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Comet Hale-Bopp, as seen on 29 March 1997 in Pazin, Croatia.
.A comet is a relatively small, icy mass in the Solar System, usually larger than a meteoroid,[citation needed] that, when it is close enough to the Sun, displays a visible coma (a thin, fuzzy, temporary atmosphere), and sometimes also a cometary tail, both because of the effects of solar radiation and the solar wind upon the nucleus of the comet.^ These elements are from the solar wind, not the comet.

^ When comets get close to the sun, they heat up.

^ Scientists think that atomic particles that comprise the solar wind interact with comet material to produce X-rays, a theory that Swift might prove true.

.These comet nuclei are loose collections of ice, dust, and small rocky particles, ranging from a few hundred meters in maximum extension, to tens of kilometers across.^ Their wavelength from peak to peak goes from several tens to several hundreds of kilometres and a wave height from a few centimetres to several centimetres, so that they are undetectable on board boats .

^ As the comet crumbles, fresh veins of ice and dust are exposed to sunlight, causing the pieces to brighten.

^ As Comet McNaught neared the Sun, more of its ice and dust was radiated off the surface.

Contents

Introduction

Word and symbol

The word comet came to English by way of the Latin word cometes. This word, in turn, came from the Greek word komē, which means "hair of the head". The Greek scientist and philospher Aristotle first used the derived form of komē, komētēs, to describe what he saw as "stars with hair." The astronomical symbol for comets is (), consisting of a small disc with three hairlike extensions.

Origin and orbits

.The comets of our Solar System have a wide range of different orbital periods, which range from just a few years, to hundreds of thousands of years.^ Boudreaux, Palomar's leading tackler over a two-year period, went out in style in his final game as a Comet.
  • Palomar College FOOTBALL 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC www.palomar.edu [Source type: General]

^ Researchers have suggested that one or more mass extinctions during the past few hundred million years might have been triggered by supernovae, and that it might happen again.

^ As of March 2006, at least 40 different fragments of the comet are known to be flying through the solar system.

.Also, some rare comets have been found by calculations in celestial mechanics to only pass once through the inner Solar System before being thrown out into interstellar space along hyperbolic trajectories.^ The Earth is passing through debris left by Comet 73P/Schwassmann-Wachmann which has broken up into about 64 pieces, said the director of observation at the Springbrook Observatory near the Gold Coast.

^ As of March 2006, at least 40 different fragments of the comet are known to be flying through the solar system.

^ The answer I think is that it's blacker than black and the only object it could be is a comet, which makes up some of the darkest objects in the solar system."

.The comets with short periods have been found to originate in the Kuiper Belt, or its associated scattered disc,[1] which lie beyond the orbit of Neptune.^ Except for periodic comets with known solar orbits, no one knows when the next one is coming until ...

^ There are 175 comets referred as short period, of which the most famous is Halley's Comet.

.The comets with much longer periods usually come from much farther reaches of outer space.^ Except for periodic comets with known solar orbits, no one knows when the next one is coming until ...

^ That brings us then to a period that bottoms out around October/November 2009 for The Chastisement which will also come from outer space.

.A cloud of icy masses at the outer boundaries of the Solar System, which consists of matter that was left behind during the condensation of the solar nebula, has been found to be the source of these comets.^ These elements are from the solar wind, not the comet.

^ As yet no such object has definitely been found in the solar system.

^ This is likely the first detection of the long-hypothesized "Oort cloud," a faraway repository of small icy bodies that supplies the comets that streak by Earth.

.This cloud is called the "Oort Cloud", named for the Dutch astronomer Jan Oort who first hypothesized it during the mid-20th Century.^ This is likely the first detection of the long-hypothesized "Oort cloud," a faraway repository of small icy bodies that supplies the comets that streak by Earth.

^ Comet McNaught is named for Australian astronomer Robert McNaught, who found it last year.

The Oort Cloud is located well beyond the Kuiper Belt. .Long-period comets plunge towards the Sun from the Oort Cloud due to gravitational perturbations caused by either the massive outer planets of the Solar System (Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune), or relatively nearby stars.^ Is the "Ball of Redemption" the recently-discovered red "planet" Sedna, now moving towards the sun and inner solar system in its highly elliptical, comet-like orbit, or a fiery brown dwarf star hurtling in our direction and as of yet unseen -- a sun that collapsed inwardly, a dark star that has tremendous gravitational influence on everything that it passes, a death star.

^ "We suspect that every comet goes through an episode like this," says Kelley of those comets that don't die by plunging into the Sun or into a planet.

^ However, between the end of 2002 and mid-2003, when SW-3 had its slowest speed, Jupiter and Saturn influenced the previously fragmented comet.

.Comets are distinguished from asteroids by the presence of a coma and/or a tail.^ In later observations, two separate tails could be distinguished -- evidence that LINEAR A2 was becoming two distinctly different comets.

.However, very ancient comets that have passed close to the Sun many times have lost nearly all of their volatile ices and dust, and have come to resemble small asteroids (see the article "extinct comets").^ However, the fragmented comets are very rare.

^ Comet 73P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 3 has been passing Earth all month as it approaches the point nearest the sun in its orbit.

^ Therefore, Mabus does not die sometime after a comet has passed -- he dies while the comet is still being observed in the sky by many millions of people.

[2] .Asteroids are thought to have a different origin from comets, having formed in the inner Solar System (inside of the orbit of Jupiter) rather than in the outermost Solar System,[3] but recent findings[4] have somewhat blurred the distinction between asteroids and comets (see centaurs and asteroid terminology).^ His most recent comet find was on Aug.

