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Republic of Colombia
República de Colombia  (Spanish)
Flag Coat of arms
Motto"Libertad y Orden"  (Spanish)
"Liberty and Order"
AnthemOh, Gloria Inmarcesible!  (Spanish)
O unfading glory!

Capital
(and largest city)
Bogotá D.C.
4°39′N 74°3′W / 4.65°N 74.05°W / 4.65; -74.05
Official language(s) Spanish1
Recognised regional languages The languages and dialects of ethnic groups are also official in their territories.[1]
Ethnic groups  57% .Mestizo,
21% Afro-Colombian
20% White
1% Amerindian
1% Asian.
^ It also provided for 2 additional seats in Congress for Afro-Colombians and a similar quota for Amerindians.
  • Timeline Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

[2]
Demonym Colombian
Government Unitary presidential republic
 -  President Álvaro Uribe Vélez
 -  Vice President Francisco Santos
 -  President of Congress Javier Cáceres Leal
 -  President of the Supreme Court Augusto Ibáñez Guzmán
Independence From Spain 
 -  Declared July 20, 1810 
 -  Recognized August 7, 1819 
 -  Current constitution 1991 
Area
 -  Total 1,141,748 km2 (26th)
440,839 sq mi 
 -  Water (%) 8.8
Population
 -  January 2010 estimate 45,273,925[3] (29th)
 -  2005 census 42,888,592[3] 
 -  Density 40/km2 (168th)
104/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2008 estimate
 -  Total $397.249 billion[4] (28th)
 -  Per capita $8,800[2] (87th)
GDP (nominal) 2008 estimate
 -  Total $240.832 billion[4] (38th)
 -  Per capita $4,400[4][5] (84th)
Gini (2006) 52 (high
HDI (2007) 0.807 (high) (77th)
Currency Peso (COP)
Time zone (UTC-52)
Date formats dd-mm-yyyy (CE)
Drives on the Right
Internet TLD .co
Calling code +57
1 .Although the Colombian Constitution does not specify the Spanish as official language in all its territory, the native languages (approximately 75 dialects) are also official in their own territories.^ While Afro-Colombians are entitled to all constitutional rights and protections, they faced significant economic and social discrimination.
  • Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The leaders supported their argument by citing Article 79 of the Colombian constitution, which declares that "All people have the right to enjoy a healthy environment."

^ The approximate area of this territory, according to official calculations, is 4 81 ,979 sq.

2 The official Colombian time, (horalegal.sic.gov.co) is controlled and coordinated by the state agency "Superintendencia de Industria y Comercio".[6]
.Colombia (pronounced /kəˈlʌmbiə/), officially the Republic of Colombia (Spanish: República de Colombia, pronounced [reˈpuβlika ðe koˈlombja]  ( listen)), is a constitutional republic in northwestern South America.^ Republic of Colombia, República de Colombia.
  • Ethnologue: Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.christusrex.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Earlier news items in an archived CSDP newsblog on the Colombia & South America drug war .
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ In Colombia, as elsewhere, much attention has been given to belles-lettres among the whites of Spanish descent, but as yet the republic has practically nothing of a permanent character to show for it.

.Colombia is bordered to the east by Venezuela[7] and Brazil;[8] to the south by Ecuador and Peru;[9] to the north by the Caribbean Sea; to the northwest by Panama; and to the west by the Pacific Ocean.^ Colombia-Ecuador border area.
  • Ethnologue: Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.christusrex.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Colombia is bordered to the east by Venezuela and Brazil; to the south by Ecuador and Peru; to the North by the Atlantic Ocean, through the Caribbean Sea; and to the west by Panama and the Pacific Ocean.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Colombia : Colombia Overview 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Colombia's eastern border with Venezuela.

.Colombia also shares maritime borders with Jamaica, Haiti, the Dominican Republic, Honduras, Nicaragua and Costa Rica.^ President Chvez plans to organize a meeting between Presidents Alvaro Uribe of Colombia and Daniel Ortega of Nicaragua to resolve their dispute over a shared maritime border in the Caribbean.
  • Colombia May 2008 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: Academic]

^ (AP, 3/6/08) 2008 Mar 7, At a summit in the Dominican Republic the presidents of Colombia, Venezuela and Ecuador agreed to end a bitter dispute triggered by a Colombian cross-border raid with testy handshakes and an apology.
  • Timeline Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ Paz Colombia was initiated in the summer of 2000 and held its inaugural event in Costa Rica in early October.

[10][11] .With a population of over 45 million people, Colombia has the 29th largest population in the world and the second largest in South America, after Brazil.^ Colombia is the fourth largest country in Latin America (1,141,748 square kilometres) and has the second largest population (over 44 million inhabitants).
  • Minority Rights Group International : Colombia : Colombia Overview 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Colombia has more than eighty indigenous peoples living in a variety of ecological zones and the second largest African descendent population in Latin America after Brazil which includes palenqueros , the descendants of maroon communities, and raizales , the English speaking Caribbean communities, in San Andres and Providencia.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Colombia : Colombia Overview 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The 40 million people that live in Colombia are facing a civil war.

.Colombia has the third largest Spanish-speaking population in the world after Mexico and Spain.^ The UN estimated that about 3 million Colombians have been driven from their homes by violence without leaving the country, making it the largest internal refugee population in the world after Sudan.
  • Timeline Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ Walters was speaking just after he had visited Colombia, where US-backed efforts to wipe out drug-smuggling gangs and eradicate coca crops have turned the country into the world's third-largest recipient of US military aid."
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ The white contingent in the population of Colombia is chiefly composed of the descendants of the Spanish colonists who settled there during the three centuries following its discovery and conquest.

.The territory of what is now Colombia was originally inhabited by indigenous nations including the Muisca, Quimbaya, and Tairona.^ The 12 top generals in the national police were dismissed or forced into retirement Monday over the scandal, including Colombia's police chief, Gen.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ This second phase of plan Colombia means that the constitution will be reformed so the rights that are written now are not going to be written anymore and we're not going to have any way to defend our territory and our reservation.

^ Because what we are going to do now is to defend our territory with the help of non-indigenous entities and groups.

.The Spanish arrived in 1499 and initiated a period of conquest and colonization killing or taking as slaves almost 90% of that native population, and then creating the Viceroyalty of New Granada (comprising modern-day Colombia, Venezuela, Ecuador, the northwest region of Brazil and Panama) with its capital in Bogotá.^ Chavez said Venezuela will search for other countries like Ecuador, Brazil and Argentina to replace products imported from Colombia.
  • Timeline Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ Republic of Colombia; but in 1829 Venezuela withdrew, and in 1830, the year of Bolivar's death, Quito or Ecuador followed her example.

^ Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Guyana, Peru, Suriname, and Venezuela signed the Amazon Pact, a Brazilian initiative designed to coordinate the joint development of the Amazon Basin.
  • Timeline Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

[12] .Independence from Spain was won in 1819, but by 1830 "Gran Colombia" had collapsed with the secession of Venezuela and Ecuador.^ Colombia, Ecuador and Venezuela became independent countries.
  • Timeline Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ Chavez said Venezuela will search for other countries like Ecuador, Brazil and Argentina to replace products imported from Colombia.
  • Timeline Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ He formed a Gran Colombia that lasted 8 years, but broke apart into Venezuela, Colombia and Ecuador.
  • Timeline Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

.What is now Colombia and Panama emerged as the Republic of New Granada.^ COLOMBIA, a republic of South America occupying the N.W. angle of that continent and bounded N. by the Caribbean Sea and Venezuela , E. by Venezuela and Brazil , S. by Brazil, Peru and Ecuador , and W. by Ecuador, the Pacific Ocean , Panama and the Caribbean Sea.

^ On the 3rd of November a revolution broke out at Panama, and the state seceded from Colombia and declared itself to be an independent republic.

^ Peru and Bolivia now have the capacity to operate independently of Colombia, local trafficking networks have been established, and new consumer markets have emerged.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

.The new nation experimented with federalism as the Granadine Confederation (1858), and then the United States of Colombia (1863), before the Republic of Colombia was finally declared in 1886.[2] Panama seceded in 1903 under pressure to fulfill financial responsibilities towards the United States government to build the Panama Canal.^ Analyzes responses by the United States to political crises in Colombia and Venezuela.
  • Colombia May 2008 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: Academic]

^ On the 7th of November the United States government formally recognized the independence of the republic of Panama (q.v.

^ Article examines the multinational campaign in Korea through coverage of the Colombian Army experience and finds that the successful integration of the Colombia Battalion into the U.S.-led UN Command grew from the republic's larger relationship with the United States.
  • Colombia May 2008 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: Academic]

Colombia has a long tradition of constitutional government. .The Liberal and Conservative parties, founded in 1848 and 1849 respectively, are two of the oldest surviving political parties in the Americas.^ The Liberal party had been instrumental in the reelection of Nunez, and looked for a policy in conformity with their views and political convictions.

^ President Nunez had no sooner returned to Colombia than the Liberals discovered that his political opinions had changed and had become strongly Conservative.

^ From Movements to Parties in Latin America: The Evolution of Ethnic Politics .
  • Colombia May 2008 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: Academic]

.However, tensions between the two have frequently erupted into violence, most notably in the Thousand Days War (1899–1902) and La Violencia, beginning in 1948. Since the 1960s, government forces, left-wing insurgents and right-wing paramilitaries have been engaged in the continent's longest-running armed conflict.^ In the northwest weekend fighting between rebels and right-wing paramilitaries left 6 dead.
  • Timeline Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ Right-wing paramilitaries were blamed.
  • Timeline Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ "Colombian Rightists Declare Ceasefire As Prelude To Talks" ) that "A rightist paramilitary force that is responsible for most of the deaths in Colombia's conflict declared today that it would call a unilateral cease-fire to begin Sunday as a first step toward peace talks with President Alvaro Uribe's government."
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

Fuelled by the cocaine trade, this escalated dramatically in the 1980s. However, in the recent decade (2000s) the violence has decreased significantly. .Many paramilitary groups have demobilized as part of a controversial peace process with the government, and the guerrillas have lost control in many areas where they once dominated.^ Set in this remote rural village in the northern Cordoba province long dominated by the paramilitaries, the talks aim to demobilize up to 20,000 fighters in the United Self Defense Forces of Colombia, one of the most powerful factions in the four-way war that pits two leftist guerrilla groups against the paramilitaries and government forces.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ In many areas of the country, the 12,000-member FARC and the 2,000-member ELN worked together to attack government forces or demobilized paramilitary members; in other areas, especially in Arauca Department, they fought each other.
  • Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There were some reports that guerrillas and paramilitaries used forced labor, including child labor, in areas outside government control (see section 6.d.
  • Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[2] Meanwhile Colombia's homicide rate, for many years one of the highest in the world, has almost halved since 2002.[13]
.Colombia is a standing middle power[14] with the fourth largest economy in Latin America.^ They say MPRI was hired not because it has any special expertise, but because U.S. Southern Command in Miami, which oversees American military operations in Latin America, cannot spare 14 men to send to Colombia.

^ Plan Colombia was America’s 3rd largest military aid package after Israel and Egypt.
  • Timeline Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ The U.S. government has provided $5.4 billion in mostly military aid to Colombia this decade, making the country the biggest recipient of American support outside the Middle East and Afghanistan and helping to make the Colombian military the second-largest force in Latin America.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

.It also has the most unequal distribution of wealth of any country in Latin America[15].^ 'They are part and parcel of the narcotics production and export threat to the United States, as well as Europe and other countries in Latin America.'
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ According to the FT, "The DEA operates in most countries of Latin America, except Cuba, and especially in drugs-producing countries in the Andean region and in transit countries in Central America and the Caribbean.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ The Microeconomics of Income Distribution Dynamics in East Asia and Latin America , edited by Francocis Bourguignon and others.
  • Colombia May 2008 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: Academic]

.Colombia is very ethnically diverse, and the interaction between descendants of the original native inhabitants, Spanish colonists, Africans brought as slaves and twentieth-century immigrants from Europe and the Middle East has produced a rich cultural heritage.^ The white contingent in the population of Colombia is chiefly composed of the descendants of the Spanish colonists who settled there during the three centuries following its discovery and conquest.

^ Anne Patterson, U.S. ambassador to Colombia, told the committee that U.S. officials in that country had increased the spraying of coca fields, from which cocaine is produced, and that program had been 'very successful.'
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ By the middle of the century the Spanish power was fairly established, and flourishing communities arose along the coasts, and in the table-lands of Cundinamarca formerly occupied by the Muiscas.

This has also been influenced by Colombia's varied geography. .The majority of the urban centres are located in the highlands of the Andes mountains, but Colombian territory also encompasses Amazon rainforest, tropical grassland and both Caribbean and Pacific coastlines.^ There are several lofty plateaus in this region which form a huge central watershed for rivers flowing east to the Amazon, west to the Pacific, and north to the Caribbean Sea.

.Ecologically, Colombia is one of the world's 18 megadiverse countries (the most biodiverse per unit area).^ Colombia, one of the most beautiful countries in the world .
  • Colombia: Bogota, Medellin, & Cartagena Photo Gallery by Christopher Kirk at pbase.com 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.pbase.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ (AP, 12/5/08) 2008 Dec 12, Colombia extradited Diego Montoya, one of its most notorious drug trafficking suspects, to the United States to stand trial.
  • Timeline Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ These units operate throughout the country, including areas in receipt of US military aid.

[16]

Contents

Etymology

The word "Colombia" comes from Christopher Columbus (Spanish: Cristóbal Colón). .It was conceived by the Venezuelan revolutionary Francisco de Miranda as a reference to all the New World, but especially to those territories and colonies under Spanish and Portuguese rule.^ Uribe has said that 'extradition, in all its rigor will be applied to those not in a peace process,' referring to the guerrillas.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ 'The war on narco-trafficking will be conducted from Venezuela territory under parameters defined by the Venezuelan government and that means that no international organ is above the Venezuelan law,' said Chacon.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ He rules over all of us, he teaches us, he educates us, he the one who tells us how to interpret the world around us.

.The name was later adopted by the Republic of Colombia of 1819, formed out of the territories of the old Viceroyalty of New Granada (modern-day Colombia, Panama, Venezuela and Ecuador).^ Chavez said Venezuela will search for other countries like Ecuador, Brazil and Argentina to replace products imported from Colombia.
  • Timeline Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ Republic of Colombia; but in 1829 Venezuela withdrew, and in 1830, the year of Bolivar's death, Quito or Ecuador followed her example.

^ Hi - My name is Teri and I was adopted from Bogota, Colombia in 1982.
  • Colombia: Bogota, Medellin, & Cartagena Photo Gallery by Christopher Kirk at pbase.com 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.pbase.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[17]
.In 1830, when Venezuela and Ecuador broke away, the Cundinamarca region that remained became a new country — the Republic of New Granada.^ Colombia, Ecuador and Venezuela became independent countries.
  • Timeline Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ Chavez said Venezuela will search for other countries like Ecuador, Brazil and Argentina to replace products imported from Colombia.
  • Timeline Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ Republic of Colombia; but in 1829 Venezuela withdrew, and in 1830, the year of Bolivar's death, Quito or Ecuador followed her example.

In 1858 New Granada officially changed its name to the Grenadine Confederation, then in 1863 the United States of Colombia, before finally adopting its present name — the Republic of Colombia — in 1886.[17]

Geography

Shaded relief map of Colombia.
Chicamocha canyon in the Department of Santander.
.Colombia is bordered to the east by Venezuela and Brazil; to the south by Ecuador and Peru; to the north by Panama and the Caribbean Sea; and to the west by the Pacific Ocean.^ Colombia is bordered to the east by Venezuela and Brazil; to the south by Ecuador and Peru; to the North by the Atlantic Ocean, through the Caribbean Sea; and to the west by Panama and the Pacific Ocean.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Colombia : Colombia Overview 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Colombia's eastern border with Venezuela.

^ He was a soldier and statesmen who led armies of liberation throughout much of South America, including Ecuador, Venezuela, Colombia, Panama, Peru and Bolivia, which took its name from Bolivar.
  • Timeline Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

.Part of the Pacific Ring of Fire, a region of the world subject to earthquakes and volcanic eruptions, Colombia is dominated by the Andes mountains.^ The mountainous region of Colombia is subject to volcanic disturbances and earthquake shocks are frequent, especially in the south.

^ The mountain chains which cover this part of Colombia are the northern terminal ranges of the great Andean system.

^ In April, rebels of the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia, or FARC, launched an offensive in the Andes Mountains of southwest Colombia.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

.Beyond the Colombian Massif (in the south-western departments of Cauca and Nariño) these are divided into three branches known as cordilleras (from the Spanish for "rope"): the Cordillera Occidental, running adjacent to the Pacific coast and including the city of Cali; the Cordillera Central, running between the Cauca and Magdalena river valleys (to the west and east respectively) and including the cities of Medellín, Manizales , Pereira and Armenia, Quindío ; and the Cordillera Oriental, extending north east to the Guajira Peninsula and including Bogotá, Bucaramanga and Cúcuta.^ The Eastern Cordillera is in some respects the most important of the three branches of the Colombian Andes.

^ North of this great plateau the Andes divides into three great ranges, the Western, Central and Eastern Cordilleras.

^ It then forms the divide between the Cauca and Atrato valleys, and terminates near the Caribbean coast.

.Peaks in the Cordillera Occidental exceed 13,000 ft (4,000 m), and in the Cordillera Central and Cordillera Oriental they reach 18,000 ft (5,500 m).^ Huila over 18,000 ft.

^ In the Central Cordillera volcanoes extend to about 5° N.; in the Western Cordillera they barely enter within the limits of Colombia; in the Cordillera of Bogota they are entirely absent.'

^ They both rise on the high tableland of southern Colombia about 14,000 ft.

[18] At 8,500 ft (2,600 m), Bogotá is the highest city of its size in the world.
.East of the Andes lies the savanna of the Llanos, part of the Orinoco River basin, and, in the far south east, the jungle of the Amazon rainforest.^ Of the eastern part of the territory lying between the Meta and the Brazilian frontier, Venezuela claims as far west as the meridian of 69° so'.

^ Of the rivers of the great eastern plains, whose waters pass through the Orinoco and Amazon to the Atlantic, little can be said beyond the barest geographical description.

^ The largest of these rivers flow across the plains in an easterly direction, those of the Orinoco system inclining northward, and those of the Amazon system southward.

.Together these lowlands comprise over half Colombia's territory, but they contain less than 3% of the population.^ But that meant they could face American justice, rather than Colombia's corrupt and overburdened courts, only if Americans were victims of their activities.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ "'Colombia has had an increasingly dirty war in recent years in which paramilitary forces and the guerrillas systematically attacked the civilian populations they believed to be supporting the other,' he said."
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ AP Misses The Story: Drug Use Rates In Colombian Cities Less Than Half Of US Average .
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

.To the north the Caribbean coast, home to 20% of the population and the location of the major port cities of Barranquilla and Cartagena, generally consists of low-lying plains, but it also contains the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta mountain range, which includes the country's tallest peaks (Pico Cristóbal Colón and Pico Simón Bolívar), and the Guajira Desert.^ The Caribbean coast of Colombia has only four ports engaged in international trade - Barranquilla , Cartagena, Santa Marta and Rio Hacha.

^ W. Sievers, "Die Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta and die Sierra de Perija," Zeits.

^ West of this range, and lying between the 10th parallel and the Caribbean coast, is a remarkable group of lofty peaks and knotted ranges known as the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta , the highest snowcrowned summit of which rises 17,389 ft.

.By contrast the narrow and discontinuous Pacific coastal lowlands, backed by the Serranía de Baudó mountains, are covered in dense vegetation and sparsely populated.^ The range is covered with vegetation and its Pacific slopes are precipitous and humid.

^ The alternating wet and dry seasons are likewise to be found on the Pacific coastal plain, though this region is not entirely dry and vegetation never dries up as on the llanos.

.The principal Pacific port is Buenaventura.^ Separately, 2.5 tons of cocaine were discovered hidden in the oil tanks of a ship docked in the Colombian Pacific port of Buenaventura.
  • Timeline Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

Colombian territory also includes a number of Caribbean and Pacific islands.

Environmental issues

.The environmental challenges faced by Colombia are caused by both natural and human hazards.^ Human rights groups working on Colombia frequently face criticism that they ignore Colombian guerrillas' abuses.

^ The conflict and the narcotics trafficking that both fueled and prospered from it were the central causes of multiple violations of human rights.
  • Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Many natural hazards result from Colombia's position along the Pacific Ring of Fire and the consequent geological instability. .Colombia has 15 major volcanoes, the eruptions of which have on occasion resulted in substantial loss of life, such as at Armero in 1985, and geological faults that have caused numerous devastating earthquakes, such as the 1999 Armenia earthquake.^ (SFC, 8/2/99, p.A12) 1999 Aug 3, In Colombia fighting died down in Currulao with 15 FARC rebels and one soldier dead.
  • Timeline Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ 'As a result, our local police don't know what to do with this major flow of heroin out of Colombia.'"
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ (WSJ, 6/7/99, p.A1,8) 1993 Jan 14, Colombia’s Galeras Volcano erupted as 15 people gathered at the crater.
  • Timeline Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

.Heavy floods both in mountainous areas and in low-lying watersheds and coastal regions regularly cause deaths and considerable damage to property during the rainy seasons.^ The alternating wet and dry seasons are likewise to be found on the Pacific coastal plain, though this region is not entirely dry and vegetation never dries up as on the llanos.

^ For another eight months it was to continue, causing immense damage to property and trade, and the loss of tens of thousands of lives.

^ In the Amazon region there is no great change during the year, and on the northern plains the so-called dry season is one of light rains except where mountain ranges break the sweep of the north-east trades.

Rainfall intensities vary with the El Niño-Southern Oscillation which occurs in unpredictable cycles, at times causing especially severe flooding.
.Human induced deforestation has substantially changed the Andean landscape and has started to creep into the rainforests of Amazonia and the Pacific coast.^ The coast of Colombia faces on the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, and is divided by the Isthmus of Panama into two completely separated parts.

.Deforestation is also linked to the conversion of lowland tropical forests to oil palm plantations.^ In January 2008 prosecutors opened a formal investigation into 23 oil palm plantation owners in Uraba for alleged links with paramilitary forces.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Colombia : Colombia Overview 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: Original source]

.However, compared to neighbouring countries rates of deforestation in Colombia are still relatively low.^ Low rates to Colombia Best selection of Colombia phone cards .
  • Colombia phone cards from Mexico | Colombia calling cards | Low rates to Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.comfi.com [Source type: Academic]

[19] .In urban areas industry, the use of fossil fuels, and other human produced waste have contaminated the local environment.^ Live cattle, to a limited extent, are exported to Cuba and other West Indian markets, but the chief produce from this industry is hides.

Demand from rapidly expanding cities has placed increasing stress on the water supply as watersheds are affected and ground water tables fall. Nonetheless, Colombia has large reserves of freshwater and is the fourth country in the world by magnitude of total freshwater supply.[20]
Participants in the country's armed conflict have also contributed to the pollution of the environment. .Illegal armed groups have deforested large areas of land to plant illegal crops, with an estimated 99,000 hectares used for the cultivation of coca in 2007,[21] while in response the government has fumigated these crops using hazardous chemicals.^ "It has been estimated that for every hectare of coca sprayed, two hectares of forest are affected," Naranjo said.

^ The best way out of poverty and the cultivation of illegal crops is the marketplace,' said Garcia, who heads Uribe's Social National Unity Party.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ The attacks were in response to a US government backed campaign to eradicate coca plots.
  • Timeline Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

Insurgents have also destroyed oil pipelines creating major ecological disasters.

History

Pre-Colombian era

.Approximately 10,000 BC, hunter-gatherer societies existed near present-day Bogotá (at "El Abra" and "Tequendama") which traded with one another and with cultures living in the Magdalena River Valley.^ (AP, 10/22/02) 2002 Oct 26, In Colombia 5 civilians were killed by rebels near Bogotá.
  • Timeline Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ The US estimates it will create another 10,000 refugees.

^ (SFC, 2/10/00, p.A10) 2000 Feb 18, In Colombia at least 9 villagers were killed over 3 days near Ovejas by suspected right-wing gunmen.
  • Timeline Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

[22] Beginning in the first millennium BC, groups of Amerindians developed the political system of "cacicazgos" with a pyramidal structure of power headed by caciques. .Within Colombia, the two cultures with the most complex cacicazgo systems were the Tayronas in the Caribbean Region, and the Muiscas in the highlands around Bogotá, both of which were of the Chibcha language family.^ According to the FT, "The DEA operates in most countries of Latin America, except Cuba, and especially in drugs-producing countries in the Andean region and in transit countries in Central America and the Caribbean.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ Within Colombia, Pastrana's Conservative Party has been weakened by its unprecedented thrashing at the October 29 municipal and regional elections.

^ (SFC, 5/6/00, p.A10) 2000 Mar 21, In Colombia rebel bombings caused a blackout in most of Bogota and large portions of the central and northeast regions.
  • Timeline Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

The Muisca people are considered to have had one of the most developed political systems in South America, after the Incas.[23]

Spanish discovery, conquest, and colonization

Spanish explorers made the first exploration of the Caribbean littoral in 1499 led by Rodrigo de Bastidas. Christopher Columbus navigated near the Caribbean in 1502. In 1508, Vasco Nuñez de Balboa started the conquest of the territory through the region of Urabá. In 1513, he was the first European to discover the Pacific Ocean which he called Mar del Sur (or "Sea of the South") and which in fact would bring the Spaniards to Peru and Chile.
.The territory's main population was made up of hundreds of tribes of the Chibchan and Carib, currently known as the Caribbean people, whom the Spaniards conquered through warfare and alliances, while resulting disease such as smallpox, and the conquest and ethnic cleansing itself caused a demographic reduction among the indigenous.^ The indigenous peoples were known to have lived on their territories for hundreds of years before Columbus' arrival.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Colombia : Colombia Overview 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Current state of minorities and indigenous peoples .
  • Minority Rights Group International : Colombia : Colombia Overview 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Although indigenous peoples make up 2-3% of the population they account for 8% of all internally displaced peoples.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Colombia : Colombia Overview 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: Original source]

[24] In the sixteenth century, Europeans began to bring slaves from Africa.

Independence from Spain

Francisco de Paula Santander, Simón Bolivar and other heroes of the Independence of Colombia in the Congress of Cúcuta.
.Since the beginning of the periods of Conquest and Colonization, there were several rebel movements under Spanish rule, most of them either being crushed or remaining too weak to change the overall situation.^ Political and unlawful killings remained an extremely serious problem, and there were periodic reports that members of the security forces committed extrajudicial killings.
  • Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is clear Mr. Palmera is in the most danger of being flown to the United States, since his group, the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia, continues to fight the state.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

The last one which sought outright independence from Spain sprang up around 1810, following the independence of St. Domingue in 1804 (present-day Haiti), who provided a non-negligible degree of support to the eventual leaders of this rebellion: Simón Bolívar and Francisco de Paula Santander.
In a movement initiated by Antonio Nariño, who opposed Spanish centralism and which led the opposition against the viceroyalty. .After the independence of Cartagena in November 1811, two independent governments formed which fought a Civil War, a period known as La Patria Boba.^ "Focuses on the Spanish American wars of independence in Cartagena, Colombia from 1810 to 1832."
  • Colombia May 2008 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: Academic]

^ There's two ongoing social genocides that's part of this large scale war that being fought for the property and the land.

^ In November the Prosecutor General's Office sentenced two army officers to 38 years and 15 years, respectively, for aggravated homicide in the 1998 La Cabuya massacre.
  • Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The following year Nariño proclaimed the United Provinces of New Granada, headed by Camilo Torres Tenorio. .Despite the successes of the rebellion, the emergence of two distinct ideological currents among the liberators (federalism and centralism) gave rise to an internal clash between these two, thus contributing to the reconquest of territory by the Spanish, allowing restoration of the viceroyalty under the command of Juan de Samano, whose regime punished those who participated in the uprisings.^ Proceedings in these jurisdictions were subject to manipulation and often rendered punishments that were more lenient than those imposed by regular civilian courts.
  • Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ (Thesis, M. A.) " Argues that Plan Colombia is creating an imbalance of military power between Colombia and Venezuela; Explores three possible explanations for the relations between these two countries."
  • Colombia May 2008 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: Academic]

.This stoked renewed rebellion, which, combined with a weakened Spain, made possible a successful rebellion led by Simón Bolívar, who finally proclaimed independence in 1819. The pro-Spanish resistance was finally defeated in 1822 on the present territory of Colombia and in 1823 around the Viceroyalty of time.^ (SSFC, 5/18/03, p.C12) 1781 In Colombia the Comunero Revolt was the most serious revolt against Spanish authority before the war for independence.
  • Timeline Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ Colombia's armed factions congregate around areas rich in valuable resources, and its 36-year conflict has already spilled over onto U'wa territory.

