid Brezhnev articulating the "Brezhnev Doctrine," November 13, 1968 .
  • Documents Related to the Cold War 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Letter from five Communist Party officials to Soviet leader, Brezhnev, requesting Soviet intervention, August 1968 .
  • Documents Related to the Cold War 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Speech by President Truman asking Congress to pass the Truman Doctrine (no date) .
  • Documents Related to the Cold War 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: Reference]

During the speech, Brezhnev stated:[165]
When forces that are hostile to socialism try to turn the development of some socialist country towards capitalism, it becomes not only a problem of the country concerned, but a common problem and concern of all socialist countries.
.The doctrine found its origins in the failures of Marxism-Leninism in states like Poland, Hungary and East Germany, which were facing a declining standard of living contrasting with the prosperity of West Germany and the rest of Western Europe.^ The refugees had been traveling from East Germany to Hungary in the hope of getting to the West.
  • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

^ East Germany could not compete with the swelling prosperity of the West.
  • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Have you already forgotten the atrocities and harshness of the old USSR? Have you already forgotten the celebrations and smiling faces of the people of countries like Georgia, Ukraine, Latvia, Lithuania, Hungary, Poland, etc when the USSR disentigrated and these people were once again free to live their lives out from under the crushing thumb of the USSR? .
  • CNN Political Ticker: All politics, all the time Blog Archive - McCain: Georgia conflict won’t ‘re-ignite the Cold War’ « - Blogs from CNN.com 31 January 2010 14:11 UTC politicalticker.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: General]

[169]

Third World escalations

.The US continued to spend heavily on supporting friendly Third World regimes in Asia.^ There are three strands to the story of the World War II ASW team which continued from the first phase of the Third Battle into the second one.
  • The Third Battle: Innovation in the U.S. Navy's Silent Cold War Struggle with Soviet Submarines 31 January 2010 14:11 UTC www.navy.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Conflicts in peripheral regions and client states—most prominently in Vietnam—continued.^ The arrangement always suffered from conflicting political allegiances within the region, contributed little to the American effort during the Vietnam War, and was dissolved in 1977.
  • Military Heritage in the Cold War 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.usmlm.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The United States has typically regarded war and conflict data in the same manner as most countries but has felt obligated for various fundamental reasons that the publishing of this data is necessary.

^ Several limited conflicts raged on the periphery of superpower influence in countries seen as client states of the respective superpowers.
  • Military Heritage in the Cold War 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.usmlm.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[170] .Johnson stationed 575,000 troops in Southeast Asia to defeat the National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam (NLF) and their North Vietnamese allies in the Vietnam War, but his costly policy weakened the US economy and, by 1975, ultimately culminated in what most of the world saw as a humiliating defeat of the world's most powerful superpower at the hands of one of the world's poorest nations.^ Most Americans still supported President Johnson's war in Vietnam.
  • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In brief, the Korean War began with the invasion of the South by North Korean troops.

^ On the one hand, it prevented a major war.

[20]
.Additionally, Operation Condor, employed by South American dictators to suppress leftist dissent, was backed by the US, which (sometimes accurately) perceived Soviet or Cuban support behind these opposition movements.^ These negative search methods were supported by CNA, continuing the tradition begun by the OEG during WWII of using sophisticated operations analysis methods in support of the ASW effort.
  • The Third Battle: Innovation in the U.S. Navy's Silent Cold War Struggle with Soviet Submarines 31 January 2010 14:11 UTC www.navy.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These Indian Ocean deployments also saw the first routine direct support operations by SSNs in the Battle Group, again because of the atrocious acoustic conditions.
  • The Third Battle: Innovation in the U.S. Navy's Silent Cold War Struggle with Soviet Submarines 31 January 2010 14:11 UTC www.navy.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ President Johnson was now convinced that without the support of a massive American army, South Vietnam was doomed.
  • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

[171] Brezhnev, meanwhile, attempted to revive the Soviet economy, which was declining in part because of heavy military expenditures.[20]
Moreover, the Middle East continued to be a source of contention. .Egypt, which received the bulk of its arms and economic assistance from the USSR, was a troublesome client, with a reluctant Soviet Union feeling obliged to assist in both the 1967 Six-Day War (with advisers and technicians) and the War of Attrition (with pilots and aircraft) against US ally Israel;[172] Syria and Iraq later received increased assistance as well as (indirectly) the PLO.^ US has dealt arms to them and so has Israel.
  • CNN Political Ticker: All politics, all the time Blog Archive - McCain: Georgia conflict won’t ‘re-ignite the Cold War’ « - Blogs from CNN.com 31 January 2010 14:11 UTC politicalticker.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: General]

^ The Soviet Union was devastated by war.
  • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The war in Iraq has weakened us.
  • CNN Political Ticker: All politics, all the time Blog Archive - McCain: Georgia conflict won’t ‘re-ignite the Cold War’ « - Blogs from CNN.com 31 January 2010 14:11 UTC politicalticker.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: General]

[173]
.During the 1973 Yom Kippur War, rumors of imminent Soviet intervention on the Egyptians' behalf brought about a massive US mobilization that threatened to wreck détente;[174] this escalation, the USSR's first in a regional conflict central to US interests, inaugurated a new and more turbulent stage of Third World military activism in which the Soviets made use of their new strategic parity.^ During periods of the Cold War, the military establishment faced the pressures brought about by the extension or reinstatement of the Selective Service System, or draft.
  • Military Heritage in the Cold War 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.usmlm.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Novikov cautions the Soviet leadership that the Truman administration is bent on imposing US political, military and economic domination around the world.
  • Documents Related to the Cold War 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ The American military presence, initially a constabulary force, continued to serve as a trip-wire in a confrontation that threatened to become a world war if the Soviet armored host facing them violated the border between the two Germanys that formed the original Iron Curtain.
  • Military Heritage in the Cold War 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.usmlm.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[175]

Sino-American relations

.As a result of the Sino-Soviet split, tensions along the Chinese-Soviet border reached their peak in 1969, and US President Richard Nixon decided to use the conflict to shift the balance of power towards the West in the Cold War.^ The aircraft reached the vicinity of K-13 before crashing, possibly the result of an additional attack by a US Navy AD-4B Skyraider on night patrol.

^ The fact that it did not expand into a wider war helped confirm the West's policy of containment of Communism, a policy which dominated most international relations during the Cold War.

^ The cars are a unique part of Cold War history; they were used to transport troops and supplies from 1946 until the reunification of Germany.
  • Military Heritage in the Cold War 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.usmlm.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[176] .The Chinese had sought improved relations with the US in order to gain advantage over the Soviets as well.^ West Germany's new Chancellor, the Social Democrat Willy Brandt, had his own ideas for improving relations with the Soviet bloc.
  • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

.In February 1972, Nixon announced a stunning rapprochement with Mao's China[177] by traveling to Beijing and meeting with Mao Zedong and Zhou Enlai.^ November 15: The People's Republic of China joins the U.N. 1972 February 17-27: Nixon visits China, pledges to withdraw U.S. forces from Taiwan.
  • Military Heritage in the Cold War 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.usmlm.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Dobrynin record of meeting with Kissinger in which Kissinger informs Dobrynin about what the US Secretary of State Rogers does not know about US policy, 4 February 1972 .
  • Documents Related to the Cold War 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Dobrynin cable on U.S.-China rapprochement and Kissinger and Dobrynin records of meeting, 19 July 1971 .
  • Documents Related to the Cold War 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: Reference]

.At this time, the USSR achieved rough nuclear parity with the US while the Vietnam War weakened US influence in the Third World and cooled relations with Western Europe.^ US demobilization after World War II) .
  • Documents Related to the Cold War 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ The war in Iraq has weakened us.
  • CNN Political Ticker: All politics, all the time Blog Archive - McCain: Georgia conflict won’t ‘re-ignite the Cold War’ « - Blogs from CNN.com 31 January 2010 14:11 UTC politicalticker.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: General]

^ The result was a series of proxy wars, including the Korean War, the Vietnam War, the tense nuclear showdown of the Cuban Missile Crisis, and the Soviet war in Afghanistan.
  • On yahoo answers, how do u get up to a higher level? - Yahoo! Answers 19 November 2009 18:018 UTC answers.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[178] .Although indirect conflict between Cold War powers continued through the late 1960s and early 1970s, tensions were beginning to ease.^ The Cold War military buildup continued.
  • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Cold War and the war in Vietnam would continue.
  • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It tells the tale of how the Shulamite -- "one who has found peace" -- is rebirthed on earth as result of the conflict and settlement of First War between men and women.

[124]

Nixon, Brezhnev, and détente

Leonid Brezhnev and Jimmy Carter sign SALT II treaty, June 18, 1979, in Vienna
.Following his China visit, Nixon met with Soviet leaders, including Brezhnev in Moscow.^ Soviet leaders were alarmed after Kissinger and then Nixon returned jubilant from China.
  • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Letter from five Communist Party officials to Soviet leader, Brezhnev, requesting Soviet intervention, August 1968 .
  • Documents Related to the Cold War 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Would the Soviets receive Nixon in Moscow while his planes were bombing their North Vietnamese ally?
  • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

[179] .These Strategic Arms Limitation Talks resulted in two landmark arms control treaties: SALT I, the first comprehensive limitation pact signed by the two superpowers,[180] and the Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty, which banned the development of systems designed to intercept incoming missiles.^ (Beograd: Centre for South Eastern European Studies, and Geneva: Centre for the Democratic Control of the Armed Forces, 2002), pp.169–180.
  • V. The International Community & the FRY/Belligerents - revised 19 November 2009 18:018 UTC www.cla.purdue.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Appendix VI Glossary of Terms ABM: Anti-ballistic missile system.
  • Military Heritage in the Cold War 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.usmlm.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ July 20: United States fires first ballistic missile from a submerged submarine off Cape Canaveral.
  • Military Heritage in the Cold War 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.usmlm.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.These aimed to limit the development of costly anti-ballistic missiles and nuclear missiles.^ Appendix VI Glossary of Terms ABM: Anti-ballistic missile system.
  • Military Heritage in the Cold War 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.usmlm.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ May 26: SALT I agreement signed restricting development of ABMs and freezing numbers of ICBMs and submarine-launched ballistic missiles (SLBMs) in place for 5 years.
  • Military Heritage in the Cold War 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.usmlm.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ February 22, 1970, Boetingen, West Germany A nuclear warhead from a Pershing ballistic missile fell to the pavement during maintenance procedures.

[86]
.Nixon and Brezhnev proclaimed a new era of "peaceful coexistence" and established the groundbreaking new policy of détente (or cooperation) between the two superpowers.^ For Brezhnev and Nixon, this was the most dramatic proof yet of the new relationship between their two countries.
  • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Containment came to be played out in a series of smaller, localized conflicts rather than in a direct confrontation between the two superpowers.
  • Military Heritage in the Cold War 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.usmlm.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Because SOSUS eliminated the need for close cooperation between the two communities, both were happy to go off on their own.
  • The Third Battle: Innovation in the U.S. Navy's Silent Cold War Struggle with Soviet Submarines 31 January 2010 14:11 UTC www.navy.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Between 1972 and 1974, the two sides also agreed to strengthen their economic ties,[20] including agreements for increased trade. .As a result of their meetings, détente would replace the hostility of the Cold War and the two countries would live mutually.^ He lives in the 60's and the cold war era.
  • CNN Political Ticker: All politics, all the time Blog Archive - McCain: Georgia conflict won’t ‘re-ignite the Cold War’ « - Blogs from CNN.com 31 January 2010 14:11 UTC politicalticker.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: General]

^ The Cold War and the war in Vietnam would continue.
  • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The deaths of two American officers should never be forgotten, and these are just two more of the Forgotten Heroes Of The Cold War.