^ However, between the end of 2002 and mid-2003, when SW-3 had its slowest speed, Jupiter and Saturn influenced the previously fragmented comet.

^ If the above report from 2001 is true, we may see a great increase in cancer and other forms of auto-immune system damage in the months and years immediately ahead.

.As of May 2009 there are a reported 3,648 known comets[5] of which about 1,500 are Kreutz Sungrazers and about 400 are short-period.^ Less sensational information and news about the comet is provided here - http://www.physorg.com/news67263241.html - in an article on PhysOrg.com from May 19.

^ In May 2006, SW-3 will be not only among the rare ones to also approach close to the Earth, but also among comets having known the greatest magnitude ever reached.

^ METEOR WATCH: On May 31st, Earth will pass about five million miles from the dusty orbit of crumbling comet 73P/Schwassmann Wachmann 3.

[6] This number is steadily increasing. .However, this represents only a tiny fraction of the total potential comet population: the reservoir of comet-like bodies in the outer solar system may number one trillion.^ IT'S one of the many mysteries of the solar system.

^ In May 2006, SW-3 will be not only among the rare ones to also approach close to the Earth, but also among comets having known the greatest magnitude ever reached.

^ This is likely the first detection of the long-hypothesized "Oort cloud," a faraway repository of small icy bodies that supplies the comets that streak by Earth.

[7] .The number of comets visible to the naked eye averages to roughly one per year, though many of these are faint and unspectacular.^ "It is visible with naked eyes in a large city!"

^ "To my amazement, 17P had brightened to naked-eye visibility," exclaimed Bob King when he spotted Comet Holmes shortly before dawn in Duluth, Minnesota.

^ At this time Comet McNaught qualifies as a " great comet " (one out of eight such comets seen during the last 263 years).

[8] When a historically bright or notable comet has been seen by millions of people, it can be called a "Great Comet".

Physical characteristics

Nucleus

.
Nucleus of comet Tempel 1 imaged by the Deep Impact impactor.
^ The situation is reminiscent of the Deep Impact probe, which penetrated comet Tempel 1 about a year ago.

The nucleus measures about 6 kilometres across.
Comet Holmes (17P/Holmes) in 2007 showing blue ion tail on right
.Comet nuclei are known to range from about 100 meters to more than 40 kilometres across.^ The comet's nucleus has broken into more than 40 fragments.

^ The comet's nucleus has shattered into more than 33 pieces, and is likely to continue to disintegrate.

^ As of March 2006, at least 40 different fragments of the comet are known to be flying through the solar system.

.They are composed of rock, dust, water ice, and frozen gases such as carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, methane and ammonia.^ Typical comet material includes water, methane and carbon dioxide.

[9] Because of their low mass, comet nuclei do not become spherical under their own gravity, and thus have irregular shapes.
.They are often popularly described as "dirty snowballs", though recent observations have revealed dry dusty or rocky surfaces, suggesting that the ices are hidden beneath the crust (see Debate over comet composition).^ Also, you say you saw the events of September 11 and they were revealed as though imminent.

^ Comets are "dirty snowballs," chunks of ice and rock left over from the formation of the solar system 4.5 billion years ago, scientists say.

^ Following the debris trail The astronomers are hoping that by measuring the brightness of the extent of the debris trail, which can't be see in visible light, they can find out whether most of the comet vaporises from evaporating ice, the house-sized chunks seen in recent Hubble Space Telescope images, or by way of meteor-sized debris seen in the Spitzer images.

.Comets also contain a variety of organic compounds; in addition to the gases already mentioned, these may include methanol, hydrogen cyanide, formaldehyde, ethanol and ethane, and perhaps more complex molecules such as long-chain hydrocarbons and amino acids.^ Let us suggest that these are proof that these advanced intelligences, cloaked behind the event of MAY 25 2006, have envisaged, and caused, long in advance, the scenario that proceeds in this event.

^ "There's no easy explanation for such blackness except for the fact that the comet is a seething boiling cauldron of organic material," he said.

^ Knowing that the planets, as well as comet, turn in the direction reverses needles of a watch on these drawings, this agroglyphe seems to refer to the situation of the solar system on MAY 14, 2006 at the time of the passage to more close to comet SW-3.

[10][11][12] In 2009, it was confirmed that the amino acid glycine had been found in the comet dust recovered by NASA's Stardust mission.[13]
.Surprisingly, cometary nuclei are among the least reflective objects found in our solar system.^ As yet no such object has definitely been found in the solar system.

^ After Mars, it is the second reddest object in the solar system .

^ The object, called "Sedna" for the Inuit goddess of the ocean, is 13 billion kilometers (8 billion miles) away, in the farthest reaches of the solar system.

.The Giotto space probe found that the nucleus of Halley's Comet reflects about four percent of the light that falls on it,[14] and Deep Space 1 discovered that Comet Borrelly's surface reflects just 2.4% to 3.0% of the light that falls on it;[14] by comparison, asphalt reflects seven percent of the light that falls on it.^ The situation is reminiscent of the Deep Impact probe, which penetrated comet Tempel 1 about a year ago.

^ You need to know that up to recently, before I discovered what you have just read on this fragmented comet, I received on April 7, 2006 a telepathic message from extraterrestrial friends.

^ For no apparent reason, the comet's nucleus split into at least three " mini-comets " flying single file through space.