^ "Focuses on the Spanish American wars of independence in Cartagena, Colombia from 1810 to 1832."
  • Colombia May 2008 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: Academic]

.The Congress of Cucuta in 1821 adopted a constitution, whose main goal was to create the Republic of Colombia, now referred to as La Gran Colombia, which also included present-day Venezuela, Panama and Ecuador.^ Chavez said Venezuela will search for other countries like Ecuador, Brazil and Argentina to replace products imported from Colombia.
  • Timeline Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Guyana, Peru, Suriname, and Venezuela signed the Amazon Pact, a Brazilian initiative designed to coordinate the joint development of the Amazon Basin.
  • Timeline Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ Venezuela and Ecuador expelled Colombia’s diplomats and cracked down on trade across the border.
  • Timeline Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

[29] However, the new republic was very unstable and ended with the rupture of Venezuela in 1829, followed by Ecuador, in 1830.
.The Venezuelan Simón Bolívar had become the first President of Colombia, and Francisco de Paula Santander was Vice President; when Simón Bolívar stepped down, Santander became the second President of Colombia.^ (AP, 10/12/05) 2005 Oct 19, Colombia's highest court approved a law allowing presidents to run for second terms.
  • Timeline Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ President Bush is expected to restart the controversial Air Bridge Denial program in Colombia, under which airplanes suspected of transporting illegal drugs can be shot down.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ According to the vice president's office, various assailants killed 34 teachers during the first eight months of the year.
  • Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The rebellion finally succeeded in 1819 when the territory of the Viceroyalty of New Granada became the Republic of Colombia organized as a union of Ecuador, Colombia and Venezuela (Panama was then an integral part of Colombia).^ Colombia, Ecuador and Venezuela became independent countries.
  • Timeline Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ The New York Review of Books published a tremendous 3-part series by Alma Guillermopietro on the drug war in Colombia: "Our New War in Colombia" "Violence Without End?"
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ Chavez said Venezuela will search for other countries like Ecuador, Brazil and Argentina to replace products imported from Colombia.
  • Timeline Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

Post-independence and republicanism

.Internal political and territorial divisions led to the secession of Venezuela and Quito (today's Ecuador) in 1830. The so-called "Department of Cundinamarca" adopted the name "Nueva Granada", which it kept until 1856 when it became the "Confederación Granadina" (Grenadine Confederation).^ In March 2008 a raid by Colombian troops on a FARC camp in Ecuadorian territory heightened diplomatic tensions and prompted Ecuador and Venezuela to send troops to Colombia's borders.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Colombia : Colombia Overview 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: Original source]

^ He was a soldier and statesmen who led armies of liberation throughout much of South America, including Ecuador, Venezuela, Colombia, Panama, Peru and Bolivia, which took its name from Bolivar.
  • Timeline Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ Colombia, Ecuador and Venezuela became independent countries.
  • Timeline Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

.After a two-year civil war in 1863, the "United States of Colombia" was created, lasting until 1886, when the country finally became known as the Republic of Colombia.^ Article examines the multinational campaign in Korea through coverage of the Colombian Army experience and finds that the successful integration of the Colombia Battalion into the U.S.-led UN Command grew from the republic's larger relationship with the United States.
  • Colombia May 2008 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: Academic]

^ The U.S.-Colombia strategy, which targets cocaine production at its source, is aimed at reducing supply and driving up prices and thereby discouraging consumption in the United States.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ Venezuela's failure to cooperate with the United States on drug interdiction is related to corruption in that country's government.'
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

.Internal divisions remained between the bipartisan political forces, occasionally igniting very bloody civil wars, the most significant being the Thousand Days civil war (1899–1902).^ The periods of 1899-1903 and 1948-1953 (La Violencia) were marked by bloody civil war and enduring phases of high intensity violence resulting in at least 200,000 deaths.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Colombia : Colombia Overview 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Colombia had been plunged into bankruptcy and subsequent civil war in 1899 after three years of steep declines in world coffee prices.
  • Timeline Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ Colombia’s history has been characterized by frequent periods of political violence and protracted civil war dating back to as early as the second half of the 19th century.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Colombia : Colombia Overview 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: Original source]

.This, together with the United States of America's intentions to influence the area (especially the Panama Canal construction and control) led to the separation of the Department of Panama in 1903 and the establishment of it as a nation.^ 'They are part and parcel of the narcotics production and export threat to the United States, as well as Europe and other countries in Latin America.'
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ An investigation of the crash by the State Department and the Federal Aviation Administration concluded a lack of intelligence about the area led to the crash."
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ (HNPD, 11/18/98) 1903 Mar 14, The Senate ratified the Hay-Herran Treaty which guaranteed the US the right to build a canal at Panama.
  • Timeline Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

.The United States paid Colombia $25,000,000 in 1921, seven years after completion of the canal, for redress of President Roosevelt's role in the creation of Panama, and Colombia recognized Panama under the terms of the Thomson-Urrutia Treaty.^ The U.S.-Colombia strategy, which targets cocaine production at its source, is aimed at reducing supply and driving up prices and thereby discouraging consumption in the United States.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ Nearly 3 years later, the Departments of State and Defense have still not developed estimates of future program costs, defined their future roles in Colombia, identified a proposed end state, or determined how they plan to achieve it."
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ Available online at: http://www.ustr.gov/Trade_Agreements/Bilateral/Colombia_FTA/Final_Text/Section_Index.html Complete text of the United States - Colombia Trade Promotion Agreement signed on November 22, 2006.
  • Colombia May 2008 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: Academic]

.Colombia was engulfed in the Year-Long War with Peru over a territorial dispute involving the Amazonas Department and its capital Leticia.^ The $1.3 billion dollars was just a down-payment in what even the Pentagon admits will be a multi-year commitment, marking a new and dangerous involvement in Colombia's counterinsurgency war.

^ Colombia's armed factions congregate around areas rich in valuable resources, and its 36-year conflict has already spilled over onto U'wa territory.

^ The Times noted that "For years, the United States has pressed Peru, the second largest source of cocaine, after Colombia, to fight production of the drug.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

.Soon after, Colombia achieved a relative degree of political stability, which was interrupted by a bloody conflict that took place between the late 1940s and the early 1950s, a period known as La Violencia ("The Violence").^ Daniel de la Pava, coordinator of the Colombia Support Network's Chicago chapter, discusses the case and the spiraling violence of Colombia's U.S.- funded war.

^ (WSJ, 8/2/07, p.A1) 1997-2004 In 2006 Colombia's nonprofit Association of Relatives of the Disappeared Detained recorded 7,300 cases of forced disappearances during this period.
  • Timeline Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ (AP, 4/25/04) 1899-1902 The civil war known as the War of the Thousand Days took place in Colombia, beginning in1899 and ending in 1902.
  • Timeline Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

.Its cause was mainly mounting tensions between the two leading political parties, which subsequently ignited after the assassination of the Liberal presidential candidate Jorge Eliécer Gaitán on April 9, 1948. This assassination caused riots in Bogotá and became known as El Bogotazo.^ The Liberal and Conservative parties have long dominated politics, but the reelection of President Uribe as an independent, the second place showing of the Polo Democratico Alternativo's (POLO) presidential candidate Carlos Gaviria, and the success of third party candidates in the March parliamentary elections reflected a widening of the political arena.
  • Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Clara Rojas was an aide to Colombian presidential candidate Ingrid Betancourt in February 2002 when the two were kidnapped on the campaign trail.
  • Timeline Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ Most worrying for the ruling Colombian oligarchy was the fact that voters did not swing to its other political tool, the Liberal Party, but instead supported a wide range of independent candidates.

.The violence from these riots spread throughout the country and claimed the lives of at least 180,000 Colombians.^ These units operate throughout the country, including areas in receipt of US military aid.

^ The coca leaf fumigation affected some 10,000 Ecuadorians along the Colombia border where the RoundupUltra herbicide was spread by Colombian airplanes.
  • Timeline Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ The Daily Telegraph reported on March 20, 2006 ( "Peru's Guerrillas Back On Warpath In Alliance With Drug Barons" ) that "The Shining Path once forced the whole country to its knees in a war that claimed 70,000 lives.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

.From 1953 to 1964 the violence between the two political parties decreased first when Gustavo Rojas deposed the President of Colombia in a coup d'état and negotiated with the guerrillas, and then under the military junta of General Gabriel París Gordillo.^ In July, a US aid package allocating $1.3 billion dollars in primarily military assistance to Colombia passed the US Senate and was signed into law by President Clinton.

^ This December or January, the President will decide whether or not to certify or waive human rights conditions on US military and counternarcotics aid to Colombia.

^ (AP, 9/5/04) 2004 Sep 6, Colombia’s attorney general's office ordered the arrest of a military officer and two soldiers in connection with the killing of three union officials last month.
  • Timeline Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

.After Rojas' deposition the two political parties Colombian Conservative Party and Colombian Liberal Party agreed to the creation of a "National Front", whereby the Liberal and Conservative parties would govern jointly.^ (AP, 6/25/03) 2003 Jul 15, The Colombian government and right-wing paramilitary fighters agreed to begin peace talks.
  • Timeline Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ Political reforms enacted for the March parliamentary elections raised the vote threshold for parties to retain formal status and gain access to government funds.
  • Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Alvaro Uribe is creating a political party to formally unite his followers, who until now have been known simply as "Uribistas."
  • Timeline Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

.The presidency would be determined by an alternating conservative and liberal president every 4 years for 16 years; the two parties would have parity in all other elective offices.^ On December 4, the Inspector General's Office ordered Cali mayor Apolinar Salcedo removed from office and prohibited him from holding public office for 16 years.
  • Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ President Andres Pastrana first announced it as a development plan for his country when he visited Washington two years ago, shortly after his election.

^ According to U.S. embassy officials, these programs alone may cost up to $230 million per year, and future costs for some other programs have not been determined.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

.The National Front ended "La Violencia", and National Front administrations attempted to institute far-reaching social and economic reforms in cooperation with the Alliance for Progress.^ Insurgency, Amnesty, and Dictatorship: General Rojas Pinilla's Attempts to End Colombia's Violencia, 1953-1957 .
  • Colombia May 2008 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: Academic]

In the end, the contradictions between each successive Liberal and Conservative administration made the results decidedly mixed. .Despite the progress in certain sectors, many social and political problems continued, and guerrilla groups were formally created such as the FARC, ELN and M-19 to fight the government and political apparatus.^ Renegade paramilitaries and guerrillas, particularly the FARC and the ELN, continued to take hostages for ransom.
  • Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ 'These Kingpin Act designations reinforce the reality that the Farc and the AUC are not simply terrorist/guerrilla organisations fighting within Colombia to promote political agendas,' said a Treasury spokesman.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ Labor leaders continued to be targets of attacks by both guerrillas and renegade paramilitary for political reasons (see section 1.g.
  • Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

These guerrilla groups were dominated by Marxist doctrines.
.Emerging in the late 1970s, powerful and violent drug cartels further developed during the 1980s and 1990s.^ Rendon was a suspected leader of the Norte del Valle cartel drug cartel believed to have trafficked half the cocaine sold in the United States in the 1990s.
  • Timeline Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

.The Medellín Cartel under Pablo Escobar and the Cali Cartel, in particular, exerted political, economic and social influence in Colombia during this period.^ The abductions were by the Medellin drug cartel under Pablo Escobar.
  • Timeline Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ Discusses Colombias connection to international socialism, particularly the ways in which international influences became part of local political traditions, affecting the formation and practices of radical groups."--Abstract from publication.
  • Colombia May 2008 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: Academic]

^ (Econ, 8/1/09, p.34) 1995 Gilberto Rodriguez Orejuela, a leader of Colombia’s Cali drug cartel, was arrested.
  • Timeline Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

.These cartels also financed and influenced different illegal armed groups throughout the political spectrum.^ Regional human rights ombudsmen were under constant threat from illegal armed groups.
  • Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Illegal armed groups committed the majority of human rights violations.
  • Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, many indigenous communities had no legal title to lands they claimed, and illegal armed groups often violently contested indigenous land ownership.
  • Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Some enemies of these allied with the guerrillas and created or influenced paramilitary groups.^ There were some reports that guerrillas and paramilitaries used forced labor, including child labor, in areas outside government control (see section 6.d.
  • Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Rito Alejo del Rio was arrested on charges of helping create right-wing paramilitary groups.
  • Timeline Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ Paramilitary groups and guerrillas threatened, displaced, and killed academics and their families for political and financial reasons.
  • Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The Colombian armed forces around the dead body of the famous drug lord Pablo Escobar.
.The new Colombian Constitution of 1991 was ratified after being drafted by the Constituent Assembly of Colombia.^ (SFC, 8/30/96, p.A14) 1991 Colombia’s Constitution was revised and included progressive legislation concerning Indian rights.
  • Timeline Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ Colombia's Economic Recession: The Impact of Guerrilla Violence, Illicit Drug Trafficking, and the 1991 Constitution .
  • Colombia May 2008 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: Academic]

.The constitution included key provisions on political, ethnic, human and gender rights.^ These comments imply that human rights groups - many of whose members are left-of-center in their personal politics - somehow favor or support Colombian guerrilla groups.

^ (SFC, 8/30/96, p.A14) 1991 Colombia’s Constitution was revised and included progressive legislation concerning Indian rights.
  • Timeline Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ But Barrancabermeja's 195,000 residents have no such protection: this year alone, 470 of them have been slain in politically motivated attacks, human rights workers say.

.The new constitution initially prohibited the extradition of Colombian nationals, causing accusations that drug cartels had lobbied for the provision; extradition was allowed again in 1996 when the provision was repealed.^ (SFC, 3/17/98, p.B2,10) 1991 A US intelligence report said Alvaro Uribe was a Colombian drug cartel ally.
  • Timeline Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ The US Office of National Drug Control Policy may be 'cooking the books' in their estimates of Colombian cocaine production.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ The Colombian Constitution of this year forbade the extradition of its citizens.
  • Timeline Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

The cartels had previously promoted a violent campaign against extradition, leading to many terrorist attacks and mafia-style executions. .They also tried to influence the government and political structure of Colombia through corruption, as in the case of the 8000 Process scandal.^ They are asking their government, the guerrilla forces and the international community to join with them in a renewed effort to cease hostilities and revive the fragile peace process.

^ 'Democrats are going to try to increase the social components somewhat, but they don't have a lot of options to influence the agenda,' he said.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ But that meant they could face American justice, rather than Colombia's corrupt and overburdened courts, only if Americans were victims of their activities.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

.In recent years, the country has continued to be plagued by the effects of the drug trade, guerrilla insurgencies like FARC, and paramilitary groups such as the AUC (later demobilized, though paramilitarism remains active), which along with other minor factions have engaged in a bloody internal armed conflict.^ Meanwhile, the drug trade continues to boom.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ FARC, along with 10 others.
  • Timeline Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ The country's 42-year-long internal armed conflict, involving government forces, a right-wing paramilitary movement, and two leftist insurgent groups, continued although the paramilitary demobilization was concluded during the year.
  • Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.President Andrés Pastrana and the FARC attempted to negotiate a solution to the conflict between 1999 and 2002. The government set up a "demilitarized" zone, but repeated tensions and crisis led the Pastrana administration to conclude that the negotiations were ineffectual.^ The Herald notes that "Although Plan Colombia, launched in 2000 by Presidents Clinton and Andrés Pastrana, enjoys bipartisan support, the Bush administration budget request may still face a tough battle in Congress.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ (WSJ, 1/16/03, p.D8) 2002 The Colombia coffee federation, set up in 1927, began opening local coffee shops under the Valdez name.
  • Timeline Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ "Following another high profile terrorist attack in Colombia, negotiations between the government and the FARC are once again at risk."
  • Colombia May 2008 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: Academic]

.Pastrana also began to implement the Plan Colombia initiative, with the dual goal of ending the armed conflict and promoting a strong anti-narcotic strategy.^ 'Plan Colombia began in 2000.'
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ Looks at the issue of property rights and their bearing on the inability of Colombia to assert authority over its territory as well as to implement the social agenda of Plan Colombia.
  • Colombia May 2008 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: Academic]

^ (SFC, 7/19/99, p.A12) 1999 Jul 23, In Colombia a US anti-narcotics reconnaissance airplane crashed with 5 US Army personnel and 2 Colombians.
  • Timeline Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

During the presidency of Álvaro Uribe, the government applied more military pressure on the FARC and other outlawed groups, under the stance that nearly half a century of negotiations with no results was a sign that "some entities just cannot be negotiated with." Mostly through military pressure and increased military hardware from the US most security indicators improved, showing a steep decrease in reported kidnappings (from 3,700 in the year 2000 to 172 in 2009 (Jan.-Oct.)) and intentional homicides .(from 28,837 in 2002 to 15,817 in 2009 according to police).^ (AP, 4/12/09) 2009 Apr 15, Colombia's most wanted drug lord was captured in a jungle raid involving hundreds of police officers.
  • Timeline Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

[25] Guerrillas have been reduced from 16,900 insurgents to 8,900 insurgents.
.While some in the UN argue Colombia is violating human rights to achieve peace, most do not argue that increased military pressure has had considerable improvements that have favored economic growth and tourism.^ Human rights groups working on Colombia frequently face criticism that they ignore Colombian guerrillas' abuses.

^ Defense Minister Luis Ramírez argued that 533 cases had already been transferred to civilian courts, yet under closer inspection, few of the transferred cases involved human rights and most were against low-ranking officers.

^ Urge your members of Congress to pressure the administration NOT to certify Colombia on human rights and NOT to issue a waiver.

[26] .The 2006–2007 Colombian parapolitics scandal emerged from the revelations and judicial implications of past and present links between paramilitary groups, mainly the AUC, and some government officials and many politicians, most of them allied to the governing administration.^ New allegations have emerged about ties between high Colombian government officials and rightwing paramilitary groups.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ The 'parapolitics' scandal also involves a retrieved computer files and has caused severe political damage to the Uribe administration and its allies in the Colombian Congress More than 60 legislators are under investigation or in jail awaiting trial for suspected collaboration with paramilitary bosses, their associated assassinations and instances of military imposed electoral fraud.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Colombia : Colombia Overview 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: Original source]

^ (AP, 12/1/06) 2006 Dec 6, Far-right paramilitary groups pulled out of a peace process with the Colombian government following a decision by President Alvaro Uribe's administration to transfer jailed militia leaders to a maximum security prison.
  • Timeline Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

[27]

Government

Current President Álvaro Uribe.
.The government of Colombia takes place within the framework of a presidential representative democratic republic as established in the Constitution of 1991.^ (SFC, 8/30/96, p.A14) 1991 Colombia’s Constitution was revised and included progressive legislation concerning Indian rights.
  • Timeline Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ Counsel may represent the accused and call witnesses, but the majority of fact-finding takes place during the investigative stage.
  • Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ (WSJ, 12/17/96, p.A18) 1991 Colombia’s government halted extradition of drug traffickers to the US following a wave of bombings and assassinations.
  • Timeline Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

In accordance with the principle of separation of powers, government is divided into three branches: the executive branch, the legislative branch and the judicial branch.
.The head of the executive branch is the President of Colombia who serves as both head of state and head of government, followed by the Vice President and the Council of Ministers.^ Santos later served as a president of Colombia.
  • Timeline Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ (SFC, 6/24/00, p.A13) 2000 Jul 15, In Colombia 13 police officers were executed by rebels following their surrender to a missile attack in Roncesvalles.
  • Timeline Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ "Bush OKs Continued Assistance To Colombia Anti-Drug Program" ) that "President Bush said Tuesday the U.S. government will continue to assist Colombia in interdicting aircraft suspected of drug trafficking.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

.The president is elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms and is currently limited to a maximum of two such terms (increased from one in 2005).^ (AP, 11/24/05) 2005 Nov 27, Colombian President Alvaro Uribe formally announced that he will run for a second term in next year's elections, saying he needed four more years to accomplish his goals of restoring security to the country and spurring economic growth.
  • Timeline Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ (AP, 10/12/05) 2005 Oct 19, Colombia's highest court approved a law allowing presidents to run for second terms.
  • Timeline Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ (AP, 11/6/05) 2005 Nov 11, Colombia's highest court approved a law that clears the way for popular President Alvaro Uribe to run for a second term next year.
  • Timeline Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

At the provincial level executive power is vested in department governors, municipal mayors and local administrators for smaller administrative subdivisions, such as corregidores for corregimientos.
Nariño Palace, presidential House.
.The legislative branch of government is composed by the Senate and the House of Representatives.^ Within the legislation, Senators Leahy and Kennedy fought for tough human rights conditions that the Colombian Government had to meet before the aid could be released.

^ There were two Afro-Colombian senators and three Afro-Colombian members of the House of Representatives.
  • Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There were 11 women in the 102-member Senate, including its president, and 16 women in the 166-member House of Representatives.
  • Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The 102-seat Senate is elected nationally and the Representatives are elected by every region and minority groups.^ Voters in Sucre re-elected Alvaro Garcia to the Senate and Erik Morris to the chamber of Representatives.
  • Timeline Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ Select a region, specific country or a minority group: .
  • Minority Rights Group International : Colombia : Colombia Overview 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: Original source]

^ There were 11 women in the 102-member Senate, including its president, and 16 women in the 166-member House of Representatives.
  • Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[28] .Members of both houses are elected two months before the president, also by popular vote and to serve four-year terms.^ President Andres Pastrana first announced it as a development plan for his country when he visited Washington two years ago, shortly after his election.

^ (AP, 11/6/05) 2005 Nov 11, Colombia's highest court approved a law that clears the way for popular President Alvaro Uribe to run for a second term next year.
  • Timeline Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ There were two Afro-Colombian senators and three Afro-Colombian members of the House of Representatives.
  • Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

At the provincial level the legislative branch is represented by department assemblies and municipal councils. .All regional elections are held one year and five months after the presidential election.^ According to investigators, Rincon signed contracts amounting to 28 percent of the department's budget in less than one month's time leading up to elections.
  • Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Villamizar said the fact that no one was held responsible for the deaths of seven officers two years ago set a terrible example.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ (SFC, 5/24/02, p.A16)(WSJ, 3/10/08, p.A5) 2002 May 25, In Colombia presidential elections were held.
  • Timeline Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

.The judicial branch is headed by the Supreme Court, consisting of 23 judges divided into three chambers (Penal, Civil and Agrarian, and Labour).^ There were five women in the 13-member cabinet and three on the 23-member Supreme Court.
  • Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ According to the National Association of Judicial Branch Employees and the Corporate Fund of Solidarity with Colombian Judges, eight judicial branch employees were killed and 31 received threats against their lives.
  • Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Colombia had been plunged into bankruptcy and subsequent civil war in 1899 after three years of steep declines in world coffee prices.
  • Timeline Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

.The judicial branch also includes the Council of State, which has special responsibility for administrative law and also provides legal advice to the executive, the Constitutional Court, responsible for assuring the integrity of the Colombian constitution, and the Superior Council of Judicature, responsible for auditing the judicial branch.^ The Supreme Court, the Council of State, the Constitutional Court, and the CSJ are coequal supreme judicial bodies that sometimes issued conflicting rulings and frequently disagreed about jurisdictional responsibilities.
  • Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ According to the National Association of Judicial Branch Employees and the Corporate Fund of Solidarity with Colombian Judges, eight judicial branch employees were killed and 31 received threats against their lives.
  • Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The civilian justice system is composed of four functional jurisdictions: civil, administrative, constitutional, and special.
  • Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Colombia operates a system of civil law, which since 2005 has been applied through an adversarial system.^ (AP, 10/12/05) 2005 Oct 19, Colombia's highest court approved a law allowing presidents to run for second terms.
  • Timeline Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ In all, the United States has spent $1.8 billion on antinarcotics measures and military and law enforcement aid to Colombia since 2000."
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ Madera, Jose M. Civil Information Management in Support of Counterinsurgency Operations: A Case for the Use of Geospatial Information Systems in Colombia .
  • Colombia May 2008 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: Academic]

Administrative divisions

Click on a department on the map below to go to its article.
La Guajira Department Magdalena Department Atlántico Department Cesar Department Bolívar Department Norte de Santander Department Sucre Department Córdoba Department Santander Department Antioquia Department Boyacá Department Arauca Department Chocó Department Caldas Department Cundinamarca Department Casanare Department Vichada Department Valle del Cauca Department Tolima Department Meta Department Huila Department Guainía Department Guaviare Department Cauca Department Vaupés Department Nariño Department Caquetá Department Putumayo Department Amazonas Department Risaralda Department Risaralda Department Quindío Department Quindío Department Bogotá Bogotá Archipelago of San Andrés, Providencia and Santa Catalina Departments of colombia.svg
About this image
 Department Capital city
1 Flag of the Department of Amazonas Amazonas Leticia
2 Flag of the Department of Antioquia Antioquia Medellín
3 Flag of the Department of Arauca Arauca Arauca
4 Flag of the Department of Atlántico Atlántico Barranquilla
5 Flag of the Department of Bolívar Bolívar Cartagena
6 Flag of the Department of Boyacá Boyacá Tunja
7 Flag of the Department of Caldas Caldas Manizales
8 Flag of the Department of Caquetá Caquetá Florencia
9 Flag of the Department of Casanare Casanare   Yopal
10 Flag of the Department of Cauca Cauca Popayán
11 Flag of the Department of Cesar Cesar Valledupar      
12 Flag of the Department of Chocó Chocó Quibdó
13 Flag of the Department of Córdoba Córdoba Montería
14 Flag of the Department of Cundinamarca Cundinamarca Bogotá
15 Flag of the Department of Guainía Guainía Inírida
16 Flag of the Department of Guaviare Guaviare San José del Guaviare
17 Flag of the Department of Huila Huila Neiva
 Department Capital city
18 Flag of Nueva Esparta La Guajira   Riohacha
19 Flag of the Department of Magdalena Magdalena Santa Marta
20 Flag of the Department of Meta Meta Villavicencio
21 Flag of the Department of Nariño Nariño Pasto
22 Flag of the Department of North Santander North Santander Cúcuta
23 Flag of the Department of Putumayo Putumayo Mocoa
24 Flag of the Department of Quindío Quindío Armenia
25 Flag of the Department of Risaralda Risaralda Pereira
26 Flag of the Department of San Andres, Providencia and Santa Catalina San Andrés, Providencia
and Santa Catalina
San Andrés
27 Flag of the Department of Santander Santander Bucaramanga
28 Flag of the Department of Sucre Sucre Sincelejo
29 Flag of the Department of Tolima Tolima Ibagué
30 Flag of the Department of Valle del Cauca Valle del Cauca Cali
31 Flag of the Department of Vichada Vaupés Mitú
32 Flag of the Department of Vichada Vichada Puerto Carreño
33 Flag of Bogotá Capital District Bogotá
Colombia is divided into 32 departments and one capital district, which is treated as a department (Bogotá also serves as the capital of the department of Cundinamarca). Departments are subdivided into municipalities, each of which is assigned a municipal seat, and municipalities are in turn subdivided into corregimientos. Each department has a local government with a governor and assembly directly elected to four-year terms. .Each municipality is headed by a mayor and council, and each corregimiento by an elected corregidor, or local leader.^ Bogota residents elected Eduardo Garzon, a former Communist union leader, as their mayor in municipal elections.
  • Timeline Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

In addition to the capital nine other cities have been designated districts (in effect special municipalities), on the basis of special distinguishing features. These are Barranquilla, Cartagena, Santa Marta, Cúcuta, Popayán, Tunja, Turbo, Buenaventura and Tumaco. .Some departments have local administrative subdivisions, where towns have a large concentration of population and municipalities are near each other (for example in Antioquia and Cundinamarca).^ (SFC, 8/12/97, p.A9) 1997 Aug 15, Ten woodcutters were killed by a gang of hooded gunmen near the town of Retiro in Antioquia province.
  • Timeline Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

Where departments have a low population and there are security problems (for example Amazonas, Vaupés and Vichada), special administrative divisions are employed, such as "department corregimientos", which are a hybrid of a municipality and a corregimiento.

Foreign affairs

The foreign affairs of Colombia are headed by the President of Colombia and managed by the Minister of Foreign Affairs. Colombia has diplomatic missions in all continents and is also represented in multilateral organizations at the following locations:
.The foreign relations of Colombia are mostly concentrated on combating the illegal drug trade, the fight against terrorism, improving Colombia's image in the international community, expanding the international market for Colombian products, and environmental issues.^ Clinton in Washington and agreed to expand the fight against drugs.
  • Timeline Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ Bush put fighting poverty at the top of his agenda in Colombia and promised more aid and a trade deal for Pres.
  • Timeline Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ Colombia also sent back another woman and eight men to face charges in the US related to drug trafficking.
  • Timeline Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

.Colombia receives special military and commercial co-operation and support in its fight against internal armed groups from the United States, mainly through Plan Colombia, as well as special financial preferences from the European Union in certain products.^ The U.S.-Colombia strategy, which targets cocaine production at its source, is aimed at reducing supply and driving up prices and thereby discouraging consumption in the United States.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ Over the last five years, the United States has spent three-point-three billion dollars on coca plant eradication through equipment and military training for Colombian soldiers.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ The Marxist Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia, or Farc and the paramilitary United Self-Defence Forces of Colombia ( AUC ) were already designated terrorist groups.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

Colombia was one of the 12 countries that joined the UNASUR when it was created. .UNASUR is supposed to be modeled like the European Union having free trade agreements with the members, free movement of people, a common currency, and also a common passport.^ (AP, 12/27/06)(AP, 12/28/06) 2006 In Colombia 60 trade union members were murdered this year.
  • Timeline Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ (AP, 2/27/06) 2006 Feb 27, The US and Colombia reached a free trade agreement after nearly 2 years of negotiations.
  • Timeline Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ (AP, 6/6/08) 2008 Jun 7, Canada said it had wrapped up free trade negotiations with Colombia and reached agreement on related labor and environmental issues.
  • Timeline Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

.Colombia as well as all the other members of UNASUR have had some problems with the integration due to the 2008 Andean diplomatic crisis.^ In March 2008 a raid by Colombian troops on a FARC camp in Ecuadorian territory heightened diplomatic tensions and prompted Ecuador and Venezuela to send troops to Colombia's borders.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Colombia : Colombia Overview 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: Original source]

^ (AP, 7/8/08) 2008 Jul 11, Venezuela's Hugo Chavez and Colombia's Alvaro Uribe mended relations after months of sniping that threatened trade and unleashed a diplomatic crisis.
  • Timeline Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ Discusses the OAS role in reestablishing an "atmosphere of trust between Colombia and Ecuador" following the March 2008 crisis.
  • Colombia May 2008 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: Academic]

.Colombia is a member of the Andean Community of Nations and the Union of South American Nations.^ Colombia's President, Alvaro Uribe, began meeting with the leaders of other regional nations on Tuesday, August 4 of 2009, according to a same-day MercoPress article ( "Uribe Tours South American to Explain US Bases in Colombia" ).
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ (AP, 2/21/06) 2006 Feb 24, Colombia suspended arrest warrants for leaders of the National Liberation Army, the South American nation's second-largest rebel group, as part of preliminary peace talks in Cuba.
  • Timeline Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ Kidnappings and other violent crimes in the South American nation also have declined.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

.Colombians need tourist visa for 180 countries (http://www.gobiernoenlinea.gov.co/categoria.aspx?catID=5&conID=871) and do not need tourist visa for 15 countries (http://www.gobiernoenlinea.gov.co/categoria.aspx?catID=5&conID=872 ).^ Available online at: http://www.treasury.gov/offices/enforcement/ofac/reports/narco_impact_report_05042007.pdf .
  • Colombia May 2008 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: Academic]

^ Available online at: http://www.ustr.gov/assets/Document_Library/Fact_Sheets/2007/asset_upload_file363_13072.pdf Brief summary of the U.S.-Colombia Trade Promotion Agreement.
  • Colombia May 2008 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: Academic]

^ Available online at: http://www.state.gov/p/wha/ci/co/ Provides basic country information through a Library of Congress Country Study; Also offers links to various Congressional reports & hearings on such topics as trade, drug, and terrorism issues.
  • Colombia May 2008 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: Academic]

Defense

Colombian Air Force Kfir C.7 fighter aircraft.
.The executive branch of government has responsibility for managing the defense of Colombia, with the President commander-in-chief of the armed forces.^ "Discusses the historical context and the current Colombian situation and explains the efforts that the government, the people, and the armed forces have undertaken to resolve the problem of violence."
  • Colombia May 2008 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: Academic]

^ The Marxist Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia, or Farc and the paramilitary United Self-Defence Forces of Colombia ( AUC ) were already designated terrorist groups.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ "Colombian Rightists Declare Ceasefire As Prelude To Talks" ) that "A rightist paramilitary force that is responsible for most of the deaths in Colombia's conflict declared today that it would call a unilateral cease-fire to begin Sunday as a first step toward peace talks with President Alvaro Uribe's government."
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

Colombian Navy ARC Almirante Padilla (FM-51) frigate.
.The Colombian military is divided into three branches: the National Army of Colombia; the Colombian Air Force; and the Colombian National Armada.^ Article examines the multinational campaign in Korea through coverage of the Colombian Army experience and finds that the successful integration of the Colombia Battalion into the U.S.-led UN Command grew from the republic's larger relationship with the United States.
  • Colombia May 2008 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: Academic]

^ (SFC, 7/19/99, p.A12) 1999 Jul 23, In Colombia a US anti-narcotics reconnaissance airplane crashed with 5 US Army personnel and 2 Colombians.
  • Timeline Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ Reports on the upgrade of the Super Tucano EMB-314 light-attack turboprop aircraft to be fitted to operate laser-guided bombs by the Colombian Air Force.
  • Colombia May 2008 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: Academic]

.The National Police functions as a gendarmerie, operating independently from the military as the law enforcement agency for the entire country.^ Last month, the slain police unit had busted a ring involving five retired police officers, a retired military official, and an employee of the national airline.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ Police blamed the attack on the National Liberation Army (ELN), which operates in the oil-producing region bordering Venezuela.
  • Timeline Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ In all, the United States has spent $1.8 billion on antinarcotics measures and military and law enforcement aid to Colombia since 2000."
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

.Each of these operates with their own intelligence apparatus separate from the national intelligence agency, the Administrative Department of Security.^ "The four Americans on board the Cessna 208 were contract employees of the Central Intelligence Agency at work on an anti-drug operation in the area, U.S. officials said."
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ An investigation of the crash by the State Department and the Federal Aviation Administration concluded a lack of intelligence about the area led to the crash."
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ According to the BBC, "The declassified document was released by the US Defense Intelligence Agency after a request from the National Security Archive - a non-governmental research group - under the Freedom of Information Act.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

.The National Army is formed by divisions, regiments and special units; the National Armada by the Colombian Naval Infantry, the Naval Force of the Caribbean, the Naval Force of the Pacific, the Naval Force of the South, Colombia Coast Guards, Naval Aviation and the Specific Command of San Andres y Providencia; and the Air Force by 13 air units.^ Laws to limit migration from the mainland of Colombia in order to protect the indigenous Afro-Colombian raizal community in San Andres and Providencia have been poorly enforced and the raizal language and way of life are threatened by the wholesale buying and appropriation of the islanders lands by the tourism industry and foreign and mainland Colombian colonists (OHCHR, 2004).
  • Minority Rights Group International : Colombia : Colombia Overview 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Article examines the multinational campaign in Korea through coverage of the Colombian Army experience and finds that the successful integration of the Colombia Battalion into the U.S.-led UN Command grew from the republic's larger relationship with the United States.
  • Colombia May 2008 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: Academic]

^ However the overall dynamic including Córdoba's possible ongoing mediating role changed dramatically on 2 July 2008 when a joint US / Colombian Army special task force mounted a helicopter borne rescue operation on a FARC hostage camp in south eastern Colombia, freeing Bentancourt and 14 others who were also held captive.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Colombia : Colombia Overview 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: Original source]

The National Police has a presence in all municipalities.

