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Coloman (Hungarian: Kálmán) (1208 - Zagreb, around June, 1241) was a member of the Árpád dynasty. He was Prince of Halych (1214-15) and he became the first anointed and crowned King of Galicia-Lodomeria (rex Galiciae et Lodomeriae) (1215-1219), followed by prince Andrew of Hungary (1219-1221). During the second half of his life, he was Duke of Slavonia (1226-1241).


Ruler of Halych

Coloman was the second son of King Andrew II of Hungary and his queen, Gertrude of Merania. In 1214, his father had a meeting with Grand Duke Leszek I of Poland and they agreed that Coloman would marry Leszek's daughter, Salomea and the couple would reign in the Principality of Halych. Their allied armies invaded and occupied the neighboring country and thus Coloman became the Prince of Halych.

Upon his father's request, Pope Innocent III authorized Archbishop John of Esztergom to anoint the young Coloman king. However, his father occupied the territories promised to Grand Duke Leszek I; therefore, the latter allied himself with Prince Mstislav of Novgorod who invaded Halych in the first half of 1215, and Coloman was obliged to return to Hungary. Nevertheless, he was crowned king by the Archbishop John with the permission of Pope Innocent.

In 1216, his father and father-in-law made a new agreement; their troops occupied Halych and Coloman started to rule in the country again. The country was, in practise, probably governed by regents appointed by his father.

On 14 August 1219, his troops were defeated by Prince Mstislav and Coloman and his wife were captured. King Andrew II started negotiation with Prince Mstislav and they agreed that Coloman would be set free, but Halych were to be granted to his younger brother Andrew who would marry Prince Mstislav's daughter.

Coloman returned to Hungary but he was styled king until his death.

Duke of Slavonia

In the first half of 1226, his father entrusted him with the government of Slavonia, Croatia and Dalmatia, provinces that had been governed since 1220 by his elder brother, Béla. Coloman cooperated with his brother who had been endeavouring to take back the royal domains their father had granted to his followers, but their policy was opposed by their father. In his province, Coloman confiscated some possessions his father had granted to the Knights Templar.

In 1231, Coloman granted privileges to Vukovar (Hungarian: Valkóvár). Coloman, similarly to his brother, opposed his father's third marriage with Beatrice D'Este and following the death of King Andrew II (21 September 1235) they accused their young stepmother of adultery.

Pope Gregory IX persuaded him to pursue the heretics in his provinces and in the adjacent territories; therefore he invaded and occupied Bosnia and Zachlumia but he could not wind up Bogomilism. He supported the establishment of the Diocese of Bosnia and he granted Đakovo (Hungarian: Diakóvár) to its bishop.

When he was informed that the Mongols invaded the kingdom, he joined to his brother's troops. However, their troops were defeated at the Battle of Mohi (11 April 1241). Coloman got so serious wounds that he died a few weeks after the battle.



  • Kristó, Gyula (editor): Korai Magyar Történeti Lexikon - 9-14. század (Encyclopedia of the Early Hungarian History - 9-14th centuries); Akadémiai Kiadó, 1994, Budapest; ISBN 963 05 6722 9.

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