It is thought that complex organic compounds are the dark surface material. Solar heating drives off volatile compounds leaving behind heavy long-chain organics that tend to be very dark, like tar or crude oil. The very darkness of cometary surfaces enables them to absorb the heat necessary to drive their outgassing processes.

Coma and tail

.In the outer solar system, comets remain frozen and are extremely difficult or impossible to detect from Earth due to their small size.^ This is likely the first detection of the long-hypothesized "Oort cloud," a faraway repository of small icy bodies that supplies the comets that streak by Earth.

^ The answer I think is that it's blacker than black and the only object it could be is a comet, which makes up some of the darkest objects in the solar system."

^ It is not impossible that the "Planet X scenario" could still play out by some as-of-yet unknown cosmic invader of our solar system.

.Statistical detections of inactive comet nuclei in the Kuiper belt have been reported from the Hubble Space Telescope observations,[15][16] but these detections have been questioned,[17][18] and have not yet been independently confirmed.^ Hubble Space Telescope is providing astronomers with extraordinary views of Comet 73P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 3.

^ These observations provide an unprecedented opportunity to study the demise of a comet nucleus.

^ Images and data of the comet provided recently by the Hubble Space Telescope will also go into that effort, he said.

.As a comet approaches the inner solar system, solar radiation causes the volatile materials within the comet to vaporize and stream out of the nucleus, carrying dust away with them.^ The object, called "Sedna" for the Inuit goddess of the ocean, is 13 billion kilometers (8 billion miles) away, in the farthest reaches of the solar system.

^ Comet debris streams linked to specific comets, like that seen in the Spitzer image, are the cause of many regular, predictable meteor showers.

^ Scientists think that atomic particles that comprise the solar wind interact with comet material to produce X-rays, a theory that Swift might prove true.

.The streams of dust and gas thus released form a huge, extremely tenuous atmosphere around the comet called the coma, and the force exerted on the coma by the Sun's radiation pressure and solar wind cause an enormous tail to form, which points away from the sun.^ These elements are from the solar wind, not the comet.

^ Each 'engine' is a comet fragment boiling away plumes of dust and gas as they are blasted by the solar wind.

^ Comet 73P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 3 has been passing Earth all month as it approaches the point nearest the sun in its orbit.

.Both the coma and tail are illuminated by the Sun and may become visible from Earth when a comet passes through the inner solar system, the dust reflecting sunlight directly and the gases glowing from ionisation.^ "We suspect that every comet goes through an episode like this," says Kelley of those comets that don't die by plunging into the Sun or into a planet.

^ Comet 73P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 3 has been passing Earth all month as it approaches the point nearest the sun in its orbit.

^ Scientists using NASA's Swift satellite have detected X-rays from a comet that is now passing the Earth and rapidly disintegrating on what could be its final orbit around the sun.

.Most comets are too faint to be visible without the aid of a telescope, but a few each decade become bright enough to be visible to the naked eye.^ It could become bright and visible enough for amateur astronomers with especially large telescopes.

^ "It is visible with naked eyes in a large city!"

^ "To my amazement, 17P had brightened to naked-eye visibility," exclaimed Bob King when he spotted Comet Holmes shortly before dawn in Duluth, Minnesota.

.Occasionally a comet may experience a huge and sudden outburst of gas and dust, during which the size of the coma temporarily greatly increases in size.^ Since the appearance in May-July 2001 of Comet LINEAR A2, it is remotely possible that Nostradamus was speaking about a comet with two brilliant heads surrounded by a coma (cloudy particles of gas and dust that surround the head of a comet).

^ The dust, however, is forensic evidence that may provide more insight into the nature of this new comet when the meteor shower is seen again in the future.

^ Astronomers believe Comet 17P/Holmes may reach the size of the full moon in the nights ahead.

This happened in 2007 to Comet Holmes.[citation needed]
.The streams of dust and gas each form their own distinct tail, pointing in slightly different directions.^ On each orbit around the sun, the comet lays down a new debris stream along a slightly different path.

.The tail of dust is left behind in the comet's orbit in such a manner that it often forms a curved[citation needed] tail called the type II or dust tail.^ These types of comets are called "Super Comets."

^ The track the fragments are following is a line of Sun-warmed comet debris, dust and fine sand, that the comet left in space on its previous 5.4-year cycles around the Sun.

^ They believe the outer crust of the missing object could be made of sticky organic particles left behind when the ice that traditionally forms a comet melts away and was captured by Sedna.

.At the same time, the ion or type I tail, made of gases, always points directly away from the Sun, as this gas is more strongly affected by the solar wind than is dust, following magnetic field lines rather than an orbital trajectory.^ But the comet travels faster than the Earth, and because it follows a parallel trajectory, any danger will seem isolated.

^ This comet, which spends five years in a plane orbiting the Earth, moves at its maximum to a distance of 900 million kilometers (more than six times the distance from the Earth to the sun) started to split up for unexplainable reasons in 1995.

^ They circle the sun in irregular orbits, moving as far away as the outer fringes of the solar system before swinging back in.

.On occasions a short tail pointing in the opposite direction to the ion and dust tails may be seen – the antitail.^ At that point we may see its tail shooting up from the horizon as a shaft of light!

^ The dust, however, is forensic evidence that may provide more insight into the nature of this new comet when the meteor shower is seen again in the future.

.These were once thought to be somewhat mysterious; but there is nothing mysterious about them, as they are merely the end of the dust tail apparently projecting ahead of the comet due to our viewing angle.^ Swift's observations provide a rare opportunity to investigate several ongoing mysteries about comets and our solar system, and hundreds of scientists have tuned in to the event.