Politics

Colombian National Congress.
.For over a century Colombian politics were monopolized by the Liberal Party (founded in 1848 on an anti-clerical, broadly economically liberal and federalist platform), and the Conservative Party (founded in 1849 espousing Catholicism, protectionism, and centralism).^ Colombian Soldiers Found Guilty In 2006 Slaughter Of Anti-Drug Police Squad .
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ Back to top Colombian Soldiers Found Guilty In 2006 Slaughter Of Anti-Drug Police Squad .
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

.This culminated in the formation of the National Front (1958–1974), which formalized arrangements for an alternation of power between the two parties and excluded non-establishment alternatives (thereby fueling the nascent armed conflict).^ "Compares systematically two non-state armed groups that participate in the Colombian conflict, the main guerrilla (FARC) and the paramilitary."--Abstract from publication.
  • Colombia May 2008 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: Academic]

^ (SFC, 1/8/99, p.A13) 1985 May, In Colombia FARC communist guerrillas sponsored the formation of a legal political party, the Patriotic Front (Union Patriotica).
  • Timeline Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ (Thesis, M. A.) " Argues that Plan Colombia is creating an imbalance of military power between Colombia and Venezuela; Explores three possible explanations for the relations between these two countries."
  • Colombia May 2008 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: Academic]

By the time of the dissolution of the National Front, traditional political alignments had begun to fragment. .This process has continued since, and the consequences of this are exemplified by the results of the last presidential election, held on 28 May 2006, which was won with 62% of the vote by the incumbent, Álvaro Uribe.^ (Econ, 5/27/06, p.34) 2006 May 28, President Alvaro Uribe won Colombia's presidential elections with 62% of the vote.
  • Timeline Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ Uribe became the first incumbent to win re-election in Colombia in more than a century, beating his nearest rival by more than 40 percentage points with pledges to continue fighting crime and reducing poverty.
  • Timeline Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ (SFEC, 7/12/98, p.A12) 1998 May 31, In Colombian presidential elections conservative Andres Pastrana (43), son of former Pres.
  • Timeline Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

.President Uribe is from a Liberal background but he campaigned as part of the Colombia First movement with the support of the Conservative Party, and his hard line on security issues and liberal economics place him on the right of the modern political spectrum.^ Uribe did not attend, in part because Ecuador broke of ties with Colombia last year.
  • Timeline Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ See Colombia pp 275-343; Provides information on the geography, natural resources, demography, politics, infrastructure, internal and external affairs, defence budget, armed forces, security issues, etc.
  • Colombia May 2008 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: Academic]

^ Gabriel Arango was fired in August over accusations that traffickers paid him for information on the movements of drug patrols off Colombia's Caribbean coast.
  • Timeline Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

.In second place with 22% was Carlos Gaviria of the Alternative Democratic Pole, a newly formed social democratic alliance which includes elements of the former M-19 guerrilla movement.^ The Movement to Socialism alliance has grown from a regional group representing coca farmers to the nation's most important political group in a decade.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ Carlos Gaviria, the former justice who wrote the decision.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ (AP, 3/1/01) 1996 Apr 2, Architect Juan Carlos Gaviria, brother of former pres.
  • Timeline Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

Horacio Serpa of the Liberal Party achieved third place with 12%. .Meanwhile in the congressional elections held earlier that year the two traditional parties secured only 93 out of 268 seats available.^ Villamizar said the fact that no one was held responsible for the deaths of seven officers two years ago set a terrible example.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

.Despite a number of controversies, most notably the ongoing parapolitics scandal, dramatic improvements in security and continued strong economic performance have ensured that President Uribe remains extremely popular among the Colombian people, with his approval rating peaking at 85% in July 2008.[29] However, having served two terms, he will be constitutionally barred from seeking re-election in 2010. The Colombian Congress, with overwhelming support of the Colombian people, had attempted to hold a referendum allowing a vote that would overturn the 2-term limit for presidents, but this attempt was ruled unconstitutional by the Colombian constitutional court on February 27, 2010. President Uribe has stated that he respects the decision, one that cannot be appealed.^ However last month President Alvaro Uribe stated publicly Murillo would remain in Colombia.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ The referendum was seen as a test of President Alvaro Uribe's support.
  • Timeline Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ (AP, 11/24/05) 2005 Nov 27, Colombian President Alvaro Uribe formally announced that he will run for a second term in next year's elections, saying he needed four more years to accomplish his goals of restoring security to the country and spurring economic growth.
  • Timeline Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

Economy

GDP growth 2001–2007.
Bogota is the main financial center in Colombia.
Finance in Medellin.
File:Cartagenaskylinei.jpg
Skyline of Manizales city.
.
In spite of the difficulties presented by serious internal armed conflict, Colombia's economy grew steadily in the latter part of the twentieth century, with gross domestic product (GDP) increasing at an average rate of over 4% per year between 1970 and 1998. The country suffered a recession in 1999 (the first full year of negative growth since the Great Depression), and the recovery from that recession was long and painful.
^ Walters' aides said the new data reverses three years of steadily declining cocaine prices, which had perplexed policymakers as Washington poured more than $4 billion into Colombia since 2000 as part of an effort to increase Bogot's ability to curb drug production and trafficking."
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ (SFC, 2/26/98, p.A9) 1998 Feb 26, The US waived the 2-year-old sanctions against Colombia.
  • Timeline Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ The U.S. government has sent more than $3 billion to Colombia since 2000, mostly in military aid and training, despite continuing questions about the human rights practices of the country's armed forces.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

.However, in recent years growth has been impressive, reaching 8.2% in 2007, one of the highest rates of growth in Latin America.^ A recent report by the Washington Office on Latin America , a liberal think tank, cautioned that any results could be off by 25 percent or more.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ The rate of use was highest among young adults (18 to 25 years) at 20.2 percent.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ Morales promised to reach out to all sectors of Bolivia's people and heal the wounds that have riven the nation in recent years.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

Meanwhile the Colombian stock exchange climbed from 1,000 points at its creation in July 2001 to over 7,300 points by November 2008.[30]
.According to International Monetary Fund estimates, in 2007 Colombia's nominal GDP was US$202.6 billion (37th in the world and fourth in South America).^ Colombia's President, Alvaro Uribe, began meeting with the leaders of other regional nations on Tuesday, August 4 of 2009, according to a same-day MercoPress article ( "Uribe Tours South American to Explain US Bases in Colombia" ).
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ (SFC, 6/15/00, p.C4) 1998 Dec 1, It was reported that a US congressional initiative added $165 million in counter-narcotics funds to Colombia.
  • Timeline Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ "US Takes On New Powers To Try 'Drug Guerrillas'" ) that "America yesterday named Colombia's Marxist guerrillas and Right-wing paramilitaries as international drugs trafficking groups, opening the way for their leaders to face extradition and trial in US courts.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

.Adjusted for purchasing power parity, GDP per capita stands at $7,968, placing Colombia 82nd in the world.^ Analyzes U.S. security policies adopted since the end of World War II, Colombias place in those policies, and their impact on the construction of democracy in Colombia.--Abstract from publication.
  • Colombia May 2008 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: Academic]

.However, in practice this is relatively unevenly distributed among the population, and, in common with much of Latin America, Colombia scores poorly according to the Gini coefficient, with UN figures placing it 119th out of 126 countries.^ 'They are part and parcel of the narcotics production and export threat to the United States, as well as Europe and other countries in Latin America.'
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ The UN had previously relied on US estimates of Peruvian coca production, however those estimates have been shown to be extremely low, so its own monitoring system was put in place, as had previously occurred in Colombia -- for the same reason, US estimates were unrealistically low.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ Prices have fallen even as world demand has risen: consumption is broadly flat in North America, according to the UN, but rising in Europe.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

.In 2003 the richest 20% of the population had a 62.7% share of income/consumption and the poorest 20% just 2.5%, and 17.8% of Colombians live on less than $2 a day.^ (AP, 11/26/03) 2003 Dec 7, A group of 160 Colombian paramilitary fighters handed over their weapons, becoming the second faction of outlawed right-wing militias to do so in less than two weeks.
  • Timeline Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ (AP, 10/17/03) 2003 Oct 19, Colombian military killed Edgar Gustavo Navarro, the No.
  • Timeline Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ AP Misses The Story: Drug Use Rates In Colombian Cities Less Than Half Of US Average .
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

[31]
.Government spending is 37.9% of GDP.[2] Almost a quarter of this goes towards servicing the country's relatively high government debt, estimated at 52.8% of GDP in 2007.[2][31] Other problems facing the economy include weak domestic and foreign demand, the funding of the country's pension system, and unemployment (10.8% in November 2008[30]).^ 'Other sources estimate the number of chronic and occasional cocaine users may be as high as 6 million,' the report stated.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ Though the "ruling could be altered by the country's high court," the ruling "is in line with the position of the government of President Cristina Fernandez de Kirchner."
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ (Econ, 9/1/07, p.31) 2007 Aug 30, Hundreds of Colombian peasants returned home from Ecuador after the government promised to protect them from leftist rebels trying to sabotage a coca eradication campaign.
  • Timeline Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

Inflation has remained relatively low in recent years, standing at 5.5% in 2007.[2]
.Historically an agrarian economy, Colombia urbanised rapidly in the twentieth century, by the end of which just 22.7% of the workforce were employed in agriculture, generating just 11.5% of GDP. 18.7% of the workforce are employed in industry and 58.5% in services, responsible for 36% and 52.5% of GDP respectively.^ (AP, 9/15/03) 2003 Sep 18, A human rights group estimated that 11,000 children are fighting in Colombia's civil war.
  • Timeline Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ (SFC, 11/18/99, p.A17) 1990 US CIA and military strategist were sent to Colombia to enhance the efficiency effectiveness of the local military intelligence.
  • Timeline Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ (SFC, 9/18/00, p.A9)(SFC, 11/1/00, p.A17) 2000 Sep 18, In Colombia gunmen released 23 captives from as many as 80 in the highlands outside Cali.
  • Timeline Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

[2] .Colombia is rich in natural resources, and its main exports include petroleum, coal, coffee and other agricultural produce, and gold.^ Other factors include lapses in enforcement in Peru and the failure of U.S.-promoted alternative crops such as coffee and hearts of palm to be as profitable as coca for Peruvian farmers."
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ "According to the UN, Plan Colombia produced a modest displacement of coca to other countries: by 2003, cultivation was up slightly in Bolivia but stable in Peru.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

[32] .Colombia is also known as the world's leading source of emeralds,[33] while over 70% of cut flowers imported by the United States are Colombian.^ Article examines the multinational campaign in Korea through coverage of the Colombian Army experience and finds that the successful integration of the Colombia Battalion into the U.S.-led UN Command grew from the republic's larger relationship with the United States.
  • Colombia May 2008 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: Academic]

^ The U.S.-Colombia strategy, which targets cocaine production at its source, is aimed at reducing supply and driving up prices and thereby discouraging consumption in the United States.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ 'The foreign policy repercussions for the United States in rejecting a Colombian agreement also would be severe....
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

[34] .Principal trading partners are the United States (a controversial free trade agreement with the United States is currently awaiting approval by the United States Congress), Venezuela and China.^ Venezuela's failure to cooperate with the United States on drug interdiction is related to corruption in that country's government.'
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ 'The foreign policy repercussions for the United States in rejecting a Colombian agreement also would be severe....
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ (AP, 2/27/06) 2006 Feb 27, The US and Colombia reached a free trade agreement after nearly 2 years of negotiations.
  • Timeline Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

[2] All imports, exports, and the overall balance of trade are at record levels, and the inflow of export dollars has resulted in a substantial re-valuation of the Colombian peso.
.Economic performance has been aided by liberal reforms introduced in the early 1990s and continued during the current presidency of Álvaro Uribe, whose policies include measures designed to bring the public sector deficit below 2.5% of GDP. In 2008, the Heritage Foundation assessed the Colombian economy to be 61.9% free, an increase of 2.3% since 2007, placing it 67th in the world and 15th out of 29 countries within the region.^ "The FARC is responding to President Alvaro Uribe's declaration of war, the most serious since Uribe's second term began in May."
  • Colombia May 2008 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: Academic]

^ On Oct 29 President Alvaro Uribe's government fired 25 soldiers, including three generals and four colonels, over the killings of the 11 civilians.
  • Timeline Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ Before the month was out, President Alvaro Uribe's government had handed over another group of 15 Colombians, all facing cocaine trafficking and money laundering charges, to American anti-drug agents.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

[35]
.Meanwhile the improvements in security resulting from President Uribe's controversial "democratic security" strategy have engendered an increased sense of confidence in the economy.^ 'We are firmly committed to President Uribe and his new national security strategy,' Secretary Powell said.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ Offers statistics on kidnappings and arbitrary detentions during the first year of President Uribe's administration; Reviews the components of the Uribe administration's national security plan and the role of the paramilitary.
  • Colombia May 2008 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: Academic]

.On 28 May 2007 the American magazine BusinessWeek published an article naming Colombia "the most extreme emerging market on Earth".[36] Colombia's economy has improved in recent years.^ Gabriel discusses the strategic challenges of Colombia and how these may affect American strategy in other areas.
  • Colombia May 2008 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: Academic]

^ (AP, 10/4/07) 2007 Oct 5, Colombia’s Constitutional Court ruled that gays may add their partners to health insurance plans.
  • Timeline Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ Article provides a discussion of the effect of civil violence and drug cartels on Colombia's society and economy.
  • Colombia May 2008 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: Academic]

Investment soared, from 15% of GDP in 2002 to 26% in 2008. private business has retooled. However unemployment at 12 % and the poverty rate at 46% in 2009 are above the regional average.[37]
.According to a recent World Bank report, Doing business is easiest in Manizales, Ibagué and Pereira, and more difficult in Cali and Cartagena.^ A recent report by the Washington Office on Latin America , a liberal think tank, cautioned that any results could be off by 25 percent or more.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

Reforms in custom administration have helped reduce the amount of time it takes to prepare documentation by over 60% for exports and 40% for imports compared to the previous report. Colombia has taken measures to address the backlog in civil municipal courts. .The most important result was the dismissal of 12.2% of inactive claims in civil courts thanks to the application of Law 1194 of 2008 (Ley de Desistimiento Tácito).^ (AP, 10/12/05) 2005 Oct 19, Colombia's highest court approved a law allowing presidents to run for second terms.
  • Timeline Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

[38]

Tourism

.For many years serious internal armed conflict deterred tourists from visiting Colombia, with official travel advisories warning against travel to the country.^ The Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia, the largest and oldest rebel group (12,000 men) having fought for 34 years, were believed to be responsible.
  • Timeline Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ Separately, rebels from the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia, or FARC, obtained reports about army operations against guerrilla commanders in the far south, officials say.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ (AP, 2/25/05) 2005 Feb, Sabino Mobile, an Italian tourist visiting Colombia with his family, was kidnapped and murdered by paramilitary gunmen.
  • Timeline Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

.However, in recent years numbers have risen sharply, thanks to improvements in security resulting from President Álvaro Uribe's "democratic security" strategy, which has included significant increases in military strength and police presence throughout the country and pushed rebel groups further away from the major cities, highways and tourist sites likely to attract international visitors.^ According to the article, the recently-announced plan (about which CSDP supplies further information below) "is expected to increase the number of US troops in Colombia above the current total of less than 300 but not above 800, the maximum permitted under an existing military pact."
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ On Oct 29 President Alvaro Uribe's government fired 25 soldiers, including three generals and four colonels, over the killings of the 11 civilians.
  • Timeline Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ However the president said recent losses at the hands of the military have forced the rebels into hiding thereby leaving the coca farmers without buyers."
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

.Foreign tourist visits were predicted to have risen from 0.5 million in 2003 to 1.3 million in 2007,[39] while Lonely Planet picked Colombia as one of their top ten world destinations for 2006.[40] The improvements in the country's security were recognised in November 2008 with a revision of the travel advice on Colombia issued by the British Foreign Office.^ (SFC, 8/20/01, p.A9) 2001 Aug 22, In Colombia Felix Chitiva Carrasquilla, one of the top men of the North Valley Cartel, was arrested.
  • Timeline Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ (AP, 4/13/07) 2007 Apr 16, A top rebel leader of Colombia's second-largest guerrilla group (ELN) said the group is ready to "immediately" begin talks to reach a cease-fire with the country's government.
  • Timeline Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ The UN estimated that about 3 million Colombians have been driven from their homes by violence without leaving the country, making it the largest internal refugee population in the world after Sudan.
  • Timeline Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

[41]
Colombia Minister for Industry, Trade and Tourism Luis Guillermo Plata said his country had received 2,348,948 visitors in 2008. He is expecting 2,650,000 tourists for 2009.[42][43]
.Popular tourist attractions include the historic Candelaria district of central Bogotá, the walled city and beaches of Cartagena, the colonial towns of Santa Fe de Antioquia, Popayan, Villa de Leyva and Santa Cruz de Mompox, and the Las Lajas Cathedral and the Salt Cathedral of Zipaquirá.^ Since then he has been at a 32-bed paramilitary rehabilitation center in Santa Fe de Ralito.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

Tourists are also drawn to Colombia's numerous festivals, including Medellín's Festival of the Flowers, the Barranquilla Carnival, the Carnival of Blacks and Whites in Pasto and the Ibero-American Theater Festival in Bogotá. Meanwhile, because of the improved security, Caribbean cruise ships now stop at Cartagena and Santa Marta.
.The great variety in geography, flora and fauna across Colombia has also resulted in the development of an ecotourist industry, concentrated in the country's national parks.^ Rebels attacked a crew that was removing coca plants from one of Colombia's national parks and killed at least six police guards.
  • Timeline Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ (AP, 8/12/02) 2002 Aug 19, In Colombia rebels kidnapped over 2 dozen tourists inside Ensenada Utria national park.
  • Timeline Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ FARC guerrillas and two soldiers were killed in clashes in a coca-growing area on the edge Sierra Macarena National Park in southern Colombia.
  • Timeline Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

.Popular ecotourist destinations include: along the Caribbean coast, the Tayrona National Natural Park in the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta mountain range and Cabo de la Vela on the tip of the Guajira Peninsula; the Nevado del Ruiz volcano, the Cocora valley and the Tatacoa Desert in the central Andean region; Amacayacu National Park in the Amazon River basin; and the Pacific islands of Malpelo and Gorgona.^ Situated on the Pacific coast north of Washington state , British Columbia's capital is Victoria , located at the southwestern tip of Vancouver Island , and its largest city is Vancouver .
  • British-columbia Bed and Breakfast Budget Hotel Guest House Accommodation 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC canada.bedandbreakfasts.net [Source type: Reference]

^ FARC guerrillas and two soldiers were killed in clashes in a coca-growing area on the edge Sierra Macarena National Park in southern Colombia.
  • Timeline Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ (AP, 4/26/07) 2007 Apr 29, Colombia's navy made the largest drug seizure in the nation's history as it uncovered up to 27 tons of cocaine buried along the Pacific coast.
  • Timeline Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

Colombia is home to seven UNESCO World Heritage Sites.

Transportation

The bus rapid transit system Transmilenio in Bogota.
.Colombia has a network of national highways maintained by the Instituto Nacional de Vías or INVIAS (National Institute of Roadways) government agency under the Ministry of Transport.^ (SFC, 1/7/99, p.A8) 1953 In Colombia a domestic spy agency was created during the government of Gen.
  • Timeline Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ President Bush is expected to restart the controversial Air Bridge Denial program in Colombia, under which airplanes suspected of transporting illegal drugs can be shot down.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ (HN, 4/8/98) 1920 Apr 12, In Colombia the firm Nacional de Chocolates was founded.
  • Timeline Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

.The Pan-American Highway travels through Colombia, connecting the country with Venezuela to the east and Ecuador to the south.^ Colombia, Ecuador and Venezuela became independent countries.
  • Timeline Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ Venezuela's Hugo Chavez "and allies from Ecuador, Bolivia, and Nicaragua" claim the US base deal would provide the North American country with "a military platform in Colombia from which to 'attack' its foreign neighbors."
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ Chavez said Venezuela will search for other countries like Ecuador, Brazil and Argentina to replace products imported from Colombia.
  • Timeline Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

Colombia's principal airport is El Dorado International Airport in Bogotá. It is the busiest airport in Latin America by the number of flights and the weight of goods transported.[44] Several national airlines (Avianca, AeroRepública, AIRES, SATENA and EasyFly, ), and international airlines (such as Iberia, American Airlines, Varig, Copa, Continental, Delta, Air Canada, Air France, Aerolíneas Argentinas, Aerogal, TAME, TACA) operate from El Dorado. .Because of its central location in Colombia and America, it is preferred by national land transportation providers, as well as national and international air transportation providers.^ President Bush is expected to restart the controversial Air Bridge Denial program in Colombia, under which airplanes suspected of transporting illegal drugs can be shot down.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ An air force training helicopter crashed in central Colombia, killing all five aboard.
  • Timeline Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ It is rising, too, in Brazil, Mexico and Central America, mainly because smuggling gangs are being paid in product."
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

Biofuels

Colombia is discussing current trends and challenges as well as recent international developments in the biofuels sector with the intention of contributing to the development of a sustainable and competitive biofuels strategy for Colombia and the region.[45]

Demographics

.With an estimated 44.6 million people in 2008, Colombia is the third-most populous country in Latin America, after Brazil and Mexico.^ Chavez said Venezuela will search for other countries like Ecuador, Brazil and Argentina to replace products imported from Colombia.
  • Timeline Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ Some 100,000 of Colombia's four million people perished in the conflict, mostly from disease.
  • Timeline Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ The UN estimated that about 3 million Colombians have been driven from their homes by violence without leaving the country, making it the largest internal refugee population in the world after Sudan.
  • Timeline Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

.It is also home to the second-largest number of Spanish speakers in the world after Mexico, just ahead of Spain (which has a slightly larger population but includes a significant Catalan-speaking minority) and Argentina.^ British Columbia has a very diverse ethnic population, with Asians forming the largest visible minority alongside many European ethnicities of the first and second generation, notably Germans , Scandinavians, Yugoslavs and Italians .
  • British-columbia Bed and Breakfast Budget Hotel Guest House Accommodation 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC canada.bedandbreakfasts.net [Source type: Reference]

^ The UN estimated that about 3 million Colombians have been driven from their homes by violence without leaving the country, making it the largest internal refugee population in the world after Sudan.
  • Timeline Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ Walters was speaking just after he had visited Colombia, where US-backed efforts to wipe out drug-smuggling gangs and eradicate coca crops have turned the country into the world's third-largest recipient of US military aid."
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

The population increased at a rate of 1.9% between 1975 and 2005, predicted to drop to 1.2% over the next decade. .Colombia is projected to have a population of 50.7 million by 2015. These trends are reflected in the country's age profile.^ The UN estimated that about 3 million Colombians have been driven from their homes by violence without leaving the country, making it the largest internal refugee population in the world after Sudan.
  • Timeline Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

.In 2005 over 30% of the population was under 15 years old, compared to just 5.1% aged 65 and over.^ On July 31, 2009, a court sentenced 15 Colombian soldiers to as much as 30 years in prison for the slaying of the two brothers falsely identified as guerrillas.
  • Timeline Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

The population is concentrated in the Andean highlands and along the Caribbean coast. .The nine eastern lowland departments, comprising about 54% of Colombia's area, have less than 3% of the population and a density of less than one person per square kilometer (two persons per square mile).^ (AP, 7/2/08)(AP, 2/26/09) 2008 Jul 4, Colombia's military found more than a ton of explosives in a house in a rural area outside the capital.
  • Timeline Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ FARC guerrillas and two soldiers were killed in clashes in a coca-growing area on the edge Sierra Macarena National Park in southern Colombia.
  • Timeline Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ Each coca farmer is allotted one cato, or about 1,600 square meters ( a little under half an acre ), to plant coca.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

.Traditionally a rural society, movement to urban areas was very heavy in the mid-twentieth century, and Colombia is now one of the most urbanized countries in Latin America.^ 'They are part and parcel of the narcotics production and export threat to the United States, as well as Europe and other countries in Latin America.'
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ The U.S. government has provided $5.4 billion in mostly military aid to Colombia this decade, making the country the biggest recipient of American support outside the Middle East and Afghanistan and helping to make the Colombian military the second-largest force in Latin America.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ According to the FT, "The DEA operates in most countries of Latin America, except Cuba, and especially in drugs-producing countries in the Andean region and in transit countries in Central America and the Caribbean.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

The urban population increased from 31% of the total in 1938 to 60% in 1975, and by 2005 the figure stood at 72.7%.[31][46] .The population of Bogotá alone has increased from just over 300,000 in 1938 to approximately 7 million today.^ For instance, funding for programs to help coca farmers switch to other crops would rise by just $100,000, to $125 million.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

In total thirty cities now have populations of 100,000 or more. .Colombia has one of the world's largest populations of internally displaced persons (IDPs), estimated up to 4.3 million people.^ The UN estimated that about 3 million Colombians have been driven from their homes by violence without leaving the country, making it the largest internal refugee population in the world after Sudan.
  • Timeline Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ Some 100,000 of Colombia's four million people perished in the conflict, mostly from disease.
  • Timeline Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ (WSJ, 9/4/96, p.A1) 1996 Sep 6, In Colombia rebels blew up a section of the largest oil pipeline and killed 16 police officers and soldiers.
  • Timeline Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

[47]
Colombia is ranked sixth in the world in the Happy Planet Index.