[179]
.Meanwhile, these developments coincided with the "Ostpolitik" of West German Chancellor Willy Brandt.^ Willy Brandt became the first West German chancellor to visit East Germany.
  • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

^ August 26: West German Chancellor Helmut Kohl states Germany will destroy its Pershing missiles if United States and U.S.S.R. agree to destroy intermediate-range nuclear missiles.
  • Military Heritage in the Cold War 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.usmlm.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ West Germany's new Chancellor, the Social Democrat Willy Brandt, had his own ideas for improving relations with the Soviet bloc.
  • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

[168] Other agreements were concluded to stabilize the situation in Europe, culminating in the Helsinki Accords signed at the Conference on Security and Co-operation in Europe in 1975.[181]

Late 1970s deterioration of relations

.In the 1970s, the KGB, led by Yuri Andropov, continued to persecute distinguished Soviet personalities such as Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn and Andrei Sakharov, who were criticising the Soviet leadership in harsh terms.^ As the arguments continued, the Soviet foreign minister, Andrei Gromyko, and the Soviet ambassador, Anatoly Dobrynin, kept a long-standing engagement at the White House.
  • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

^ At the most general level, this review led to some relaxation in the near term concern over the Soviet submarine threat but continued anxiety about the more distant future.
  • The Third Battle: Innovation in the U.S. Navy's Silent Cold War Struggle with Soviet Submarines 31 January 2010 14:11 UTC www.navy.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The ailing KGB chief, Yuri Andropov, succeeded him.
  • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

[182] .Indirect conflict between the superpowers continued through this period of détente in the Third World, particularly during political crises in the Middle East, Chile, Ethiopia and Angola.^ The arrangement always suffered from conflicting political allegiances within the region, contributed little to the American effort during the Vietnam War, and was dissolved in 1977.
  • Military Heritage in the Cold War 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.usmlm.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Combined with this relative vacuum of intelligence was a period in the five years between World War II and Korea of very low defense spending in the United States.
  • The Third Battle: Innovation in the U.S. Navy's Silent Cold War Struggle with Soviet Submarines 31 January 2010 14:11 UTC www.navy.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Containment came to be played out in a series of smaller, localized conflicts rather than in a direct confrontation between the two superpowers.
  • Military Heritage in the Cold War 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.usmlm.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[183]
.Although President Jimmy Carter tried to place another limit on the arms race with a SALT II agreement in 1979,[184] his efforts were undermined by the other events that year, including the Iranian Revolution and the Nicaraguan Revolution, which both ousted pro-US regimes, and his retaliation against Soviet intervention in Afghanistan in December.^ November 2: Jimmy Carter elected President.
  • Military Heritage in the Cold War 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.usmlm.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Memo to President from Zbigniew Brzezinski, Reflections on Soviet intervention in Afghanistan, December 26, 1979 .
  • Documents Related to the Cold War 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ US, President Carter phone call to Giscard (Soviet invasion of Afghanistan), 28 December 1979 .
  • Documents Related to the Cold War 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: Reference]

[20]

Second Cold War (1979–85)

.
This map shows the two essential global spheres during the Cold War in 1980–the US in blue and the USSR in red.
^ During periods of the Cold War, the military establishment faced the pressures brought about by the extension or reinstatement of the Selective Service System, or draft.
  • Military Heritage in the Cold War 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.usmlm.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A more comprehensive treatment of Cold War history and historic preservation is expected from the Legacy Program in the next year or two.
  • Military Heritage in the Cold War 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.usmlm.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The fact that it did not expand into a wider war helped confirm the West's policy of containment of Communism, a policy which dominated most international relations during the Cold War.

See the legend on the map for more details.
.The term second Cold War has been used by some historians to refer to the period of intensive reawakening of Cold War tensions and conflicts in the late 1970s and early 1980s.^ During periods of the Cold War, the military establishment faced the pressures brought about by the extension or reinstatement of the Selective Service System, or draft.
  • Military Heritage in the Cold War 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.usmlm.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In fact, by some measures, the American acoustic advantage against the CVYs had actually deepened by the early 1970s.
  • The Third Battle: Innovation in the U.S. Navy's Silent Cold War Struggle with Soviet Submarines 31 January 2010 14:11 UTC www.navy.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Used in this way, an SSGN would increase the effectiveness of and reduce the danger to other battle group strike assets early in a conflict.
  • The Third Battle: Innovation in the U.S. Navy's Silent Cold War Struggle with Soviet Submarines 31 January 2010 14:11 UTC www.navy.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Tensions greatly increased between the major powers with both sides becoming more militaristic.^ Both sides were constantly introducing more powerful and accurate missiles.
  • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

^ For example, much more vigorous interaction between the IUSS community and the operating forces was instituted, both in advance of and during an exercise.
  • The Third Battle: Innovation in the U.S. Navy's Silent Cold War Struggle with Soviet Submarines 31 January 2010 14:11 UTC www.navy.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At any rate, one key to a true submarine was AIP, and the submarine force experimented with both Walther plants and, more important, nuclear power.
  • The Third Battle: Innovation in the U.S. Navy's Silent Cold War Struggle with Soviet Submarines 31 January 2010 14:11 UTC www.navy.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[14]

Afghanistan war

.During December 1979, approximately 75,000 Soviet troops invaded Afghanistan in order to support the Marxist government formed by ex-Prime-minister Nur Muhammad Taraki, assassinated that September by one of his party rivals.^ The British prime minister pledged his support.
  • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Circular Cable to Soviet Amassadors in non-fraternal countries with official Soviet position regarding developments of the Situation Around Afghanistan, December 27, 1979 .
  • Documents Related to the Cold War 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Report from Soviet Deputy Minister of Internal Affairs Perevertkin on moving Soviet troops into Hungary, October 24 1956 .
  • Documents Related to the Cold War 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: Reference]

[185] .As a result, US President Jimmy Carter withdrew the SALT II treaty from the Senate, imposed embargoes on grain and technology shipments to the USSR, demanded a significant increase in military spending, and further announced that the United States would boycott the 1980 Moscow Summer Olympics.^ US, State Department brief on Olympic boycott, 8 March 1980 .
  • Documents Related to the Cold War 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ November 2: Jimmy Carter elected President.
  • Military Heritage in the Cold War 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.usmlm.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The United States had embarked on what would be the longest military war in its history.
  • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

He described the Soviet intervention in Afghanistan as "the most serious threat to the peace since the Second World War".[186]

Reagan and Thatcher

.In 1980, Ronald Reagan defeated Jimmy Carter in the US presidential election, vowing to increase military spending and confront the Soviets everywhere.^ Novikov cautions the Soviet leadership that the Truman administration is bent on imposing US political, military and economic domination around the world.
  • Documents Related to the Cold War 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ December 4: Military build-up: Carter calls for a major military build-up to counter Soviet military power.
  • Military Heritage in the Cold War 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.usmlm.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ US, President Carter phone call to Thatcher (Soviet invasion of Afghanistan), 28 December 1979 .
  • Documents Related to the Cold War 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: Reference]

[187] .Both Reagan and new British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher denounced the Soviet Union and its ideology.^ The British prime minister pledged his support.
  • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Ronald Reagan soon discovered that his close ally, British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher, was also critical of SDI. v She tried to persuade her friend not to abandon the nuclear deterrent for his beloved "Star Wars."
  • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In the first years of Reagan's presidency, the Soviet Union's armed might appeared to be at its peak.
  • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

Reagan labeled the Soviet Union an "evil empire" and predicted that Communism would be left on the "ash heap of history".[188]

Polish Solidarity movement

.Pope John Paul II provided a moral focus for anti-communism; a visit to his native Poland in 1979 stimulated a religious and nationalist resurgence centered on the Solidarity movement that galvanized opposition and may have led to his attempted assassination two years later.^ Pope John Paul II [assassination attempt], 1983-1985 .
  • Guide to the Francis J. McNamara papers, 1928-1997 Collection NumberC0024 19 November 2009 18:018 UTC sca.gmu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Pope John Paul II [assassination attempt], 1984-1985 .
  • Guide to the Francis J. McNamara papers, 1928-1997 Collection NumberC0024 19 November 2009 18:018 UTC sca.gmu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ "Attaching Memorandum Entitled 'Report on the Use of Anti-Soviet Material within Iran during Period Covered by Last Two Years'," May 29, 1953.
  • Documents Related to the Cold War 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: Reference]

[189] .Reagan also imposed economic sanctions on Poland to protest the suppression of Solidarity.^ September 9: Reagan announces economic sanctions against South Africa.
  • Military Heritage in the Cold War 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.usmlm.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[190] .In response, Mikhail Suslov, the Kremlin's top ideologist, advised Soviet leaders not to intervene if Poland fell under the control of Solidarity, for fear it might lead to heavy economic sanctions, representing a catastrophe for the Soviet economy.^ Chile's economy was increasingly put under state control.
  • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Then with Poland under Soviet occupation, Churchill and Stalin got down to power-broking in Moscow.
  • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Soviet Union had been the first into space, but now a fear lurked in the hearts of top Soviet commanders -- fear of American technological superiority.
  • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

[190]

Soviet and US military and economic issues

US and USSR/Russian nuclear weapons stockpiles, 1945–2006
.Moscow had built up a military that consumed as much as 25 percent of the Soviet Union's gross national product at the expense of consumer goods and investment in civilian sectors.^ December 4: Military build-up: Carter calls for a major military build-up to counter Soviet military power.
  • Military Heritage in the Cold War 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.usmlm.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Kennan's Moscow Embassy cable became history: an 8,000-word prophecy that the Soviet Union was in the mood to expand across the world and must be contained.
  • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

^ March 5: Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons between the United States and the Soviet Union, goes into effect, preventing transfer of nuclear weapons to non- nuclear nations or production of nuclear weapons in those nations.
  • Military Heritage in the Cold War 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.usmlm.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[191] .Soviet spending on the arms race and other Cold War commitments both caused and exacerbated deep-seated structural problems in the Soviet system, which saw at least a decade of economic stagnation during the late Brezhnev years.^ Cold War propaganda, Arms race .
  • Guide to the Francis J. McNamara papers, 1928-1997 Collection NumberC0024 19 November 2009 18:018 UTC sca.gmu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ During periods of the Cold War, the military establishment faced the pressures brought about by the extension or reinstatement of the Selective Service System, or draft.
  • Military Heritage in the Cold War 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.usmlm.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Throughout the war, both sides committed horrible atrocities.
  • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

.Soviet investment in the defense sector was not driven by military necessity, but in large part by the interests of massive party and state bureaucracies dependent on the sector for their own power and privileges.^ The United States is considered to have the most powerful military in the world, in part due to the size of its defense budget; American defense expenditures in 2005 were estimated to be greater than the next 14 largest national military budgets combined,[26] even though the U.S. military budget is only about 4% of the country's gross domestic product.
  • On yahoo answers, how do u get up to a higher level? - Yahoo! Answers 19 November 2009 18:018 UTC answers.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The latter conflict produced an abiding counterculture in the United States critical of previous Cold War assumptions about the use of military power against Communist interests.
  • Military Heritage in the Cold War 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.usmlm.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Similarly, the instigation of partnerships among the Departments of State and Defense and international bodies may permit consideration of the preservation of overseas Cold War facilities in which the United States has an interest.
  • Military Heritage in the Cold War 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.usmlm.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[192] .The Soviet Armed Forces became the largest in the world in terms of the numbers and types of weapons they possessed, in the number of troops in their ranks, and in the sheer size of their military–industrial base.^ The state of California, where much of the aerospace industry was based, became the sixth largest economy in the world.
  • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Georgia has the 4th largest military budget per capita in the world!!!
  • CNN Political Ticker: All politics, all the time Blog Archive - McCain: Georgia conflict won’t ‘re-ignite the Cold War’ « - Blogs from CNN.com 31 January 2010 14:11 UTC politicalticker.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: General]

^ In keeping with arms control agreements with the former Soviet Union, many B-52s are being cut up, and a small number has become static displays at Air Force bases and aerospace museums around the nation.
  • Military Heritage in the Cold War 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.usmlm.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[193] .However, the quantitative advantages held by the Soviet military often concealed areas where the Eastern Bloc dramatically lagged behind the West.^ Churchill wanted the next Big Three meeting to be held in the West, but Stalin insisted on a Soviet meeting place.
  • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Others closed because the end of the Cold War reduced the need for a sizable military force and extensive surveillance of Eastern bloc countries.
  • Military Heritage in the Cold War 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.usmlm.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ September-December: Eastern European nations leave Soviet Bloc, renounce ties to Moscow.
  • Military Heritage in the Cold War 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.usmlm.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[194]
After ten year old American Samantha Smith wrote a letter to Yuri Andropov expressing her fear of nuclear war, Andropov invited Smith to the Soviet Union.
.By the early 1980s, the USSR had built up a military arsenal and army surpassing that of the United States.^ The facilities built or leased by the United States in Germany (the military and political dividing line between East and West) during the Cold War, and the activities that took place on these posts and air bases, are the subject of the Germany Cold War studies.
  • Military Heritage in the Cold War 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.usmlm.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The United States pledges military and political liaison.
  • Military Heritage in the Cold War 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.usmlm.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Khrushchev went on to offer that if the United States declared that they wouldn't invade Cuba: v "The necessity of the presence of our military specialists in Cuba will disappear".
  • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

Previously, the US had relied on the qualitative superiority of its weapons, but the gap had been narrowed.[195] .Ronald Reagan began massively building up the United States military not long after taking office.^ [Attack on United States Information Service Building], November 23, 1952.
  • Documents Related to the Cold War 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ President Ronald Reagan, Address to the nation on the Challenger disaster, Oval Office, January 28, 1986 .
  • Documents Related to the Cold War 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ December 4: Military build-up: Carter calls for a major military build-up to counter Soviet military power.
  • Military Heritage in the Cold War 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.usmlm.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This led to the largest peacetime defense buildup in United States history.^ History--20th century--Sources Civil rights movements--United States--History--20th century--Sources Communism--United States--History--Sources Communist Party of the United States of America.
  • Anne Burlak Timpson Papers, 1886-2003 (bulk 1912-2003) 19 November 2009 18:018 UTC asteria.fivecolleges.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Mutual Defense Treaty Between the United States and the Republic of the Philippines; August 30, 1951 .
  • Documents Related to the Cold War 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Similarly, the instigation of partnerships among the Departments of State and Defense and international bodies may permit consideration of the preservation of overseas Cold War facilities in which the United States has an interest.
  • Military Heritage in the Cold War 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.usmlm.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[196]
.Tensions continued intensifying in the early 1980s when Reagan revived the B-1 Lancer program that was canceled by the Carter administration, produced LGM-118 Peacekeepers,[197] installed US cruise missiles in Europe, and announced his experimental Strategic Defense Initiative, dubbed "Star Wars" by the media, a defense program to shoot down missiles in mid-flight.^ The two leaders were divided above all by Reagan's Strategic Defense Initiative -- Star Wars.
  • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Reagan's Strategic Defense Initiative, "SDI" -- nicknamed "Star Wars" after the movie -- envisaged satellite- and ground-based weapons that could destroy Soviet missiles with darts and laser beams.
  • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