^ The combination of these observations will provide a time evolution of the X-ray emission of the comet as it navigates through our solar system .

^ I describe there my contact experiments with extraterrestrial visitors [iii] and the major motivation which animated our celestial neighbors when they appeared in mass at the end of the 1940s, namely the nuclear weapon !

[19]
.While the solid nucleus of comets is generally less than 50 km across, the coma may be larger than the Sun, and ion tails have been observed to extend one astronomical unit (150 million km) or more.^ The comet's nucleus has broken into more than 40 fragments.

^ Astronomers have been observing this comet for more than 75 years, and its path around the sun is well known.

^ Here is a comment of Philippe Morel of the Astronomical Company of France: "On June 6, 2006 it will enter again the very restricted circle of the comets whose distance nearest to the Earth will be lower than 15 million kilometers.

[9] The observation of antitails contributed significantly to the discovery of solar wind.[20] The ion tail is formed as a result of the photoelectric effect of solar ultra-violet radiation acting on particles in the coma. .Once the particles have been ionized, they attain a net positive electrical charge which in turn gives rise to an "induced magnetosphere" around the comet.^ Scientists think that X-rays are produced through a process called charge exchange, in which highly (and positively) charged particles from the sun that lack electrons steal electrons from chemicals in the comet.

The comet and its induced magnetic field form an obstacle to outward flowing solar wind particles. .As the relative orbital speed of the comet and the solar wind is supersonic, a bow shock is formed upstream of the comet, in the flow direction of the solar wind.^ These elements are from the solar wind, not the comet.

^ Scientists think that atomic particles that comprise the solar wind interact with comet material to produce X-rays, a theory that Swift might prove true.

^ By comparing the ratio of X-ray energies emitted, scientists can determine the content of the solar wind and infer the content of the comet material.

.In this bow shock, large concentrations of cometary ions (called "pick-up ions") congregate and act to "load" the solar magnetic field with plasma, such that the field lines "drape" around the comet forming the ion tail.^ Now Prof Wickramasinghe is hoping that other astronomers will pick up on his theory and start to search for the missing comet/moon and others like it.

^ Aegerter wound up taking a knee as time expired after the Comets got down to the OCC 18-yard line.
  • Palomar College FOOTBALL 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC www.palomar.edu [Source type: General]

^ The track the fragments are following is a line of Sun-warmed comet debris, dust and fine sand, that the comet left in space on its previous 5.4-year cycles around the Sun.

[21]
Encke's Comet loses its tail
If the ion tail loading is sufficient, then the magnetic field lines are squeezed together to the point where, at some distance along the ion tail, magnetic reconnection occurs. .This leads to a "tail disconnection event".[21] This has been observed on a number of occasions, one notable event recorded on April 20, 2007, when the ion tail of Encke's Comet was completely severed while the comet passed through a coronal mass ejection.^ He had a 21-1 record as the Comets' starting QB. .
  • Palomar College FOOTBALL 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC www.palomar.edu [Source type: General]

^ It is true that the majority of the fragments should pass on average to 0,065 UA, but it is enough for ONLY ONE FRAGMENT to start a major event.

^ Hubble shows several dozen "mini-comets trailing behind each main fragment, probably associated with the ejection of house-sized chunks of surface material.

This event was observed by the STEREO space probe.[22]
.Comets were found to emit X-rays in 1996.[23] This surprised researchers, because X-ray emission is usually associated with very high-temperature bodies.^ The German-led ROSAT mission, now decommissioned, was the first to detect X-rays from a comet, from Hyakutake in 1996.

^ The combination of these observations will provide a time evolution of the X-ray emission of the comet as it navigates through our solar system .

^ "Because we are viewing the comet in X-rays, we can see many unique features.

.The X-rays are thought to be generated by the interaction between comets and the solar wind: when highly charged ions fly through a cometary atmosphere, they collide with cometary atoms and molecules, "ripping off" one or more electrons from the comet.^ These elements are from the solar wind, not the comet.

^ Scientists think that atomic particles that comprise the solar wind interact with comet material to produce X-rays, a theory that Swift might prove true.

^ As of March 2006, at least 40 different fragments of the comet are known to be flying through the solar system.

This ripping off leads to the emission of X-rays and far ultraviolet photons.[24]

Connection to meteor showers

.As a result of outgassing, comets leave a trail of solid debris behind them.^ Hubble shows several dozen "mini-comets trailing behind each main fragment, probably associated with the ejection of house-sized chunks of surface material.

.If the comet's path crosses Earth's path, then at that point there will likely be meteor showers as Earth passes through the trail of debris.^ When Earth passes near the comet's dusty trails every year, bits of debris burn up in our atmosphere, creating a minor meteor shower called the Tau Herculids.

^ Comet 73P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 3 has been passing Earth all month as it approaches the point nearest the sun in its orbit.

^ Scientists using NASA's Swift satellite have detected X-rays from a comet that is now passing the Earth and rapidly disintegrating on what could be its final orbit around the sun.

.The Perseid meteor shower occurs every year between August 9 and August 13, when Earth passes through the orbit of the Swift–Tuttle comet.^ Discovered in 1930, the comet comes nearest to the Earth every 5 years.

^ Schwassmann-Wachmann 3 passes Earth about every five years.

^ This year 2006, on the other hand, the Earth and the comet coincide in their orbits perfectly.

