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The Lord Clyde
October 20, 1792 – 14 August 1863 (aged 70)
Colin Campbell and William Mansfield - Project Gutenberg eText 16528.jpg
Colin Campbell with William Mansfield, 1st Viscount Sandhurst
Place of birth Glasgow, Scotland
Place of death Chatham, Kent, England
Resting place Westminster Abbey
Allegiance  United Kingdom
Service/branch British Army
Years of service 1808 – 1860
Rank Field Marshal
Unit 9th Regiment of Foot,
93rd (Sutherland Highlanders) Regiment of Foot &
98th Regiment of Foot
Battles/wars Peninsular War
War of 1812
First Opium War
Second Anglo-Sikh War
Crimean War
Indian Mutiny
Awards GCB
Lord Clyde in 1855
Interior of the Secundra Bagh after the Slaughter of 2,000 Rebels by the 93rd Highlanders and 4th Punjab Regiment. First Attack of Sir Colin Campbell in November 1857, Lucknow. Albumen silver print, by Felice Beato, 1858.

Field Marshal Colin Campbell, 1st Baron Clyde, GCB, KSI (October 20, 1792 – August 14, 1863) was a Scottish soldier.

Contents

Early life

Born Colin Macliver,M'Liver to a simple carpenter at Glasgow, Scotland, he was educated at the High School of Glasgow. When only fifteen he watched an inspection of troops by the Duke of York, escorted by his maternal uncle Colonel John Campbell. The duke enlisted the boy under the surname of Campbell, which he adopted for life.

Military life

One year later, aged sixteen, he obtained an ensignancy in the 9th Regiment of Foot through the influence of his uncle. His first opportunity at active service soon came. He fought under Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington at the Battle of Vimiera. He later retreated with the rest of Sir John Moore's army to Corunna, and was present at the Battle of Corunna. He fought throughout the Peninsular War, and was severely wounded while leading a storming party at the attack on San Sebastián. He was again wounded at the passage of the Bidassoa and compelled to return to the United Kingdom, where his conspicuous gallantry was rewarded by promotion.

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Commands

Campbell held a command in the American expedition of 1814; after the peace of the following year, he devoted himself to studying military science. In 1823, he quelled the slave rebellion in Demerara, and two years later bought himself a major's rank. In 1832, he became lieutenant-colonel of the 98th Foot and rendered distinguished service in 1842 during the First Opium War. Campbell was next employed in the Sikh War of 1848–49, under Lord Gough. He was wounded at the battle of Chillianwala, and at the decisive victory of Gujrat, his skill and valour contributed largely to the success of the British forces; his "steady coolness and military precision" were highly praised in official despatches. He was made a Knight Commander of the Order of the Bath in 1849, and specially named in the thanks of Parliament.

Crimea

After rendering important services in India, Sir Colin Campbell returned home in 1853. The next year, the Crimean War broke out, and he accepted the command of the Highland Brigade, which formed part of the Duke of Cambridge's division. The brigade and its leader distinguished themselves very greatly at the Battle of Alma; and with his "thin red line of Highlanders" he repulsed the Russian attack on Balaklava. At the close of the war, Sir Colin was promoted to Knight Grand Cross of the Bath, and elected honorary D.C.L. of Oxford.

Later life

His military ability had been late in being recognised; but his true worth was soon appreciated. The outbreak of the Indian Mutiny called for a general of tried experience; and on July 11, 1857 the command was offered to him by Lord Palmerston. On being asked when he would be ready to set out, Campbell replied, "Within twenty-four hours." He left England the next evening, and reached Calcutta on August 13. After spending over two months in the capital to organize his resources, he started for the front on October 27, and on November 17 relieved Lucknow for the second time. Sir Colin, however, considered Lucknow a false position, and once more abandoned it to the rebels, retaking it in March 1858. He continued in charge of the operations in Oudh until the embers of the revolt had died away. For these services he was raised to the peerage, in 1858, as Baron Clyde; and, returning to the United Kingdom in the next year, he received the thanks of both Houses of Parliament and a pension of £2000 a year.

Despite lacking the dash which won the United Kingdom so many victories in India, Lord Clyde was regarded as a brave soldier and a careful and prudent leader. The soldiers whom he led were devotedly attached to him; and he commanded unvarying respect. Nicknames given by those who disliked his safety-first style of generalship, included 'Sir Crawling Camel' and 'Old Slowcoach'.

He was buried in Westminster Abbey. A statue was erected to him in his native town, (see Glasgow's public statues) from whom he had also received the Sword of Honour, one of many he received from throughout Britain. Another statue of him, by Carlo Marochetti, was erected in Waterloo Place, London, in 1867. The town of Clyde, New Zealand was named after him in 1865.

See also

References

External links

Military offices
Preceded by
Sir Patrick Grant
Commander-in-Chief, India
1857–1861
Succeeded by
The Lord Strathnairn
Peerage of the United Kingdom
Preceded by
New Creation
Baron Clyde
1858–1863
Succeeded by
Extinct

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