Ethnic groups

.The census data in Colombia does not record ethnicity, other than that of those identifying themselves as members of particular minority ethnic groups, so overall percentages are essentially estimates from other sources and can vary from one to another.^ The Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia is thought to still hold more than 700 others.
  • Timeline Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ 'Other sources estimate the number of chronic and occasional cocaine users may be as high as 6 million,' the report stated.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

[48]
According to the CIA World Factbook, the majority of the population (58%) is mestizo, or of mixed European and Amerindian ancestry. 20% of the population is white (predominantly of Spanish, with some Italian, Portuguese and German ancestry). .However, some people think that Colombians have descended from the African ancestry, which has been proven to not be entirely correct.^ This week, however, he simply read from a statement describing how he oversaw the assassinations of hundreds of people, with some operations made possible with information from military intelligence.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

.Approximately 4.4 million Colombians indentify racially with the sub-saharan race, about 10.0 million if not more of the population with holds African ancestry to [to whatever degree][citation needed].^ The UN estimated that about 3 million Colombians have been driven from their homes by violence without leaving the country, making it the largest internal refugee population in the world after Sudan.
  • Timeline Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ Bush is asking Congress to allot $550 million to combat drugs in Colombia in fiscal 2006, with the military and police receiving more than $393 million -- about $10 million less than in fiscal 2005, a State Department official said.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ A Colombian court has ordered a halt to the US-sponsored spraying of herbicides on coca crops until more is known about the effects of the chemicals on humans and on the environment.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

Colombia is the third country outside of Africa to have the most African ancestry)[citation needed]. Pure indigenous Amerindians comprise only 2% of the population.[2]
The overwhelming majority of Colombians speak Spanish (see also Colombian Spanish), but in total 101 languages are listed for Colombia in the Ethnologue database, of which 80 are spoken today as living languages. Most of these belong to the Chibchan, Arawak and Cariban linguistic families. The Quechua language, spoken in the Andes region of the country, has also extended more northwards into Colombia, mainly in urban centers of major cities. .There are currently about 500,000 speakers of indigenous languages.^ There were an estimated 5,500 employees and 300,000 volunteers nationwide.
  • Timeline Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ At current prices, a hectare of coca yields an annual income of up to $7,500, compared with $600 from coffee or $1,000 from cocoa.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

[49]

Indigenous peoples

.
The Wayuu represent the largest indigenous ethnic group in Colombia.
^ The Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia, the largest and oldest rebel group (12,000 men) having fought for 34 years, were believed to be responsible.
  • Timeline Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

[50]
.Before the Spanish colonization of what is now Colombia, the territory was home to a significant number of indigenous peoples.^ (SSFC, 5/18/03, p.C12) 1781 In Colombia the Comunero Revolt was the most serious revolt against Spanish authority before the war for independence.
  • Timeline Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ The Nevado del Huila volcano's eruptions were its first on record since Colombia was colonized by the Spanish 500 years ago.
  • Timeline Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ (AM, 11/04, p.19) 1509-1520 The Spanish colonized the area of Nueva Granada (modern Colombia, Ecuador, Panama, Venezuela).
  • Timeline Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

Many of these were absorbed into the mestizo population, but the remainder currently represents over eighty-five distinct cultures. .567 reserves (resguardos) established for indigenous peoples occupy 365,004 square kilometres (over 30% of the country's total) and are inhabited by more than 800,000 people in over 67,000 families.^ (SFC, 1/5/98, p.A14) 1997 Jul, The government passed a law that made it illegal to sell more than $170,000 worth of contraband.
  • Timeline Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ The protests, coordinated through Twitter and Facebook, drew more than 5,000 people in Bogota, and thousands more in the capitals of Venezuela and Honduras.
  • Timeline Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ A sergeant said they had filled more than 70,000 sandbags to construct a head-high wall around the compound."
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

[51] The 1991 constitution established their native languages as official in their territories, and most of them have bilingual education (native and Spanish).
Some of the largest indigenous groups are the Wayuu,[50] the Arhuacos, the Muisca, the Kuna, the Paez, the Tucano and the Guahibo. Cauca, La Guajira and Guainia have the largest indigenous populations.
.The Organización Nacional Indígena de Colombia (ONIC) is an organization representing the indigenous peoples of Colombia, who comprise some 800,000 people or approximately 2% of the population.^ (SFEC, 6/6/99, p.A24) 1999 Jun 6, In Colombia 150,000 people rallied in Cali to protest the kidnapping or churchgoers by leftist rebels.
  • Timeline Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ (SFC, 4/25/97, p.A3) 1997 Apr, Some 10,000 inhabitants fled paramilitary violence in Riosucio, Colombia.
  • Timeline Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ Advocates for Colombia's 3.6 million internally displaced population continued to insist in 2007 that land taken over by paramilitaries should be returned to former owners; mostly poor and marginalized Afro-Colombians and indigenous people.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Colombia : Colombia Overview 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: Original source]

The organization was founded at the first National Indigenous Congress in 1982.
.In 1991, Colombia signed and ratified the current international law concerning indigenous peoples, Indigenous and Tribal Peoples Convention, 1989.^ (SFC, 8/30/96, p.A14) 1991 Colombia’s Constitution was revised and included progressive legislation concerning Indian rights.
  • Timeline Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ (SFC, 1/30/99, p.A12) 1989 A bomb leveled Colombia’s state security headquarters and killed 80 people.
  • Timeline Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ (SFC, 4/23/99, p.D8)(SFC, 12/8/01, p.A23) 1914 Apr 8, The US and Colombia signed a treaty concerning Panama Canal Zone.
  • Timeline Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

[52]

Immigrant groups

.The first and most substantial wave of modern immigration to Colombia consisted of Spanish colonists, following the arrival of Europeans in 1499. However a range of other Europeans (Dutch, Germans, Italians, Greek, French, Swiss and Belgians, also many North Americans) migrated to the country in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, and, in smaller numbers, Poles, Lithuanians, English, Irish and Croats during and after the Second World War.^ (SSFC, 5/18/03, p.C12) 1781 In Colombia the Comunero Revolt was the most serious revolt against Spanish authority before the war for independence.
  • Timeline Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ Venezuela's Hugo Chavez "and allies from Ecuador, Bolivia, and Nicaragua" claim the US base deal would provide the North American country with "a military platform in Colombia from which to 'attack' its foreign neighbors."
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ He also, despite reassurances from Colombian officials that "U.S. flights won't cross Colombia's borders without permission from affected countries," expressed apprehension "about alienating other South American nations."
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

.For example, former Mayor of Bogotá Antanas Mockus is the son of Lithuanian immigrants.^ Mayor Antanas Mockus blamed the violence on alcohol consumption.
  • Timeline Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ (SFC, 12/21/99, p.C20) 1994 Antanas Mockus, mathematician, was elected mayor of Bogota.
  • Timeline Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

Many immigrant communities have settled on the Caribbean coast, in particular recent immigrants from the Middle East. .Barranquilla (the largest city of the Colombian Caribbean) and other Caribbean cities have the largest populations of Lebanese and Arabs, Sephardi Jews, Roma, and people of Italian, German, and French descent.^ British Columbia has a very diverse ethnic population, with Asians forming the largest visible minority alongside many European ethnicities of the first and second generation, notably Germans , Scandinavians, Yugoslavs and Italians .
  • British-columbia Bed and Breakfast Budget Hotel Guest House Accommodation 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC canada.bedandbreakfasts.net [Source type: Reference]

^ The UN estimated that about 3 million Colombians have been driven from their homes by violence without leaving the country, making it the largest internal refugee population in the world after Sudan.
  • Timeline Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ A Colombian government agency released figures showing that the rate of drug use by young people in Colombian cities is half the US average.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

For example, the singer Shakira, a native of Barranquilla, has both Lebanese and Italian ancestry. There are also important communities of Chinese and Japanese.
Black Africans were brought as slaves, mostly to the coastal lowlands, beginning early in the sixteenth century and continuing into the nineteenth century. .Large Afro-Colombian communities are found today on the Caribbean and Pacific coasts.^ Colombia granted Afro-Colombian communities on the Pacific coast collective titles to land occupied by their ancestors when slavery was abolished in 1851.
  • Timeline Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

.The population of the department of Chocó, running along the northern portion of Colombia's Pacific coast, is over 80% black.^ (AP, 4/26/07) 2007 Apr 29, Colombia's navy made the largest drug seizure in the nation's history as it uncovered up to 27 tons of cocaine buried along the Pacific coast.
  • Timeline Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ Colombia granted Afro-Colombian communities on the Pacific coast collective titles to land occupied by their ancestors when slavery was abolished in 1851.
  • Timeline Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

[53]

The impact of armed conflict on civilians

.Around one third of the people in Colombia have been affected in some way by armed conflict there.^ The coca leaf fumigation affected some 10,000 Ecuadorians along the Colombia border where the RoundupUltra herbicide was spread by Colombian airplanes.
  • Timeline Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ Some 100,000 of Colombia's four million people perished in the conflict, mostly from disease.
  • Timeline Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ (SFC, 5/6/00, p.A10) 1999 In Colombia there were some 5,000 killings this year in Medellin.
  • Timeline Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

.Those with direct personal experience make up 10% of the population, and many others also report suffering a range of serious hardships.^ Although indigenous peoples make up 2-3% of the population they account for 8% of all internally displaced peoples.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Colombia : Colombia Overview 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Unfortunately many media reports, including the Reuters wire story run by among others the Boston Globe, got the details wrong and exaggerate the 'success' of the coca campaign.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

In total 31% have been affected in some way – either personally or due to the wider consequences of armed conflict.[54]

Religion

.
Día de las Velitas, (Little candles' day) one of the most traditional holidays in Colombia.
^ "Surge In Extradition Of Colombia Drug Suspects To US" ) that "At the beginning of November, Colombia's government crowed about extraditing, all on one day, 13 drug trafficking suspects to the United States.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ (SFC, 9/7/96, p.A9) 1996 Sep 10, Humberto de la Calle, vice-president of Colombia, resigned as a protest to the presidency of Ernesto Samper.
  • Timeline Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

It's the Christmas opening day in this country
The National Administrative Department of Statistics (DANE) does not collect religious statistics, and accurate reports are difficult to obtain. However, based on various studies, more than 95% of the population adheres to Christianity,[55] the vast majority of which (between 81% and 90%) are Roman Catholic. About 1% of Colombians adhere to indigenous religions and under 1% to Judaism, Islam, Hinduism, and Buddhism. .However, despite high numbers of adherents, around 60% of respondents to a poll by El Tiempo reported that they did not practice their faith actively.^ A sergeant said they had filled more than 70,000 sandbags to construct a head-high wall around the compound."
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ 'Other sources estimate the number of chronic and occasional cocaine users may be as high as 6 million,' the report stated.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

[56]
.While Colombia remains an overwhelmingly Roman Catholic country, the Colombian constitution guarantees freedom and equality of religion.^ Colombia's constitution of 1991 drawn up by the National Constituent Assembly recognizes and protects the ethnic and cultural diversity of the Colombian nation.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Colombia : Colombia Overview 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: Original source]

^ (AP, 7/26/04) 2004 Jul 28, In Colombia Marxist guerrillas freed a Roman Catholic bishop.
  • Timeline Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ Main religions: Christianity (majority Roman Catholic), Judaism, indigenous and Afro-Colombian religions.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Colombia : Colombia Overview 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: Original source]

[57] .Religious groups are readily able to obtain recognition as organized associations, although some smaller ones have faced difficulty in obtaining the additional recognition required to offer chaplaincy services in public facilities and to perform legally recognised marriages.^ The Washington Office on Latin America , a lobby group, obtained the letter and made it available to The Associated Press."
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

[56]

Health

Life expectancy at birth in 2005 was 72.3; 2.1% would not reach the age of 5, 9.2% would not reach the age of 40.[31] Health standards in Colombia have improved greatly since the 1980s. A 1993 reform transformed the structure of public health-care funding by shifting the burden of subsidy from providers to users. As a result, employees have been obligated to pay into health plans to which employers also contribute. .Although this new system has widened population coverage by the social and health security system from 21 percent (pre-1993) to 56 percent in 2004 and 66 percent in 2005, health disparities persist, with the poor continuing to suffer relatively high mortality rates.^ The Chronicle noted that "The statement said the area of Colombia sampled for the 2005 coca estimate was 81 percent larger than in 2004.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

.In 2002 Colombia had 58,761 physicians, 23,950 nurses, and 33,951 dentists; these numbers equated to 1.35 physicians, 0.55 nurses, and 0.78 dentists per 1,000 population, respectively.^ (AP, 9/10/02) 2002 Sep 19, In Colombia Army troops killed 21 guerrillas on 23 fronts and freed 2 kidnapped civilians.
  • Timeline Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ (SFC, 8/22/02, p.A10) 2002 Aug 23, In southern Colombia a bus veered off a mountain road in Papagayo after one of its tires burst, plunging 1,000 feet and killing at least 12 people.
  • Timeline Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ (AP, 7/23/02) 2002 Jul 24, A truck bomb exploded in San Juan de Rioseco, Colombia, and 2 police officers were killed.
  • Timeline Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

.In 2005 Colombia was reported to have only 1.1 physicians per 1,000 population, as compared with a Latin American average of 1.5. The health sector reportedly is plagued by rampant corruption, including misallocation of funds and evasion of health-fund contributions.^ (SFC, 6/15/00, p.C4) 1998 Dec 1, It was reported that a US congressional initiative added $165 million in counter-narcotics funds to Colombia.
  • Timeline Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ (AP, 2/21/05) 2005 Feb 21, In Colombia 8 civilians including 3 young children and a teenage girl were massacred near Apartado.
  • Timeline Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ But that meant they could face American justice, rather than Colombia's corrupt and overburdened courts, only if Americans were victims of their activities.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

[58]

Education

Education in Colombia
.The educational experience of many Colombian children begins with attendance at a preschool academy until age 6 (Educación preescolar).^ Many of the displaced flooding into cities are children with 'no hope, no education', making them ripe for recruitment into guerilla, paramilitary or drug gangs, he said.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

Basic education (Educación básica) is compulsory by law.[59] .It has two stages: Primary basic education (Educación básica primaria) which goes from 1st to 5th grade and usually it encompasses children from 6 to 10 years old, and Secondary basic education (Educación básica secundaria), which goes from 6th to 9th grade.^ Some 60 children and teenagers were reported abducted in the 1st 3 months of this year.
  • Timeline Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

Basic education is followed by Middle vocational education (Educación media vocacional) that comprehends 10th and 11th grade. It may have different vocational training modalities or specialties (academic, technical, business, etc.) according to the curriculum adopted by each school. However in many rural areas, teachers are poorly qualified, and only the five years of primary schooling are offered. The school year can extend from February to November or from August to June, and in many public schools attendance is split into morning and afternoon "shifts", in order to accommodate the large numbers of children.[60]
After the successful completion of all the basic and middle education years, a high-school diploma is granted. The high-school graduate is knows as bachiller, because secondary basic school and middle education are traditionally considered together as a unit called bachillerato (6th to 11th grade). Students in their final year of middle education take the ICFES test in order to gain access to Superior education (Educación superior). This superior education includes undergraduate professional studies, technical, technological and intermediate professional education, and post-graduate studies.
.Bachilleres (high-school graduates) may enter into a professional undergraduate career program offered by a university; these programs last up to 5 years (or less for technical, technological and intermediate professional education, and post-graduate studies), even up to 6–7 years for some careers, such as medicine.^ He formed a Gran Colombia that lasted 8 years, but broke apart into Venezuela, Colombia and Ecuador.
  • Timeline Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ According to U.S. embassy officials, these programs alone may cost up to $230 million per year, and future costs for some other programs have not been determined.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ McLaughlin, who retired last month after 25 years as head of the Office of Aviation in the Bureau for International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs, said the program is in such disarray it should be transferred to a federal law-enforcement agency.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

.In Colombia, there is not an institution such as college; students go directly into a career program at a university or any other educational institution to obtain a professional, technical or technological title.^ While coca crops have been reduced in Colombia, there has been some recurrence of cultivation in Bolivia and Peru, where today farmers are able to get more out of the coca fields and obtain higher prices.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

Once graduated from the university, people are granted a (professional, technical or technological) diploma and licensed (if required) to practice the career they have chosen. .For some professional career programs, students are required to take the ECAES test in their final year of undergraduate academic education.^ According to U.S. embassy officials, these programs alone may cost up to $230 million per year, and future costs for some other programs have not been determined.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ Because the appeals process can take months and sometimes years, the possibility of any actual suspension in the spray program would be 'quite a ways off,' a U.S. official said.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

[61]
.Public spending on education as a proportion of gross domestic product in 2006 was 4.7% — one of the highest rates in Latin America — as compared with 2.4% in 1991. This represented 14.2% of total government expenditure.^ 'They are part and parcel of the narcotics production and export threat to the United States, as well as Europe and other countries in Latin America.'
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ This represents a decrease of about 20%, compared to the potential cocaine production of 617 metric tons of the November 2001 coca cultivated area.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ The strike was called against cuts in public spending and a wage increase cap of 14% for next year.
  • Timeline Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

[31][62] In 2006, the primary and secondary net enrollment rates stood at 88% and 65% respectively, slightly below the regional average. School life expectancy was 12.4 years.[62] A total of 92.3% of the population aged 15 and older were recorded as literate, including 97.9% of those aged 15–24, both figures slightly higher than the regional average.[62] However, literacy levels are considerably lower in rural areas.[63]

Culture

.Colombia lies at the crossroads of Latin America and the broader American continent, and as such has been marked by a wide range of cultural influences.^ As Morales put it, "President Obama lied to Latin America when he told us in Trinidad and Tobago that there are not senior and junior partners."
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ The U.S. government has provided $5.4 billion in mostly military aid to Colombia this decade, making the country the biggest recipient of American support outside the Middle East and Afghanistan and helping to make the Colombian military the second-largest force in Latin America.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ This would make it the first Latin American country to provide such rights.
  • Timeline Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

.Native American, Spanish and other European, African, American, Caribbean, and Middle Eastern influences, as well as other Latin American cultural influences, are all present in Colombia's modern culture.^ 'They are part and parcel of the narcotics production and export threat to the United States, as well as Europe and other countries in Latin America.'
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ Smaller demonstrations were held in other Latin American capitals, as well as New York and Madrid.
  • Timeline Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ The U.S. government has provided $5.4 billion in mostly military aid to Colombia this decade, making the country the biggest recipient of American support outside the Middle East and Afghanistan and helping to make the Colombian military the second-largest force in Latin America.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

Urban migration, industrialization, globalization, and other political, social and economic changes have also left an impression.
Historically, the country's imposing landscape left its various regions largely isolated from one another, resulting in the development of very strong regional identities, in many cases stronger than the national. .Modern transport links and means of communication have mitigated this and done much to foster a sense of nationhood, but social and political instability, and in particular fears of armed groups and bandits on intercity highways, have contributed to the maintenance of very clear regional differences.^ This mounting social protest, especially in Bolivia but also in Peru, carries a strong potential to contribute to already unstable political conditions in the whole Andean region."
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ The Movement to Socialism alliance has grown from a regional group representing coca farmers to the nation's most important political group in a decade.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ However according the CRIC ( Colombia Regional Indigenous Council), from 2002 - 2006 584 indigenous people were murdered for political or social reasons.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Colombia : Colombia Overview 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: Original source]

.Accent, dress, music, food, politics and general attitude vary greatly between the Bogotanos and other residents of the central highlands, the paisas of Antioquia and the coffee region, the costeños of the Caribbean coast, the llaneros of the eastern plains, and the inhabitants of the Pacific coast and the vast Amazon region to the south east.^ According to the FT, "The DEA operates in most countries of Latin America, except Cuba, and especially in drugs-producing countries in the Andean region and in transit countries in Central America and the Caribbean.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ He was arrested in the banana-growing Uraba region on the Caribbean coast.
  • Timeline Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

.An inheritance from the colonial era, Colombia remains a deeply Roman Catholic country and maintains a large base of Catholic traditions which provide a point of unity for its multicultural society.^ Venezuela's Hugo Chavez "and allies from Ecuador, Bolivia, and Nicaragua" claim the US base deal would provide the North American country with "a military platform in Colombia from which to 'attack' its foreign neighbors."
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ (AP, 7/26/04) 2004 Jul 28, In Colombia Marxist guerrillas freed a Roman Catholic bishop.
  • Timeline Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

Colombia has many celebrations and festivals throughout the year, and the majority are rooted in these Catholic religious traditions. However, many are also infused with a diverse range of other influences. Prominent examples of Colombia's festivals include the Barranquilla Carnival, the Carnival of Blacks and Whites, Medellín's Festival of the Flowers and Bogotá's Ibero-American Theater Festival
The mixing of various different ethnic traditions is reflected in Colombia's music and dance. The most well-known Colombian genres are cumbia and vallenato, the latter now strongly influenced by global pop culture. A powerful and unifying cultural medium in Colombia is television. .Most famously, the telenovela Betty La Fea has gained international success through localized versions in the United States, Mexico, and elsewhere.^ In Colombia, where the United States has spent the most, coca cultivation rose 27 percent from 2006 to 2007, to about 245,000 acres.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ It is clear Mr. Palmera is in the most danger of being flown to the United States, since his group, the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia, continues to fight the state.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

Television has also played a role in the development of the local film industry.
.As in many Latin American countries, Colombians have a passion for football.^ The U.S. government has provided $5.4 billion in mostly military aid to Colombia this decade, making the country the biggest recipient of American support outside the Middle East and Afghanistan and helping to make the Colombian military the second-largest force in Latin America.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ Mr Walters said in Mexico that billions of dollars of investment over many years have failed to dent the flow of Latin American cocaine onto US streets.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ This would make it the first Latin American country to provide such rights.
  • Timeline Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

The Colombian national football team is seen as a symbol of unity and national pride, though local clubs also inspire fierce loyalty and sometimes-violent rivalries. Colombia has "exported" many famous players, such as Freddy Rincon, Carlos Valderrama, Iván Ramiro Córdoba, and Faustino Asprilla. .Other Colombian athletes have also achieved success, including Formula 1 Racing's Juan Pablo Montoya, Major League Baseball's Edgar Rentería and Orlando Cabrera, and the PGA Tour's Camilo Villegas.^ Unfortunately many media reports, including the Reuters wire story run by among others the Boston Globe, got the details wrong and exaggerate the 'success' of the coca campaign.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

.Other famous Colombians include the Nobel Prize winning author Gabriel García Márquez, the artist Fernando Botero, the writers Fernando Vallejo, Laura Restrepo, Álvaro Mutis and James Cañón, the musicians Shakira, Juanes, Carlos Vives and Juan Garcia-Herreros, and the actors Catalina Sandino Moreno, John Leguizamo, Catherine Siachoque and Sofia Vergara.^ (AP, 8/22/98) 1969 Fernando Botero, surrealist Colombian painter, created "The Butcher's Table," a pig's head laughing at his own slaughter.
  • Timeline Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ (WSJ, 12/15/05, p.A1) 2005 Dec 16, Exploratory peace talks between Colombia and its second-largest rebel group began in Cuba with help from the Nobel Prize-winning author Gabriel Garcia Marquez and facilitators from Spain, Norway and Switzerland.
  • Timeline Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ (Econ, 10/1/05, p.37) 1928 Mar 6, Gabriel Garcia Marquez, Columbian-born novelist and Nobel Prize winner (1982), was born.
  • Timeline Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

The cuisine of Colombia developed mainly from the food traditions of European countries. Spanish, Italian and French culinary influences can all be seen in Colombian cooking. .The cuisine of neighboring Latin American countries, Mexico, the United States and the Caribbean, as well as the cooking traditions of the country's indigenous inhabitants, have all influenced Colombian food.^ Venezuela's failure to cooperate with the United States on drug interdiction is related to corruption in that country's government.'
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ 'The foreign policy repercussions for the United States in rejecting a Colombian agreement also would be severe....
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ 'They are part and parcel of the narcotics production and export threat to the United States, as well as Europe and other countries in Latin America.'
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

.For example, cuy or guinea pig, which is an indigenous cuisine, is eaten in the Andes region of south-western Colombia.^ (Reuters, 11/9/09) 2009 Nov 9, In Colombia at least nine soldiers were killed and four wounded in combat with leftist rebels in a mountainous western region.
  • Timeline Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

.Many national symbols, both objects and themes, have arisen from Colombia's diverse cultural traditions and aim to represent what Colombia, and the Colombian people, have in common.^ (SFC, 9/10/98, p.A12) 1998 Aug 4, In Colombia over 2 dozen attacks in half of the nation’s 32 provinces left at least 76 people dead.
  • Timeline Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

Cultural expressions in Colombia are promoted by the government through the Ministry of Culture.

Colombia in popular culture

.The depiction of Colombia in popular culture, especially the portrayal of Colombian people in film and fiction, has been asserted by Colombian organizations[64][65][66] and government to be largely negative and has raised concerns that it reinforces, or even engenders, societal prejudice and discrimination due to association with narco-trafficking, terrorism, illegal immigration and other criminal elements, poverty and welfare.^ That has raised the hackles of people like Gustavo Petro, a left-leaning congressman, who argues that the government and the United States are being soft on paramilitary commanders, even though most are listed as major drug traffickers by the Bush administration.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ Dated 23 September 1991, the document is a numbered list of "the more important Colombian narco-traffickers contracted by the Colombian narcotic cartels".
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ 'The war on narco-trafficking will be conducted from Venezuela territory under parameters defined by the Venezuelan government and that means that no international organ is above the Venezuelan law,' said Chacon.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

[67]. These stereotypes are considered unfair by many Colombians.[68][69][70] .The Colombian government-funded Colombia es Pasión advertisement campaign as an attempt to improve Colombia's image abroad, with mixed results.^ The Times noted that "Plan Colombia's results are mixed.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ But funding by the U.S. and Colombian governments for crop-substitution programs pale in comparison to the eradication budget and most efforts to develop alternatives have failed."
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

[71][72]

Cuisine of Colombia

Dishes & drinks from Colombia
.Colombia’s cuisine, influenced heavily by the Spanish and Indigenous populations, is not as widely known as other Latin American cuisines such as Peruvian or Brazilian, but to the adventurous traveler there is plenty of delectable dishes to try, not to mention bizarre fruits, rum, and of course, Colombian coffee.^ Smaller demonstrations were held in other Latin American capitals, as well as New York and Madrid.
  • Timeline Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ This would make it the first Latin American country to provide such rights.
  • Timeline Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ (AP, 5/15/08) 2008 May 18, In Colombia Eldaneyis Mosquera, also known as "Karina," a wanted leader of Latin America's largest guerrilla army, handed herself over to Colombian authorities.
  • Timeline Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

See also

References

  1. ^ Constitution of Colombia, 1991 (Article 10) (Spanish)
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j CIA world fact book (2009-05-14). "Colombia". CIA. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/co.html. Retrieved 2009-05-24. 
  3. ^ a b Departamento Administrativo Nacional de Estadística
  4. ^ a b c "Colombia". International Monetary Fund. http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/weo/2009/02/weodata/weorept.aspx?sy=2006&ey=2009&scsm=1&ssd=1&sort=country&ds=.&br=1&c=233&s=NGDPD%2CNGDPDPC%2CPPPGDP%2CPPPPC%2CLP&grp=0&a=&pr.x=55&pr.y=7. Retrieved 2009-10-01. 
  5. ^ "GDP – per capita (PPP) – Country Comparison". IndexMundi.com. http://www.indexmundi.com/g/r.aspx?c=co&v=67. Retrieved 2009-11-05. 
  6. ^ "Decreto 2153 de 1992". Presidencia de la República de Colombia. http://www.presidencia.gov.co/prensa_new/decretoslinea/1992/diciembre/30/dec2153301992.pdf. Retrieved 2008-10-13. 
  7. ^ Gerhar Sandner, Beate Ratter, Wolf Dietrich Sahr and Karsten Horsx (1993). "Conflictos Territoriales en el Mar Caribe: El conflicto fronterizo en el Golfo de Venezuela" (in Spanish). Biblioteca Luis Angel Arango. http://www.lablaa.org/blaavirtual/geografia/ctemc/ctemc03.htm. Retrieved 2008-01-05. 
  8. ^ The Geographer Office of the Geographer Bureau of Intelligence and Research (1985-04-15). "Brazil-Colombia boundary" (PDF). International Boundary Study. http://www.law.fsu.edu/library/collection/LimitsinSeas/IBS174.pdf. Retrieved 2008-01-05. 
  9. ^ CIA (2007-12-13). "Ecuador". World Fact Book. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ec.html. Retrieved 2008-01-05. 
  10. ^ (Spanish) Tratados Internacionales limítrofes de Colombia
  11. ^ (Spanish) Colombia – Limites territoriales
  12. ^ Nicolás del Castillo Mathieu (March 1992). "LA PRIMERA VISION DE LAS COSTAS COLOMBIANAS, Repaso de Historia" (in Spanish). Revista Credencial. http://www.lablaa.org/blaavirtual/revistas/credencial/marzo1992/marzo3.htm. Retrieved 2008-02-29. 
  13. ^ http://www.unodc.org/pdf/Colombia_Dec06_en.pdf
  14. ^ David R. Davis, Brett Ashley Leeds and Will H. Moore (1998-11-21). "Measuring Dissident and state behaviour: The Intranational Political Interactions (IPI) Project" (PDF). Florida State University. http://garnet.acns.fsu.edu/~whmoore/ipi/harmel.conf.pdf. Retrieved 2008-01-05. 
  15. ^ Rudolf Hommes (22 de noviembre de 2009). "La otra seguridad democrática" (in Spanish). El Colombiano. http://www.elcolombiano.com/BancoConocimiento/L/la_otra_seguridad_democratica/la_otra_seguridad_democratica.asp?CodSeccion=9. 
  16. ^ en Colombia Paisajes naturales de Colombia
  17. ^ a b Carlos Restrepo Piedrahita (February 1992). "EL NOMBRE "COLOMBIA", El único país que lleva el nombre del Descubrimiento" (in Spanish). Revista Credencial. http://www.lablaa.org/blaavirtual/revistas/credencial/febrero1992/febrero2.htm. Retrieved 2008-02-29. 
  18. ^ Tallest mountains by continent
  19. ^ Human Development Report: Deforestation, 2007/2008
  20. ^ "The World’s Water". Pacific Institute. 2008. pp. tables 1. http://www.worldwater.org/data.html. Retrieved 2009-02-01. 
  21. ^ UNODC 2008 World Drug Report, Executive Summary
  22. ^ Van der Hammen, T. and Correal, G. 1978: "Prehistoric man on the Sabana de Bogotá: data for an ecological prehistory"; Paleography, Paleoclimatology, Paleoecology 25:179–190
  23. ^ Broadbent, Sylvia 1965: Los Chibchas: organización socio-política. Série Latinoamericana 5. Bogotá: Facultad de Sociología, Universidad Nacional de Colombia
  24. ^ The Story Of... Smallpox — and other Deadly Eurasian Germs
  25. ^ "Disminuir la tasa anual de homicidios por cada 100. 000 habitantes ( Sin accidentes de transito)" (in Spanish). SIGOB. https://www.sigob.gov.co/ind/indicadores.aspx?m=552. Retrieved 2010-03-15. 
  26. ^ Come to Sunny Colombia The Economist, June 29, 2006.
  27. ^ (Spanish) Polo Democratico Alternativo ¿Por qué la parapolítica? February 26, 2007. Retrieved on August 19, 2007
  28. ^ Colombian Constitution. 1991
  29. ^ Reuters, Popularity of Colombia's Uribe soars after rescue
  30. ^ a b Banco de la República, Economic and Financial Data for Colombia
  31. ^ a b c d e Human Development Report for Colombia, 2007/2008
  32. ^ International Trade Centre: Colombia Exports
  33. ^ International Colored Gemstone Association: Emerald
  34. ^ America’s Flower Basket: Colombian Flowers and the American Marketplace
  35. ^ Heritage Foundation, Index of Economic Freedom
  36. ^ BusinessWeek, Colombia, The Most Extreme Emerging Market on Earth May 28, 2007
  37. ^ [The Economist, Colombia's resilient economy] October 17, 2009
  38. ^ Doing Business in Colombia
  39. ^ BBC News, A new hot-spot for the tourism industry
  40. ^ "Hot Destination: Colombia". Christian Science Monitor. May 9, 2006. http://www.csmonitor.com/2006/0509/p06s01-woam.html. 
  41. ^ FCO Travel Advice, Colombia
  42. ^ Colombia expects to receive 2 650 000 tourists in 2009
  43. ^ 16,2% aumentó llegada de turistas extranjeros a Colombia en 2008
  44. ^ [1]
  45. ^ ceelat
  46. ^ Colombia: A Country Study
  47. ^ Number of internally displaced people remains stable at 26 million. Source: United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR). May 4, 2009.
  48. ^ (Spanish) Colombia una nación multicultural: su diversidad étnica
  49. ^ The Languages of Colombia
  50. ^ a b EPM (2005). "La etnia Wayuu" (in Spanish). Empresas Publicas de Medellin. http://www.eeppm.com/epmcom/contenido/acercade/infraestructura/generacion/Jepirachi/etnia.htm. Retrieved 2008-02-29. 
  51. ^ (Spanish) Los Resguardos Indígenas
  52. ^ http://www.ilo.org/ilolex/cgi-lex/ratifce.pl?C169
  53. ^ (Spanish) Colombia una Los grupos étnicos colombianos
  54. ^ Colombia, Opinion survey 2009, by ICRC and Ipsos
  55. ^ "Religious Intelligence  — Country Profile: Colombia". http://www.religiousintelligence.co.uk/country/?CountryID=78. Retrieved 2007-10-03. 
  56. ^ a b International Religious Freedom Report 2005, by the Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor, U.S. Department of State, November 8, 2005.
  57. ^ Constitution of Colombia, 1991 (Article 19)
  58. ^ Colombia country profile. Library of Congress Federal Research Division (February 2007). This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  59. ^ Artículo 67, Constitución Política de Colombia
  60. ^ Organización de Estados Iberoamericanos: Sistemas Educativos Nacionales, Colombia [2]
  61. ^ Ministerio de Educación de Colombia, Estructura del sistema educativo
  62. ^ a b c UNESCO Institute for Statistics Colombia Profile
  63. ^ US Department of State Background Note: Colombia
  64. ^ FOHR, D. Mythes et rélatéis del'Amérique Latine a travers le dépliantpublicitaire touristique. Thásedu 3ecy-de, Université de París III, 1981.
  65. ^ BOUROON, J.Les Etrangers au primetime ou, la TeIevision est-elle xénophobe?Televisión d'Europe et Immigration.INA et Association Dialogue entre cultures, 1993
  66. ^ Marketing internacional de lugares y destinos: estrategias para la atracción de clientes y negocios en Latinoamérica. Authors: Philip Kotler, Víctor Campos Olguín, Matthew G Whitehouse. Editor Pearson Educación, 2007. ISBN 970260852X, 9789702608523
  67. ^ AC Zentella. "'José, can you see?': Latino Responses to Racist Discourse." retrieved 4 July 2007
  68. ^ (Spanish) RODRIGUEZ, P. Estereotipos denacionalidad en estudiantes colombianos y venezolanos. Boletín de la VEPSO,Vol. XV, Nos. 1–3,65–74,1992
  69. ^ WETHERELL, M. «Cross-culturalstudies ofminimal groups: implicationsfor the social identity theory of inter-group relations», 1982.En:TAJFEL,H.Social identity and intergroup relations.Cambridge University Press, 1982
  70. ^ http://www.facebook.com/topic.php?uid=2210492820&topic=9840
  71. ^ http://www.tiempoviajes.com/noticias/val/354/con-el-corazon-colombia-cambia-su-imagen.html
  72. ^ Simon Jenkins: Passion alone won't rescue Colombia from its narco-economy stigma | Comment is free | The Guardian