[25] Halley's comet is the source of the Orionid shower in October.[25]

Orbital characteristics

Orbits of the Kohoutek Comet (red) and the Earth (blue), illustrating the high eccentricity of its orbit and its rapid motion when close to the Sun.
Histogram of the aphelia of the 2005 comets, showing the giant planet comet families. The abscissa is the natural logarithm of the aphelion expressed in AUs.
.Most comets have elongated elliptical orbits that take them close to the Sun for a part of their orbit, and then out into the further reaches of the Solar System for the remainder.^ When comets get close to the sun, they heat up.

^ The relative positions of these planets tended to cause the fragments to deviate towards the outside of the elliptic orbit of the comet.

^ As of March 2006, at least 40 different fragments of the comet are known to be flying through the solar system.

.Comets are often classified according to the length of their orbital periods: the longer the period the more elongated the ellipse.^ A large, elongated "potato", 2003 EL61 could someday turn into the brightest comet ever known, according to astronomers.

.
  • Short-period comets are generally defined as having orbital periods of less than 200 years.^ It does not say that this deadly comet will not cross earth's path for another 200 to 10,000 years.

    ^ The comet itself has not yet been discovered and is likely to return to Earth's vicinity only once every 200 - 10,000 years.

    ^ In fact, according to the European Southern Observatory (ESO), it is brighter than Hale-Bopp, Comet West, or any other comet of the last 40 years.

    .They usually orbit more-or-less in the ecliptic plane in the same direction as the planets.^ I then learned of the existence of a fragmented comet, which not only passed more closer to Earth in MAY 2006, but which was to pass through the ecliptic plane on MAY 25!

    ^ The sun is on the far left in the above image: The trajectory of the fragment in the shape of cone crosses the ecliptic plane of the Earth, on the trajectory of the latter, at the time when our planet is there.

    ^ In the same way, eleven days after the closest approach on May 14, 2006 , the comet, or rather fragment B, will cross the ecliptic plane exactly on MAY 25, 2006 !

    .Their orbits typically take them out to the region of the outer planets (Jupiter and beyond) at aphelion; for example, the aphelion of Halley's Comet is a short distance farther away than the orbit of Neptune.^ This is the first time that a fragmented comet crosses our road at such a short distance.

    ^ "The closest fragment will be about six million miles away--or twenty-five times farther than the Moon."

    ^ But Prof Wickramasinghe believes that if there is one, there may well be hundreds, lurking beyond the outer planets of Neptune and Pluto.

    .At the shorter extreme, Encke's Comet has an orbit which never puts it farther away from the Sun than Jupiter is.^ Comet 73P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 3 has been passing Earth all month as it approaches the point nearest the sun in its orbit.

    ^ Scientists using NASA's Swift satellite have detected X-rays from a comet that is now passing the Earth and rapidly disintegrating on what could be its final orbit around the sun.

    ^ "The closest fragment will be about six million miles away--or twenty-five times farther than the Moon."

    .Short-period comets are further divided into the Jupiter family (periods less than 20 years) and Halley family (periods between 20 and 200 years).
  • Long-period comets have highly eccentric orbits and periods ranging from 200 years to thousands or even millions of years.^ This year 2006, on the other hand, the Earth and the comet coincide in their orbits perfectly.

    ^ The comet's nucleus has shattered into more than 33 pieces, and is likely to continue to disintegrate.

    ^ It does not say that this deadly comet will not cross earth's path for another 200 to 10,000 years.

    .(However, by definition they remain gravitationally bound to the Sun; those comets that are ejected from the solar system due to close passes by major planets are no longer properly considered as having "periods".) Their orbits take them far beyond the outer planets at aphelia, and the plane of their orbits need not lie near the ecliptic.
  • Single-apparition comets are similar to long-period comets, but have parabolic or slightly-hyperbolic trajectories[26], when in inner Solar System.^ As yet no such object has definitely been found in the solar system.

    ^ They circle the sun in irregular orbits, moving as far away as the outer fringes of the solar system before swinging back in.

    ^ When comets get close to the sun, they heat up.

    .However, when in outer Solar System, their orbits are highly-eccentric elliptical.^ EL61 is also one of the largest of a group of icy objects that navigate an outer region of our Solar System, known as the Kuiper Belt.

    ^ In this artist's visualization, the newly discovered planet-like object, dubbed "Sedna," is shown where it resides at the outer edges of the known solar system.

    ^ Now the comet is headed away from the sun and us, shrinking and dimming as it speeds to the cold outer solar system whence it came ...

    .Their aphelions lie in the Oort Cloud.^ However, it resembles that of objects predicted to lie in the hypothetical Oort cloud.

    .Gravitational perturbations from giant planets cause their orbits to change.^ The relative positions of these planets tended to cause the fragments to deviate towards the outside of the elliptic orbit of the comet.

    .All comets with parabolic and slightly-hyperbolic orbits belong to the Solar System and have certain obital periods, generally hundreds of thousand, or millions of years.^ And it is an euphemism The mysterious comet is, at the moment of this start, hundreds of million kilometers of the belt of asteroids.

    ^ Comet 73P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 3 has been passing Earth all month as it approaches the point nearest the sun in its orbit.

    ^ Researchers have suggested that one or more mass extinctions during the past few hundred million years might have been triggered by supernovae, and that it might happen again.

    .Very few comets have escaped the Solar System due to close approaches to giant planets.^ In May 2006, SW-3 will be not only among the rare ones to also approach close to the Earth, but also among comets having known the greatest magnitude ever reached.

    ^ Also, since the last close encounter with Nibiru (Planet X) was in antiquity, it is possible the comet in question could be the very same.