^ March 23: Reagan proposes SDI (Strategic Defense Initiative, popularly known as Star Wars) to develop technology to intercept enemy missiles.
  • Military Heritage in the Cold War 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.usmlm.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[198]
.With the background of a buildup in tensions between the Soviet Union and the United States, and the deployment of Soviet RSD-10 Pioneer ballistic missiles targeting Western Europe, NATO decided, under the impetus of the Carter presidency, to deploy MGM-31 Pershing and cruise missiles in Europe, primarily West Germany.^ Did this mean war between the Soviet Union and the West?
  • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

^ November 22: INF: United States begins deployment of INF missiles (Pershing II) in West Germany after protracted political fight.
  • Military Heritage in the Cold War 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.usmlm.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Soviet SS-20 rockets were now confronted by cruise and Pershing missiles deployed in Western Europe.
  • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

[199] This deployment would have placed missiles just 10 minutes' striking distance from Moscow.[200]
.After Reagan's military buildup, the Soviet Union did not respond by further building its military[201] because the enormous military expenses, along with inefficient planned manufacturing and collectivized agriculture, were already a heavy burden for the Soviet economy.^ The Soviet Union did nothing.
  • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Southeast is a major area for agriculture, tourism, and the lumber industry, and, because of wages and costs below the national average, it continues to attract manufacturing.
  • On yahoo answers, how do u get up to a higher level? - Yahoo! Answers 19 November 2009 18:018 UTC answers.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The United States promoted liberal democracy and capitalism, while the Soviet Union communism and a centrally planned economy.
  • On yahoo answers, how do u get up to a higher level? - Yahoo! Answers 19 November 2009 18:018 UTC answers.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[202] .At the same time, Reagan persuaded Saudi Arabia to increase oil production,[203] even as other non-OPEC nations were increasing production.^ At the same time, a draft Executive Order has been circulated that describes efforts to reduce the waste generated by the federal government as the nation's largest single user of paper.
  • Military Heritage in the Cold War 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.usmlm.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ronald Reagan, "Time to Recapture our Destiny," Speech delivered at the Republican National Convention, Detroit, Michigan, July 17, 1980 .
  • Documents Related to the Cold War 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ The Other Civil Society in Serbia: Non-Governmental Nationalism” in Cas Mudde and Kopecky Petr (eds.
  • V. The International Community & the FRY/Belligerents - revised 19 November 2009 18:018 UTC www.cla.purdue.edu [Source type: Academic]

[204] .These developments contributed to the 1980s oil glut, which affected the Soviet Union, as oil was the main source of Soviet export revenues.^ The scale of Soviet aid to North Vietnam was affected by growing tensions between the Soviet Union and China.
  • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The assumption in these analyses that Soviet SSBNs were becoming quieter and would achieve further reductions in source levels in the future reflected the fact that a serious and unambiguous Soviet submarine quieting effort had finally become manifest by the early 1980s.
  • The Third Battle: Innovation in the U.S. Navy's Silent Cold War Struggle with Soviet Submarines 31 January 2010 14:11 UTC www.navy.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The state would like to develop the site for interpretation and approach officials in the former Soviet Union about the possibility of establishing sister silo museums.
  • Military Heritage in the Cold War 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.usmlm.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[191][202] .Issues with command economics,[205] oil prices decreases and large military expenditures gradually brought the Soviet economy to stagnation.^ With nowhere to refine the Soviet oil, Castro was faced with economic disaster.
  • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

[202]
.On September 1, 1983, the Soviet Union shot down Korean Air Lines Flight 007, a Boeing 747 with 269 people aboard, including sitting Congressman Larry McDonald, when it violated Soviet airspace just past the west coast of Sakhalin Island—an act which Reagan characterized as a "massacre". This act increased support for military deployment, overseen by Reagan, which stood in place until the later accords between Reagan and Mikhail Gorbachev.^ Did this mean war between the Soviet Union and the West?
  • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

^ September 1: Korean Air Flight 007 shot down by Soviet jet fighter in Soviet airspace.
  • Military Heritage in the Cold War 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.usmlm.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Korean Air Lines Flight 007, September 1, 1983 .
  • Guide to the Francis J. McNamara papers, 1928-1997 Collection NumberC0024 19 November 2009 18:018 UTC sca.gmu.edu [Source type: Academic]

[206] .The Able Archer 83 exercise in November 1983, a realistic simulation of a coordinated NATO nuclear release, has been called most dangerous moment since the Cuban Missile Crisis, as the Soviet leadership keeping a close watch on it considered a nuclear attack to be imminent.^ The Soviet leadership believed a nuclear attack by the West was imminent.
  • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

^ June 3 and 6, 1980, Unknown Location An alarm indicating a massive Soviet missile attack was registered by a communications computer connected to NORAD. A threat assessment conference was called, and 100 nuclear-armed B-52s were put on alert for imminent takeoff.

^ But would he give up his Strategic Defense Initiative -- SDI? v  The chance to make the most momentous agreement since the Cold War began -- the elimination by the United States and the Soviet Union of all but 100 nuclear weapons each -- was lost.
  • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

[207]
.US domestic public concerns about intervening in foreign conflicts persisted from the end of the Vietnam War.^ Public Opinion, Domestic Structure and Foreign Policy in Liberal Democracies,” World Politics 43 (1991), no.
  • V. The International Community & the FRY/Belligerents - revised 19 November 2009 18:018 UTC www.cla.purdue.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ For more information on American, Vietnamese and Chinese aircraft shot down in the Vietnam War, see US Air Combat Losses in the Vietnam War and US Air Combat Victories in the Vietnam War.

^ It's funny that he's so eager to support the country of Georgia, but yet isn't concerned about the US economy!
  • CNN Political Ticker: All politics, all the time Blog Archive - McCain: Georgia conflict won’t ‘re-ignite the Cold War’ « - Blogs from CNN.com 31 January 2010 14:11 UTC politicalticker.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: General]

[208] .The Reagan administration emphasized the use of quick, low-cost counter-insurgency tactics to intervene in foreign conflicts.^ November 4: First press revelations of the Iran-Contra scandal, in which Reagan Administration sold arms to Iran and used the proceeds to finance Nicaraguan Contra rebels.
  • Military Heritage in the Cold War 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.usmlm.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[208] .In 1983, the Reagan administration intervened in the multisided Lebanese Civil War, invaded Grenada, bombed Libya and backed the Central American Contras, anti-communist paramilitaries seeking to overthrow the Soviet-aligned Sandinista government in Nicaragua.^ FOIA - Reagan Administration, 1981-1983 .
  • Guide to the Francis J. McNamara papers, 1928-1997 Collection NumberC0024 19 November 2009 18:018 UTC sca.gmu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ In Nicaragua, Reagan's crusade against the Sandinistas was stepped up.
  • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In the black ghetto of Oakland, California, activists trained as paramilitaries in what they saw as a civil war against a racist police force.
  • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

[112] .While Reagan's interventions against Grenada and Libya were popular in the US, his backing of the Contra rebels was mired in controversy.^ November 4: First press revelations of the Iran-Contra scandal, in which Reagan Administration sold arms to Iran and used the proceeds to finance Nicaraguan Contra rebels.
  • Military Heritage in the Cold War 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.usmlm.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[209]
.Meanwhile, the Soviets incurred high costs for their own foreign interventions.^ In the latter case, the Soviet Navy had to convince Soviet shipyards to incur the costs involved with a serious quieting program.
  • The Third Battle: Innovation in the U.S. Navy's Silent Cold War Struggle with Soviet Submarines 31 January 2010 14:11 UTC www.navy.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Although Brezhnev was convinced in 1979 that the Soviet war in Afghanistan would be brief, Muslim guerrillas, aided by the US and other countries, waged a fierce resistance against the invasion.^ US, Carter letter to Brezhnev (denouncing invasion of Afghanistan), 28 Decemebr 1979 .
  • Documents Related to the Cold War 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Extract from CPSU CC Politburo Decision to send a special Soviet division to Afghanistan, December 06, 1979 .
  • Documents Related to the Cold War 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ There was an agreement that, once the war was over, the British and Soviet troops would both pull out.
  • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

[210] .The Kremlin sent nearly 100,000 troops to support its puppet regime in Afghanistan, leading many outside observers to dub the war "the Soviets' Vietnam".[210] However, Moscow's quagmire in Afghanistan was far more disastrous for the Soviets than Vietnam had been for the Americans because the conflict coincided with a period of internal decay and domestic crisis in the Soviet system.^ Most Americans still supported President Johnson's war in Vietnam.
  • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Moscow sent missiles to North Vietnam.
  • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

^ During that conflict the Army operated more aircraft than the Air Force.
  • Military Heritage in the Cold War 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.usmlm.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A senior US State Department official predicted such an outcome as early as 1980, positing that the invasion resulted in part from a "domestic crisis within the Soviet system.^ US, State Department brief on Olympic boycott, 8 March 1980 .
  • Documents Related to the Cold War 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Senior officials were recalled that night to the State Department.
  • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

^ U.S. Embassy, Taipei, cable number 347 to Department of State on briefing of Taiwanese officials, 24 October 1964, Secret, excised copy .
  • Documents Related to the Cold War 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: Reference]

... It
may be that the thermodynamic law of entropy has ... caught up with the .Soviet system, which now seems to expend more energy on simply maintaining its equilibrium than on improving itself.^ This is a world in which the Navy will have to provide a larger portion of national power projection capabilities, while also placing much more emphasis on sea control than it does now.
  • The Third Battle: Innovation in the U.S. Navy's Silent Cold War Struggle with Soviet Submarines 31 January 2010 14:11 UTC www.navy.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Joan Baez seems to be there more for reasons of nostalgia than musical common ground.

^ Great singers of the past were no more than vague memories now, but great words and great ideas live on.

.We could be seeing a period of foreign movement at a time of internal decay".[211][212] The Soviets were not helped by their aged and sclerotic leadership either: Brezhnev, virtually incapacitated in his last years, was succeeded by Andropov and Chernenko, neither of whom lasted long.^ "Attaching Memorandum Entitled 'Report on the Use of Anti-Soviet Material within Iran during Period Covered by Last Two Years'," May 29, 1953.
  • Documents Related to the Cold War 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: Reference]

After Chernenko's death, Reagan was asked why he had not negotiated with Soviet leaders. Reagan quipped, "They keep dying on me".[213]

End of the Cold War (1985–91)

Mikhail Gorbachev and Ronald Reagan sign the INF Treaty at the White House, 1987

Gorbachev reforms

.By the time the comparatively youthful Mikhail Gorbachev became General Secretary in 1985,[188] the Soviet economy was stagnant and faced a sharp fall in foreign currency earnings as a result of the downward slide in oil prices in the 1980s.^ March 13: Mikhail Gorbachev succeeds Chernenko as Soviet General Secretary.
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^ At his funeral, world leaders paid their respects to Mikhail Gorbachev and weighed up the new, younger man in charge of the Soviet Union.
  • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Brezhnev introduced a new face into the ranks of the Kremlin leadership -- Mikhail Gorbachev.
  • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

[214] .These issues prompted Gorbachev to investigate measures to revive the ailing state.^ To tackle these ills and to revive a decrepit economy, Gorbachev called for reconstruction, or 'perestroika,' and a new spirit of honesty -- 'glasnost.'
  • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

[214]
.An ineffectual start led to the conclusion that deeper structural changes were necessary and in June 1987 Gorbachev announced an agenda of economic reform called perestroika, or restructuring.^ June 28: Gorbachev tells Communist Party leaders that key elements of Communist doctrine are outdated; defends his proposals for change.
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^ May 29-June 1: Moscow Summit: Reagan and Gorbachev reiterate their commitment to concluding the START treaty.
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^ June 5: Marshall Plan: Secretary of State George C. Marshall calls on European nations to draft plan for European economic recovery, offering aid in planning and "later support."
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[215] Perestroika relaxed the production quota system, allowed private ownership of businesses and paved the way for foreign investment. .These measures were intended to redirect the country's resources from costly Cold War military commitments to more profitable areas in the civilian sector.^ The Cold War military buildup continued.
  • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The deaths of two American officers should never be forgotten, and these are just two more of the Forgotten Heroes Of The Cold War.

^ This selected bibliography should serve as a descriptive base for a more comprehensive bibliography to be produced in the next stage of the Cold War Task Area.
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[215]
.Despite initial scepticism in the West, the new Soviet leader proved to be committed to reversing the Soviet Union's deteriorating economic condition instead of continuing the arms race with the West.^ January 1: Gorbachev addresses Soviet citizens on arms race and threat of war.
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^ Feb 9 Soviet Union: Stalin effectively declares on the West.