Further reading

  • (Spanish) Academia Colombiana de Historia (1986), Historia extensa de Colombia (41 volumes). Bogotá: Ediciones Lerner, 1965–1986. ISBN 9589501338 (Complete work)
  • (Spanish) Barrios, Luis (1984), Historia de Colombia. .Fifth edition, Bogotá: Editorial Cultural
  • (Spanish) Bedoya F., Víctor A. (1944), Historia de Colombia: independencia y república con bases fundamentales en la colonia.^ (SFC, 9/7/96, p.A9) 1996 Sep 10, Humberto de la Calle, vice-president of Colombia, resigned as a protest to the presidency of Ernesto Samper.
    • Timeline Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

    .Colección La Salle, Bogotá: Librería Stella
  • Bushnell, David (1993), The Making of Modern Colombia: A Nation in Spite of Itself.^ Yet activists are concerned that the US is making the situation in Colombia worse by its support for that nation's controversial new "justice and peace" plan.
    • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

    Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press. ISBN 0520082893
  • (Spanish) Caballero Argaez, Carlos (1987), 50 años de economía: de la crisis del treinta à la del ochenta. Second edition, Colección Jorge Ortega Torres, Bogotá: Editorial Presencia, Asociación Bancaria de Colombia. .ISBN 9589040039
  • (Spanish) Cadavid Misas, Roberto (2004), Cursillo de historia de Colombia: de la conquista à la independencia.^ (SFC, 9/7/96, p.A9) 1996 Sep 10, Humberto de la Calle, vice-president of Colombia, resigned as a protest to the presidency of Ernesto Samper.
    • Timeline Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

    Bogotá: Intermedio Editores. ISBN 9587091345
  • (Spanish) Calderón Schrader, Camilo; Gil, Antonio; Torras, Daniel (2001), Enciclopedia de Colombia (4 volumes). .Barcelona: Céano Grupo Editorial, 2001. ISBN 8449419476 (Complete work)
  • (Spanish) Calderón Schrader, Camilo (1993), Gran enciclopedia de Colombia (11 volumes).^ (SFC, 11/2/01, p.D5) 2001 Nov 3, In Colombia FARC fighters besieged the town of Paujil and killed 3 police officers.
    • Timeline Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

    ^ (SFC, 11/5/01, p.A13) 2001 Nov 4, In Colombia gunmen abducted a judge and 3 lawyers in Antioquia province.
    • Timeline Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

    ^ (AP, 6/11/03) 2001 Jun 16, Colombia’s government and FARC rebels swapped dozens of prisoners.
    • Timeline Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

    Bogotá: Círculo de Lectores. .ISBN 9582802944 (Complete work)
  • (Spanish) Cavelier Gaviria, Germán (2003), Centenario de Panamá: una historia de la separación de Colombia en 1903.^ (AP, 1/16/03)(AP, 1/18/03)(AP, 1/19/03) 2003 Jan 18, In southern Colombia FARC guerrillas blew up every home in the hamlet of La Union.
    • Timeline Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

    ^ Rosas told investigators that the smuggling scheme started in 2003 with the help of a Colombia bartender, Angel Gutierrez, a member of the paramilitary United Self Defense forces of Colombia, known by its Spanish initials AUC. Gutierrez worked at a bar at the U.S. base.
    • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

    ^ (AP, 2/9/07) 2003 May 27, In Colombia police arrested Saul Nieto, known by the nom de guerre "Ezequiel."
    • Timeline Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

    Bogotá: Universidad Externado de Colombia. .ISBN 9586167186
  • (Spanish) Forero, Manuel José (1946), Historia analítica de Colombia desde los orígenes de la independencia nacional.^ (HN, 4/8/98) 1920 Apr 12, In Colombia the firm Nacional de Chocolates was founded.
    • Timeline Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

    ^ (SFC, 9/7/96, p.A9) 1996 Sep 10, Humberto de la Calle, vice-president of Colombia, resigned as a protest to the presidency of Ernesto Samper.
    • Timeline Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

    .Second edition, Bogotá: Librería Voluntad.
  • (Spanish) Gómez Hoyos, Rafael (1992), La independencia de Colombia.^ (SFC, 9/7/96, p.A9) 1996 Sep 10, Humberto de la Calle, vice-president of Colombia, resigned as a protest to the presidency of Ernesto Samper.
    • Timeline Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

    Madrid: Editorial Mapfre, Colecciones Mapfre 1492. ISBN 8471005964
  • (Spanish) Granados, Rafael María (1978), Historia general de Colombia: prehistoria, conquista, colonia, independencia y Repúbica. .Eighth edition, Bogotá: Imprenta Departamental Antonio Nariño.
  • (Spanish) Hernández de Alba, Guillermo (2004), Como nació la República de Colombia.^ (SFC, 9/7/96, p.A9) 1996 Sep 10, Humberto de la Calle, vice-president of Colombia, resigned as a protest to the presidency of Ernesto Samper.
    • Timeline Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

    Colección Bolsilibros. Bogotá: Academia Colombiana de Historia. ISBN 9588040353
  • (Spanish) Hernández Becerra, Augusto (2001), Ordenamiento y desarreglo territorial en Colombia. .Bogotá: Universidad Externado de Colombia, ISBN 9586165558
  • (Spanish) Hernández Rodríguez, Guillermo (1949), De los chibchas à la colonia y à la república.^ (SFC, 9/7/96, p.A9) 1996 Sep 10, Humberto de la Calle, vice-president of Colombia, resigned as a protest to the presidency of Ernesto Samper.
    • Timeline Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

    .Bogotá: Universidad Nacional de Colombia.^ (HN, 4/8/98) 1920 Apr 12, In Colombia the firm Nacional de Chocolates was founded.
    • Timeline Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

    Sección de Extensión Cultural.
  • Hylton, Forrest (2006), Evil Hour in Colombia. .New York: Verso Books.^ The New York Review of Books published a tremendous 3-part series by Alma Guillermopietro on the drug war in Colombia: "Our New War in Colombia" "Violence Without End?"
    • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

    .ISBN 1844675513
  • (Spanish) Jaramillo Uribe, Jaime; Tirado Mejía, Álvaro; Calderón Schrader, Camilo (2000), Nueva historia de Colombia (12 volumes).^ (SFC, 12/16/00, p.A20) 2000 Dec 17, In Colombia gunmen killed 11 people in the village of Chipaque.
    • Timeline Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

    ^ (WSJ, 12/19/00, p.A1) 2000 Dec 23, In Colombia rebels freed 42 police officers and soldiers.
    • Timeline Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

    ^ (SFC, 12/9/00, p.A18) 2000 Dec 7, Colombia announced an imminent prisoner exchange with leftist guerrillas.
    • Timeline Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

    Bogotá: Planeta Colombiana Editorial. .ISBN 9586142515 (Complete work)
  • Kirk, Robin (2004), More Terrible Than Death: Drugs, Violence, and America's War in Colombia.^ (AP, 1/1/03) 2002 Robin Kirk authored “More Terrible Than Death,” an account of the violence in Colombia.
    • Timeline Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

    ^ According to Cambio, 'That explained why the strategies designed to confront the phenomenon have not produced the expected results and the drug trade is flourishing as much or more than before.'"
    • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

    ^ More than 100 witnesses were called to testify, some of whom linked Carvajal to both leftist guerrillas and drug gangs."
    • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

    United States: PublicAffairs. .ISBN 1586482076
  • (Spanish) Ocampo López, Javier (1999), El proceso ideológico de la emancipación en Colombia.^ (SFC, 9/7/96, p.A9) 1996 Sep 10, Humberto de la Calle, vice-president of Colombia, resigned as a protest to the presidency of Ernesto Samper.
    • Timeline Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

    ^ (SSFC, 3/15/09, Insight p.H8)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plan_Colombia) 1999 Colombia reported 2,945 kidnappings in this year; 7% were children.
    • Timeline Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

    ^ (SFC, 4/22/99, p.D12)(WSJ, 4/22/99, A1) 1999 Apr 21, Hernando Santos (76), chairman of Colombia’s El Tiempo newspaper, died.
    • Timeline Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

    Colección La Línea de Horizonte, Bogotá: Editorial Planeta. ISBN 9586147924
  • Ospina, William (2006), Once Upon a Time There Was Colombia. Colombia: Villegas Asociados. .ISBN 9588156645
  • Palacios, Marco (2006), Between Legitimacy and Violence: A History of Colombia, 1875–2002.^ (AP, 1/1/03) 2002 Robin Kirk authored “More Terrible Than Death,” an account of the violence in Colombia.
    • Timeline Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

    ^ (Reuters, 2/13/06) 2006 Feb 15, In southern Colombia hundreds of paramilitary fighters handed in their weapons and renounced violence in a ceremony.
    • Timeline Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

    .United States of America: Duke University Press.^ 'They are part and parcel of the narcotics production and export threat to the United States, as well as Europe and other countries in Latin America.'
    • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

    ^ The Times noted that "For years, the United States has pressed Peru, the second largest source of cocaine, after Colombia, to fight production of the drug.
    • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

    ^ United States of America .
    • Minority Rights Group International : Colombia : Colombia Overview 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: Original source]

    ISBN 0822337673
  • (Spanish) Reichel-Dolmatoff, Gerardo (1998), Colombia indígena. Medellín: Hola Colina. .ISBN 9586382761
  • (Spanish) Restrepo, José Manuel (1974), Historia de la revolución de la República de Colombia.^ (SFC, 9/7/96, p.A9) 1996 Sep 10, Humberto de la Calle, vice-president of Colombia, resigned as a protest to the presidency of Ernesto Samper.
    • Timeline Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

    .Medellín: Editorial Bedout.
  • (Spanish) Rivadeneira Vargas, Antonio José (2002), Historia constitucional de Colombia 1510–2000.^ (SFC, 3/19/02, p.A6) 2002 Apr 5, A car bomb in Fuente de Oro, Colombia, injured 13 people.
    • Timeline Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

    ^ (AP, 7/23/02) 2002 Jul 24, A truck bomb exploded in San Juan de Rioseco, Colombia, and 2 police officers were killed.
    • Timeline Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

    Third edition, Tunja: Editorial Bolivariana Internacional.
  • Simons, Geoff (2004), Colombia: A Brutal History. London: Saqi Books. ISBN 0863567584
  • Smith, Stephen (1999), Cocaine Train: Travels in Colombia. London: Little, Brown. ISBN 0316647497
  • (Spanish) Tovar Pinzón, Hermes (1975), El movimiento campesino en Colombia durante los siglos XIX y XX. Second edition, Bogotá: Ediciones Libres.
  • (Spanish) Trujillo Muñoz Augusto (2001), Descentralización, regionalización y autonomía local. .Bogotá: Universidad Nacional de Colombia.^ (HN, 4/8/98) 1920 Apr 12, In Colombia the firm Nacional de Chocolates was founded.
    • Timeline Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

  • (Spanish) Vidal Perdomo Jaime (2001), La Región en la Organización Territorial del Estado. Bogotá: Universidad del Rosario.

External links


Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

South America : Colombia
noframe
Location
noframe
Flag
Image:co-flag.png
Quick Facts
Capital Bogotá
Government Republic; executive branch dominates government
Currency Colombian peso (COP)
Area 1,138,910 km2
Population 43,593,035 (July 2006 est.)
Language Spanish
Religion Roman Catholic 90%
Calling Code +57
Internet TLD .co
Time Zone UTC -5
Travel Warning
.WARNING: Travel in Colombia outside metropolitan areas or nearby especially in the south is considered dangerous.^ Travel to Colombia & all South America!
  • Colombia Tours - 4* & 5* Colombia Tour Travel and Custom Colombia Holidays 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.southamerica.travel [Source type: General]

^ The difficult terrain in Colombia limits the availability of road and rail transportation and makes air and water travel especially important.
  • Colombia Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Colombia News - Breaking World Colombia News - The New York Times 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, it remains in control of vast areas of the south of Colombia, and still has an estimated 13,000 men under arms.
  • Colombia: who are the enemies of peace and democracy? | openDemocracy 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.opendemocracy.net [Source type: Original source]

.Guerrilla movements which includes FARC and ELN guerrillas are still operational in the jungle areas and rural areas in the south particularly in the jungle regions near the Ecuadorian, Peruvian, Brazilian and Venezuelan borders, and frequently target locals and occasionally foreign visitors sometimes for attacks but especially for kidnapping.^ The pipeline is the target of frequent guerrilla attacks.
  • Colombia by Loretta Nall 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.lewrockwell.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Places frequented by foreigners could also be targeted.
  • Travel Advice for Colombia - Australian Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.smartraveller.gov.au [Source type: News]

^ As a foreigner and a tourist, you are unlikely to face threats from any illegal groups, but it's still wise to avoid rural areas, city slums, and other "red zones" -- so declared by the government depending on recent guerilla and paramilitary violence.
  • Introduction in Colombia at Frommer's 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.frommers.com [Source type: General]

.The U.S. State Department, U.K. Foreign Office and the Canadian Ministry of Foreign Affairs have renewed their annual travel advisory for Colombia, and continue to recommend against all non-essential travel to the country.^ Travel to Colombia & all South America!
  • Colombia Tours - 4* & 5* Colombia Tour Travel and Custom Colombia Holidays 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.southamerica.travel [Source type: General]

^ Avoid non-essential travel .
  • Colombia Travel Advice and Advisories | Government of Canada 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.voyage.gc.ca [Source type: News]

^ We recommend against hitchhiking in Colombia.
  • Colombia travel advice 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.fco.gov.uk [Source type: News]

.If you must go, see War zone safety.^ If you wish to use copyrighted material from this site for purposes of your own that go beyond 'fair dealing' / 'fair use', you must obtain permission from the copyright owner.
  • British Columbia Boats & Boating Directory :: CANADIAN Handcrafted Boats ™ 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC canadianhandcraftedboats.com [Source type: General]

^ If you are set on going and need a guidebook or reading material please see a list of recommended guides/books here (go on have a look!
  • South America - travel > Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Peru, Brazil, Ecuador 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC travelindependent.info [Source type: General]

^ If things do go wrong when you are overseas then see our When Things Go Wrong page.
  • Colombia travel advice 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.fco.gov.uk [Source type: News]

See also the Stay safe section of this article.
.Colombia [1] is the only country in South America with coastlines on both the North Pacific Ocean and Caribbean Sea.^ Travel to Colombia & all South America!
  • Colombia Tours - 4* & 5* Colombia Tour Travel and Custom Colombia Holidays 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.southamerica.travel [Source type: General]

^ South America, Central America and the Caribbean 2008 .
  • Colombia May 2008 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: Academic]

^ Colombia is the only country in South America to have both a Pacific and Caribbean coast.
  • US & Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC home.earthlink.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Lying to the south of Panama, Colombia controls the land access between Central and South America.^ Travel to Colombia & all South America!
  • Colombia Tours - 4* & 5* Colombia Tour Travel and Custom Colombia Holidays 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.southamerica.travel [Source type: General]

^ South America, Central America and the Caribbean 2008 .
  • Colombia May 2008 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: Academic]

^ Colombia still ranks as the largest U.S. market in central and South America.
  • Colombia Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.With Panama to the north, Colombia is surrounded by Venezuela to the east, Brazil to the southeast, and Ecuador and Peru to the south west.^ It is bordered to the north and north-west by the Caribbean Sea, to the east by Venezuela and Brazil, to the south by Ecuador and Peru, and to the west by Panama and the Pacific Ocean.

^ Colombia borders Ecuador and Peru to the south, Brazil and Venezuela to the east, and Panama to the northwest.
  • Culture of Colombia - traditional, history, people, clothing, traditions, women, beliefs, food, customs, family, social, marriage, men, life, population, religion, rituals, History and ethnic relations 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is bordered to the east by Venezuela and Brazil; to the south by Ecuador and Peru; to the north by Panama and the Caribbean Sea; and to the west by the Pacific Ocean.
  • Colombia Property For Sale, Beachfront Real Estate In Colombia, Colombia Properties 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC colombiapropertylocator.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The country was named in honor of Christopher Columbus, following the Italian version of his name (Cristoforo Colombo).^ Columbia Lake, the Columbia River, and the province were named in honor of Christopher Columbus.

^ Etymology The word "Colombia" comes from the name of Christopher Columbus (Italian: Cristoforo Colombo, Spanish: Cristóbal Colón).
  • Colombia Property For Sale, Beachfront Real Estate In Colombia, Colombia Properties 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC colombiapropertylocator.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Although Columbus never actually set foot on the current Colombian territory, in his fourth voyage he visited Panama, which was part of Colombia until 1903.

Understand

.Although there is a certain amount of violence in remote areas, the current government has increased its presence in the countryside and in all major tourist areas, so whereas in the past travel was certainly dangerous, the risks are now lower except in the areas of known guerilla, paramilitary or drug cartel presence.^ There are universities in all the major cities.
  • Colombia Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Colombia News - Breaking World Colombia News - The New York Times 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Government tolerance of the paramilitaries is well known in the area.

^ There are now 130 member states (including Colombia), although the name G-77 was retained because of its historical significance.

Traveling in Colombia is definitely worthwhile. .From Bogota, with a temperate climate 2,600 m (8530 ft) above sea level and at a constant temperature of 19 degrees Celsius, a drive of one or two hours North, South, East or West can take you to landscapes which are as diverse as they are beautiful.^ See most of the continent from north to south and east to west.

^ One hour north is Creston, and Castlegar and Nelson are to the east.
  • Map of British Columbia Resorts and Regions - Find British Columbia Vacation Rentals from Owner Direct Vacation Rentals. 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.ownerdirect.com [Source type: General]

^ The archipelago of San Andres and Providence is located 480 miles North-West of the Colombian mainland in the Caribbean Sea.

.To the East are the oriental plains which stretch out far beyond the horizon with little modulation.^ Of the rivers of the great eastern plains, whose waters pass through the Orinoco and Amazon to the Atlantic, little can be said beyond the barest geographical description.

^ Before Uribe's election, it was impossible to travel far beyond the city limits to the east, because it was rebel territory.
  • http://www.ocf.berkeley.edu/~mescobar/pacsfinal.html 25 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.ocf.berkeley.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Orinoquia region, which makes up the vast plains of eastern Colombia, stretches as far as the border of Venezuela.

.To the North are the more rugged contours of the higher Andean region.^ According to the ICG, "For more than 20 years, Andean governments have waged a U.S.-led war on drugs in the region, prioritising the eradication of illicit crops.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ The condor , which inhabits the higher Cordilleras, is peculiar to the whole Andean region, and is the largest of the Raptores.

.To the South the weather is sub-tropical and has flora and fauna concomitant with this, and to the West you can find the Magdalena River valley and its hot weather.^ This beautiful tropical country provides a great variety of contrasts, as much in its stunning landscapes, as in the customs of its inhabitants and its immensely rich biodiversity including its flora and fauna.

^ In the south are several broad river valleys, the Fraser, Thompson, Okanagan, and Chilcotin .

^ You can find out current weather conditions for British Columbia at Environment Canada's website.
  • Ya'Gotta - British Columbia Adventure Travel Information 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.yagotta.ca [Source type: General]

.Colombia is one of the equatorial countries of the world, but unique in its extreme topography and abundance of water.^ Ecologically, Colombia is one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
  • Colombia Property For Sale, Beachfront Real Estate In Colombia, Colombia Properties 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC colombiapropertylocator.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Colombia is a country rich in water resources.

^ Colombia has one of the highest rates in the world.
  • http://www.ocf.berkeley.edu/~mescobar/pacsfinal.html 25 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.ocf.berkeley.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Climate

.The climate is tropical along the coast and eastern plains; cold in the highlands; periodic droughts.^ Climate: Tropical on coast and eastern plains, cooler in highlands.
  • Colombia - Country Profile - Republica de Colombia, South America 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.nationsonline.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hot/cold, wet and dry: Jungle, coast and highlands all have different best times to go, pretty much a year round scene.
  • South America - travel > Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Peru, Brazil, Ecuador 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC travelindependent.info [Source type: General]

^ To the south, savanna (tropical grassland) vegetation covers the eastern plains, the Colombian portion of the Llanos.
  • Colombia Property For Sale, Beachfront Real Estate In Colombia, Colombia Properties 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC colombiapropertylocator.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Colombia is an equatorial country, so there are no seasons, what Colombians normally refer to as winter is the rainy season.^ A magnitude 6.8 earthquake struck just off Colombia's Pacific coast late Sunday, the U.S. Geological Survey reported, but there were no immediate reports of injuries.
  • Colombia: News & Videos about Colombia - CNN.com 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC topics.edition.cnn.com [Source type: News]

^ Photos that were taken during Colombia's Independence Day parade on July 20th, 2005 in Bogot, the country's capital, show the Colombian flag on a vertical manner.
  • Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.crwflags.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Travel to Colombia is growing rapidly - doubling yearly as the country becomes increasingly safe and the world discovers the genuine hospitality of the Colombians.
  • Colombia Tours - 4* & 5* Colombia Tour Travel and Custom Colombia Holidays 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.southamerica.travel [Source type: General]

.Cities such as Bogotá, Tunja, and Pasto have been known to reach temperatures below 0 degrees Celsius, so if you are sensitive to cold weather be prepared.^ The main cities of the region include Bogotá, the nation’s capital as well as Medellín, Cali, Popayán, Pasto, Manizales, Pereira, Armenia, Neiva, Ibagué, Tunja, Bucaramanga and Cúcuta.

^ Cold Zone: from 6,500 – 10,000 feet above sea level with mean temperatures between 54 degrees and 65 degrees Fahrenheit, constitute 8% of the country.

^ In the latter zone are situated most of the principal cities of the republic, including Bogotá, the capital, which has an annual mean temperature of 14.4° C (58° F).
  • COLOMBIA, 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Some mountains are also covered in snow perenially.^ Some years I will hike to a mountain meadow and find lots of wildflowers, other years I will return to the same location at the same time and find a foot of snow.

^ Because the mountain is at a slightly higher elevation than the surrounding areas it is more likely to get some snow.

^ A series old trails traverse the wind-swept landscaped rimed with snow-covered mountains.
  • Colombia Travel Guide - Plan your Colombia vacation. Colombia flights, tours & hotel reviews 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.vivatravelguides.com [Source type: General]

.Cities along the Atlantic coast (Cartagena, Barranquilla, Santa Marta) are hot and humid, while some cities at mid-altitude in the Andes (Medellín, Pereira) have 'everlasting spring' weather.^ Colombia and Caribbean cities of Cartagena, Barranquilla and Santa Marta...great new program..!!

^ This comprehensive guidebook points the way, with full coverage of the entire province – cities, glaciers, hot springs, deserts and everything in between.
  • Amazon.com: Lonely Planet British Columbia (9781864502206): Julie Fanselow, Debra Miller: Books 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.amazon.com [Source type: General]

^ Dotted with hills and with extensive tracts of seasonally flooded land along the lower Magdalena and the Sinú rivers, it surrounds the inland portion of the Santa Marta Mountains.
  • Colombia -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Terrain

Flat coastal lowlands, central highlands, high Andes Mountains, eastern lowland plains
Countryside in the Andes
Countryside in the Andes
.Natural hazards: highlands subject to volcanic eruptions; occasional earthquakes.^ Colombia is subject to earthquakes and volcanic eruptions.
  • Travel Advice for Colombia - Australian Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.smartraveller.gov.au [Source type: News]

^ Part of the Pacific Ring of Fire, a region of the world subject to earthquakes and volcanic eruptions, Colombia is dominated by the Andes mountains.
  • Colombia Property For Sale, Beachfront Real Estate In Colombia, Colombia Properties 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC colombiapropertylocator.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The northern end of this range is characterized by volcanic eruptions and earthquakes.
  • Culture of Colombia - traditional, history, people, clothing, traditions, women, beliefs, food, customs, family, social, marriage, men, life, population, religion, rituals, History and ethnic relations 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Recent volcanic disaster occurred in Armero, 1985. 25,000 people were buried by lahars that the Nevado del Ruiz produced.^ In November 1985 Mount Ruíz erupted, melting the snow and ice that covered it and sending great mudflows downslope, destroying the city of Armero and killing more than 25,000 in one of the country’s greatest catastrophes.
  • Colombia -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Even by 1881 the white population of 24 000 was less than the estimated 25 000 Native people.

^ Over 2,000 years ago, native peoples in the Andes produced intricate artwork.
  • Culture of Colombia - traditional, history, people, clothing, traditions, women, beliefs, food, customs, family, social, marriage, men, life, population, religion, rituals, History and ethnic relations 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Highest point: Pico Cristobal Colon 5,775 m (18950 ft) of the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta.^ W. Sievers, "Die Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta and die Sierra de Perija," Zeits.

^ The Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta is the highest coastal sierra in the world.

^ Southern and eastern slopes of Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta.
  • Ethnologue: Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.christusrex.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The mountain is the world's highest coastal range.^ The Andes are among the world’s most youthful mountain ranges and among the highest.
  • Colombia -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Sierra Nevada is the highest coastal mountain range in the world: starting at sea level, 16,400 Km2 rise in four groups of peaks and a wall of 5,295 m in height.

^ The forested region shelters bear, deer, elk, marmots, wolves, and one of the highest concentrations of mountain lions in the world.

note: nearby Pico Simon Bolivar has the same elevation

History

.Colombia became independent from Spain in 1810. It was one of the five countries liberated by Simon Bolivar (the others being Ecuador, Venezuela, Peru and Bolivia).^ Colombia was one of the three countries that emerged from the collapse of Gran Colombia in 1830 (the others are Ecuador and Venezuela).
  • Flag Counter » Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC flagcounter.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Colombia, Ecuador and Venezuela became independent countries.
  • Timeline Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ The Republics of Colombia, Ecuador , and Venezuela became united under the name of Colombia.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

.Colombia, Ecuador, Venezuela and Panama then formed the first Republic of Colombia.^ Full independence was proclaimed in 1813, and in 1819 the Republic of Greater Colombia was formed to include all the territory of the former Viceroyalty (Colombia, Venezuela, Ecuador and Panama).

^ Full independence was proclaimed in 1813, and in 1819 the Republic of Greater Colombia was formed.
  • Colombia Visa Application - Tourist Visas, Business Visas, Expedited Visas - Colombia Page 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.travisa.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In March 2008, tensions between Colombia and its neighbours Venezuela and Ecuador led to troop movements to regions surrounding the Colombian border.
  • Travel Advice for Colombia - Australian Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.smartraveller.gov.au [Source type: News]

.Ecuador and Venezuela declared their independence from Colombia in 1830. Panama declared its independence from Colombia in 1903 with the support of the United States of America.^ United States of America (1117) .
  • British Columbia – My UFO Sightings Blog 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC myufo.com [Source type: General]

^ And you deserve the support of the United States of America.
  • President Bush and President Uribe of the Republic of Colombia Participate in Joint Press Availability 25 September 2009 8:08 UTC georgewbush-whitehouse.archives.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Colombia, Ecuador and Venezuela became independent countries.
  • Timeline Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

.A 40-year communist insurgent campaign to overthrow the Colombian Government escalated during the 1990s, under girded in part by funds from the drug trade.^ The drug trade is not only a Colombian business.
  • Embassy of Colombia - Surprising Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC en.colombiaembassy.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A 40-year insurgent campaign to overthrow the Colombian Government escalated during the 1990s, undergirded in part by funds from the drug trade.
  • Colombia Visa Application - Tourist Visas, Business Visas, Expedited Visas - Colombia Page 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.travisa.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Despite the strain which decertification and related issues placed on bilateral relations during the Samper administration, the U.S. and Colombian Governments continued to cooperate and consult.
  • Colombia Visa Application - Tourist Visas, Business Visas, Expedited Visas - Colombia Page 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.travisa.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Although the violence is deadly and large swaths of the rural countryside are under guerrilla influence, the movement lacks the military strength or popular support necessary to overthrow the government.^ However, the insurgents lack the military or popular support necessary to overthrow the government, and in recent years the violence has been decreasing.
  • Colombia Property For Sale, Beachfront Real Estate In Colombia, Colombia Properties 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC colombiapropertylocator.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ From 1953 to 1964 the violence between the two political parties decreased first when Gustavo Rojas deposed the President of Colombia in a coup d'etat and negotiated with the guerrillas, and then under the military junta of General Gabriel París Gordillo.
  • Colombia Property For Sale, Beachfront Real Estate In Colombia, Colombia Properties 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC colombiapropertylocator.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When government resources were limited, such self-defense groups enabled people in rural areas to defend themselves from the guerrillas and to protect their lives and property.
  • Embassy of Colombia - Surprising Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC en.colombiaembassy.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Illegal anti-insurgent paramilitary groups have grown to be several thousand strong in recent years, challenging the insurgents for control of territory and illicit industries such as the drug trade and also the government's ability to exert its dominion over rural areas.^ Colombia's subtly demagogic President Uribe gained the advantage in the upcoming election by leveraging the strength of anti-left paramilitaries, drug trafficking and a culture of violence.