    ^ The Warning sounds very much like two comets (or comet fragments in this case) will appear to be on a collision course with the earth -- or with each other at close proximity to our planet.

    .No comets with e>>1 were observed, so there were no observed comets that do not belong to our Solar System.
  • Some authorities use the term periodic comet to refer to any comet with a periodic orbit (that is, all short-period comets plus all long-period comets),[27] while others use it to mean exclusively short-period comets.^ As soon as there is comet, there will be some disaster.

    ^ There are 175 comets referred as short period, of which the most famous is Halley's Comet.

    ^ This year 2006, on the other hand, the Earth and the comet coincide in their orbits perfectly.

    [26] .Similarly, although the literal meaning of non-periodic comet is the same as "single-apparition comet", some use it to mean all comets that are not "periodic" in the second sense (that is, to also include all comets with a period greater than 200 years).
  • Recently discovered main-belt comets form a distinct class, orbiting in more circular orbits within the asteroid belt.^ And it is an euphemism The mysterious comet is, at the moment of this start, hundreds of million kilometers of the belt of asteroids.

    ^ This year 2006, on the other hand, the Earth and the comet coincide in their orbits perfectly.

    ^ Comet 73P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 3 has been passing Earth all month as it approaches the point nearest the sun in its orbit.

    [28][29]
.Based on their orbital characteristics, short-period comets are thought to originate from the centaurs and the Kuiper belt/scattered disk[1]—a disk of objects in the transneptunian region—whereas the source of long-period comets is thought to be the far more distant spherical Oort cloud (after the Dutch astronomer Jan Hendrik Oort who hypothesised its existence).^ The cloud is thought to explain the existence of certain comets.

^ The safety of millions of people rests in the hands of very questionable theoretical study based on a traditional model for ejection of comet fragments whereas the original circumstances of these ejections were not traditional.

^ This is likely the first detection of the long-hypothesized "Oort cloud," a faraway repository of small icy bodies that supplies the comets that streak by Earth.

[30] .Vast swarms of comet-like bodies are believed to orbit the Sun in these distant regions in roughly circular orbits.^ "We suspect that every comet goes through an episode like this," says Kelley of those comets that don't die by plunging into the Sun or into a planet.

^ Comet 73P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 3 has been passing Earth all month as it approaches the point nearest the sun in its orbit.

^ Scientists using NASA's Swift satellite have detected X-rays from a comet that is now passing the Earth and rapidly disintegrating on what could be its final orbit around the sun.

.Occasionally the gravitational influence of the outer planets (in the case of Kuiper Belt objects) or nearby stars (in the case of Oort cloud objects) may throw one of these bodies into an elliptical orbit that takes it inwards towards the Sun, to form a visible comet.^ Is the "Ball of Redemption" the recently-discovered red "planet" Sedna, now moving towards the sun and inner solar system in its highly elliptical, comet-like orbit, or a fiery brown dwarf star hurtling in our direction and as of yet unseen -- a sun that collapsed inwardly, a dark star that has tremendous gravitational influence on everything that it passes, a death star.

^ "We suspect that every comet goes through an episode like this," says Kelley of those comets that don't die by plunging into the Sun or into a planet.

^ Comet 73P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 3 has been passing Earth all month as it approaches the point nearest the sun in its orbit.

.Unlike the return of periodic comets whose orbits have been established by previous observations, the appearance of new comets by this mechanism is unpredictable.^ On each orbit around the sun, the comet lays down a new debris stream along a slightly different path.

.Since their elliptical orbits frequently take them close to the giant planets, comets are subject to further gravitational perturbations.^ Also, since the last close encounter with Nibiru (Planet X) was in antiquity, it is possible the comet in question could be the very same.

^ The Warning sounds very much like two comets (or comet fragments in this case) will appear to be on a collision course with the earth -- or with each other at close proximity to our planet.

^ Big telescopes will continue to take turns looking at the comet when there is time and until the comet is too close to the Sun for the telescopes to look without damaging their instruments.

.Short period comets display a tendency for their aphelia to coincide with a giant planet's orbital radius, with the Jupiter family of comets being the largest, as the histogram shows.^ However, it is associated with Comet 73P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 3, a Jupiter-family comet that split in 1995.

^ There are 175 comets referred as short period, of which the most famous is Halley's Comet.

^ This plume widens under, more or less, due to strong influence of the gravitation of other planets, in particular, Jupiter, which is the largest planet of the solar system.

.It is clear that comets coming in from the Oort cloud often have their orbits strongly influenced by the gravity of giant planets as a result of a close encounter.^ Brown said this "inner Oort cloud" may have been formed by gravity from a rogue star near the Sun in the solar system's early days.

^ Also, since the last close encounter with Nibiru (Planet X) was in antiquity, it is possible the comet in question could be the very same.

^ Except for periodic comets with known solar orbits, no one knows when the next one is coming until ...

.Jupiter is the source of the greatest perturbations, being more than twice as massive as all the other planets combined, in addition to being the swiftest of the giant planets.^ With such a "fairy castle" structure, the moon would absorb more than 99% of all the light that hit it, the team says.

^ These GRBs, as they are called, pack more punch than any other cosmic event.

^ This plume widens under, more or less, due to strong influence of the gravitation of other planets, in particular, Jupiter, which is the largest planet of the solar system.

.These perturbations probably sometimes deflect long-period comets into shorter orbital periods, with Halley's Comet being a possible example of this.^ Therefore, Mabus does not die sometime after a comet has passed -- he dies while the comet is still being observed in the sky by many millions of people.

