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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

A Territorial collectivity (French: collectivité territoriale and sometimes collectivité locale) within the French Republic is the generic name for all subnational entities and dependent areas which have an elected local government and (per article #72 of the French constitution) a "certain freedom of administration".

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Other facts

  • New Caledonia is the only French local government which is not a collectivité territoriale. It has its own articles in the French constitution. Since it cannot be categorized, it sometimes unofficially is called a collectivité sui generis, but "collectivity" is not strictly-speaking a legal category. It is sometimes unofficially called a pays (d'outre-mer) because its local legislative assembly (the congress) can rule using its own lois du pays.
  • Corsica is the only collectivité territoriale which belongs to no category, but its status is very close to that of régions.
  • The régions and Corsica are divided into départements ; ROMs are divided into DOMs ; New Caledonia is divided into provinces ; départements, COMs (except Saint-Barthelemy, Saint-Martin and Wallis and Futuna), DOMs and provinces all are divided into communes.
  • The commune of Poya is the only territorial entity belonging to two upper entities (provinces North and South).
  • Paris, French Guiana, Guadeloupe, La Réunion and Martinique are the only territorial entities belonging to two categories. Paris is both a département and a commune, and the others are both ROM and DOM. Paris therefore has one single president and one single assembly, while ROM / DOM each have two presidents and two assemblies.
  • Each COM has its own statutory law which gives it a particular designation (French Polynesia is designated as a pays d'outre-mer, Mayotte as a collectivité départementale, Saint-Barthelemy and Saint-Martin as collectivités, Saint-Pierre and Miquelon as a collectivité territoriale, and Wallis and Futuna as a territoire).

Administration

Past and future collectivités territoriales

  • The category of territoires d'outre-mer was suppressed under the constitutional reform of 28 March 2003. French Southern Territories is still a TOM, but this is now a particular designation, not a category. This uninhabited territory no longer is a collectivité territoriale.
  • Mayotte, and Saint Pierre and Miquelon, used to be collectivités territoriales belonging to no category (but with a status close to that of a DOM), sometimes unofficially called collectivité territoriale à statut particulier, or collectivité territoriale d'outre-mer.
  • Mayotte will vote in 2010 to change its status, and it may become a DOM.
  • New Caledonia will vote between 2014 and 2019 to change its status, and it may become a COM.
  • Corsicans have refused to suppress the two départements of Corsica (Corse-du-Sud and Haute-Corse).
  • Guadeloupians and Martiniquais have refused to suppress their ROM and DOM in order to create a unique collectivité territoriale.

See also

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