^ Throughout the 1970s and 80s, Colombia's illegal drug trade grew steadily, as the drug cartels amassed huge amounts of money, weapons, and influence.
  • Colombia Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Colombia News - Breaking World Colombia News - The New York Times 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A 2005 report from the White House Office of National Drug Control Policy shows that a massive U.S.-backed aerial spraying offensive last year failed to reduce the area of coca under cultivation in Colombia.

.While Bogotá continues to try to negotiate a settlement, neighboring countries worry about the violence spilling over their borders.^ The people, the food, the drink, the music - everything about this country is great...except the violence!
  • Colombia Travel Guide - Plan your Colombia vacation. Colombia flights, tours & hotel reviews 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.vivatravelguides.com [Source type: General]

^ The National Library in Bogotá (1777) contains about 800,000 volumes; it also administers town and village libraries throughout the country.
  • COLOMBIA, 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The UN estimated that about 3 million Colombians have been driven from their homes by violence without leaving the country, making it the largest internal refugee population in the world after Sudan.
  • Timeline Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

Andino
Costa Norte
Orinoquía
Pacifica
Amazonia
.
Colombian Islands
  • Bogotá - The Republic's Capital, a city where all the country converges.^ Experience the vibrant and bustling capital city of Bogotá before moving towards the Caribbean to the historical colonial city of Cartagena and the stunning surrounding beaches and fishing villages.
    • Colombia Travel - Experience Colombia Adventure Tours from Gap Adventures 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.gapadventures.com [Source type: General]

    ^ The capital city's Parliament Buildings, outlined all year in sedate white lights, glow with well-placed green and red bulbs this season.
    • British Columbia: News & Videos about British Columbia - CNN.com 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC topics.cnn.com [Source type: News]
    • British Columbia: News & Videos about British Columbia - CNN.com 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC topics.edition.cnn.com [Source type: News]

    .Bogotá hosts various internationally acclaimed events such as the Iberoamerican Theatre Festival (largest one on Earth) and "Rock al Parque", a concert featuring rock stars from around the globe.^ The event was one of the largest stock run-ups ever, and that event set the stage for future biotechnolgy industry offerings.
    • Learn about the history of biotechnology, life science, and the pharmaceuticals in British Columbia. 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.britishcolumbialifescience.com [Source type: Academic]

    .The city also offers a great variety of restaurants and museums, such as the Andrés Carne de Res.
  • Barranquilla - Colombia's Golden Port and capital of the Atlántico department.^ Andres Carne de Res Unique and world famous restaurant in Chia, Colombia.

    ^ Many varieties of fruit virtually unknown to the Western world are enjoyed in Colombia, such as the zapote, lulo, curuba, mamoncillo, uchuva, feijoa, sweet gran ...

    ^ Colombia’s vibrant cities are fascinating in their own right—encompassing towering skyscrapers, cobblestone streets, and elegant ports.
    • Language study abroad in Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.bridgeabroad.com [Source type: General]

    .Barranquilla holds its world famous Carnival each February.
  • Cali - Colombia's third largest city and a center for sugar and coffee industry.^ Once primarily an agrarian nation with its economy traditionally dependent on coffee, Colombia has experienced rapid industrial growth in recent years.
    • COLOMBIA, 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Industry and Agriculture The most industrially diverse member of the five-nation Andean Community, Colombia has four major industrial centers--Bogota, Medellin, Cali and Barranquilla--each located in a distinct geographical region.

    ^ Discovered in 1992, the oil fields constitute the largest find in the Americas since Alaska's Prudhoe Bay field (1969) and have revitalized Colombia's petroleum industry.
    • Colombia News - Breaking World Colombia News - The New York Times 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .It enjoys terrific nightlife in the salsotecas.
  • Cartagena - The Heroic City, Capital of the Bolívar department is Colombia's tourist city par excellence.^ Experience the vibrant and bustling capital city of Bogotá before moving towards the Caribbean to the historical colonial city of Cartagena and the stunning surrounding beaches and fishing villages.
    • Colombia Travel - Experience Colombia Adventure Tours from Gap Adventures 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.gapadventures.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Political Structure The Republic of Colombia, which gained independence from Spain in 1810, is divided into 32 departments and one capital district.
    • Colombian Peso and Colombia currency information including currency exchange rates 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.gocurrency.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Administratively, Colombia is divided into 32 departments and the capital district.
    • Colombia News - Breaking World Colombia News - The New York Times 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .The colonial architecture and the skyscrapers can be be seen together in this city that offers a unique experience of festivals, restaurants and hotels.
  • Cúcuta - This is the sixth largest city of Colombia.^ Rate it 1 2 3 4 5 Your experience includes (click all that apply) 1 Hotels 1 Restaurants 1 Activities Share some specifics Want to go here?
    • TripConnect British Columbia Main 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.tripconnect.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Colombia’s vibrant cities are fascinating in their own right—encompassing towering skyscrapers, cobblestone streets, and elegant ports.
    • Language study abroad in Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.bridgeabroad.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Andres Carne de Res Unique and world famous restaurant in Chia, Colombia.

    It has many interesting places and is one of the most ecological cities of Latin America.
Palacio de la Cultura & Coltejer Building in Medellín
.
Palacio de la Cultura & Coltejer Building in Medellín
  • Medellín - The City of Eternal Spring and capital of the Antioquia department is famous for having a large textile industry, which produces top quality clothing that is sent all over the world.^ You are also advised against all travel to the departments of Cauca, Caqueta, Guaviare, Valle de Cauca (excluding Cali) and Antioquia (excluding Medellin), to the southern parts of Meta department and to the city of Buenaventura, due to the presence of similar armed groups.
    • Colombia Travel Advice and Advisories | Government of Canada 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.voyage.gc.ca [Source type: News]

    ^ Colombia's industries include textiles and clothing, leather products, processed foods and beverages, paper and paper products, chemicals and petrochemicals, cement, construction, iron and steel products and metalworking.

    ^ In the process, Fundación Proyecto Tití has created a thriving business that converts plastic bags — a source or mortality among cotton-top tamarins — into fashionable "eco-mochilas" that are now sent all over the world.

    .It's also the birthplace of master painter Fernando Botero, therefore it houses the great majority of his works.
  • Pereira - The lovely City , capital of the Risaralda department and major city of the coffee region, important and modern city, commercial and touristic.^ Colombian painter and sculptor, Fernando Botero, has exhibited his works at the Champs Elyses in Paris, Central Park in New York, St. Mark's Square in Venice and in the Paseo de Recoletos in Madrid.
    • Embassy of Colombia - Surprising Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC en.colombiaembassy.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ However, Colombia is attempting to carve a niche in the international art world with the production of works by painters such as Fernando Botero and Alejandro Obregón and the sculptor Edgar Negret.
    • Culture of Colombia - traditional, history, people, clothing, traditions, women, beliefs, food, customs, family, social, marriage, men, life, population, religion, rituals, History and ethnic relations 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ (AP, 8/22/98) 1969 Fernando Botero, surrealist Colombian painter, created "The Butcher's Table," a pig's head laughing at his own slaughter.
    • Timeline Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

    The famous "Bolivar naked" and Matecana Zoo. .Very near to Santa Rosa hot water springs and the National Park of "Los Nevados".
  • Popayan - This beautiful, white-washed city is Colombia's religious center.^ Tyrona National Park in Santa Marta, Colombia: has anyone visited?
    • Colombia - Cruise Critic Message Boards 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC boards.cruisecritic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Now those very same shanties are connected to the city center by a sky-lift gondola of the sort you might find at EPCOT Center.
    • Extreme Investing: Inside Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.businessweek.com [Source type: News]

    ^ Explore traditional villages and markets of northern Ecuador, superb beaches of Colombia and the colonial architecture and unique National Parks of Venezuela.
    • Colombia Travel - Experience Colombia Adventure Tours from Gap Adventures 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.gapadventures.com [Source type: General]

    .Home to the second largest Easter festival in the world (after Seville, Spain), this town has contributed more Colombian presidents than any other.^ More than a million Afro-Colombians have been displaced from their homes and communities.

    ^ With approximately 3,300 companies, it lists more companies and, on average, trades more shares per day than any other U.S. market.
    • Learn about the history of biotechnology, life science, and the pharmaceuticals in British Columbia. 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.britishcolumbialifescience.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ During April May, the number of Colombians has grown more than the 150%.
    • Colombia - eRepublik Official Wiki 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC wiki.erepublik.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Bordered by the Purace National Park and gateway to the archeological sites of San Agustin and Tierra Dentro in nearby Huilla.
  • Santa Marta - One of the most touristic cities in Colombia.^ Tyrona National Park in Santa Marta, Colombia: has anyone visited?
    • Colombia - Cruise Critic Message Boards 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC boards.cruisecritic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ San Agustín 8 days These Colombia tour sites of great beauty and archeological interest are located in the southwest of Colombia, where the Andes mountain range splits into two.
    • Colombia Tours - 4* & 5* Colombia Tour Travel and Custom Colombia Holidays 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.southamerica.travel [Source type: General]

    ^ Historic Centre of Santa Cruz de Mompox (1995) National Archeological Park of Tierradentro (1995) Port, Fortresses and Group of Monuments, Cartagena (1984) San Agustín Archaeological Park (1995) Natural .
    • Colombia - UNESCO World Heritage Centre 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC whc.unesco.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Santa Marta is unique in the sense that it offers you beautiful beaches one day, and the next one a walk to the foothill of a snowy mountain, the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, the highest in the country.^ W. Sievers, "Die Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta and die Sierra de Perija," Zeits.

    ^ Southern and eastern slopes of Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta.
    • Ethnologue: Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.christusrex.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Southern slopes of Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta.
    • Ethnologue: Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.christusrex.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .It's also the place where Liberator General Simón Bolívar died, at La Quinta de San Pedro Alejandrino.
  • Leticia - Capital of the Amazonas department, this is the place to experience the Colombian Amazon in its full.
  • Amacayacu National Park - Far, far from civilization in the Amazon rainforest, a huge national park explorable via boat, full of strange monkey-infested islands and pink dolphins.
  • Ciudad Perdida - A pre-Colombian city located in the Colombian jungle close to Santa Marta.^ Parts of Colombia threw off Spanish jurisdiction in 1810, and full independence came after Spain’s defeat by revolutionary leader Simón Bolívar in 1819.
    • Colombia -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ In the north, separating the La Guajira peninsula from the rest of the country, is the magnificent Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, which contains Colombia's highest peak, Pico Cristbal (18,947 ft/5,775 m).
    • Colombia News - Breaking World Colombia News - The New York Times 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ In the north, separating the La Guajira peninsula from the rest of the country, is the magnificent Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, which contains Colombia's highest peak, Pico Cristóbal (18,947 ft/5,775 m).
    • Colombia Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Built between the eighth and the fourteenth century by the Tayrona Indians. Nowadays only stone circular shaped terraces covered by jungle remain.
Parque Nacional de los Nevados in Caldas
.
Parque Nacional de los Nevados in Caldas
  • Corales del Rosario - Beautiful beaches above the water, beautiful corals beneath in one of Colombia's most popular national parks.
  • Isla Gorgona - This former prison island in the Pacific Ocean is now a nature reserve open for visitors.^ Asociación Nacional de Empresarios de Colombia.
    • http://www.ocf.berkeley.edu/~mescobar/pacsfinal.html 25 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.ocf.berkeley.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Colombia, one of the most beautiful countries in the world .
    • Colombia: Bogota, Medellin, & Cartagena Photo Gallery by Christopher Kirk at pbase.com 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.pbase.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Cartagena is one of the most popular tourist destination in Colombia right now.....

    .There is abundant wildlife like monkeys, snakes, whales and sea turtles.^ One inhabited by a titanic snake, giant turtles, and crocodile-like reptiles.

    ^ Offshore, the abundant food attracts sea lions, seals, killer whales, and sometimes grey whales.

    .It offers excellent diving conditions.
  • San Gil - Colombia's adventure sport capital.^ San Agustín 8 days These Colombia tour sites of great beauty and archeological interest are located in the southwest of Colombia, where the Andes mountain range splits into two.
    • Colombia Tours - 4* & 5* Colombia Tour Travel and Custom Colombia Holidays 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.southamerica.travel [Source type: General]

    ^ At the Great Colombian Massif of the Cordillera Central, near the San Agustín Archeological Park, the Cordillera Oriental (“Eastern Range”) branches off in a more decidedly northeasterly direction.
    • Colombia -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Historic Centre of Santa Cruz de Mompox (1995) National Archeological Park of Tierradentro (1995) Port, Fortresses and Group of Monuments, Cartagena (1984) San Agustín Archaeological Park (1995) Natural .
    • Colombia - UNESCO World Heritage Centre 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC whc.unesco.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Enjoy world class rafting and the proximity of the Chicamocha canyon.
.There are many groups and agencies offering eco-tourism and it is very usual to find trekking plans (locally named 'caminatas' or 'excursiones') on weekend; many groups (named 'caminantes') offers cheaper one day excursion, special trips (on long weekends or during periods of vacation time (January, Holy Week, July, August, October, December) to different places in the country.^ Crops are usually available in July, August.
  • Where to find pick your own farms in British Columbia, Canada 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.pickyourown.org [Source type: General]

^ There are many special displays, and nature walks are offered.
  • British Columbia Wildlife Watch - Festivals 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC www3.bc.sympatico.ca [Source type: General]

^ Also search for other localities by place name .
  • Cyndi's List - Canada - British Columbia 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.cyndislist.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Some recommended groups in Bogotá are: Viajar y Vivir, Fundación Sal Si Puedes, Caminantes del Retorno; there are many other.^ There are over fifty Indian groups, many of which live in relative isolation.
  • Culture of Colombia - traditional, history, people, clothing, traditions, women, beliefs, food, customs, family, social, marriage, men, life, population, religion, rituals, History and ethnic relations 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There are also many other good museums in the province, such as the B.C. Forest Museum Duncan and the Maritime Museum in Vancouver.

^ There are as well a number of private schools, some run by religious groups, and others modelled on the British system.

Patianchos in Medellín; Rastros in Bucaramanga. .They usually offer guidance and transportation to the place; on long trips include lodging and other services.^ When ordered early enough, we offer same day local service for birthdays, anniversary, sympathy, romance, gift baskets, plants, balloons and many other gifts.
  • FLOWERS British Columbia Send BC USA FTD Flower Delivery 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC flowerdeliveryexpress.com [Source type: General]

^ Offering exceptional services and facilities, this hotel is an ideal place for a comfortable stay.
  • British Columbia Bed and Breakfast Budget Hotel Guest House Accommodation 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC canada.bedandbreakfasts.net [Source type: General]

^ Other top manufacturing sectors include food processing and the manufacture of transportation equipment.
  • Jobs in British Columbia, Canada Careers, Jobs, Education - Careers.org 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC canada.careers.org [Source type: News]

The recommendation is asking if the guide has the official certification.

Get in

By plane

.There are regular international flights into major cities including Bogotá, Medellín, Cali, Barranquilla, Bucaramanga, Cartagena, Pereira and San Andres Islands as well as to other smaller cities in the borders with Venezuela, Ecuador, Panamá and Brazil.^ As well as Bogotá, important business centres include Medellín, Cali, Barranquilla, Bucaramanga and Cartagena.
  • Colombia travel advice 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.fco.gov.uk [Source type: News]

^ Protestants are a minority on the mainland but a majority on San Andres and Providencia islands.
  • Culture of Colombia - traditional, history, people, clothing, traditions, women, beliefs, food, customs, family, social, marriage, men, life, population, religion, rituals, History and ethnic relations 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There are universities in all the major cities.
  • Colombia News - Breaking World Colombia News - The New York Times 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.There are daily direct flights to and from the U.S, Canada, Mexico, Costa Rica, Panama, Spain, France, and South America.^ COLOMBIA, a republic of South America occupying the N.W. angle of that continent and bounded N. by the Caribbean Sea and Venezuela , E. by Venezuela and Brazil , S. by Brazil, Peru and Ecuador , and W. by Ecuador, the Pacific Ocean , Panama and the Caribbean Sea.

^ America : Argentina - Brazil - Chile - Canada - Mexico - USA .
  • Colombia Florist: Sending Flowers & Gifts to Colombia : Florist Colombia 24 hrs 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.floweradvisor.com [Source type: News]

^ Flights from Copa Airlines are via Panama direct to Santa Marta.

.Beware that Medellín is the only Colombian city served by 2 airports: International and long-range domestic flights go to José María Córdova International Airport (IATA: MDE) while regional and some other domestic flights arrive in Olaya Herrera airport (IATA: EOH) [2].^ While the talks go on and the leaders remain in the zone, the paramilitaries are protected not only from Colombian arrest warrants but also from U.S. extradition requests.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ Other holidays center on regional and local cultures, such as the Carnaval of Barranquilla, the Cartagena International Caribbean Music Festival, the Medellín flower fair, and the Festival of the Devil in Rio Sucio.
  • Culture of Colombia - traditional, history, people, clothing, traditions, women, beliefs, food, customs, family, social, marriage, men, life, population, religion, rituals, History and ethnic relations 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ LAN Chile also might have some domestic flights in Argentina.
  • South America - travel > Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Peru, Brazil, Ecuador 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC travelindependent.info [Source type: General]

Bogota has two airport terminals: Puente Aero and El Dorado. .Outside the airport, be aware of enterprising men who will help you lift your bags into a taxi or car, and then expect payment.^ Find a Funeral Home or Cemetery in the USA Let us help you find a funeral home, mortuary, cemetery your zipcode, city or state of choice.
  • Flower Delivery BC British Columbia | BC British Columbia and Nationwide 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.800wesleys.com [Source type: General]

^ Think about the sort of people who will be on the trek with you and what you actually get for your money.
  • South America - travel > Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Peru, Brazil, Ecuador 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC travelindependent.info [Source type: General]

^ Thank you to all the old friends who have remained in my life and helped me out this last year.
  • British Columbia | The Carey Adventures 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC thecareyadventures.com [Source type: General]

.It is best to politely refuse all offers of help unless from a taxi driver you are about to hire.^ They are all well-trained florists offering fresh flowers of the highest quality and thru our platform, offer you at unbeatable prices.
  • Colombia Florist: Sending Flowers & Gifts to Colombia : Florist Colombia 24 hrs 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.floweradvisor.com [Source type: News]

^ Your photos are unique and original, because they’re all about you!
  • British Columbia Wedding Photographer Directory - Find a Wedding Photographer or a Photography Studio - - British Columbia - Vancouver, Victoria, Kelowna, Abbotsford Wedding Directory 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.studiolocator.com [Source type: General]

^ In Salvador it's all about participating in Carnival, and not only watching when some of the best Brazilian bands and singers are in action.
  • South America - travel > Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Peru, Brazil, Ecuador 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC travelindependent.info [Source type: General]

Taxis are regulated, reasonably priced and safe from the airports. .A taxi ride from the airport to the central business district in Bogota, takes approximately 20 minutes.^ The 45-minute ride to town from Medellín's main airport winds through lush forests and fragrant flower farms.
  • Extreme Investing: Inside Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.businessweek.com [Source type: News]

By boat

Enter from Panama by the Puerto Obaldia-Capurganá pass. .From Capurganá, another boat ride takes you to Turbo, where buses take you to Medellín and Montería.^ And the boats between islands don’t take reservations, so you could just grab a later one.
  • British Columbia | The Carey Adventures 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC thecareyadventures.com [Source type: General]

By bus

From Venezuela

.Connections can be made from the Caracas main terminal to most cities in Colombia.^ CRIME: Although the threat of terrorism has decreased in most of Colombia’s cities, they nevertheless experience much of the same crime that is seen in comparably sized cities throughout the region.
  • Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC travel.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is located on Colombia's Caribbean coast, a unique city comprised of a series of islands connected by bridges.

^ Due to the security environment in Colombia, U.S. government officials and their families are not permitted to travel by road between most major cities.
  • Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC travel.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.From the main terminal, Maracaibo (Venezuela) you can find buses that run to the cities (Cartagena, Baranquilla, Santa Marta) on the coast.^ Now those very same shanties are connected to the city center by a sky-lift gondola of the sort you might find at EPCOT Center.
  • Extreme Investing: Inside Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.businessweek.com [Source type: News]

^ We advise against all but essential travel to the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, including the ‘Lost City’.
  • Colombia travel advice 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.fco.gov.uk [Source type: News]

^ Wait of course their other cities like Bogota, Cartegena, Cali, Manizales, and Santa Marta to name a few.
  • Colombia Visas Information - Embassy and Consulates | South America Travel | Colombia Residency 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC colombiavisas.com [Source type: General]

.The border at Maicao provides a relatively easy, straightforward entry into Colombia from Venezuela.^ Colombia faces border tensions with Venezuela.
  • Colombia Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Colombia's eastern border with Venezuela.

^ But Colombia is a vital strategic ally in an increasingly hostile continent, bordered by Hugo Chávez' Venezuela and left-leaning Ecuador.
  • Extreme Investing: Inside Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.businessweek.com [Source type: News]

.You can also enter from Venezuela via the busy San Cristóbal to Cúcuta route, which passes through the border town of San Antonio del Táchira.^ Only 4 passes through the Rocky Mountains have been used by the railways and, later, roads to enter BC from the east.

^ Army soldiers killed two rebels in the southern town of San Vicente del Caguan.
  • Timeline Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ The Bogota daily El Tiempo, pointed out, The absence of an airfield close to the Pacific, through which the principal drug-trafficking routes pass is noteworthy.

From Ecuador

It is very straightforward to enter Colombia from Ecuador. Travel to Tulcan, where you can get a taxi to the border. .Get your exit stamps from the immigration offices and take another taxi to Ipiales.^ When searching for a lawyer or immigration professional please do your resarch and take your time .
  • Colombia Visas Information - Embassy and Consulates | South America Travel | Colombia Residency 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC colombiavisas.com [Source type: General]

^ If crossing into Colombia from either Ecuador or Venezuela, you are advised to ensure that you have your passport stamped by the immigration authorities on arrival in the country.
  • Colombia travel advice 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.fco.gov.uk [Source type: News]

.From there you can travel further to Cali, Bogotá, ...^ Fortune: Summer Travel: Surprise Yourself There are no new places in the world, only new experiences--and you don't .
  • British Columbia: News & Videos about British Columbia - CNN.com 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC topics.cnn.com [Source type: News]

From Panama?

.You can't cross from Panama to Colombia by bus--the Darien Gap begins at Yaviza, where the Interamericana runs out.^ Should you run out of money you can have money wired to you by a relation or friend through Western Union .
  • Colombia travel advice 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.fco.gov.uk [Source type: News]

^ If entering or leaving Colombia by land from or to Venezuela, we advise you to cross at Cucuta, and not at Arauja, or via Riohacha.
  • Colombia travel advice 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.fco.gov.uk [Source type: News]

^ The best way to figure out if living in Colombia is good for you is to really just rent a furnished apartment, or find a room rental.
  • Colombia Visas Information - Embassy and Consulates | South America Travel | Colombia Residency 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC colombiavisas.com [Source type: General]

Consider using the boat crossing instead. .There are often Yachts will shuttle you between colombia and panama and offer a stop in the gorgeous san blas islands.^ Since the Pan-American Highway grinds to a halt just past Panama City, there is no road access between North and South America.
  • South America - travel > Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Peru, Brazil, Ecuador 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC travelindependent.info [Source type: General]

^ If entering or leaving from or to Ecuador we advise you only to take the Pan-American Highway, and not to stop en route between the border and Pasto.
  • Colombia travel advice 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.fco.gov.uk [Source type: News]

^ We advise against trying to cross between Panama and Colombia by land.
  • Colombia travel advice 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.fco.gov.uk [Source type: News]

.Airlines with flights between the 2 countries are: Avianca, Aerorepública, COPA, Aires.^ Flights also available via Copa Airlines .

^ Flights also available via Copa Airlines.

^ Add-ons via COPA or AVIANCA AIRLINES: .

Visa

Most Western countries don't need a visa. .American citizens do not need a visa unless they are staying for more than 90 days.^ With approximately 3,300 companies, it lists more companies and, on average, trades more shares per day than any other U.S. market.
  • Learn about the history of biotechnology, life science, and the pharmaceuticals in British Columbia. 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.britishcolumbialifescience.com [Source type: Academic]

^ But that meant they could face American justice, rather than Colombia's corrupt and overburdened courts, only if Americans were victims of their activities.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ Any traveler possessing a Colombian visa with more than three months’ validity must register the visa at a DAS immigration office within 15 days of arrival in Colombia or face fines.
  • Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC travel.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Colombian authorities will give American citizens an on-arrival visa free of charge, which is printed onto your passport and lets the person stay for a maximum of 60 to 90 days.^ U.S. citizens traveling to Colombia do not need a Colombian visa for a tourist stay of 60 days or less.
  • Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC travel.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Extensions may be requested by visiting an office of the Colombian immigration authority, known as the Departamento Administrativo de Seguridad, or DAS, after arrival in Colombia.
  • Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC travel.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ You may be able to extend your stay up to a maximum of a further 120 days on application and payment of a fee at the immigration office of the Department of Administration and Security once in Colombia.
  • Colombia travel advice 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.fco.gov.uk [Source type: News]

.It's very hard to get 90 days tourist visa on arrival.^ U.S. citizens traveling to Colombia do not need a Colombian visa for a tourist stay of 60 days or less.
  • Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC travel.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Immigration officers will ask you to show all the tickets of your route for it.^ It is my aim to exceed your expectations for photographs, and create pieces of art that you will proud to show your family and friends.
  • British Columbia Wedding Photographer Directory - Find a Wedding Photographer or a Photography Studio - - British Columbia - Vancouver, Victoria, Kelowna, Abbotsford Wedding Directory 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.studiolocator.com [Source type: General]

^ Your photos are unique and original, because they’re all about you!
  • British Columbia Wedding Photographer Directory - Find a Wedding Photographer or a Photography Studio - - British Columbia - Vancouver, Victoria, Kelowna, Abbotsford Wedding Directory 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.studiolocator.com [Source type: General]

^ You can check all there websites to get an idea of routes, times and prices.
  • South America - travel > Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Peru, Brazil, Ecuador 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC travelindependent.info [Source type: General]

.Irish citizens do not need to apply for a visa at a Colombian embassy anymore, and should have the same treatment at entrance as any other traveler from other parts of the world.^ Travel to Colombia is growing rapidly - doubling yearly as the country becomes increasingly safe and the world discovers the genuine hospitality of the Colombians.
  • Colombia Tours - 4* & 5* Colombia Tour Travel and Custom Colombia Holidays 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.southamerica.travel [Source type: General]

^ He supported a new constitution that took effect in July 1991 and, among other provisions, prohibited extradition of Colombian citizens.
  • COLOMBIA, 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Travelers with circulatory or respiratory problems should consult a physician before traveling to Bogota or other high-altitude locations.
  • Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC travel.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Visa Extension

.You can apply for a one-month visa extension at a DAS-office in most cities, which costs around $32.00 USD You need two copies of your passport's main page, two copies of the page with the entrance stamp, two copies of a ticket en route out of the country, and four photographs.^ (B) DAY 05 THU. BARRANQUILLA Morning sightseeing tour of Barranquilla -which is the fourth largest city in the country and one of the most important ports for navigation and international commerce, located on the western riverbanks of the Magdalena River.

^ Extensions may be requested by visiting an office of the Colombian immigration authority, known as the Departamento Administrativo de Seguridad, or DAS, after arrival in Colombia.
  • Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC travel.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Liberty Travel USA * Enjoy your holiday or we'll give you $100 towards another one!
  • Store Locator - Flight, Tour, Cruise, Vacation Packages | Flight Centre 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.flightcentre.ca [Source type: General]

.The procedure takes some time and includes taking your fingerprints.^ "It will take some time, but who knows.
  • British Columbia 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.smoke-free.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ Thank you for taking the time to send in your recommendation!
  • British Columbia: All - Retirement Communities and Retirement Homes on RetireNet.com 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.retirenet.com [Source type: General]

^ Some airlines include all or a portion of this tax in the cost of your airline ticket; check with your airline to find out how much you will have to pay at the airport.
  • Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC travel.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The maximum length of stay can not exceed 6 months in 1 year with a tourist visa.^ U.S. citizens traveling to Colombia do not need a Colombian visa for a tourist stay of 60 days or less.
  • Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC travel.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Get around

By plane

.The most important domestic carriers in Colombia [3] are : Avianca (including SAM) [4], Aero Republica [5], Satena [6], Aires [7] and EasyFly [8].^ The difficult terrain in Colombia limits the availability of road and rail transportation and makes air and water travel especially important.
  • Colombia Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Colombia News - Breaking World Colombia News - The New York Times 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Air transport was begun in Colombia in 1919, and the country is now served by about a dozen domestic and international airlines.
  • COLOMBIA, 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The national carrier, Avianca, and other national airlines (the main ones are Satena and AeroRepublica) generally have good safety records.
  • Colombia travel advice 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.fco.gov.uk [Source type: News]

.They all have well-kept fleets and regular service to major towns and cities in Colombia.^ There are universities in all the major cities.
  • Colombia Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ CRIME: Although the threat of terrorism has decreased in most of Colombia’s cities, they nevertheless experience much of the same crime that is seen in comparably sized cities throughout the region.
  • Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC travel.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Calling From Colombia • Regular Cards 28.9¢/min • Web Call 10¢/min • PC to Phone 7.4¢/min Customer Service .
  • Colombia phone cards from Mexico | Colombia calling cards | Low rates to Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.comfi.com [Source type: Academic]

.The major Colombian airports have been certified as "Highly Safe" by international organizations.^ Colombian police make multiple arrests daily for drug trafficking at major airports, and have sophisticated means for detecting illegal drugs in baggage or on your person.
  • Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC travel.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Robberies of tourists departing airports: U.S. citizens arriving at major Colombian airports have occasionally been victimized by armed robbers while en route from the airport to their hotel or home.
  • Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC travel.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Please be aware that the online payment process of some domestic airlines is complicated. .Aero Republica accepts only local debit cards (you need a colombian bank account and Easyfly does not accept international credit cards.^ It does not co-administer the public sector; it assesses facts, acts, and documents only after the organizations to be audited have finished their accounting exercises.
  • GlobaLex - An Introduction to Colombian GovernmentalInstitutions and Primary Legal Sources 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.nyulawglobal.org [Source type: Original source]

^ A Canadian passport is the only reliable and universally accepted travel and identification document available to Canadians for the purpose of international travel.
  • Colombia Travel Advice and Advisories | Government of Canada 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.voyage.gc.ca [Source type: News]

^ Check with your bank to find out if your credit card will be accepted abroad.
  • Colombia Travel Advice and Advisories | Government of Canada 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.voyage.gc.ca [Source type: News]

Payments can be done at the airport or official ticket offices.

