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  • colitis-X is a fatal form of acute colitis in horses, with severe diarrhea, abdominal pain, shock and dehydration, and near 100% mortality in less than 24 hours?

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Colitis
Classification and external resources

A micrograph demonstrating cryptitis, a microscopic correlate of colitis. H&E stain.
ICD-10 K50. - K52
ICD-9 558
OMIM 191390
DiseasesDB 31340
MedlinePlus 001125
eMedicine ped/435
MeSH C06.405.205.265

In medicine, colitis (pl. colitides) refers to an inflammation of the colon and is often used to describe an inflammation of the large intestine (colon, cecum and rectum).

Colitides may be acute and self-limited or chronic, i.e. persistent, and broadly fit into the category of digestive diseases.

In a medical context, the label colitis (without qualification) is used if:

  1. The etiology of the inflammation in the colon is undetermined; for example, colitis may be applied to Crohn's disease at a time when the diagnosis has not declared itself.
  2. The context is clear; for example, an individual with ulcerative colitis is talking about their disease with a physician that knows the diagnosis.

Contents

Signs and symptoms

The signs and symptoms of colitides are quite variable and dependent on the etiology (or cause) of the given colitis and factors that modify its course and severity.

Symptoms of colitis may include: abdominal pain, anorexia (loss of appetite), fatigue, diarrhea, cramping, urgency (tenesmus) and bloating.

Signs may include: abdominal tenderness, weight loss, changes in bowel habits (increased frequency), fever, bleeding (overt or occult)/bloody stools, diarrhea and distension.

Signs seen on colonoscopy include: colonic mucosal erythema (redness of the inner surface of the colon), ulcers, bleeding.

Work-up

Symptoms suggestive of colitis are worked-up by obtaining the medical history, a physical examination and laboratory tests (CBC, electrolytes, stool culture and sensitivity, stool ova and parasites et cetera). Tests in addition to use may include medical imaging (e.g. abdominal computed tomography, abdominal X-rays) and an examination with a camera inserted into the rectum (sigmoidoscopy, colonoscopy).

Types

There are many types of colitides. They are usually classified by the etiology.

Types of colitis include:

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Autoimmune

Micrograph showing intestinal crypt branching, a histopathological finding of chronic colitis. H&E stain.
  • Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) - a group of chronic colitides.
    • Ulcerative colitis - a chronic colitis that affects the large intestine.
    • Crohn's disease - a type of IBD often leads to a colitis.

Idiopathic

Iatrogenic

Vascular disease

Infectious

Micrograph of a colonic pseudomembrane in pseudomembranous colitis, a type of infectious colitis.
  • Infectious colitis.

A well-known subtype of infectious colitis is pseudomembranous colitis, which results from infection by a toxigenic strain of Clostridium difficile (c-diff).[1]

Enterohemorrhagic colitis may be caused by Shiga toxin in Shigella dysenteriae or Shigatoxigenic group of Escherichia coli (STEC), which includes serotype O157:H7 and other enterohemorrhagic E. coli.[2]

Parasitic infections can also cause colitis.

Unclassifiable colitides

Indeterminate colitis is a term used for a colitis that has features of both Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis.[3] Indeterminate colitis' behaviour is usually closer to ulcerative colitis than Crohn's disease.[4]

Atypical colitis is a phrase that is occasionally used by physicians for a colitis that does not conform to criteria for accepted types of colitis. It is not an accepted diagnosis per se and, as such, a colitis that cannot be definitively classified.

Severity of colitides

Fulminant colitis is any colitis that becomes worse rapidly. In addition to the diarrhea, fever, and anemia seen in colitis, the patient has severe abdominal pain and presents a clinical picture similar to that of septicemia, where shock is present. About half of human patients require surgery. In horses, the fulminant colitis known as colitis X usually results in death within 24 hours.

Irritable bowel syndrome, a separate disease, has been called spastic colitis. This name causes confusion, since colitis is not a feature of irritable bowel syndrome.

Treatment

How a given colitis is treated is dependent on its etiology, e.g. infectious colitides are usually treated with antimicrobial agents (e.g. antibiotics), autoimmune mediated colitides are treated with immune modulators/immune suppressants.

Severe colitides can be life-threatening and may require surgery.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ "Clostridium Difficile Colitis - Overview". WebMD, LLC. http://www.webmd.com/digestive-disorders/tc/clostridium-difficile-colitis-overview. Retrieved 2006-09-15. 
  2. ^ Beutin L (2006). "Emerging enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli, causes and effects of the rise of a human pathogen". J Vet Med B Infect Dis Vet Public Health 53 (7): 299–305. doi:10.1111/j.1439-0450.2006.00968.x. PMID 16930272. 
  3. ^ Romano, C.; Famiani, A.; Gallizzi, R.; Comito, D.; Ferrau', V.; Rossi, P. (Dec 2008). "Indeterminate colitis: a distinctive clinical pattern of inflammatory bowel disease in children.". Pediatrics 122 (6): e1278-81. doi:10.1542/peds.2008-2306. PMID 19047226. 
  4. ^ Melton, GB.; Kiran, RP.; Fazio, VW.; He, J.; Shen, B.; Goldblum, JR.; Achkar, JP.; Lavery, IC. et al. (Jul 2009). "Do preoperative factors predict subsequent diagnosis of Crohn's disease after ileal pouch-anal anastomosis for ulcerative or indeterminate colitis?". Colorectal Dis. doi:10.1111/j.1463-1318.2009.02014.x. PMID 19624520. 

External links


Simple English

Colitis is an ongoing digestive disease. The main symptom of the disease is swelling of the colon. Other symptoms include: high amounts of pain, tenderness in the abdomen, depression, large amount of weight loss, fatigue, and other, more severe symptoms. Colitis is treated through the use of antibiotics if it is found early, or surgery if it is caught too late.

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