^ The 6-1 Comets are three points away from being unbeaten going into their eighth game next Saturday night at Long Beach City College.
  • Palomar College FOOTBALL 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC www.palomar.edu [Source type: General]

^ There are 175 comets referred as short period, of which the most famous is Halley's Comet.

Early observations have revealed a few genuinely hyperbolic (i.e. non-periodic) trajectories, but no more than could be accounted for by perturbations from Jupiter. .If comets pervaded interstellar space, they would be moving with velocities of the same order as the relative velocities of stars near the Sun (a few tens of kilometres per second).^ Thus, the crop circle registered that the carrier of information on the danger of comet would be the same one as that of the world message of September 6, 2006 .

^ Perhaps we would make the same decisions that they do.

^ The following day, observers in Cordoba described the comet as a “ blazing star ” near the Sun .

.If such objects entered the solar system, they would have positive total energies, and would be observed to have genuinely hyperbolic trajectories.^ As yet no such object has definitely been found in the solar system.

^ After Mars, it is the second reddest object in the solar system .

^ The object, called "Sedna" for the Inuit goddess of the ocean, is 13 billion kilometers (8 billion miles) away, in the farthest reaches of the solar system.

.A rough calculation shows that there might be four hyperbolic comets per century,[31] within Jupiter's orbit, give or take one and perhaps two orders of magnitude.^ Calculations showed its affiliation with the Biela comet.

^ Except for periodic comets with known solar orbits, no one knows when the next one is coming until ...

^ In the above plate taken on May 17, 2001, one can see the separation of the two cometary bodies that were once a single comet's head.

[citation needed]
.A number of periodic comets discovered in earlier decades or previous centuries are now "lost."^ What if the " dart " is Comet C/2006 P1 McNaught , now visible in the southern hemisphere and visible earlier this month in the north until about January 13?

Their orbits were never known well enough to predict future appearances. .However, occasionally a "new" comet will be discovered and upon calculation of its orbit it turns out to be an old "lost" comet.^ On each orbit around the sun, the comet lays down a new debris stream along a slightly different path.

^ The dust, however, is forensic evidence that may provide more insight into the nature of this new comet when the meteor shower is seen again in the future.

.An example is Comet 11P/Tempel-Swift-LINEAR, discovered in 1869 but unobservable after 1908 because of perturbations by Jupiter.^ Because of its burst-hunting ability to turn rapidly, Swift has been able to track the progress of the fast-moving Schwassmann-Wachmann 3 comet.

It was not found again until accidentally rediscovered by LINEAR in 2001.[32]

Lifecycle

Departure/ejection from Solar System

.If a comet is traveling fast enough, it will enter and leave the solar system; such is the case for most non-periodic comets.^ As yet no such object has definitely been found in the solar system.

^ As of March 2006, at least 40 different fragments of the comet are known to be flying through the solar system.

^ The answer I think is that it's blacker than black and the only object it could be is a comet, which makes up some of the darkest objects in the solar system."

.In addition, comets can be ejected by interacting with another object in the solar system (see Perturbation), such as Jupiter.^ Scientists think that atomic particles that comprise the solar wind interact with comet material to produce X-rays, a theory that Swift might prove true.

^ As of March 2006, at least 40 different fragments of the comet are known to be flying through the solar system.

^ Comets are "dirty snowballs," chunks of ice and rock left over from the formation of the solar system 4.5 billion years ago, scientists say.

.
Material coming off Component B of 73P/Schwassmann-Wachmann which broke up starting in 1995, as seen by the HST.
^ PHOTO OP: On May 7th, the biggest fragment of dying comet 73P/Schwassmann Wachmann 3 will glide by the Ring Nebula in Lyra.

^ We see in the table of NASA below that relative speeds of approach are about 15 kilometers a second for SW-3 (73P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 3).

^ Comet 73P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 3 has been passing Earth all month as it approaches the point nearest the sun in its orbit.

This animation covers a span of three days.

Volatiles exhausted

.Jupiter family comets (JFC) and long period comets (LPC) (see "Orbital characteristics", below) appear to follow very different fading laws.^ However, it is associated with Comet 73P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 3, a Jupiter-family comet that split in 1995.

^ The Warning sounds very much like two comets (or comet fragments in this case) will appear to be on a collision course with the earth -- or with each other at close proximity to our planet.

^ The Chastisement may be related to the following prophecy by Nostradamus concerning a comet that appears like two suns: .

.The JFCs are active over a lifetime of about 10,000 years or ~1,000 revolutions while the LPCs disappear much faster.^ It simply says that it does so every 200 to 10,000 years.

^ It does not say that this deadly comet will not cross earth's path for another 200 to 10,000 years.

^ The comet itself has not yet been discovered and is likely to return to Earth's vicinity only once every 200 - 10,000 years.

.Only 10% of the LPCs survive more than 50 passages to small perihelion, while only 1% of them survive more than 2,000 passages.^ Although it seemed unusually weak, it lasted for 2,000 seconds - more than a half-hour.

^ The comet itself has not yet been discovered and is likely to return to Earth's vicinity only once every 200 - 10,000 years.

^ Only two passages to 0,03 UA for Halley (837 after JC), and 0,04 UA for C/1132 T1 (1132) did better than the fragment S of SW-3!

[33] Eventually most of the volatile material contained in a comet nucleus evaporates away, and the comet becomes a small, dark, inert lump of rock or rubble that can resemble an asteroid.[34]

Breakup/disintegration

Comets are also known to break up into fragments, as happened with Comet 73P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 3 starting in 1995.[35]
This breakup may be triggered by tidal gravitational forces from the Sun or a large planet, by an "explosion" of volatile material, or for other reasons not fully explained.