^ Berlin's open border gave East Germans access to the glittering West -- which Soviet and East German leaders wanted to end.
  • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

[124][216] .Partly as a way to fight off internal opposition from party cliques to his reforms, Gorbachev simultaneously introduced glasnost, or openness, which increased freedom of the press and the transparency of state institutions.^ Gorbachev reacted to growing opposition by pressing ahead with plans to reform the Communist Party.
  • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Memory, History, and Opposition under State Socialism (Santa Fe: School of American Research Press, 1996).
  • V. The International Community & the FRY/Belligerents - revised 19 November 2009 18:018 UTC www.cla.purdue.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ February 28: Russia policy: Secretary of State James F. Byrnes introduces new "get tough with Russia" policy at Overseas Press Club, New York.
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[217] .Glasnost was intended to reduce the corruption at the top of the Communist Party and moderate the abuse of power in the Central Committee.^ Minutes of the Meeting of the Executive Bureau [Politburo] of the Central Committee of the Romanian Communist Party, December 17 1981 .
  • Documents Related to the Cold War 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Report to the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union by Yuri Andropov and Andrei Gromyko, Report on Events in Afghanistan on 27-28 December 1979, December 31, 1979 .
  • Documents Related to the Cold War 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Excerpts, “Stenographic Protocol of the II Plenary Session of the Central Committee of the Polish United Workers’ Party,” on the reasons for Krushchev's removal, November 20 1964 .
  • Documents Related to the Cold War 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: Reference]

[218] .Glasnost also enabled increased contact between Soviet citizens and the western world, particularly with the United States, contributing to the accelerating détente between the two nations.^ A report and recommendation to the Archivist of the United States on the appraisal of research and development records of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration," Aug.
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^ United States threatens to invade Cuba if the bases are not dismantled and warns that a nuclear attack launched from Cuba would be considered a Soviet attack requiring full retaliation.
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^ Canada accounts for 19% (more than any other nation) of the United States' foreign trade, followed by China, Mexico, and Japan.
  • On yahoo answers, how do u get up to a higher level? - Yahoo! Answers 19 November 2009 18:018 UTC answers.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[219]

Thaw in relations

.In response to the Kremlin's military and political concessions, Reagan agreed to renew talks on economic issues and the scaling-back of the arms race.^ Novikov cautions the Soviet leadership that the Truman administration is bent on imposing US political, military and economic domination around the world.
  • Documents Related to the Cold War 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ As originally articulated, the policy called for a vigilant but patient reaction to Soviet expansionism, emphasizing political and economic tools over military force.
  • Military Heritage in the Cold War 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.usmlm.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ December 1: Antarctica Treaty signed in Washington; 12 nations agree to reserve Antarctica for scientific research, free from political and military uses.
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[220] .The first was held in November 1985 in Geneva, Switzerland.^ Geneva, Switzerland -- November 1985.
  • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

[220] .At one stage the two men, accompanied only by a translator, agreed in principle to reduce each country's nuclear arsenal by 50 percent.^ January 15: Gorbachev proposes eliminating all nuclear weapons over next 15 years, contingent on United States backing off SDI. Reagan applauds proposal, but won't change position on SDI and supports principle of 50 percent reduction as agreed to in 1985.
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^ Since then, the country has more than quadrupled in size: it now consists of 50 states and one federal district, and has a number of overseas territories.
  • On yahoo answers, how do u get up to a higher level? - Yahoo! Answers 19 November 2009 18:018 UTC answers.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When imformed the tree was only to be trimmed one Communist offier agreed, and some of the guards began giving advice on how to trim the tree.

[221]
Soviet withdrawal from Afghanistan in 1988
A second Reykjavík Summit was held in Iceland. .Talks went well until the focus shifted to Reagan's proposed Strategic Defense Initiative, which Gorbachev wanted eliminated: Reagan refused.^ Gorbachev now decided to re-examine Reagan's first-ever arms control proposal -- known as the 'Zero Option.'
  • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Excerpts of Gorbachev-Reagan Reykjavik Talks, 11 October 1986 .
  • Documents Related to the Cold War 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ March 23: Reagan proposes SDI (Strategic Defense Initiative, popularly known as Star Wars) to develop technology to intercept enemy missiles.
  • Military Heritage in the Cold War 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.usmlm.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[222] .The negotiations failed, but the third summit in 1987 led to a breakthrough with the signing of the Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty (INF).^ INF: intermediate range nuclear forces.
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^ May 28: United States and Soviet Union sign peaceful nuclear explosions treaty limiting size and nature of underground nuclear tests.
  • Military Heritage in the Cold War 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.usmlm.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ NATO, Special meeting of Foreign and Defence Ministers in Brussels, Final Communique on Long Range Theatre Nuclear Forces, 12th December 1979 .
  • Documents Related to the Cold War 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: Reference]

.The INF treaty eliminated all nuclear-armed, ground-launched ballistic and cruise missiles with ranges between 500 and 5,500 kilometers (300 to 3,400 miles) and their infrastructure.^ But he did have medium-range nuclear missiles.
  • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

^ IRBM: intermediate range ballistic missile.
  • Military Heritage in the Cold War 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.usmlm.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ November 10, 1970, USS Canopus (AS-34) A fire broke out in the stern of the U.S. Navy submarine tender USS Canopus which was carrying several nuclear-armed missiles.

[223]
.East–West tensions rapidly subsided through the mid-to-late 1980s, culminating with the final summit in Moscow in 1989, when Gorbachev and George H. W. Bush signed the START I arms control treaty.^ The summit agenda -- human rights, Afghanistan and arms control -- was daunting but the body language was encouraging.
  • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

^ November: Treaty of Conventional Armed Forces in Europe cuts East-West land armies.
  • Military Heritage in the Cold War 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.usmlm.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This edge remained largely intact through the mid-1980s, when the first truly quiet Soviet nuclear submarines were finally deployed, giving the end of the Third Battle the same "saved by the bell" character as the end of the second Battle of the Atlantic.
  • The Third Battle: Innovation in the U.S. Navy's Silent Cold War Struggle with Soviet Submarines 31 January 2010 14:11 UTC www.navy.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[224] .During the following year it became apparent to the Soviets that oil and gas subsidies, along with the cost of maintaining massive troops levels, represented a substantial economic drain.^ First, the levels of quieting achieved by Akula would not be representative of the overall Soviet force for some time.
  • The Third Battle: Innovation in the U.S. Navy's Silent Cold War Struggle with Soviet Submarines 31 January 2010 14:11 UTC www.navy.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some of the main ideals that this audience maintained during this period may be summarized as follows: .

^ During the four years of the Marshall Plan, Greece received nearly $700 million of economic assistance.
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[225] .In addition, the security advantage of a buffer zone was recognised as irrelevant and the Soviets officially declared that they would no longer intervene in the affairs of allied states in Eastern Europe.^ U.S. MILITARY HOLDINGS OVERSEAS In order to contain Soviet aggression and to defend its allies, the United States stationed thousands of military men and women overseas during the Cold War.
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^ Their success was based at least partly on the fact that the Soviets did not focus on quieting as much as planners had expected they would in the early 1960s.
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^ The Role of Religious Communities in the War in Yugoslavia,” Religion in Eastern Europe 13 (June 1993), no.
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[226]
.In 1989, Soviet forces withdrew from Afghanistan[227] and by 1990 Gorbachev consented to German reunification,[225] the only alternative being a Tiananmen scenario.^ On August the 12th, Soviet and East German forces were mobilized.
  • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

^ April 15: Soviet Union agrees to withdraw its forces from Afghanistan by February 15, 1989, after seven years of peace talks.
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^ Directive Nº 312/12/001 of 24 December 1979 signed by Ustinov and Ogarkov dispatching Soviet forces to Afghanistan, December 24, 1979 .
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[228] .When the Berlin Wall came down, Gorbachev's "Common European Home" concept began to take shape.^ The Western alliance began to take shape.
  • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Direct defense outlays for 1989, the year that the Berlin Wall came down, amounted to $303.6 billion or 5.7 percent of the gross domestic product for the year.
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^ President Ronald Reagan, Remarks at the Brandenburg Gate ("Tear Down this Wall"), West Berlin, Germany, June 12, 1987 .
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[229]
.On December 3, 1989, Gorbachev and Reagan's successor, George H. W. Bush, declared the Cold War over at the Malta Summit;[230] a year later, the two former rivals were partners in the Gulf War against longtime Soviet ally Iraq.^ The Malta Summit, Excerpted transcripts of conversations between Bush and Gorbachev on December 2-3, 1989 .
  • Documents Related to the Cold War 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ December 2-3: Malta Summit: Bush proposes an acceleration in START negotiations.
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^ This, at last, was the official declaration of the Cold War.
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[231]

Faltering Soviet system

.By 1989, the Soviet alliance system was on the brink of collapse, and, deprived of Soviet military support, the Communist leaders of the Warsaw Pact states were losing power.^ At the Warsaw Pact Summit, the leaders were divided.
  • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

^ U.S. MILITARY HOLDINGS OVERSEAS In order to contain Soviet aggression and to defend its allies, the United States stationed thousands of military men and women overseas during the Cold War.
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^ May 14: Warsaw Pact signed, calling for the mutual defense of Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Hungary, Poland, Rumania, and the Soviet Union.
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[227] .In the USSR itself, glasnost weakened the bonds that held the Soviet Union together[226] and by February 1990, with the dissolution of the USSR looming, the Communist Party was forced to surrender its 73-year-old monopoly on state power.^ In the first years of Reagan's presidency, the Soviet Union's armed might appeared to be at its peak.
  • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

^ August 24: Communist Party outlawed in United States as Eisenhower signs Communist Control Act.
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^ The Soviet Union was forced to build its own rival bloc.
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[232]
.At the same time freedom of press and dissent allowed by glasnost and the festering "nationalities question" increasingly led the Union's component republics to declare their autonomy from Moscow, with the Baltic states withdrawing from the Union entirely.^ At the same time, future adversaries may continue to cede the United States control of the seas, as Iraq did during Desert Shield/Desert Storm, which in turn would allow the U.S. Navy to continue its current deemphasis on sea control.
  • The Third Battle: Innovation in the U.S. Navy's Silent Cold War Struggle with Soviet Submarines 31 January 2010 14:11 UTC www.navy.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At the same time, a draft Executive Order has been circulated that describes efforts to reduce the waste generated by the federal government as the nation's largest single user of paper.
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^ December 28: United States withdraws from UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization), charging mismanagement and political bias.
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[233] .The 1989 revolutionary wave that swept across Central and Eastern Europe overthrew the Soviet-style communist states, such as Poland, Hungary, Czechoslovakia and Bulgaria,[234] Romania being the only Eastern-bloc country to topple its communist regime violently and execute its head of state.^ Eastern Poland had been annexed by the Soviet Union.
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^ Warsaw Pact: Signed in 1955, it codified the East-West split and provided for mutual defense among Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Hungary, Poland, Romania, and the Soviet Union.
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^ May 14: Warsaw Pact signed, calling for the mutual defense of Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Hungary, Poland, Rumania, and the Soviet Union.
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[235]

Soviet dissolution

.Gorbachev's permissive attitude toward Eastern Europe did not initially extend to Soviet territory; even Bush, who strove to maintain friendly relations, condemned the January 1991 killings in Latvia and Lithuania, privately warning that economic ties would be frozen if the violence continued.^ Khrushchev believed that the Soviet people would work even harder if they were freed from fear and poverty.
  • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Their success was based at least partly on the fact that the Soviets did not focus on quieting as much as planners had expected they would in the early 1960s.
  • The Third Battle: Innovation in the U.S. Navy's Silent Cold War Struggle with Soviet Submarines 31 January 2010 14:11 UTC www.navy.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Would reform in Eastern Europe end like this?
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[236] .The USSR was fatally weakened by a failed coup and a growing number of Soviet republics, particularly Russia, who threatened to secede from the USSR. The Commonwealth of Independent States, created on December 21, 1991, is viewed as a successor entity to the Soviet Union but, according to Russia's leaders, its purpose was to "allow a civilized divorce" between the Soviet Republics and is comparable to a loose confederation.^ December: Commonwealth of Independent States created in the fomer Soviet Union.
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^ December 25: Gorbachev resigns as Soviet President, transfers control of nuclear arsenal to Russian President Boris Yeltsin, as the United States recognizes six independent republics: Armenia, Belorussia, Kazakhstan, Kirghizia, Russia, Ukraine.
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^ In an example of realpolitik, the United States also established diplomatic relations with Communist countries that were antagonistic to the Soviet Union, like the People's Republic of China during the Sino-Soviet split.
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[237] The USSR was declared officially dissolved on December 25, 1991.[238]

Legacy

.Following the Cold War, Russia cut military spending dramatically, but the adjustment was wrenching, as the military-industrial sector had previously employed one of every five Soviet adults[239] and its dismantling left millions throughout the former Soviet Union unemployed.^ One of the defining battles of the Cold War.
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^ In Russia, famine followed Civil War.
  • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Soviet Union was devastated by war.
  • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

[239] .After Russia embarked on capitalist economic reforms in the 1990s, it suffered a financial crisis and a recession more severe than the US and Germany had experienced during the Great Depression.^ During that conflict the Army operated more aircraft than the Air Force.
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^ Gervasi Sean, “Germany, US and the Yugoslav Crisis,” Covert Action Quarterly 43 (Winter 1992–93) .
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^ Baer suggests that the U.N. withdraw the US and USSR from Germany and bring in several smaller nations to govern it.
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[240] Russian living standards have worsened overall in the post-Cold War years, although the economy has resumed growth since 1999.[240]
.The legacy of the Cold War continues to influence world affairs.^ The Cold War and the war in Vietnam would continue.
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^ The Cold War military buildup continued.
  • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It will be funded as a Cold War demonstration project for the Legacy program.
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[14] .After the dissolution of the Soviet Union, the post-Cold War world is widely considered as unipolar, with the United States the sole remaining superpower.^ Was the war a loss for the UN and the United States?