By train

There is limited train service in Colombia. There is metro service in Medellin and its surroundings.

By car

Driving is on the right hand side of the road-most cars have standard transmissions. Colombia's fleet is composed mainly of cars with 4-Cylinder engines that are of European and Japanese manufacture. .Foreign visitors may drive if they show an international driver's license (a multilingual endorsement card issued by automobile and driver's clubs around the world).^ Canadian citizens returning to Canada who present other documents, such as a Certificate of Canadian Citizenship, birth certificate, provincial driver’s license, or foreign passport, instead of a Canadian passport, may face delays or be denied boarding by transport companies.
  • Colombia Travel Advice and Advisories | Government of Canada 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.voyage.gc.ca [Source type: News]

^ The small rural towns of Penticton , Oliver , and Osoyoos have some of the warmest summer climates in Canada and provide hospitality to visitors from around the world.
  • Welcome to British Columbia, Canada 16 October 2009 3:40 UTC www.hometowncanada.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Welcome to British Columbia, Canada 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.hometowncanada.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Insurance is cheap and mandatory.
.The speed limit in residential areas is 30 km/h (19 mph), and in urban areas it is 60 km/h (37 mph).^ Official and personal travel by U.S. Embassy employees outside most urban areas is subject to strict limitations and reviewed by security officers on a case-by-case basis.
  • Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC travel.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, the following year this new territory was disestablished, most of its area going to B.C., whose northern limit was increased to its current location, 60° north.
  • Welcome to British Columbia, Canada 16 October 2009 3:40 UTC www.hometowncanada.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Welcome to British Columbia, Canada 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.hometowncanada.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As a result of the government's military and police operations, the strength of the FARC has been reduced in all urban areas and mostly limited to the most remote areas of the country.
  • Colombia (05/09) 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.There is a national speed limit of 80 km/h (50 mph).^ Nominally there was a school system under the supervision of the national and departmental governments, but its activities were limited to the larger towns, where there were public and private schools of all grades.

.The country has a well-maintained network of roads that connect all major cities in the Andean areas, as well as the ones in the Caribbean Coast.^ It is located on Colombia's Caribbean coast, a unique city comprised of a series of islands connected by bridges.

^ Due to the security environment in Colombia, U.S. government officials and their families are not permitted to travel by road between most major cities.
  • Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC travel.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The breathtaking panoramic view of the mountains, lake, city and golf course can be viewed from the suites as well as the pool & common areas, & dining terrace.
  • Canada Bed and Breakfasts Cottages Hotels Vacation Rentals Resorts Cabins 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.accommodationscanada.com [Source type: General]

.There may be significant landslides on roads and highways during the rainy season (November to February), by which traffic gets interrupted.^ Directions: Farm located on Mays Road north of Duncan turn right off Trans Canada Highway.
  • Where to find pick your own farms in British Columbia, Canada 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.pickyourown.org [Source type: General]

^ TRAFFIC SAFETY AND ROAD CONDITIONS: While in a foreign country, U.S. citizens may encounter road conditions that differ significantly from those in the United States.
  • Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC travel.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Since the Pan-American Highway grinds to a halt just past Panama City, there is no road access between North and South America.
  • South America - travel > Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Peru, Brazil, Ecuador 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC travelindependent.info [Source type: General]

This usually is resolved within 6 hours to 4 days. .There are many toll crossings; the fee is about US$3.00. There are also plenty of dirt roads of variable quality.^ Many Canadians believe that there is something different about British Columbia, and most residents of the province agree.

^ The Aboriginal population was recorded as about 170 000 in the 2001 census, many of whom were nonstatus; in 2001 there were 112 305 registered native people.

^ To just visit, you take the train US$100-150 return (about 4 there, 5 back), then ~US$40 park entrance fee (have exact money in USD or sole equ.
  • South America - travel > Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Peru, Brazil, Ecuador 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC travelindependent.info [Source type: General]

.International land travel is only possible to Ecuador and Venezuela.^ The only South American country with both a Caribbean and a Pacific coastline, Colombia is bounded on the northwest by Panama, on the northeast by Venezuela, on the south by Ecuador and Peru, and on the southeast by Brazil.
  • Colombia Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Colombia News - Breaking World Colombia News - The New York Times 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A Canadian passport is the only reliable and universally accepted travel and identification document available to Canadians for the purpose of international travel.
  • Colombia Travel Advice and Advisories | Government of Canada 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.voyage.gc.ca [Source type: News]

^ In 1740 it was restored, and it continued as long as the Spanish authority, including within its limits not only the present Colombia, but also Venezuela and Ecuador.

By Bus

Travel by bus is widespread and has different levels of quality. .Long-distance trips rarely cost over US$55.00 (one way).^ "This is not Vietnam", US president Bill Clinton announced during a one-day trip to the northern Colombian city of Cartagena in late August.

When acquiring tickets for the bus, the local custom is that the passanger comes to the terminal and buys the next available bus going to the desired destination. .Depending on the company or terminal, it may be even not possible to purchase a ticket 1 or several days in advance!^ Some of the budget trekking companies include this cheaper ticket as standard in their 4 day package.
  • South America - travel > Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Peru, Brazil, Ecuador 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC travelindependent.info [Source type: General]

^ In the low season you find days when permits are available 3/4 days in advance, but at busy times of year (May to September) - book ahead or do a different trek.
  • South America - travel > Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Peru, Brazil, Ecuador 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC travelindependent.info [Source type: General]

^ Even when powdered out as much as possible, when snorted in this form can make you quite ill after a few heavy days.
  • South America - travel > Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Peru, Brazil, Ecuador 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC travelindependent.info [Source type: General]

Therefore, is recommendable to know at least when a particular service starts and ends in a day.
Distance and travel time from Bogotá :
Destination Distance (km) Time (h)
Armenia 296 8
Barranquilla 985 20
Bucaramanga 429 10
Cali 511 12
Cartagena 1090 23
Cúcuta 630 16
Ipiales 948 24
Manizales 278 8
Medellín 440 9
Neiva 309 6
Pasto 865 22
Pereira 360 9
Popayán 646 15
San Agustín 529 12
Santa Marta 952 19
Tunja 147 3
Some companies that offers routes to the north:
Other companies that goes to the south part of the country:

By urban Bus

.Around the turn of this century urban centers in Colombia saw the development of a highly efficient and neat bus transit systems that are spreading to other countries.^ Between 2002 and 2007, Colombia saw a decrease in homicides by 44%, kidnappings by 85%, terrorist attacks by 79%, and attacks on the country's infrastructure by 60%.
  • Colombia (05/09) 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Chavez said Venezuela will search for other countries like Ecuador, Brazil and Argentina to replace products imported from Colombia.
  • Timeline Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ BORA (BORO) [ BOA ] 500 in Colombia, including 100 or more Miraña and 400 other Bora; 1,000 to 1,500 in Peru (1977 SIL); 1,500 to 2,000 in all countries.
  • Ethnologue: Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.christusrex.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In Bogotá you can find the Transmilenio, in Cali el Mio, in Bucaramanga Metrolínea and in Pereira the Megabús.^ Daily newspapers with large circulations included El Espacio , El Espectador , and El Nuevo Siglo , published in Bogotá; El País , issued in Cali; and El Colombiano , published in Medellín.
  • COLOMBIA, 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It is still recommended that you keep an eye on your belongings and that you do not carry valuables, excess cash (more than $20,000 COP visible) or unnecessary items.^ Carry details of your insurance with you.
  • Colombia Travel Advice and Advisories | Government of Canada 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.voyage.gc.ca [Source type: News]

^ (SFC, 1/5/98, p.A14) 1997 Jul, The government passed a law that made it illegal to sell more than $170,000 worth of contraband.
  • Timeline Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ Keep up the work and I hope you keep enjoying your stay here.
  • Colombia: Bogota, Medellin, & Cartagena Photo Gallery by Christopher Kirk at pbase.com 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.pbase.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Never accept food or drinks from strangers.^ Never leave your drink or food unattended.
  • Colombia Travel Advice and Advisories | Government of Canada 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.voyage.gc.ca [Source type: News]

^ Avoid leaving food or drinks unattended at a bar or restaurant, and be suspicious if a stranger offers you something to eat or drink.
  • Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC travel.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Avoid talking to strangers at bus stops or terminals. .It is possible you may be stopped at police check points.^ Always refer to the original source material whenever possible and only use extractions & transcriptions as a starting point to help guide you in your research.
  • Cyndi's List - Canada - British Columbia 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.cyndislist.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The book links below point to the Amazon.com bookstore online where you may purchase the book if you wish.
  • Cyndi's List - Canada - British Columbia 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.cyndislist.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

A calm attitude is the best key to avoid inconveniences.

By metro

.The only metro system of Colombia is in Medellín, in the Antioquia department.^ Governor of the Department of Antioquia Dr. Alberto Builes Ortega, Gobernador del Departamento de Antioquia Gobernacion de Antioquia, Calle 42B, # 52-106,Medellin, Antioquia, Colombia, .

^ Colombia Civilian population of El Santuario, Marinilla and Granada municipalities, Antioquia department .

^ Gold, mined in Colombia since pre-Columbian times, is found principally in the department of Antioquia and to a lesser extent in the departments of Cauca, Caldas, Nariño, Tolima, and Chocó.
  • COLOMBIA, 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It connects the towns that make up what is known as "Medellin" - Line A departs from Itagüí to Niquía, Line B from San Antonio to San Javíer.^ Registration will make your presence and whereabouts known in case it is necessary to contact you in an emergency and will enable you to receive up-to-date information on security conditions.
  • Colombia (05/09) 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ All the principal Caribbean ports and department capitals are connected with Bogota, but interruptions are frequent because of the difficulty of maintaining lines through so wild a country.

.The metro system also has two cable car lines : Metrocable Line K from Acevedo to Santo Domingo Savio and Metrocable Line J departing from San Javier.^ On April 27, authorities discovered five bodies in a grave in a former AUC camp in Santo Domingo, Antioquia Department.
  • Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The ambulance was transporting two officials from the San Pablo Hospital in Narino Department.
  • Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The trial for the 1998 Air Force bombing of the village of Santo Domingo, Arauca Department, remained suspended.
  • Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Riding the cable cars is a unique experience, as passengers travel up the mountains in gondolas.^ The cost of bus travel can however really add up, a hire car is an option if you have the money or are in a group.
  • South America - travel > Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Peru, Brazil, Ecuador 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC travelindependent.info [Source type: General]

.The MetroCable has six stations and an extension to the new Arví ecopark is under construction.^ The presidential term of office under the new act was fixed at six years in place of the two years formerly prevailing.

.There is police presence in each metro station, they are very courteous towards tourists.^ They have generally targeted government buildings, military positions, and police stations, but also have attacked energy distribution and communication networks, and engaged in extortion, kidnapping, and assassination.
  • Culture of Colombia - traditional, history, people, clothing, traditions, women, beliefs, food, customs, family, social, marriage, men, life, population, religion, rituals, History and ethnic relations 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

By taxi

.The taxi networks in big cities such as in Bogota are extensive and very cheap.^ Those hopes were dashed, and instead, Murillo says, "They joined the ranks of the urban poor, living in the marginal areas of big cities such as Cali, Medellin, and Bogota.

^ Most IDPs were rural peasants displaced to large cities such as Bogota.
  • Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ You're not quite at European or North American prices, but if you are hitting the big cities and popular beaches don't figure on cheap.
  • South America - travel > Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Peru, Brazil, Ecuador 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC travelindependent.info [Source type: General]

.A (bright yellow) taxi journey across Bogota, can take up to a day but cost less than US$15.If you order a taxi by phone the company will then give you the taxi registration number.^ Average cost: less than $10-15 .
  • South America - travel > Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Peru, Brazil, Ecuador 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC travelindependent.info [Source type: General]

^ Average cost: Less than $10.
  • South America - travel > Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Peru, Brazil, Ecuador 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC travelindependent.info [Source type: General]

^ Average cost:: Less than $15 .
  • South America - travel > Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Peru, Brazil, Ecuador 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC travelindependent.info [Source type: General]

Then the taxi will be waiting at the given address. .You may need to give them a three or four digit code given to you when you book the taxi.^ Thank you for any information that you may be able to give me!!!
  • Colombia: Bogota, Medellin, & Cartagena Photo Gallery by Christopher Kirk at pbase.com 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.pbase.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If you are set on going and need a guidebook or reading material please see a list of recommended guides/books here (go on have a look!
  • South America - travel > Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Peru, Brazil, Ecuador 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC travelindependent.info [Source type: General]

^ In the low season you find days when permits are available 3/4 days in advance, but at busy times of year (May to September) - book ahead or do a different trek.
  • South America - travel > Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Peru, Brazil, Ecuador 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC travelindependent.info [Source type: General]

.During the day some taxi ranks outside hotels, office buildings and government offices will only allow certified drivers and companies and will also take your name and details when you board the taxi.^ Carry details of your insurance with you.
  • Colombia Travel Advice and Advisories | Government of Canada 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.voyage.gc.ca [Source type: News]

^ Precision Detailing Car Care in Nanaimo, BC "I would encourage anyone dealing with this company and especially the owner Frans to get a writen quote before allowing work on your vehicle..."
  • British Columbia Boats & Boating Directory :: CANADIAN Handcrafted Boats ™ 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC canadianhandcraftedboats.com [Source type: General]

^ Some airlines include all or a portion of this tax in the cost of your airline ticket; check with your airline to find out how much you will have to pay at the airport.
  • Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC travel.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Taxis from city to city are easy to arrange by phoning ahead and agreeing the price, it will still be cheap by western standards and is safe and quite agreeable.^ Food: Okay, eating out not overly cheap in cities, commonplace supermarkets means cooking for yourself in hostels is easy.
  • South America - travel > Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Peru, Brazil, Ecuador 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC travelindependent.info [Source type: General]

^ You're not quite at European or North American prices, but if you are hitting the big cities and popular beaches don't figure on cheap.
  • South America - travel > Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Peru, Brazil, Ecuador 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC travelindependent.info [Source type: General]

The meter in all taxis starts at 25, and then increases over distance. The number it arrives at corresponds to a tariff that will be on display on the front seat of the cab. .Note that taxi and bus prices increase on sundays, public holidays, early in the morning and late at night.^ Dangers: Some violent crime, be careful at night don't walk with your pack on after dark or in the early hours of the morning .
  • South America - travel > Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Peru, Brazil, Ecuador 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC travelindependent.info [Source type: General]

^ That night there is a little party, but you'll be getting up very early the next morning in order to make it to the sun gate for sunrise.
  • South America - travel > Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Peru, Brazil, Ecuador 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC travelindependent.info [Source type: General]

^ Also you'll going to be tired from the early start and late night (noise from previous nights party).
  • South America - travel > Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Peru, Brazil, Ecuador 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC travelindependent.info [Source type: General]

For taxis there are also extra charges for baggage and for booking in advance by telephone. .Unlike many other countries it is not customary to tip the taxi driver.^ Many taxi drivers are armed.
  • Colombia Travel Advice and Advisories | Government of Canada 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.voyage.gc.ca [Source type: News]

^ They are mostly migratory in habit, and are to be found in many other countries.

^ Other travellers: Typical Gringos, many have high expectations of Bolivia and come to spend large amounts of time, hearing it is the cheapest of South American countries.
  • South America - travel > Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Peru, Brazil, Ecuador 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC travelindependent.info [Source type: General]

It's up to the individual. .Many taxis are not allowed to travel outside of Bogota due to boundary restrictions with their licences.^ Restrictions on Trading Canadian Corporations are not allowed to: Undertake banking or insurance activities without a licence.
  • British Columbia corporation - OCRA Worldwide 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.ocra.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.You should always make arrangements to travel outside of Bogota by taxi ahead of time.^ Travelers with circulatory or respiratory problems should consult a physician before traveling to Bogota or other high-altitude locations.
  • Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC travel.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the low season you find days when permits are available 3/4 days in advance, but at busy times of year (May to September) - book ahead or do a different trek.
  • South America - travel > Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Peru, Brazil, Ecuador 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC travelindependent.info [Source type: General]

^ Before cancelling a scheduled trip, you should discuss the matter with your travel agent, your travel insurer, or the airline.
  • Colombia Travel Advice and Advisories | Government of Canada 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.voyage.gc.ca [Source type: News]

.In some locations (Las Aguas in the Candelaria district of Bogota for example) you may find an individual acting as a tout for taxi drivers - they will offer you a taxi and lead you to a particular cab.^ For other than authorized activities such as military exchanges and morale, welfare and recreation sites, the U.S. Air Force does not exercise any editorial control over the information you may find at these locations.
  • Colombia May 2008 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: Academic]

^ (B) DAY 03 TUE. BOGOTA-ZIPAQUIRAS UNDERGROUND SALT CATHEDRAL. Leaving the city through the northern residential district, we take the Pan American Highway, passing some typical villages to reach Zipaquir where the Salt Cathedral is located.

^ Some airlines include all or a portion of this tax in the cost of your airline ticket; check with your airline to find out how much you will have to pay at the airport.
  • Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC travel.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

They then recevie a small tip from the driver. .Taxis (and much else besides) are much more expensive in Cartagena than in other cities.^ According to Cambio, 'That explained why the strategies designed to confront the phenomenon have not produced the expected results and the drug trade is flourishing as much or more than before.'"
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ B.C. has a wide variety of climate - more than any other area of Canada.

^ People in rural areas are said to be more devout than those in the cities, but their Catholicism is different from that of the urban upper and middle classes.
  • Culture of Colombia - traditional, history, people, clothing, traditions, women, beliefs, food, customs, family, social, marriage, men, life, population, religion, rituals, History and ethnic relations 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

By cable car

.Since most of the Colombian population lives in the Andes, cable car systems are becoming popular for both commuting and tourist transportation.^ Close-up large-scale detail to the most important and popular tourist areas.
  • British Columbia Road Map, Detailed, Travel, Tourist, Atlas, Street 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.maps2anywhere.com [Source type: General]

^ The Eastern Cordillera is in some respects the most important of the three branches of the Colombian Andes.

^ Santa Marta has become a popular tourist center, due not to the city itself but to its surroundings.

.You can ride the ones in Medellín, which are intergrated in the Metro system [9], as well as the ones in rural small towns of Antioquia : Jardín, Jericó, Sopetrán and San Andrés de Cuerquia.^ The small rural towns of Penticton , Oliver , and Osoyoos have some of the warmest summer climates in Canada and provide hospitality to visitors from around the world.
  • Welcome to British Columbia, Canada 16 October 2009 3:40 UTC www.hometowncanada.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Welcome to British Columbia, Canada 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.hometowncanada.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One night in San Andres (you may need to overnight in San Andres depending on flight itineraries and connections to Providence) .

^ Rural/Urban/Suburban Rural Urban Suburban Small Town Other .
  • Intentional Communities in British Columbia 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC directory.ic.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Also enjoy the magnificent view of the new cable car above the Chicamocha river canyon in Santander.

Talk

Languages: Spanish
.If you've recently learned Spanish, its a relief to know that the Colombian variety is clear and easy to understand.^ Do you know of any rewources for adoption of Colombian Children.
  • Colombia: Bogota, Medellin, & Cartagena Photo Gallery by Christopher Kirk at pbase.com 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.pbase.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Locals: Very nice and laid back, Spanish easy to understand .
  • South America - travel > Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Peru, Brazil, Ecuador 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC travelindependent.info [Source type: General]

The Spanish does vary, however, from Cartagena to Bogota to Cali. Generally the Spanish on the coasts is spoken more rapidly, and Spanish from Medellin has its own idiosyncrasies. .Note that in cities like Medellín and Cali, the dialect of Spanish is the voseo form.^ Other major cities include Medellín, Cali, Barranquilla and Cartagena.
  • Colombia (05/09) 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Meaning that instead of the second person familiar pronoun , vos is used instead. Though is also understood by everybody, vos is a more friendly voice while is reserved for intimate circles.
English is taught in school, and Colombians are often exposed to subtitled Hollywood films, so while shy many Colombians know at least a few basic phrases in English. .Expect to meet teenage Colombians who may want to practice their English skills with you.^ Most airport inspectors do not speak English, and travelers who do not speak Spanish may have difficulty understanding what is asked of them.
  • Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC travel.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ May be you want to make friends first.
  • Match.com: british columbia singles, british columbia dating, british columbia personals 16 October 2009 3:40 UTC uk.match.com [Source type: General]

^ I am hoping to meet the man I want to spend the rest of my life with.He needs to be someone I can relate to, who enjoys alot of the things I do and has the same basic ...
  • Match.com: british columbia singles, british columbia dating, british columbia personals 16 October 2009 3:40 UTC uk.match.com [Source type: General]

.Colombians from more affluent backgrounds will have lived and worked in the U.S., Canada, England and possibly Australia in order to learn English.^ A Colombian court has ordered a halt to the US-sponsored spraying of herbicides on coca crops until more is known about the effects of the chemicals on humans and on the environment.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

.Many university text books are in English, and the majority of high ranking professionals, executives and government workers in Colombia speak an acceptable level of English.^ Among the oldest universities are the University of Antioquia (1822) and the University of Cartagena (1827); Colombia also has many private universities and colleges of art and music.
  • COLOMBIA, 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Due to the security environment in Colombia, U.S. government officials and their families are not permitted to travel by road between most major cities.
  • Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC travel.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Managers and professionals include highly educated individuals who occupy the top decision-making or policy-making roles in industries, universities, and the government.
  • Culture of Colombia - traditional, history, people, clothing, traditions, women, beliefs, food, customs, family, social, marriage, men, life, population, religion, rituals, History and ethnic relations 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.French, German and Portuguese are also spoken, but to a lesser extent.^ You can now translate this site into French, German, Italian, Portuguese, and Spanish.

^ Translate this page from English to Spanish English to French English to German English to Italian English to Portuguese =============== Spanish to English French to English German to English Italian to English Portuguese to English   powered by   SYSTRAN Translation Software .

Buy

.The Colombian textile industry is well-recognized and reputable around South America and Europe.^ The official language of Colombia is Spanish, and Colombians are said to speak the purest form of Spanish in South America.
  • COLOMBIA, 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ 'They are part and parcel of the narcotics production and export threat to the United States, as well as Europe and other countries in Latin America.'
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ February 5, 2009 MORE ON COLOMBIA AND: PALEONTOLOGY , SNAKES , GLOBAL WARMING , FOSSILS , SOUTH AMERICA , NATURE Colombian Guerrillas Free 4 Hostages .
  • Colombia News - Breaking World Colombia News - The New York Times 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Clothing, including lingerie is particularly well-regarded as high quality and very affordable.^ Vernice Clothing Burnaby, Greater Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada We are a distributor of high end Brazilian lingerie, ...
  • Directory of Employers in British Columbia, Canada - British Columbia Jobs 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.allbritishcolumbiajobs.com [Source type: Reference]

Leather garments, shoes and accessories are also of interest to foreigners. .The best place to buy either is Medellin, known for being the fashion capital of the country, where one can buy very high quality goods at a very low cost.^ Victoria Today Victoria is best known as the capital of British Columbia and as a world-renowned tourism destination (and rated by readers of Conde Nast as the friendliest city in Canada.
  • British Columbia Regions 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.travel.bc.ca [Source type: General]

^ One of the most visitor-friendly cities anywhere - Victoria with its high quality of life and gentle climate - is also one of Canada's favourite places to call home.
  • British Columbia Regions 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.travel.bc.ca [Source type: General]

^ The cost of accommodation in Rio during this time is very high and you are normally required to stay the week.
  • South America - travel > Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Peru, Brazil, Ecuador 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC travelindependent.info [Source type: General]

.Colombian emeralds and gold (18k) jewelry can also be very attractive for visitors.^ Cartagena has many shops and boutiques that offer emeralds, gold, and Pre-Colombian treasures at great prices.

.A typical Colombian style of jewelry is a copy of precolombian jewelry, which is fabricated with gold, silver and semi-precious stones.^ Besides oil and gold, resources in the Barrancabermeja area include fertile land, timber, platinum and precious stones.

.The "mochila", the Spanish word for "backpack" or "rucksack", is also a traditional, indigenous, hand-woven Colombian bag, normally worn over the shoulder.^ Most middle-class families eat elaborate meals that reflect Spanish and indigenous traditions.
  • Culture of Colombia - traditional, history, people, clothing, traditions, women, beliefs, food, customs, family, social, marriage, men, life, population, religion, rituals, History and ethnic relations 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.They are commonly sold in shopping malls, especially in the Santa Marta/El Rodadero area.^ The Tayronas, of the Santa Marta highlands, who have totally disappeared, were also remarkable for the progress which they had made toward civilization.

.Mochilas usually come in three sizes - a large one to carry bigger things, a medium one to carry personal belongings, and a small one to carry coca leaves.^ In small doses, that is, because the wine is pressed from coca leaves, enhancing the effect of the alcohol.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ The navy in 1906 consisted of only three small cruisers on the Caribbean coast, and two cruisers, two gunboats, one troopship and two steam launches on the Pacific.

^ Coca leaves dry on large green tarps, next to cacao and coffee, which sell for considerably less than coca.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

Coca leaves are carried by locals to reduce hunger, increase energy and to combat altitude sickness.
Handicrafts such as intricately designed jewelery are commonly sold in markets and on street corners. Many street vendors will approach people, selling t-shirts, shorts, glasses, bracelets, watches, necklaces, souvenirs, and novelty photographs. .If you want to buy something, this is a good time to exercise your bartering skills.^ If you want an irreverent account of travels through Peru and Bolivia then Inca Kola by Matthew Parris is also an excellent good read.
  • South America - travel > Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Peru, Brazil, Ecuador 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC travelindependent.info [Source type: General]

^ It's filled with awesome information!If you want to know something on this topic then you have to come here!

^ You should monitor your luggage closely at all times.
  • Colombia Travel Advice and Advisories | Government of Canada 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.voyage.gc.ca [Source type: News]

Usually you can go down by 2,000 to 3,000 pesos, however 2,000 is the generally accepted rule. .For example, if someone is selling a shirt for P$10,000, try asking if you can pay P$8,000. Go from there.^ A record 10,000 manhole covers were stolen there in 2005.
  • Timeline Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ Time is a precious commodity, Cusco can take a week minimum and will try to keep you there for longer with it's great bars and restaurants.
  • South America - travel > Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Peru, Brazil, Ecuador 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC travelindependent.info [Source type: General]

^ Then there are the rights, I'm going to tell you about the rights.

.If you don't want to buy anything, a simple gracias, ("thank you") and a non-committal wave of your hand will deter would-be sellers.^ Thank you for your attention and I look forward to your reply.
  • Colombia: Bogota, Medellin, & Cartagena Photo Gallery by Christopher Kirk at pbase.com 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.pbase.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hi, my boyfreind was adopted in 1982 from Bogata, Columbia his biological name is Andrew Corillo, we don't know if he has any brothers or sister or much about his biological mom if anyone knows anything please share thank you!!!!
  • Colombia: Bogota, Medellin, & Cartagena Photo Gallery by Christopher Kirk at pbase.com 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.pbase.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Keep the trained eye on your powerful work and thank you again for exporting such a balanced image of my home country.
  • Colombia: Bogota, Medellin, & Cartagena Photo Gallery by Christopher Kirk at pbase.com 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.pbase.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Eat

.In many areas of Colombia, it is common to have buñuelos in christmas time (deep fried corn flour balls with cheese in the dough) and arepas (rather thick corn tortillas, often made with cheese and served with butter) with scrambled eggs for breakfast.^ Common crime also remains a significant problem in many urban and rural areas.
  • Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC travel.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Rather than having a common culture, Colombia is a country with many distinct regional cultures.
  • Culture of Colombia - traditional, history, people, clothing, traditions, women, beliefs, food, customs, family, social, marriage, men, life, population, religion, rituals, History and ethnic relations 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The honey is made from whatever is in season at that time, and very often it has undertones of buckwheat (which is grown on the farm).
  • Where to find pick your own farms in British Columbia, Canada 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.pickyourown.org [Source type: General]

.Bogotá and the central region have its own breakfast delicacy of tamales - maize and chopped pork or chicken with vegetables and eggs, steamed in banana leaves, often served with home-made hot chocolate.^ Strawberries, Raspberries, Apples, Vegetables, Eggs, Chicken, Pork and Lamb, Winter greenhouse salad greens.
  • Where to find pick your own farms in British Columbia, Canada 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.pickyourown.org [Source type: General]

^ In the interior rural regions, a hearty breakfast consists of a strip of pork, rice and beans, sweet plantains, and a large steak with fried eggs.
  • Culture of Colombia - traditional, history, people, clothing, traditions, women, beliefs, food, customs, family, social, marriage, men, life, population, religion, rituals, History and ethnic relations 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Empanadas, made with potato and meat with a pouch-like yellow exterior, are delicious and entirely different from their Mexican counterparts. Pastry is prevalent, both salty and sweet, including Pandebono, Pan de Yuca, Pastel Gloria, and Roscon. These vary in quality--ask the locals for the best niche places to indulge.
.For lunch, especially on Sundays, you should try a sancocho de gallina (rich chicken soup, served with part of the chicken itself, rice and vegetables/salad).^ (It should be noted that Louis de Bernieres trilogy is set in a fictional South American country - that resembles parts of Ecuador, Colombia and Venezuela (Grand Colombia)).
  • South America - travel > Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Peru, Brazil, Ecuador 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC travelindependent.info [Source type: General]

^ Strawberries, Raspberries, Apples, Vegetables, Eggs, Chicken, Pork and Lamb, Winter greenhouse salad greens.
  • Where to find pick your own farms in British Columbia, Canada 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.pickyourown.org [Source type: General]

.Sancocho is widespread throughout the country, with countless regional variants.^ The program publishes the Human Rights Observer magazine that provides analyses of major human rights issues and the human rights situation in various regions of the country.
  • Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the interior of the country, the two traditional types of music played throughout the Andean region are the Bambuco and the Guabina.
  • Culture of Colombia - traditional, history, people, clothing, traditions, women, beliefs, food, customs, family, social, marriage, men, life, population, religion, rituals, History and ethnic relations 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ View the complete list of the countries included in the various regions according to each data source .