^ The Soviet Union was devastated by war.
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^ The United States and the use of force in the post-Cold War World .
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[241][242][243] .The Cold War defined the political role of the United States in the post-World War II world: by 1989 the US held military alliances with 50 countries, and had 1.5 million troops posted abroad in 117 countries.^ US demobilization after World War II) .
  • Documents Related to the Cold War 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ The United States pledges military and political liaison.
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^ The Cold War military buildup continued.
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[244] .The Cold War also institutionalized a global commitment to huge, permanent peacetime military-industrial complexes and large-scale military funding of science.^ The Cold War military buildup continued.
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^ During periods of the Cold War, the military establishment faced the pressures brought about by the extension or reinstatement of the Selective Service System, or draft.
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^ It will be funded as a Cold War demonstration project for the Legacy program.
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[244]
.Military expenditures by the US during the Cold War years were estimated to have been $8 trillion, while nearly 100,000 Americans lost their lives in the Korean War and Vietnam War.^ The Cold War and the war in Vietnam would continue.
  • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

^ As a result, the scope of representative activities of the American military during the Cold War can be captured.
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^ The Cold War military buildup continued.
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[245] Although the loss of life among Soviet soldiers is difficult to estimate, as a share of their gross national product the financial cost for the Soviet Union was far higher than that of the US.[246]
.In addition to the loss of life by uniformed soldiers, millions died in the superpowers' proxy wars around the globe, most notably in Southeast Asia.^ An estimated half a million Chinese soldiers had died in the war.
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^ Over 3 million died as the Cold War moved to Vietnam.
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^ Most Cold War losses went unacknowledged until a decade or so ago.

[247] .Most of the proxy wars and subsidies for local conflicts ended along with the Cold War; the incidence of interstate wars, ethnic wars, revolutionary wars, as well as refugee and displaced persons crises has declined sharply in the post-Cold War years.^ One of the countries most in need of help was Greece -- devastated by the Nazi occupation and years of civil war.
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^ The United States has typically regarded war and conflict data in the same manner as most countries but has felt obligated for various fundamental reasons that the publishing of this data is necessary.

^ The plant was geared up for major Cold War crises and subsequently "mothballed."
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[248]
.No separate campaign medal has been authorized for the Cold War; however, in 1998, the United State Congress authorized Cold War Recognition Certificates "to all members of the armed forces and qualified federal government civilian personnel who faithfully and honorably served the United States anytime during the Cold War era, which is defined as Sept.^ This was the shelter for members of the United States Congress in the event of nuclear war.
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^ Cold War era.
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^ One of the defining battles of the Cold War.
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2, 1945 to Dec. 26, 1991." [249]
.The legacy of Cold War conflict, however, is not always easily erased, as many of the economic and social tensions that were exploited to fuel Cold War competition in parts of the Third World remain acute.^ It will be funded as a Cold War demonstration project for the Legacy program.
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^ Space race: The superpower competition in space exploration technology that paralleled the Cold War competition in arms developments.
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^ A more comprehensive treatment of Cold War history and historic preservation is expected from the Legacy Program in the next year or two.
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[14] .The breakdown of state control in a number of areas formerly ruled by Communist governments has produced new civil and ethnic conflicts, particularly in the former Yugoslavia.^ By 1989, the Communist government was losing control.
  • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

^ From a ’Communist System with a Human Face’ to Ethnic Wars and Ethnic Cleansing and New States: From Tito's Yugoslavia of ’Self-management Socialism’ to Five Former Yugoslav States and One Territory under International Surveillance, from 1970s to the 2000s,” in Recueil des resumes de communications .
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^ Berlin Wall: The fortified barrier erected by the East German government in August 1961 to divide East and West Berlin and halt the exodus of East Germans fleeing Communist rule.
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[14] .In Eastern Europe, the end of the Cold War has ushered in an era of economic growth and a large increase in the number of liberal democracies, while in other parts of the world, such as Afghanistan, independence was accompanied by state failure.^ The United States and the use of force in the post-Cold War World .
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^ Eastern Europe and the Commowealth of Independent States 1999 .
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^ Cold War era.
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[14]

Historiography

.As soon as the term "Cold War" was popularized to refer to post-war tensions between the United States and the Soviet Union, interpreting the course and origins of the conflict has been a source of heated controversy among historians, political scientists, and journalists.^ Was the war a loss for the UN and the United States?

^ The Soviet Union was devastated by war.
  • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The United States and the use of force in the post-Cold War World .
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[250] .In particular, historians have sharply disagreed as to who was responsible for the breakdown of Soviet–US relations after the Second World War; and whether the conflict between the two superpowers was inevitable, or could have been avoided.^ US demobilization after World War II) .
  • Documents Related to the Cold War 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ April 1950 Soviet pilot Nikolai N. Guzhov claimed to have shot down two US Air Force F-51 Mustangs.

^ Viewed over the same five year period between the end of World War II and Korea, the Soviet Navy's exploitation of the Type XXI lagged significantly behind US Navy intelligence forecasts, which initially foresaw in 1946 a force of 300 Soviet Type XXI equivalents by 1950.
  • The Third Battle: Innovation in the U.S. Navy's Silent Cold War Struggle with Soviet Submarines 31 January 2010 14:11 UTC www.navy.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[251] .Historians have also disagreed on what exactly the Cold War was, what the sources of the conflict were, and how to disentangle patterns of action and reaction between the two sides.^ The deaths of two American officers should never be forgotten, and these are just two more of the Forgotten Heroes Of The Cold War.

^ Worse, Dubcek might change sides in the Cold War.
  • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This paper has sought to establish the record of naval innovation in ASW during the Cold War so that an analysis of the sources of that innovation can proceed.
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[14]
Although explanations of the origins of the conflict in academic discussions are complex and diverse, several general schools of thought on the subject can be identified. Historians commonly speak of three differing approaches to the study of the Cold War: "orthodox" accounts, "revisionism", and "post-revisionism".[244]
."Orthodox" accounts place responsibility for the Cold War on the Soviet Union and its expansion into Eastern Europe.^ The Soviet Union was devastated by war.
  • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Eastern Poland had been annexed by the Soviet Union.
  • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Instability in Europe After the Cold War,” International Security 15 (1990), no.
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[244] ."Revisionist" writers place more responsibility for the breakdown of post-war peace on the United States, citing a range of US efforts to isolate and confront the Soviet Union well before the end of World War II.[244] "Post-revisionists" see the events of the Cold War as more nuanced, and attempt to be more balanced in determining what occurred during the Cold War.^ This was the shelter for members of the United States Congress in the event of nuclear war.
  • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

^ US demobilization after World War II) .
  • Documents Related to the Cold War 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Cold War--Social aspects--United States.
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[244] .Much of the historiography on the Cold War weaves together two or even all three of these broad categories.^ A more comprehensive treatment of Cold War history and historic preservation is expected from the Legacy Program in the next year or two.
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^ Even though the Cold War ended only recently, it was unquestionably of exceptional importance in our Nation's history.
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^ In late FY 1994 the Task Area will begin to draw together and circulate reports of field studies of Cold War resources.
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[47]

See also

Footnotes

  1. ^ "“Cold War” – noun . . . (3) (initial capital letters) rivalry after World War II between the Soviet Union and its satellites and the democratic countries of the Western world, under the leadership of the United States." Dictionary, unabridged, based on the Random House Dictionary, 2009
  2. ^ Gaddis 2005, p. 54
  3. ^ Safire, William (October 1, 2006). "Islamofascism Anyone?". The New York Times (The New York Times Company). http://www.iht.com/articles/2006/10/01/news/edsafire.php. Retrieved December 25, 2008. 
  4. ^ 'Bernard Baruch coins the term "Cold War"', history.com, April 16, 1947. Retrieved on July 2, 2008.
  5. ^ Lippmann, Walter (1947). Cold War. Harper. http://books.google.com/books?id=Ydc3AAAAIAAJ&q=walter+lippmann+cold+war&dq=walter+lippmann+cold+war&pgis=1. Retrieved 2008-09-02. 
  6. ^ Kort, Michael (2001). The Columbia Guide to the Cold War. Columbia University Press. pp. 3. 
  7. ^ Geiger, Till (2004). Britain and the Economic Problem of the Cold War. Ashgate Publishing. pp. 7. 
  8. ^ Orwell, George, The Observer, March 10, 1946
  9. ^ a b Gaddis 1990, p. 57
  10. ^ Lee 1999, p. 57
  11. ^ Tucker 1992, p. 34
  12. ^ Tucker 1992, p. 46
  13. ^ Tucker 1992, p. 47-8
  14. ^ a b c d e f g Halliday 2001, p. 2e
  15. ^ Tucker 1992, p. 74
  16. ^ Tucker 1992, p. 75
  17. ^ Tucker 1992, p. 98
  18. ^ Communism: A History (Modern Library Chronicles) by Richard Pipes, pg 67
  19. ^ Christenson 1991, p. 308
  20. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Lefeber, Fitzmaurice & Vierdag 1991, p. 194–197
  21. ^ Leffler 1992, p. 21
  22. ^ Day, Alan J.; East, Roger; Thomas, Richard. A Political and Economic Dictionary of Eastern Europe, pg. 405
  23. ^ Roberts 2006, p. 43-82
  24. ^ a b Kennedy-Pipe, Caroline, Stalin's Cold War, New York : Manchester University Press, 1995, ISBN 0719042011
  25. ^ Ericson 1999, p. 1-210
  26. ^ Shirer 1990, p. 598-610
  27. ^ Roberts 2006, p. 82
  28. ^ Gaddis 1990, p. 151
  29. ^ Gaddis 1990, p. 151–153
  30. ^ a b c Gaddis 2005, p. 13–23
  31. ^ Gaddis 1990, p. 156
  32. ^ Gaddis 2005, p. 7
  33. ^ "Leaders mourn Soviet wartime dead", BBC News, May 9, 2005. Retrieved on July 2, 2008.
  34. ^ Gaddis 1990, p. 176
  35. ^ Zubok 1996, p. 94
  36. ^ a b Gaddis 2005, p. 21
  37. ^ Gaddis 2005, p. 22
  38. ^ Bourantonis 1996, p. 130
  39. ^ Garthoff 1994, p. 401
  40. ^ Roberts 2006, p. 43
  41. ^ a b c d Wettig 2008, p. 21
  42. ^ a b c Senn, Alfred Erich, Lithuania 1940 : revolution from above, Amsterdam, New York, Rodopi, 2007 ISBN 9789042022256
  43. ^ Roberts 2006, p. 55
  44. ^ Shirer 1990, p. 794
  45. ^ a b Fenton, Ben. "The secret strategy to launch attack on Red Army", telegraph.co.uk, October 1, 1998. Retrieved on July 23, 2008.
  46. ^ British War Cabinet, Joint Planning Staff, Public Record Office, CAB 120/691/109040 / 002 (1945-08-11). ""Operation Unthinkable: 'Russia: Threat to Western Civilization'"" (online photocopy). Department of History, Northeastern University. http://www.history.neu.edu/PRO2/. Retrieved 2008-06-28. 
  47. ^ a b c d e f g h i Byrd, Peter (2003). "Cold War (entire chapter)". in McLean, Iain; McMillan, Alistair. The concise Oxford dictionary of politics. .Oxford University Press.^ (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 1998), 256 pp.
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    ^ (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1989).
    • V. The International Community & the FRY/Belligerents - revised 19 November 2009 18:018 UTC www.cla.purdue.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1993).
    • V. The International Community & the FRY/Belligerents - revised 19 November 2009 18:018 UTC www.cla.purdue.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ISBN 0192802763. http://books.google.com/books?id=xLbEHQAACAAJ&ei=E45VSJrQO4e4jgGh_oWODA. Retrieved 2008-06-16.
     
  48. ^ Alan Wood, p. 62
  49. ^ a b Gaddis 2005, p. 25–26
  50. ^ LaFeber 2002, p. 28
  51. ^ FW Winterbotham, The Ultra Secret, London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson 1974; FH Hinsley, British Intelligence in the Second World War: Its influence on Strategy and Operations, (4 Vols), London: HMSO, 1977-1988 (official history); Ralph Bennett, Ultra in the West, London: Hutchinson 1979.
  52. ^ Ralph Bennett, "Ultra and Some Command decisions", Journal of Contemporary History, Vol 16, 1981, pp.145-6; Ralph Bennett, Ultra and Mediterranean Strategy 1941-1945, London: Bodley Head 1981
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    ^ As mentioned above, the Task Area and the U.S. Army Center of Military History have collaborated to produce a travelling exhibition on American forces in Berlin during the Cold War.
    • Military Heritage in the Cold War 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.usmlm.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ ISBN 0-534-64604-2 ^ Eric Foner and John A. Garraty, The Reader's Companion to American History.
    • On yahoo answers, how do u get up to a higher level? - Yahoo! Answers 19 November 2009 18:018 UTC answers.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Oxford University Press.^ (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 1998), 256 pp.
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    • V. The International Community & the FRY/Belligerents - revised 19 November 2009 18:018 UTC www.cla.purdue.edu [Source type: Academic]

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    ^ (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1993).
    • V. The International Community & the FRY/Belligerents - revised 19 November 2009 18:018 UTC www.cla.purdue.edu [Source type: Academic]

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    • Military Heritage in the Cold War 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.usmlm.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ ISBN 0-534-64604-2 ^ Eric Foner and John A. Garraty, The Reader's Companion to American History.
    • On yahoo answers, how do u get up to a higher level? - Yahoo! Answers 19 November 2009 18:018 UTC answers.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

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    • V. The International Community & the FRY/Belligerents - revised 19 November 2009 18:018 UTC www.cla.purdue.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1989).
    • V. The International Community & the FRY/Belligerents - revised 19 November 2009 18:018 UTC www.cla.purdue.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1993).
    • V. The International Community & the FRY/Belligerents - revised 19 November 2009 18:018 UTC www.cla.purdue.edu [Source type: Academic]

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  • Dobrynin, Anatoly (2001), In Confidence: Moscow's Ambassador to Six Cold War Presidents, University of Washington Press, ISBN 0295980818 
  • Edelheit, Hershel and Abraham (1991).^ A recent conference in Moscow, New Evidence in Cold War History, brought together historians and archivists from the East and West to discuss new insights into major Cold War events, crises, and policies.
    • Military Heritage in the Cold War 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.usmlm.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ (Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press, 1996).
    • V. The International Community & the FRY/Belligerents - revised 19 November 2009 18:018 UTC www.cla.purdue.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ (College Station, Tex.: Texsas A & M University Press, 1996).
    • V. The International Community & the FRY/Belligerents - revised 19 November 2009 18:018 UTC www.cla.purdue.edu [Source type: Academic]

    .A World in Turmoil: An Integrated Chronology of the Holocaust and World War II.^ US demobilization after World War II) .
    • Documents Related to the Cold War 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: Reference]

    ^ Yugoslavia in the aftermath of World War II.” In Luciuk L. and Kenzer M. (eds.
    • V. The International Community & the FRY/Belligerents - revised 19 November 2009 18:018 UTC www.cla.purdue.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Mississippi The SHPO reports that the military installations in the State are looking only at World War II-era resources.
    • Military Heritage in the Cold War 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.usmlm.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Greenwood Publishing Group. .ISBN 0313282188. 
  • Ericson, Edward E. (1999), Feeding the German Eagle: Soviet Economic Aid to Nazi Germany, 1933–1941, Greenwood Publishing Group, ISBN 0275963373 
  • Feldbrugge, Joseph; van den Berg, Gerard; Simons, William (1985).^ Report by Vyshinsky to Molotov Concerning Trade and Economic Cooperation Between the Soviet Union and the United States, August 1941 .
    • Documents Related to the Cold War 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: Reference]

    Encyclopedia of Soviet Law. BRILL. ISBN 9024730759. 
  • Friedman, Norman (2007). .The Fifty-Year War: Conflict and Strategy in the Cold War.^ A more comprehensive treatment of Cold War history and historic preservation is expected from the Legacy Program in the next year or two.
    • Military Heritage in the Cold War 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.usmlm.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Although Nixon wanted to revise America's Cold War strategy, his first priority was to get American troops out of the war in Vietnam.
    • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Each succeeding year it will produce a report on some component of the Cold War, including weapon systems, fighter intercept, or communication systems.
    • Military Heritage in the Cold War 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.usmlm.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Naval Institute Press.^ Norman Friedman, U.S. Destroyers: An Illustrated Design History (Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, 1982) p.
    • The Third Battle: Innovation in the U.S. Navy's Silent Cold War Struggle with Soviet Submarines 31 January 2010 14:11 UTC www.navy.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Norman Friedman, U.S. Submarines Since 1945: An Illustrated Design History (Annapolis, MD.: U.S. Naval Institute Press, 1994) p.
    • The Third Battle: Innovation in the U.S. Navy's Silent Cold War Struggle with Soviet Submarines 31 January 2010 14:11 UTC www.navy.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .ISBN 1591142873. 
  • Gaddis, John Lewis (1990), Russia, the Soviet Union and the United States.^ The United States remained on high alert against a Soviet nuclear attack.
    • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ March 5: Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons between the United States and the Soviet Union, goes into effect, preventing transfer of nuclear weapons to non- nuclear nations or production of nuclear weapons in those nations.
    • Military Heritage in the Cold War 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.usmlm.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ May 28: United States and Soviet Union sign peaceful nuclear explosions treaty limiting size and nature of underground nuclear tests.
    • Military Heritage in the Cold War 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.usmlm.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .An Interpretative History
    , McGraw-Hill, ISBN 0075572583 
  • Gaddis, John Lewis (1997).^ Gaddis, John Lewis, and Thomas H. Etzold, eds.
    • Military Heritage in the Cold War 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.usmlm.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Gaddis, John Lewis.
    • Military Heritage in the Cold War 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.usmlm.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ ISBN 0-534-64604-2 ^ Eric Foner and John A. Garraty, The Reader's Companion to American History.
    • On yahoo answers, how do u get up to a higher level? - Yahoo! Answers 19 November 2009 18:018 UTC answers.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .We Now Know: Rethinking Cold War History.^ János M. Rainer, "The Yeltsin Dossier: Soviet documents on Hungary, 1956," Cold War International History Project, Bulletin , Issue 5, Spring 1995.
    • Documents Related to the Cold War 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: Reference]

    ^ Early Cold War History .
    • Documents Related to the Cold War 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: Reference]

    ^ In addition, a conference co-sponsored with the Nuclear History Program will focus on the Cold War in Germany.
    • Military Heritage in the Cold War 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.usmlm.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Oxford University Press.^ (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 1998), 256 pp.
    • V. The International Community & the FRY/Belligerents - revised 19 November 2009 18:018 UTC www.cla.purdue.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1989).
    • V. The International Community & the FRY/Belligerents - revised 19 November 2009 18:018 UTC www.cla.purdue.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1993).
    • V. The International Community & the FRY/Belligerents - revised 19 November 2009 18:018 UTC www.cla.purdue.edu [Source type: Academic]

    .ISBN 0198780702. 
  • Gaddis, John Lewis (2005), The Cold War: A New History, Penguin Press, ISBN 1594200629 
  • Gaidar, Yegor (2007) (in Russian).^ János M. Rainer, "The Yeltsin Dossier: Soviet documents on Hungary, 1956," Cold War International History Project, Bulletin , Issue 5, Spring 1995.
    • Documents Related to the Cold War 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: Reference]

    ^ Telegram from the USSR Charge d'Affaires in the DPRK, S.P. Suzdalev, to V.M. Molotov 1 June 1953, Cold War International History Project .
    • Documents Related to the Cold War 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: Reference]

    ^ Early Cold War History .
    • Documents Related to the Cold War 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: Reference]

    Collapse of an Empire: Lessons for Modern Russia. .Brookings Institution Press.^ (Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution Press, 2000).
    • V. The International Community & the FRY/Belligerents - revised 19 November 2009 18:018 UTC www.cla.purdue.edu [Source type: Academic]

    .ISBN 5824307598. 
  • Garthoff, Raymond (1994), Détente and Confrontation: American-Soviet Relations from Nixon to Reagan, Brookings Institution Press, ISBN 0815730411 
  • Gibbs, Joseph (1999), Gorbachev's Glasnost, Texas University Press, ISBN 0890968926 
  • Glees, Anthony (1996).^ (New York: New York University Press, 1996), pp.
    • V. The International Community & the FRY/Belligerents - revised 19 November 2009 18:018 UTC www.cla.purdue.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ (New York: Columbia University Press, and London: Hurst, 1994), 318 pp.
    • V. The International Community & the FRY/Belligerents - revised 19 November 2009 18:018 UTC www.cla.purdue.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Paul, MN: University of Minnesota Press, 1994), 229 str.
    • V. The International Community & the FRY/Belligerents - revised 19 November 2009 18:018 UTC www.cla.purdue.edu [Source type: Academic]

    Reinventing Germany: German Political Development Since 1945. Berg Publishers. ISBN 1859731856. 
  • Goldgeier, James; McFaul, Michael (2003). .Power and Purpose: US Policy toward Russia after the Cold War.^ Hutchings Robert L.: American Diplomacy and the End of the Cold War: An Insider’s Account of US Policy in Europe 1989–1992 .
    • V. The International Community & the FRY/Belligerents - revised 19 November 2009 18:018 UTC www.cla.purdue.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ The fact that it did not expand into a wider war helped confirm the West's policy of containment of Communism, a policy which dominated most international relations during the Cold War.

    ^ Litwak, Robert S. Rogue States and U.S. Foreign Policy : Containment after the Cold War.
    • On yahoo answers, how do u get up to a higher level? - Yahoo! Answers 19 November 2009 18:018 UTC answers.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Brookings Institution Press.^ (Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution Press, 2000).
    • V. The International Community & the FRY/Belligerents - revised 19 November 2009 18:018 UTC www.cla.purdue.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ISBN 0815731744.
     
  • Goodby, James; Morel, Benoit (1993). .The Limited Partnership: Building a Russian-US Security Community.^ US, National Security Council, NSCID 9, "Communications Intelligence," March 10, 1950.
    • Documents Related to the Cold War 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: Reference]

    .Oxford University Press.^ (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 1998), 256 pp.
    • V. The International Community & the FRY/Belligerents - revised 19 November 2009 18:018 UTC www.cla.purdue.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1989).
    • V. The International Community & the FRY/Belligerents - revised 19 November 2009 18:018 UTC www.cla.purdue.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1993).
    • V. The International Community & the FRY/Belligerents - revised 19 November 2009 18:018 UTC www.cla.purdue.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ISBN 0198291612.
     
  • Gorbechev, Mikhail (1996). Memoirs. Doubleday. .ISBN 0385480199. 
  • Hahn, Walter; Maître, Joachim (1993), Paying the Premium: A Military Insurance Policy for Peace and Freedom, Greenwood Publishing Group, ISBN 0313288496 
  • Halliday, Fred (2001), Krieger, Joel & Crahan, Margaret E., ed., Cold War, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0195117395 
  • Hanhimaki, Jussi; Westad, Odd Arne (2003).^ During periods of the Cold War, the military establishment faced the pressures brought about by the extension or reinstatement of the Selective Service System, or draft.
    • Military Heritage in the Cold War 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.usmlm.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ To be published by the Air University Press; excerpts in Airpower Journal , Fall 1997, pp.
    • V. The International Community & the FRY/Belligerents - revised 19 November 2009 18:018 UTC www.cla.purdue.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 1998), 256 pp.
    • V. The International Community & the FRY/Belligerents - revised 19 November 2009 18:018 UTC www.cla.purdue.edu [Source type: Academic]

    .The Cold War: A History in Documents and Eyewitness Accounts.^ János M. Rainer, "The Yeltsin Dossier: Soviet documents on Hungary, 1956," Cold War International History Project, Bulletin , Issue 5, Spring 1995.
    • Documents Related to the Cold War 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: Reference]

    ^ Early Cold War History .
    • Documents Related to the Cold War 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: Reference]

    ^ Hutchings Robert L.: American Diplomacy and the End of the Cold War: An Insider’s Account of US Policy in Europe 1989–1992 .
    • V. The International Community & the FRY/Belligerents - revised 19 November 2009 18:018 UTC www.cla.purdue.edu [Source type: Academic]

    .Oxford University Press.^ (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 1998), 256 pp.
    • V. The International Community & the FRY/Belligerents - revised 19 November 2009 18:018 UTC www.cla.purdue.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1989).
    • V. The International Community & the FRY/Belligerents - revised 19 November 2009 18:018 UTC www.cla.purdue.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1993).
    • V. The International Community & the FRY/Belligerents - revised 19 November 2009 18:018 UTC www.cla.purdue.edu [Source type: Academic]

    .ISBN 0199272808. 
  • Harrison, Hope Millard (2003), Driving the Soviets Up the Wall: Soviet-East German Relations, 1953-1961, Princeton University Press, ISBN 0691096783 
  • Hardt, John Pearce; Kaufman, Richard F. (1995), East-Central European Economies in Transition, M.E. Sharpe, ISBN 1563246120 
  • Higgs, Robert (2006), Depression, War, and Cold War: Studies in Political Economy, Oxford University Press US, ISBN 0195182928 
  • Hobsbawn, Eric (1996).^ Timo Vihavainen, "After the War: Finland's Relations with the Soviet Union, 1944-1991" .
    • Documents Related to the Cold War 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: Reference]