On the coast it features fish, and is highly recommended. .Another soup, served in Bogotá and the periphery, is Ajiaco (chicken soup made with three different kinds of potato, vegetables and herbs(guasca), served with rice, avocado, corn, milk cream and capers).^ A dish associated with the capital is ajiaco, a stew with three types of potato, chicken, and corn, that is served with capers, cream, and avocado.
  • Culture of Colombia - traditional, history, people, clothing, traditions, women, beliefs, food, customs, family, social, marriage, men, life, population, religion, rituals, History and ethnic relations 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Another dish served during religious holidays is pasteles, while along the coast, people eat sancocho, a fish or chicken stew.
  • Culture of Colombia - traditional, history, people, clothing, traditions, women, beliefs, food, customs, family, social, marriage, men, life, population, religion, rituals, History and ethnic relations 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

."Bandeja paisa" is common in most places, (the "paisas" are the natives from some departments in the North West, such as Antioquia, Caldas, Risaralda and Quindío).^ The exception to this would be some parts of the coffee growing area southwest of Bogotá (Risaralda, Quindio and Caldas), and resort areas with established tourist industries, such as the Rosario Islands off the Atlantic coast and the Amazon resorts near Leticia.
  • Colombia Travel Advice and Advisories | Government of Canada 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.voyage.gc.ca [Source type: News]

^ NGOs such as the Popular Women's Organization in Barrancabermeja, Santander Department, and the Women's Path to Peace in Medellin, Antioquia Department, worked on women's issues, particularly peace initiatives.
  • Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ From Asuncin there are river boats north for a price and some interesting (if a little expensive) places to stay such as ranches, but that's it.
  • South America - travel > Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Peru, Brazil, Ecuador 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC travelindependent.info [Source type: General]

.This includes rice, beans, fried plantain, arepa, fried egg, chorizo, chicharrón (pork crackling) with the meat still attached.^ In Cartagena, the typical lunch consists of rice with coconut, fried plantains, and shrimp.
  • Culture of Colombia - traditional, history, people, clothing, traditions, women, beliefs, food, customs, family, social, marriage, men, life, population, religion, rituals, History and ethnic relations 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the interior rural regions, a hearty breakfast consists of a strip of pork, rice and beans, sweet plantains, and a large steak with fried eggs.
  • Culture of Colombia - traditional, history, people, clothing, traditions, women, beliefs, food, customs, family, social, marriage, men, life, population, religion, rituals, History and ethnic relations 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It's a very fatty dish, but you can leave what you don't like, and if you're lucky enough, you could find a gourmet bandeja paisa in a good restaurant in Bogotá or Medellín.^ It looks like you have a very good time over there.
  • Colombia: Bogota, Medellin, & Cartagena Photo Gallery by Christopher Kirk at pbase.com 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.pbase.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Intro: If you're looking to be told that Colombia is not a dangerous country, you won't find it here.
  • South America - travel > Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Peru, Brazil, Ecuador 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC travelindependent.info [Source type: General]

^ I have a very good pictures form Medellin too, whenever you guys want some of them just let me know, see you around .
  • Colombia: Bogota, Medellin, & Cartagena Photo Gallery by Christopher Kirk at pbase.com 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.pbase.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

They are lighter and smaller.
There are a few chains throughout the country. .In addition to worldwide franchises (McDonald's, Subway, T.G.I.F., which are specially focused on Bogotá and other big cities), Colombian chains are very strong and located in almost every city.^ Buenos Aires is a fantastic fairly laid-back city (and big enough to escape the crowds that can blight some other of the countries attractions).
  • South America - travel > Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Peru, Brazil, Ecuador 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC travelindependent.info [Source type: General]

^ In big cities people are nice and security problems are like any other big city in Latin America.
  • South America - travel > Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Peru, Brazil, Ecuador 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC travelindependent.info [Source type: General]

^ Other parts of the province are almost desert-like, with very hot summers followed by very cold winters.

Presto and especially El Corral serve outstanding burgers, Kokoriko makes broiled chicken and Frisby specializes in roasted chicken. Crêpes and Waffles, as the name indicates, is an upscale breakfast/brunch restaurant with spectacular... crêpes, waffles and ice cream. .There are many international restaurants, including rodizios (Brazilian steak house style), paella houses, etc.^ Healthy populations of many sorts of fishes are found in the waters (including, of course, salmonids such as several species of salmon, trout, char, etc.
  • Welcome to British Columbia, Canada 16 October 2009 3:40 UTC www.hometowncanada.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Welcome to British Columbia, Canada 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.hometowncanada.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There has been a big increase in international style hostels in the past few years, but away from Rio and the like, you are limited to the smaller less traveller/non-Portuguese speaking orientated Brazilian versions.
  • South America - travel > Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Peru, Brazil, Ecuador 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC travelindependent.info [Source type: General]

^ There were 11 women in the 102-member Senate, including its president, and 16 women in the 166-member House of Representatives.
  • Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A great variety of tropical fruits can be tasted, and the corresponding variety in juices, from some of the oddest ones you can find around the globe (really) to the sweetest ones.^ Some airlines include all or a portion of this tax in the cost of your airline ticket; check with your airline to find out how much you will have to pay at the airport.
  • Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC travel.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The chance to climb a volcano should not be missed and the one attraction that really shines does so, so brightly, if you get the chance to get there all else is forgotten (that's the Galapagos Islands by the way).
  • South America - travel > Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Peru, Brazil, Ecuador 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC travelindependent.info [Source type: General]

^ I have a very good pictures form Medellin too, whenever you guys want some of them just let me know, see you around .
  • Colombia: Bogota, Medellin, & Cartagena Photo Gallery by Christopher Kirk at pbase.com 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.pbase.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.You just must know how to find and prepare them.^ But you have to know where to find it.
  • British Columbia: News & Videos about British Columbia - CNN.com 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC topics.cnn.com [Source type: News]

^ Some airlines include all or a portion of this tax in the cost of your airline ticket; check with your airline to find out how much you will have to pay at the airport.
  • Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC travel.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I am looking for anyone who knows Colombia well and can tell me how I can find my family.
  • Colombia: Bogota, Medellin, & Cartagena Photo Gallery by Christopher Kirk at pbase.com 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.pbase.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Anyway, anyone would be pleased to teach you.^ If you would like to advertise your business here then please contact us .
  • British Columbia Bed and Breakfast Budget Hotel Guest House Accommodation 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC canada.bedandbreakfasts.net [Source type: General]

^ If you would like to order a copy or obtain more information about this video, please click here .

.Some examples of those exotic fruits include: tamarinds, mangoes, guanabanas, lulo, mangostines (really great and rare even for Colombians), and a great variety in citrus.^ Dialects : In some traditional ceremonies ritual language used, mostly unintelligible even to those who have learned it.
  • Ethnologue report for Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.ethnologue.com [Source type: General]

.In addition, you can find some of those rich and strange flavors in prepared food like ice cream brands or restaurant juices.^ Some airlines include all or a portion of this tax in the cost of your airline ticket; check with your airline to find out how much you will have to pay at the airport.
  • Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC travel.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If you have decided these are some of the countries you want to visit and need more planning information then you are strongly recommended to complement what you find here with a planning guide .
  • South America - travel > Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Peru, Brazil, Ecuador 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC travelindependent.info [Source type: General]

^ Here, you'll find companies like: New Westminster, BC - Captain Mac's School Of Seamanship ...
  • British Columbia Boats & Boating Directory :: CANADIAN Handcrafted Boats ™ 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC canadianhandcraftedboats.com [Source type: General]

Most of Colombians drink juices at home and in restaurants, they are inexpensive and natural everywhere.
.In Colombia there are a great variety of "tamales" if you like them, but be aware they are very different from their most famous Mexican cousins.^ It looks like you have a very good time over there.
  • Colombia: Bogota, Medellin, & Cartagena Photo Gallery by Christopher Kirk at pbase.com 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.pbase.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ You have definitely shown Colombia in a very different light.
  • Colombia: Bogota, Medellin, & Cartagena Photo Gallery by Christopher Kirk at pbase.com 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.pbase.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ You have a great eye for the beauty of Colombia.
  • Colombia: Bogota, Medellin, & Cartagena Photo Gallery by Christopher Kirk at pbase.com 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.pbase.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.They differ from region to region, but all of them are delicious.^ Special and diplomatic passport holders should verify all visa requirements for this and other destinations, as they may differ from those that apply to regular passport holders.
  • Colombia Travel Advice and Advisories | Government of Canada 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.voyage.gc.ca [Source type: News]

They are called "envuelto", the sweet tamale made of corn.
.Regarding coffee, you can find a lot of products that are both made commercially and home-made from this very famous Colombian product, like wines, cookies, candies, milk-based desserts like "arequipe", ice-cream, etc.^ Art on the Farm is an annual event - it is an artist's fair including locally made products such as soap, weaving, iron-work, greeting cards, home preserves, jewelry, home-baked pies, pottery, photography etc.
  • Where to find pick your own farms in British Columbia, Canada 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.pickyourown.org [Source type: General]

^ Colombians consume large quantities of beer and coffee and relatively little milk or wine.
  • Culture of Colombia - traditional, history, people, clothing, traditions, women, beliefs, food, customs, family, social, marriage, men, life, population, religion, rituals, History and ethnic relations 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Home Find a farm near you Pumpkins & corn mazes Christmas tree farms Picking tips Easy canning directions Canning supplies Search the website .
  • Where to find pick your own farms in British Columbia, Canada 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.pickyourown.org [Source type: General]

.Colombians are famous for having a sweet tooth, so you are going to find a lot of desserts and local candies like "bocadillo" made of guayaba (guava fruit), or the most famous milk-based "arequipe" (similar to its Argentinian cousin "dulce leche" or the french "confiteure du lait").^ Top Search Table of Contents B.C. Marine Engineers You can find local BC marine engineers in our online directory.
  • British Columbia Boats & Boating Directory :: CANADIAN Handcrafted Boats ™ 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC canadianhandcraftedboats.com [Source type: General]

^ Thank you for sharing this beautiful pictures of Colombia, it brings a lot of memories, I am colombian but live in London for the last 30 years, I was born near the Tatacoa dessert it is really a lovely place to visit.
  • Colombia: Bogota, Medellin, & Cartagena Photo Gallery by Christopher Kirk at pbase.com 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.pbase.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Here, you'll find companies like: New Westminster, BC - Captain Mac's School Of Seamanship ...
  • British Columbia Boats & Boating Directory :: CANADIAN Handcrafted Boats ™ 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC canadianhandcraftedboats.com [Source type: General]

.That just covers the basics, since every region in Colombia has its own fruits, local products, and therefore its own range of sweet products.^ In addition, all regions yield forest products, ranging from tropical hardwoods in the lowlands, to pine and eucalyptus in the colder areas.
  • Colombia (05/09) 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 2002 Plan Colombia was folded into the Andean Counterdrug Initiative, which covers the whole region.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ We have a full range of seasonal vegetable and small fruit for sale at the farm as well as attending the local farmers markets in Whistler and Pemberton and supply restaurants in Vancouver and Whistler.
  • Where to find pick your own farms in British Columbia, Canada 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.pickyourown.org [Source type: General]

If you are a lover of rare candies, you could get artisan-made candies in the little towns near Bogotá and Tunja.
The "tres leches" cake is not to be missed - a sponge cake soaked in milk, covered in whipped cream, then served with condensed milk, it is for the serious dairy fiend only. Another delicious dessert is is 'leche asada', like a grilled milk.
.Organic food is a current trend in big cities, but in little towns you can get fruits and veggies all very natural and fresh.^ Jungle regions may disappoint, as prices run high and any tour is likely to have you not seeing the wood for the trees as the expression goes, as with all trips of these nature the focus is very much on flora and not fauna.
  • South America - travel > Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Peru, Brazil, Ecuador 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC travelindependent.info [Source type: General]

^ That night there is a little party, but you'll be getting up very early the next morning in order to make it to the sun gate for sunrise.
  • South America - travel > Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Peru, Brazil, Ecuador 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC travelindependent.info [Source type: General]

^ Sometimes you can see the mule deer eating our fresh fruit in our orchard.
  • Where to find pick your own farms in British Columbia, Canada 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.pickyourown.org [Source type: General]

.Colombians aren't used to storing food for the winter, since there are no seasons in the traditional sense.^ Since the Pan-American Highway grinds to a halt just past Panama City, there is no road access between North and South America.
  • South America - travel > Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Peru, Brazil, Ecuador 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC travelindependent.info [Source type: General]

^ They still exist as a tribal entity, but there have been no speakers since the 1950's.
  • Ethnologue: Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.christusrex.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There were no Afro-Colombian cabinet ministers and no Afro-Colombians on any of the nation's high courts.
  • Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

So don't ask them for dried items like dried tomatos or fruits. .All you have to do is go shopping at the little grocery stores nearby and pick up the freshest of the harvest of the month (almost everything is available and fresh all year).^ Frozen blueberries available all year.
  • Where to find pick your own farms in British Columbia, Canada 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.pickyourown.org [Source type: General]

^ Remember to ALWAYS call the farm or orchard BEFORE you go - weather, heavy picking and business conditions can always affect their hours and crops!
  • Where to find pick your own farms in British Columbia, Canada 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.pickyourown.org [Source type: General]

^ In the low season you find days when permits are available 3/4 days in advance, but at busy times of year (May to September) - book ahead or do a different trek.
  • South America - travel > Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Peru, Brazil, Ecuador 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC travelindependent.info [Source type: General]

.As for pickles and related preserved food, you can find them in supermarkets, but they are not common in family households.^ Family members say they suspect that neither government is doing much to find the men or secure their release."
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ Great supermarkets if you wish to prepare your own food.
  • South America - travel > Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Peru, Brazil, Ecuador 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC travelindependent.info [Source type: General]

.Pre-Colombian civilizations cultivated about 200 varieties of potatoes.^ As the home of several pre-Colombian archaeological sites, Colombia has become the source of much of what is known about Latin America before European settlement.
  • Culture of Colombia - traditional, history, people, clothing, traditions, women, beliefs, food, customs, family, social, marriage, men, life, population, religion, rituals, History and ethnic relations 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Colombia as an Andean country, is not the exception.^ (AP, 11/27/07) 1983 Dec 17, An Economic cooperation agreement between the Community and the Andean Pact countries was signed in Cartagena, Colombia.
  • Timeline Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

Even McDonalds recognizes the quality of this product and buys them. Try the local preparations like "papas saladas" (salted potatoes) or "papas chorriadas" (stewed potatoes).
.All in all, in Colombia it can be fun to have the ingredients and the preparation of a lot of exotic recipes explained to you.^ Thank you for showing Colombia in all it's splendor!!
  • Colombia: Bogota, Medellin, & Cartagena Photo Gallery by Christopher Kirk at pbase.com 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.pbase.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For the existence of the U'wa people, for the peace in all territories in Colombia and for all the people of Colombia: is organization, mobilization and discussion - support - from people like you - citizens in the US. .

^ 'You're talking about $4.7 billion spent on Plan Colombia, and this is all we have to show for it?'"
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

Drink

For breakfast, take a home-made hot drink. The choices normally include coffee, hot chocolate or "agua de panela". The latter is a drink prepared with panela (dried cane juice), sometimes with cinnamon and cloves, which gives it a special taste. .In Bogotá and the region around, is a custom to use cheese along with the drink, in a way that small pieces of cheese are put into the cup and then after they are melt, you can use a spoon to pick them up and eat it like a soup.^ Lose the crowds and travel this little known corner of South America bringing enigmatic names like Caracas, Bogot and Quito to life along the way.

^ These are the basic ways - but in your struggle - in your support you'll find more transcending ways to help us that have been known to be used in other conflicts like for example the use of human shields in the U'wa territories or the sending of commissions and the mobilizations directly into those territories.

^ From Cusco pick up a minibus to Ollantaytambo (be aware you will be transferred in Urubamba), this costs only a few soles.
  • South America - travel > Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Peru, Brazil, Ecuador 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC travelindependent.info [Source type: General]

It is the same way to drink hot chocolate.
.Colombia's national alcoholic beverage, Aguardiente tastes strongly of anise, and is typically bought by the bottle or half bottle or a quarter.^ (SFC, 9/10/98, p.A12) 1998 Aug 4, In Colombia over 2 dozen attacks in half of the nation’s 32 provinces left at least 76 people dead.
  • Timeline Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

People usually drink it in shots. .Each region has its own aguardiente, "Antioqueño" (from Antioquia), "Cristal" (from Caldas), "Quindiano" (from Quindío), "Blanco del Valle" (from Valle del Cauca) and "Nectar" (from Cundinamarca).^ (WSJ, 8/3/04, p.A1) 1991 In Colombia 17 peasants were dragged off a bus and killed in Valle del Cauca province.
  • Timeline Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ In Valle del Cauca rebels dragged 4 men and a woman from their car and killed them.
  • Timeline Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ Taken in 2002: former presidential candidate Ingrid Betancourt; former senator Jorge Eduardo Gechem; former member of congress Francisco Giraldo, and 12 former regional legislators from Valle del Cauca Department.
  • Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.There is also a variety of rum beverages, like "Ron Medellin Añejo" (also from Antioquia) and "Ron Viejo de Caldas" (also from Caldas).^ Governor of the Department of Antioquia Dr. Alberto Builes Ortega, Gobernador del Departamento de Antioquia Gobernacion de Antioquia, Calle 42B, # 52-106,Medellin, Antioquia, Colombia, .

^ Telegram: Gobernador de Antioquia, Medellin, Colombia .

.The water is drinkable right from the tap in most of the major cities, but be prepared to buy some bottles if you go to the countryside.^ Not only are we fully certified, but also some of the friendliest, most enthusiastic folks you’ll ever meet!
  • British Columbia Wedding Photographer Directory - Find a Wedding Photographer or a Photography Studio - - British Columbia - Vancouver, Victoria, Kelowna, Abbotsford Wedding Directory 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.studiolocator.com [Source type: General]

^ If you want your money to go the furthest, Northern Brazil is certainly cheaper and some knowledge of Portuguese is essential.
  • South America - travel > Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Peru, Brazil, Ecuador 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC travelindependent.info [Source type: General]

^ Then there are the rights, I'm going to tell you about the rights.

Agua Manantial Bottled water is recommended, it comes from a natural spring near Bogotá. .An advice make sure you do not use ice cubes, or drink any beverage that might contain non distilled water, ask if the beverage is made with tap or bottled/boiled water.^ Canadians are advised to use bottled water and to avoid raw and undercooked food in rural and coastal areas.
  • Colombia Travel Advice and Advisories | Government of Canada 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.voyage.gc.ca [Source type: News]

^ Traditional portraiture with a very modern flair, making sure you get the most out of your wedding day, and that you enjoy every minute of it!
  • British Columbia Wedding Photographer Directory - Find a Wedding Photographer or a Photography Studio - - British Columbia - Vancouver, Victoria, Kelowna, Abbotsford Wedding Directory 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.studiolocator.com [Source type: General]

^ Make sure you have everything you need (rentable in Cusco) and can prove you are a responsible trekker.
  • South America - travel > Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Peru, Brazil, Ecuador 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC travelindependent.info [Source type: General]

.If you are lucky enough, and if you are staying in a familiar "finca cafetera" (coffee plantation) you can ask your Colombian friends not only for the selected coffee (quality export) but for the remaining coffee that the farmers leave to their own use.^ It is my aim to exceed your expectations for photographs, and create pieces of art that you will proud to show your family and friends.
  • British Columbia Wedding Photographer Directory - Find a Wedding Photographer or a Photography Studio - - British Columbia - Vancouver, Victoria, Kelowna, Abbotsford Wedding Directory 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.studiolocator.com [Source type: General]

^ If you wish to use copyrighted material from this site for purposes of your own that go beyond 'fair dealing' / 'fair use', you must obtain permission from the copyright owner.
  • British Columbia Boats & Boating Directory :: CANADIAN Handcrafted Boats ™ 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC canadianhandcraftedboats.com [Source type: General]

^ Keep up the work and I hope you keep enjoying your stay here.
  • Colombia: Bogota, Medellin, & Cartagena Photo Gallery by Christopher Kirk at pbase.com 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.pbase.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

This is manually picked, washed, toasted in rustic brick stoves and manually ground. It has the most exquisite and rare flavor and aroma ever found.
In Bogota at least, black filter coffee is refferred to as "tinto" - confusing if you were expecting red wine.
.Also, you can find specialized places where you can drink coffee with many different combinations (like Juan Valdés stores), hot or frozen preparations.^ In the low season you find days when permits are available 3/4 days in advance, but at busy times of year (May to September) - book ahead or do a different trek.
  • South America - travel > Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Peru, Brazil, Ecuador 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC travelindependent.info [Source type: General]

^ Cocktails including the famous Caipirinhas and it's many variations are mixed very strong - so watch how much you drink if out at night and in an unfamiliar area.
  • South America - travel > Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Peru, Brazil, Ecuador 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC travelindependent.info [Source type: General]

^ If you can't find a cambio, try travel agencies, jewellery or appliance stores and pharmacies.
  • South America - travel > Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Peru, Brazil, Ecuador 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC travelindependent.info [Source type: General]

.Commercially you can find a lot of products made out of coffee too like wines, ice-creams, soda-pops and other beverages.^ Some airlines include all or a portion of this tax in the cost of your airline ticket; check with your airline to find out how much you will have to pay at the airport.
  • Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC travel.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Here, you'll find companies like: New Westminster, BC - Captain Mac's School Of Seamanship ...
  • British Columbia Boats & Boating Directory :: CANADIAN Handcrafted Boats ™ 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC canadianhandcraftedboats.com [Source type: General]

Sleep

.In Colombia you can find a range of options, bed and breakfast conditioned to western standards and hostels to five-star hotels.^ You will find that we all charge the guerrillas with 20% of the political assassinations in Colombia, blame them for at least half of the kidnappings, and criticize their forced recruitment of minors.

^ Intro: If you're looking to be told that Colombia is not a dangerous country, you won't find it here.
  • South America - travel > Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Peru, Brazil, Ecuador 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC travelindependent.info [Source type: General]

^ I urge you to ask the President not to certify Colombia as meeting human rights conditions and not to waive the human rights conditions on FY2001 US aid to Colombia.

There are also apartments that rent per day.

Learn

.Colombian Spanish is considered by many around the world as the purest in Latin America and there are many universities and language schools that have Spanish programs.^ As the home of several pre-Colombian archaeological sites, Colombia has become the source of much of what is known about Latin America before European settlement.
  • Culture of Colombia - traditional, history, people, clothing, traditions, women, beliefs, food, customs, family, social, marriage, men, life, population, religion, rituals, History and ethnic relations 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "Battles Won, A War Lost" ), "to many people across and beyond Latin America, the Andean drug trade seems as effective and dangerous as ever.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ There are 4 university colleges which offer the same range of programs as a regular community college, but also offer full degree programs.

Colombia education is generally strict and is kept to high standards. .Most Colombian degrees can be legalized in foreign countries.^ While kidnapping is primarily aimed at Colombians, foreigners can be targeted by guerrilla groups in all parts of the country, especially persons working for (or perceived to be working for) oil and mining companies.
  • Colombia Travel Advice and Advisories | Government of Canada 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.voyage.gc.ca [Source type: News]

^ Millions of Colombians travelled all over the country and hundreds of thousands of foreigners visited the country.
  • South America - travel > Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Peru, Brazil, Ecuador 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC travelindependent.info [Source type: General]

^ Colombians it is also the most predominant face of what our country is.
  • Colombia: Bogota, Medellin, & Cartagena Photo Gallery by Christopher Kirk at pbase.com 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.pbase.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.You can find several programs in different universities around the country.^ Intro: If you're looking to be told that Colombia is not a dangerous country, you won't find it here.
  • South America - travel > Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Peru, Brazil, Ecuador 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC travelindependent.info [Source type: General]

^ In the low season you find days when permits are available 3/4 days in advance, but at busy times of year (May to September) - book ahead or do a different trek.
  • South America - travel > Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Peru, Brazil, Ecuador 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC travelindependent.info [Source type: General]

^ Thank you for taking the time to share a different view of My Country.
  • Colombia: Bogota, Medellin, & Cartagena Photo Gallery by Christopher Kirk at pbase.com 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.pbase.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

You can also find programs with language institutes that could offer a variety of courses.

Work

.If you want to work for a national company, such as Bancolombia/Conavi, Avianca, or Presto, you must be able to speak Spanish with near-native fluency.^ Keep the trained eye on your powerful work and thank you again for exporting such a balanced image of my home country.
  • Colombia: Bogota, Medellin, & Cartagena Photo Gallery by Christopher Kirk at pbase.com 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.pbase.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, much more if you want to do a jungle trip, trip across the altiplano or other such activities.
  • South America - travel > Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Peru, Brazil, Ecuador 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC travelindependent.info [Source type: General]

.Depending on your qualifications, companies may offer Spanish lessons, however always make sure that you are indeed eligible for the position advertised.^ Registration will make your presence and whereabouts known in case it is necessary to contact you in an emergency and will enable you to receive up-to-date information on security conditions.
  • Colombia (05/09) 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Traditional portraiture with a very modern flair, making sure you get the most out of your wedding day, and that you enjoy every minute of it!
  • British Columbia Wedding Photographer Directory - Find a Wedding Photographer or a Photography Studio - - British Columbia - Vancouver, Victoria, Kelowna, Abbotsford Wedding Directory 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.studiolocator.com [Source type: General]

^ Worth a month of your time and a few Spanish lessons, but don't expect to have anything to yourself, but the remotest jungle.
  • South America - travel > Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Peru, Brazil, Ecuador 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC travelindependent.info [Source type: General]

You can teach English for extra money, especially in smaller cities where the demand for it is high. Also you could work for a NGO.

Stay safe

.Colombia has suffered from a terrible reputation as a dangerous and violent country but it has been reduced a lot.^ Intro: If you're looking to be told that Colombia is not a dangerous country, you won't find it here.
  • South America - travel > Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Peru, Brazil, Ecuador 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC travelindependent.info [Source type: General]

^ Notwithstanding the country's commitment to democratic institutions, Colombia's history also has been characterized by widespread, violent conflict.
  • Colombia (05/09) 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In the last five years safety has improved significantly and Colombia no longer has the highest rate of kidnappings in the world.^ He formed a Gran Colombia that lasted 8 years, but broke apart into Venezuela, Colombia and Ecuador.
  • Timeline Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ The rate of use was highest among young adults (18 to 25 years) at 20.2 percent.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ (AP, 6/15/07) 2007 Jun 18, In Colombia 11 kidnapped former state lawmakers held hostage for five years were killed after a military attack on the jungle camp where they were being kept.
  • Timeline Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

.Tourists will face problems if they decide just to fool around in some neighborhoods of the main cities.^ Getting around: Buses, some roads (Lima to Cusco) a killer, distances just go on and on.
  • South America - travel > Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Peru, Brazil, Ecuador 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC travelindependent.info [Source type: General]

^ I have a very good pictures form Medellin too, whenever you guys want some of them just let me know, see you around .
  • Colombia: Bogota, Medellin, & Cartagena Photo Gallery by Christopher Kirk at pbase.com 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.pbase.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They are a network of independently owned hostels all over South America and in some cities they also have language schools, tours, and restaurants.
  • South America - travel > Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Peru, Brazil, Ecuador 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC travelindependent.info [Source type: General]

.Of course it pays to think safe, just as you would in any other large metropolitan city.^ Other large cities are resource-based processors and service and supply centres for subregions dispersed throughout the province.

^ I would like to show the other face of Colombia loke you did.
  • Colombia: Bogota, Medellin, & Cartagena Photo Gallery by Christopher Kirk at pbase.com 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.pbase.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Can you tell us about the history of suicide with your people and why your leader would tell you to do this, and what your people are thinking of this now?

To discover the forest, ask somebody to stay with you. .Walk relatively free during the day, but during night take precautions and from time to time observe who's around you.^ There are a few spots that tend to be crowded with tents, but for most nights and days you will see no other trekkers.
  • South America - travel > Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Peru, Brazil, Ecuador 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC travelindependent.info [Source type: General]

^ In the low season you find days when permits are available 3/4 days in advance, but at busy times of year (May to September) - book ahead or do a different trek.
  • South America - travel > Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Peru, Brazil, Ecuador 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC travelindependent.info [Source type: General]

^ Thank you for taking the time to share a different view of My Country.
  • Colombia: Bogota, Medellin, & Cartagena Photo Gallery by Christopher Kirk at pbase.com 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.pbase.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Paramilitaries

.There was an agreement in 2005 with the government which resulted in the disarmament of most of the paramilitaries.^ The government concluded demobilization negotiations with most major blocs of the AUC but continued to confront militarily any paramilitary group not involved in negotiations.
  • Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ New Westminster was the capital of the combined colony for 2 years before protests from the older capital, Victoria, resulted in the seat of government being moved there in 1868.

^ As a result of the government's military and police operations, the strength of the FARC has been reduced in all urban areas and mostly limited to the most remote areas of the country.
  • Colombia (05/09) 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Paramilitaries however are still active in drug business. .It is not expected that they will intentionally harm tourists, but especially in rural areas it is recommended to be careful.^ They will be based with the Special Forces team in Arauca to provide emergency medical care and evacuation for any Americans wounded in the area.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ In rural areas, women must contend with cultural and legal restrictions on health care.
  • Culture of Colombia - traditional, history, people, clothing, traditions, women, beliefs, food, customs, family, social, marriage, men, life, population, religion, rituals, History and ethnic relations 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ While the government provided equal medical care to boys and girls, medical facilities were not widely available, especially in rural areas.
  • Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Guerrillas

.The guerrilla movements which includes FARC and ELN guerrillas are still operational.^ Renegade paramilitaries and guerrillas, particularly the FARC and the ELN, continued to take hostages for ransom.
  • Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ FARC and ELN guerrillas committed numerous unlawful killings, kidnapped civilians and military personnel, displaced citizens, and recruited child soldiers.
  • Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The FARC and ELN continued to discourage IDPs from registering with the government through force, intimidation, and disinformation; guerrilla agents sometimes masqueraded as IDPs to sow doubt and discontent among IDPs.
  • Colombia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.These guerrillas, however, operate mainly in the rural areas and jungles which are mainly uninhabited.^ These units operate throughout the country, including areas in receipt of US military aid.

^ Through these tactics, the government hopes to reduce the area under guerrilla control.

^ These instruments, provide color and infrared images, in order to identify the immediate concentrations of guerrillas in the area, monitor their communications, and assist in their localization.

As long as you stay in the metropolitan areas or nearby, you should be safe. .River police, highway police, newspapers, and fellow travelers can be a useful source of information.^ Includes considerable useful travel information .
  • British Columbia Road Map, Detailed, Travel, Tourist, Atlas, Street 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.maps2anywhere.com [Source type: General]

^ We are currently preparing online travel guides to major tourist destinations which we hope will provide useful information for travellers when planning trips abroad.
  • Colombia: Bogota, Medellin, & Cartagena Photo Gallery by Christopher Kirk at pbase.com 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.pbase.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

(Note that the native pronunciation of guerrilla is "gair-EE-ya", not the English expression "guh-RILL-a".)

Crime

.The crime rate in Colombia has been significantly reduced since its peak in the late 80's and 90's, however, major cities in Colombia have relative high crime rates in certain regions of the city.^ The major expansion of the forest industry came, however, after WWI, when the opening of the Panama Canal gave access to markets around the north Atlantic region.

^ The offer however is only available in Colombia's central Meta region."
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 19 Jan