    ^ Origins of the Cold War: The Novikov, Kennan, and Roberts Long Telegrams of 1946.
    • Military Heritage in the Cold War 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.usmlm.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ New York: Oxford University Press, 1992.
    • Military Heritage in the Cold War 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.usmlm.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    The Age of Extremes: A History of the World, 1914-1991. Vintage Books. .ISBN 0679730052. 
  • Isby, David C.; Kamps, Charles Jr (1985), Armies of NATO's Central Front, Jane's Publishing Company Ltd, ISBN 071060341X 
  • Jacobs, Dale (2002).^ Commensurate with the Soviet development of longer range SLBMs and the establishment of their SSBN bastions was a renewed emphasis by NATO on raising the nuclear threshold on the central front of Europe.
    • The Third Battle: Innovation in the U.S. Navy's Silent Cold War Struggle with Soviet Submarines 31 January 2010 14:11 UTC www.navy.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Heinz-Georg Keerl, Commander of Nato’s Task Force” – Interview, Jane’s Defence Weekly (February 13, 2002).
    • V. The International Community & the FRY/Belligerents - revised 19 November 2009 18:018 UTC www.cla.purdue.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ NATO to Cut 12,000 Troops from Balkans,” Jane’s Defence Weekly (May 15, 2002).
    • V. The International Community & the FRY/Belligerents - revised 19 November 2009 18:018 UTC www.cla.purdue.edu [Source type: Academic]

    World Book: Focus on Terrorism. World Book. ISBN 071661295X. 
  • Joshel, Sandra (2005). Imperial Projections: Ancient Rome in Modern Popular Culture. JHU Press. .ISBN 0801882680. 
  • Karabell, Zachary (1999), Chambers, John Whiteclas, ed., Cold War (1945–91): External Course, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0195071980 
  • Karaagac, John (2000).^ (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 1998), 256 pp.
    • V. The International Community & the FRY/Belligerents - revised 19 November 2009 18:018 UTC www.cla.purdue.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ June 10: Kennedy, in speech at American University, calls for reconsideration of Cold War as "holy war."
    • Military Heritage in the Cold War 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.usmlm.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ New York: Oxford University Press, 1992.
    • Military Heritage in the Cold War 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.usmlm.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Between Promise and Policy: Ronald Reagan and Conservative Reformism. Lexington Books. ISBN 0739102966. 
  • Kennan, George F. (1968), Memoirs, 1925-1950, Hutchinson, ISBN 009085800X 
  • Kolb, Richard K. (2004). .Cold War Clashes: Confronting Communism, 1945-1991.^ As a start, Appendix V of this Report contains a very brief discussion of the role of DoD and the military services during the Cold War, and a chronology of international events from 1945 through 1991.
    • Military Heritage in the Cold War 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.usmlm.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ It was then, after the first World War, in a clash of ideologies, communist and capitalist, that the Cold War had its origins.
    • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ But communism and the Cold War were -- as ever -- near the top of the agenda.
    • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

    .Veterans of Foreign Wars of the United States.^ Letter from Charles Kindleberger on Bizonal Trouble , Delegation of the United States of America, Council of Foreign Ministers American Embassy Moscow, April 18, 1947 .
    • Documents Related to the Cold War 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: Reference]

    ^ U.S. MILITARY HOLDINGS OVERSEAS In order to contain Soviet aggression and to defend its allies, the United States stationed thousands of military men and women overseas during the Cold War.
    • Military Heritage in the Cold War 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.usmlm.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ In most cases, the United States cannot control the disposition of overseas physical properties that housed its activities during the Cold War.
    • Military Heritage in the Cold War 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.usmlm.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ISBN 0974364312.
     
  • Kumaraswamy, P. R.; Karsh, Efraim (2000). .Revisiting the Yom Kippur War.^ October 6: Yom Kippur War begins between Egypt, Israel, and Syria.
    • Military Heritage in the Cold War 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.usmlm.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Routledge. .ISBN 0714650072. 
  • Kydd, Andrew (2005), Trust and Mistrust in International Relations, Princeton University Press, ISBN 0691121702 
  • Lackey, Douglas P. (1984).^ Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1988.
    • Military Heritage in the Cold War 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.usmlm.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1959.
    • Military Heritage in the Cold War 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.usmlm.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1984.
    • Military Heritage in the Cold War 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.usmlm.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Moral principles and nuclear weapons. Totowa, N.J: Rowman & Allanheld. .ISBN 084767116x. 
  • LaFeber, Walter (2002), Foner, Eric; Garraty, John Arthur, eds., The Reader's companion to American history, Houghton Mifflin Books, ISBN 0395513723 
  • Lakoff, Sanford (1989).^ ISBN 0-534-64604-2 ^ Eric Foner and John A. Garraty, The Reader's Companion to American History.
    • On yahoo answers, how do u get up to a higher level? - Yahoo! Answers 19 November 2009 18:018 UTC answers.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    A Shield in Space?. .University of California Press.^ Berkeley: University of California Press, 1989.
    • Military Heritage in the Cold War 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.usmlm.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1997).
    • V. The International Community & the FRY/Belligerents - revised 19 November 2009 18:018 UTC www.cla.purdue.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ (Berkeley-Los Angeles-London: University of California Press, 1993).
    • V. The International Community & the FRY/Belligerents - revised 19 November 2009 18:018 UTC www.cla.purdue.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ISBN 0585043795. 
  • Lee, Stephen J. (1999). .Stalin and the Soviet Union.^ Stalin's Soviet Union was revealed as a police state, not a workers' paradise.
    • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ February 14: Khrushchev denounces Stalin in speech to the 20th Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union.
    • Military Heritage in the Cold War 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.usmlm.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ While Joseph Stalin, supreme ruler of the Soviet Union faced Harry S Truman, 33rd President of the United States.
    • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

    Routledge. .ISBN 0415185734. 
  • Lefeber, R; Fitzmaurice, M.; Vierdag, E. W. (1991), The Changing Political Structure of Europe, Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, ISBN 0792313798 
  • Leffler, Melvyn (1992), A Preponderance of Power: National Security, the Truman Administration, and the Cold War, Stanford University Press, ISBN 0804722188 
  • Link, William A. (1993).^ National Security Council Report NSC 5608/1, "U.S. Policy toward the Soviet Satellites in Eastern Europe," July 18, 1956 .
    • Documents Related to the Cold War 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: Reference]

    ^ Upcoming conference topics will include the Cold War in Asia and the Cold War in East Central Europe.
    • Military Heritage in the Cold War 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.usmlm.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Novikov cautions the Soviet leadership that the Truman administration is bent on imposing US political, military and economic domination around the world.
    • Documents Related to the Cold War 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: Reference]

    .American Epoch: A History of the United States.^ HUAC - Investigation of Un-American Propaganda Activities in the United States , December 15, 1938 .
    • Guide to the Francis J. McNamara papers, 1928-1997 Collection NumberC0024 19 November 2009 18:018 UTC sca.gmu.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ The United States and Croatia: A Documentary History 1992–1997 .
    • V. The International Community & the FRY/Belligerents - revised 19 November 2009 18:018 UTC www.cla.purdue.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ SOFA: Status of Forces Agreement; SOFAs, which establish legal rights and protocols, are negotiated between the United States and each country in which American forces are deployed.
    • Military Heritage in the Cold War 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.usmlm.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    McGraw-Hill. ISBN 0070379513. 
  • Lundestad, Geir (2005). .East, West, North, South: Major Developments in International Politics since 1945.^ Iron Curtain: Term first used by Winston Churchill to describe the political barrier which had been erected between the East and West and the creation of spheres of influence.
    • Military Heritage in the Cold War 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.usmlm.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ An International Peace Conference temporarily divided Vietnam into North and South, and agreed that countrywide elections would be held in 1956.
    • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ It is bounded by the North Atlantic Ocean to the east, the North Pacific Ocean to the west, Mexico and the Gulf of Mexico to the south, and Canada to the north.
    • On yahoo answers, how do u get up to a higher level? - Yahoo! Answers 19 November 2009 18:018 UTC answers.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Oxford University Press.^ (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 1998), 256 pp.
    • V. The International Community & the FRY/Belligerents - revised 19 November 2009 18:018 UTC www.cla.purdue.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1989).
    • V. The International Community & the FRY/Belligerents - revised 19 November 2009 18:018 UTC www.cla.purdue.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1993).
    • V. The International Community & the FRY/Belligerents - revised 19 November 2009 18:018 UTC www.cla.purdue.edu [Source type: Academic]

    .ISBN 1412907489. 
  • The Cold War: A Very Short Introduction.^ The very image of the Cold War, the Berlin Wall.
    • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ SP4 Buzzell who is listed as a 1961 Cold War Casualty was a very close friend.

    ^ The Cold War Task Area has, in the short run, contributed to interim guidelines for the preservation and management of Cold War resources that have been distributed to Air Force installations.
    • Military Heritage in the Cold War 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.usmlm.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Oxford University Press.^ (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 1998), 256 pp.
    • V. The International Community & the FRY/Belligerents - revised 19 November 2009 18:018 UTC www.cla.purdue.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1989).
    • V. The International Community & the FRY/Belligerents - revised 19 November 2009 18:018 UTC www.cla.purdue.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1993).
    • V. The International Community & the FRY/Belligerents - revised 19 November 2009 18:018 UTC www.cla.purdue.edu [Source type: Academic]

    .2003. ISBN 0192801783. 
  • Malkasian, Carter (2001), The Korean War: Essential Histories, Osprey Publishing, ISBN 1841762822 
  • Maynes, Williams C. (1980), The world in 1980, Dept.^ Published Histories of the Cold War DoD historical offices research Cold War-era topics as a matter of course even though some of the studies were not conceived specifically as Cold War histories.
    • Military Heritage in the Cold War 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.usmlm.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The Naval Historical Center, Contemporary History Branch, holds seminars and publishes monographs, many of which concern Cold War events.
    • Military Heritage in the Cold War 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.usmlm.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The building is "layered" with history, having served the Japanese occupation of Korea, the Korean military, and the Eighth U.S. Army command since the Korean War.
    • Military Heritage in the Cold War 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.usmlm.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    of State 
  • McSherry, Patrice (2005). .Predatory States: Operation Condor and Covert War in Latin America.^ McConnick, Thomas J. America’s Half-Century: United States Foreign Policy in the Cold War.
    • Military Heritage in the Cold War 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.usmlm.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Cold War, Latin America, Cuba, Nicaragua, Soviet Union, USSR .
    • Guide to the Francis J. McNamara papers, 1928-1997 Collection NumberC0024 19 November 2009 18:018 UTC sca.gmu.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ In the case of The United States the data that has been released pertains primarily to casualties incurred during covert operations.

    Rowman & Littlefield. .ISBN 0742536874. 
  • Miller, Roger Gene (2000), To Save a City: The Berlin Airlift, 1948-1949, Texas A&M University Press, ISBN 0890969671 
  • Moschonas, Gerassimos; Elliott, Gregory (2002), In the Name of Social Democracy: The Great Transformation, 1945 to the Present, Verso, ISBN 1859843468 
  • Muravchik, Joshua (1996).^ (College Station, Tex.: Texsas A & M University Press, 1996).
    • V. The International Community & the FRY/Belligerents - revised 19 November 2009 18:018 UTC www.cla.purdue.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ (New York: New York University Press, 1996), pp.
    • V. The International Community & the FRY/Belligerents - revised 19 November 2009 18:018 UTC www.cla.purdue.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Douglas Botting, From the Ruins of the Reich: Germany 1945-1949 (New York: New American Library, 1985), "The Berlin Airlift" .
    • Documents Related to the Cold War 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: Reference]

    The Imperative of American Leadership: A Challenge to Neo-Isolationism. American Enterprise Institute. ISBN 0844739588. 
  • Nashel, Jonathan (1999). ."Cold War (1945–91): Changing Interpretations". in John Whiteclay Chambers.^ Worse, Dubcek might change sides in the Cold War.
    • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Armed Truce: The Beginnings of the Cold War, 1945-1946.
    • Military Heritage in the Cold War 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.usmlm.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Cold War combat art: interpretation of the Berlin Wall painted by Army artist Edward Reep.
    • Military Heritage in the Cold War 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.usmlm.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .The Oxford Companion to American Military History.^ The history of U.S. nuclear weapon accidents is as old as their introduction into the American military arsenal.

    ^ As mentioned above, the Task Area and the U.S. Army Center of Military History have collaborated to produce a travelling exhibition on American forces in Berlin during the Cold War.
    • Military Heritage in the Cold War 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.usmlm.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ ISBN 0-534-64604-2 ^ Eric Foner and John A. Garraty, The Reader's Companion to American History.
    • On yahoo answers, how do u get up to a higher level? - Yahoo! Answers 19 November 2009 18:018 UTC answers.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Oxford University Press.^ (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 1998), 256 pp.
    • V. The International Community & the FRY/Belligerents - revised 19 November 2009 18:018 UTC www.cla.purdue.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1989).
    • V. The International Community & the FRY/Belligerents - revised 19 November 2009 18:018 UTC www.cla.purdue.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1993).
    • V. The International Community & the FRY/Belligerents - revised 19 November 2009 18:018 UTC www.cla.purdue.edu [Source type: Academic]

    .ISBN 0195071980. 
  • National Research Council Committee on Antarctic Policy and Science (1993).^ (London: Institute for Public Policy Research, 1993).
    • V. The International Community & the FRY/Belligerents - revised 19 November 2009 18:018 UTC www.cla.purdue.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ US, National Security Council, NSC 5520 "Draft Statement of Policy on U.S. Scientific Satellite Program," May 20, 1955, more complete version .
    • Documents Related to the Cold War 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: Reference]

    ^ US, National Security Council, NSC 5520 "Draft Statement of Policy on U.S. Scientific Satellite Program," May 20, 1955 .
    • Documents Related to the Cold War 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: Reference]

    Science and Stewardship in the Antarctic. National Academies Press. .ISBN 0309049474. 
  • Njolstad, Olav (2004), The Last Decade of the Cold War, Routledge, ISBN 071468371X 
  • Nolan, Peter (1995).^ This, at last, was the official declaration of the Cold War.
    • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Most Cold War losses went unacknowledged until a decade or so ago.

    ^ But Khrushchev's hopes for a Cold War truce only lasted six months.
    • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

    China's Rise, Russia's Fall. St. Martin's Press. ISBN 0312127146. 
  • Nye, Joseph S. (2003). .The Paradox of American Power: Why the World's Only Superpower Can't Go It Alone.^ Our poet comically evokes the predicament of the over-educated prole not only to mock this obsession, but to point out the world’s paradoxical betrayal of its conformists.

    ^ Nye, Joseph S. The Paradox of American Power : Why the World's Only Superpower Can't Go It Alone.
    • On yahoo answers, how do u get up to a higher level? - Yahoo! Answers 19 November 2009 18:018 UTC answers.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Oxford University Press.^ (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 1998), 256 pp.
    • V. The International Community & the FRY/Belligerents - revised 19 November 2009 18:018 UTC www.cla.purdue.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1989).
    • V. The International Community & the FRY/Belligerents - revised 19 November 2009 18:018 UTC www.cla.purdue.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1993).
    • V. The International Community & the FRY/Belligerents - revised 19 November 2009 18:018 UTC www.cla.purdue.edu [Source type: Academic]

    .ISBN 0195161106. 
  • Odom, William E. (2000), The Collapse of the Soviet Military, Yale University Press, ISBN 0300082711 
  • Palmowski, Jan (2004), A Dictionary of Contemporary World History, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0198608756 
  • Patterson, James (1997), Grand Expectations: The United States, 1945-1974, Oxford University Press US, ISBN 0585362505 
  • Pearson, Raymond (1998), The Rise and Fall of the Soviet Empire, Macmillan, ISBN 0312174071 
  • Perlmutter, Amos (1997), Making the World Safe for Democracy, University of North Carolina Press, ISBN 0807823651 
  • Porter, Bruce; Karsh, Efraim (1984).^ United States Embassy, Saudi Arabia Letter from Raymond Hare to Frederick Awalt.
    • Documents Related to the Cold War 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: Reference]

    ^ To be published by the Air University Press; excerpts in Airpower Journal , Fall 1997, pp.
    • V. The International Community & the FRY/Belligerents - revised 19 November 2009 18:018 UTC www.cla.purdue.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 1998), 256 pp.
    • V. The International Community & the FRY/Belligerents - revised 19 November 2009 18:018 UTC www.cla.purdue.edu [Source type: Academic]

    .The USSR in Third World Conflicts: Soviet Arms and Diplomacy in Local Wars.^ January 1: Gorbachev addresses Soviet citizens on arms race and threat of war.
    • Military Heritage in the Cold War 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.usmlm.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The Third Battle: Innovation in the U.S. Navy's Silent Cold War Struggle with Soviet Submarines The Third Battle: Innovation in the U.S. Navy's Silent Cold War Struggle with Soviet Submarines .
    • The Third Battle: Innovation in the U.S. Navy's Silent Cold War Struggle with Soviet Submarines 31 January 2010 14:11 UTC www.navy.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ There are three strands to the story of the World War II ASW team which continued from the first phase of the Third Battle into the second one.
    • The Third Battle: Innovation in the U.S. Navy's Silent Cold War Struggle with Soviet Submarines 31 January 2010 14:11 UTC www.navy.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Cambridge University Press.^ Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 1979.
    • Military Heritage in the Cold War 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.usmlm.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997).
    • V. The International Community & the FRY/Belligerents - revised 19 November 2009 18:018 UTC www.cla.purdue.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1971).
    • V. The International Community & the FRY/Belligerents - revised 19 November 2009 18:018 UTC www.cla.purdue.edu [Source type: Academic]

    .ISBN 0521310644. 
  • Puddington, Arch (2003), Broadcasting Freedom: The Cold War Triumph of Radio Free Europe and Radio Liberty, University Press of Kentucky, ISBN 0813190452 
  • Reagan, Ronald.^ Upcoming conference topics will include the Cold War in Asia and the Cold War in East Central Europe.
    • Military Heritage in the Cold War 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.usmlm.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ June 10: Kennedy, in speech at American University, calls for reconsideration of Cold War as "holy war."
    • Military Heritage in the Cold War 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.usmlm.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Ronald Reagan, encouraged by his wife Nancy, consulted Suzanne Massie, a popular writer on Russia, to help him understand his Cold War adversary.
    • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

    ."Cold War". in Foner, Eric & Garraty, John Arthur.^ I think John Rogers should be listed among the Cold War Dead.

    ^ Walton, Richard J. Cold War and Counter-Revolution: The Foreign Policy of John E Kennedy.
    • Military Heritage in the Cold War 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.usmlm.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Schlesinger, Arthur M., Jr. "The Origins of the Cold War."
    • Military Heritage in the Cold War 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.usmlm.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    The Reader's companion to American history. Houghton Mifflin Books. .ISBN 0395513723. 
  • Roberts, Geoffrey (2006), Stalin's Wars: From World War to Cold War, 1939–1953, Yale University Press, ISBN 0300112041 
  • Roht-Arriaza, Naomi (1995), Impunity and human rights in international law and practice, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0195081366 
  • Rycroft, Michael (2002).^ Oxford University Press, USA: 4 May 2006.
    • On yahoo answers, how do u get up to a higher level? - Yahoo! Answers 19 November 2009 18:018 UTC answers.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 1995), 258 pp.
    • V. The International Community & the FRY/Belligerents - revised 19 November 2009 18:018 UTC www.cla.purdue.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 1995), 392 pp.
    • V. The International Community & the FRY/Belligerents - revised 19 November 2009 18:018 UTC www.cla.purdue.edu [Source type: Academic]

    Beyond the International Space Station: The Future of Human Spaceflight. .Johns Hopkins University Press.^ (Baltimore and London: The John Hopkins University Press, 1994), 146 pp.
    • V. The International Community & the FRY/Belligerents - revised 19 November 2009 18:018 UTC www.cla.purdue.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1989.
    • Military Heritage in the Cold War 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.usmlm.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1984.
    • Military Heritage in the Cold War 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.usmlm.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ISBN 1402009623. 
  • Schmitz, David F. (1999). ."Cold War (1945–91): Causes". in John Whiteclay Chambers.^ Armed Truce: The Beginnings of the Cold War, 1945-1946.
    • Military Heritage in the Cold War 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.usmlm.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ America, Russia, and the Cold War, 1945-1966 .
    • Military Heritage in the Cold War 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.usmlm.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Hulsman John C.: A Paradigm for the New World Order: A Schoots-of-Thought Analysis of American Foreign Policy in the Post-Cold War Era .
    • V. The International Community & the FRY/Belligerents - revised 19 November 2009 18:018 UTC www.cla.purdue.edu [Source type: Academic]

    .The Oxford Companion to American Military History.^ The history of U.S. nuclear weapon accidents is as old as their introduction into the American military arsenal.

    ^ As mentioned above, the Task Area and the U.S. Army Center of Military History have collaborated to produce a travelling exhibition on American forces in Berlin during the Cold War.
    • Military Heritage in the Cold War 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.usmlm.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ ISBN 0-534-64604-2 ^ Eric Foner and John A. Garraty, The Reader's Companion to American History.
    • On yahoo answers, how do u get up to a higher level? - Yahoo! Answers 19 November 2009 18:018 UTC answers.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Oxford University Press.^ (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 1998), 256 pp.
    • V. The International Community & the FRY/Belligerents - revised 19 November 2009 18:018 UTC www.cla.purdue.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1989).
    • V. The International Community & the FRY/Belligerents - revised 19 November 2009 18:018 UTC www.cla.purdue.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1993).
    • V. The International Community & the FRY/Belligerents - revised 19 November 2009 18:018 UTC www.cla.purdue.edu [Source type: Academic]

    .ISBN 0195071980. 
  • Shearman, Peter (1995), Russian Foreign Policy Since 1990, Westview Pess, ISBN 0813326338 
  • Shirer, William L. (1990), The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich: A History of Nazi Germany, Simon and Schuster, ISBN 0671728687 
  • Smith, Joseph; Davis, Simon (2005).^ Ambrose, Stephen E. Rise to Globalism: American Foreign Policy, 1938-1976.
    • Military Heritage in the Cold War 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.usmlm.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ In the Stream of History: Shaping Foreign Policy for a New Era .
    • V. The International Community & the FRY/Belligerents - revised 19 November 2009 18:018 UTC www.cla.purdue.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Schaer James A., “Bosnia’s Post-Dayton Traumas,” Foreign Policy 104 (Fall 1996) .
    • V. The International Community & the FRY/Belligerents - revised 19 November 2009 18:018 UTC www.cla.purdue.edu [Source type: Academic]

    The A to Z of the Cold War. Scarecrow Press. ISBN 0810853841. 
  • Stone, David (2006). .A Military History of Russia: From Ivan the Terrible to the War in Chechnya.^ V.N. Razuvaev, Ambassador of the USSR to the DPRK and Chief Military Adviser to the KPA, to L.P. Beria, 18 April 1953, Cold War International History Project .
    • Documents Related to the Cold War 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: Reference]

    ^ The United States had embarked on what would be the longest military war in its history.
    • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The building is "layered" with history, having served the Japanese occupation of Korea, the Korean military, and the Eighth U.S. Army command since the Korean War.
    • Military Heritage in the Cold War 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.usmlm.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Greenwood Publishing Group. .ISBN 0275985024. 
  • Taubman, William (2004), Khrushchev: The Man and His Era, W. W. Norton & Company, ISBN 0393324842 
  • Tucker, Robert C. (1992), Stalin in Power: The Revolution from Above, 1928-1941, W. W. Norton & Company, ISBN 0393308693 
  • Walker, Martin (1995).^ William R. Keylor, The Twentieth Century World: An International History, 2nd edition (New York: Oxford University Press, 1992), CHAPTER 8, "The Formation of the Bipolar World in the Truman-Stalin Era, (1945-1953)," pp.
    • Documents Related to the Cold War 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: Reference]

    .The Cold War: A History.^ New Russian Evidence on the Korean War Biological Warfare Allegations: Background and Analysis, by Milton Leitenberg, Cold War International History Project .
    • Documents Related to the Cold War 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: Reference]

    ^ János M. Rainer, "The Yeltsin Dossier: Soviet documents on Hungary, 1956," Cold War International History Project, Bulletin , Issue 5, Spring 1995.
    • Documents Related to the Cold War 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: Reference]

    ^ Telegram from the USSR Charge d'Affaires in the DPRK, S.P. Suzdalev, to V.M. Molotov 1 June 1953, Cold War International History Project .
    • Documents Related to the Cold War 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: Reference]

    H. Holt. ISBN 0805031901. 
  • Williams, Andrew (2004). D-Day to Berlin. Hodder & Stoughton. .ISBN 0340833971. 
  • Wettig, Gerhard (2008), Stalin and the Cold War in Europe, Rowman & Littlefield, ISBN 0742555429 
  • Winer, Stan Between the Lies:Rise of the media-military-industrial complex, London: Southern Universities Press, 2007 - accessible online at http://www.truth-hertz.net
  • Wood, Alan (2005).^ The Cold War military buildup continued.
    • Cold War Notes 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Instability in Europe After the Cold War,” International Security 15 (1990), no.
    • V. The International Community & the FRY/Belligerents - revised 19 November 2009 18:018 UTC www.cla.purdue.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ U.S. MILITARY HOLDINGS OVERSEAS In order to contain Soviet aggression and to defend its allies, the United States stationed thousands of military men and women overseas during the Cold War.
    • Military Heritage in the Cold War 24 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.usmlm.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Stalin and Stalinism. Routledge. ISBN 0415307325. 
  • Wood, James (1999). History of International Broadcasting. Institution of Electrical Engineers. ISBN 0852969201. 
  • Zubok, Vladislav; Pleshakov, Constantine (1996), Inside the Kremlin's Cold War: From Stalin to Khrushchev, Harvard University Press, ISBN 0674455312 

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