Collisions

Brown spots mark impact sites of the Shoemaker-Levy Comet on Jupiter's southern hemisphere.
.Some comets meet a more spectacular end—either falling into the Sun,[36] or smashing into a planet or other body.^ The Warning sounds very much like two comets (or comet fragments in this case) will appear to be on a collision course with the earth -- or with each other at close proximity to our planet.

^ I put the Sun behind a neighbor’s house to block the glare and the comet popped right into view.

^ On that day, some observers described the comet’s silvery radiance as scarcely fainter than the limb of the Sun , suggesting a magnitude somewhere between -15 and -20!

.Collisions between comets and planets or moons were common in the early Solar System: some of the many craters on the Earth's Moon, for example, may have been caused by comets.^ IT'S one of the many mysteries of the solar system.

^ The Warning sounds very much like two comets (or comet fragments in this case) will appear to be on a collision course with the earth -- or with each other at close proximity to our planet.

^ The answer I think is that it's blacker than black and the only object it could be is a comet, which makes up some of the darkest objects in the solar system."

.A recent collision of a comet with a planet occurred in July 1994 when Comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 broke up into pieces and collided with Jupiter.^ The Warning sounds very much like two comets (or comet fragments in this case) will appear to be on a collision course with the earth -- or with each other at close proximity to our planet.

Many comets and asteroids collided into Earth in its early stages. .Many scientists believe that comets bombarding the young Earth (about 4 billion years ago) brought the vast quantities of water that now fill the Earth's oceans, or at least a significant proportion of it.^ This year 2006, on the other hand, the Earth and the comet coincide in their orbits perfectly.

^ Planet X appears as the ancient Sumerian Nibiru which brought unparalleled geological catastrophe to our world over 3,600 years ago.

^ Scientists using NASA's Swift satellite have detected X-rays from a comet that is now passing the Earth and rapidly disintegrating on what could be its final orbit around the sun.

But other researchers have cast doubt on this theory.[37] .The detection of organic molecules in comets has led some to speculate that comets or meteorites may have brought the precursors of life—or even life itself—to Earth.^ Scientists using NASA's Swift satellite have detected X-rays from a comet that is now passing the Earth and rapidly disintegrating on what could be its final orbit around the sun.

^ None of the pieces will come closer than 5.5 million miles to Earth during the comet's closest approaches May 12-28.

^ In May 2006, SW-3 will be not only among the rare ones to also approach close to the Earth, but also among comets having known the greatest magnitude ever reached.

[11] .There are still many near-Earth comets, although a collision with an asteroid is more likely than with a comet.^ The closer the fragmented comet approaches the Earth, there will be more fragments.

^ Therefore, Mabus does not die sometime after a comet has passed -- he dies while the comet is still being observed in the sky by many millions of people.

^ None of the pieces will come closer than 5.5 million miles to Earth during the comet's closest approaches May 12-28.

.It is suspected that comet impacts have, over long timescales, also delivered significant quantities of water to the Earth's Moon, some of which may have survived as lunar ice.^ None of the pieces will come closer than 5.5 million miles to Earth during the comet's closest approaches May 12-28.

^ In May 2006, SW-3 will be not only among the rare ones to also approach close to the Earth, but also among comets having known the greatest magnitude ever reached.

^ May 26: The Moon can't be seen this evening, because it's New, nearly between Earth and the Sun, at 11:26 p.m.

Nomenclature

.The names given to comets have followed several different conventions over the past two centuries.^ AM Pacific Daylight Time Hi Kent, please take a look this two different location of this comet please.

^ The comet is currently a chain of over three dozen separate fragments, named alphabetically, stretching across the sky by several times the angular diameter of the Moon.

^ The Chastisement may be related to the following prophecy by Nostradamus concerning a comet that appears like two suns: .

Before any systematic naming convention was adopted, comets were named in a variety of ways. .Prior to the early 20th century, most comets were simply referred to by the year in which they appeared, sometimes with additional adjectives for particularly bright comets; thus, the "Great Comet of 1680" (Kirch's Comet), the "Great September Comet of 1882," and the "Daylight Comet of 1910" ("Great January Comet of 1910").^ They're not like the Great Comets Hayutake and Hale-Bopp of 1996 and 1997.

^ COMET KURTZ , another Super Comet, appeared in 1680 and reached an official magnitude of -18 , but may have achieved a magnitude of around -20 to -22 at its brightest.

^ At this time Comet McNaught qualifies as a " great comet " (one out of eight such comets seen during the last 263 years).

Halley's Comet, named after the astronomer Edmund Halley for successfully calculating its orbit
.After Edmund Halley demonstrated that the comets of 1531, 1607, and 1682 were the same body and successfully predicted its return in 1759, that comet became known as Halley's Comet.^ The big question is whether this comet is the same comet I am talking about in my prediction.

[38] .Similarly, the second and third known periodic comets, Encke's Comet [39] and Biela's Comet,[40] were named after the astronomers who calculated their orbits rather than their original discoverers.^ Calculations showed its affiliation with the Biela comet.

^ As of March 2006, at least 40 different fragments of the comet are known to be flying through the solar system.

^ Writing in the astronomical magazine The Observatory, Prof Wickramasinghe and his colleagues, who include his daughter Janaki and Professor Bill Napier, suggest that Sedna's partner may be more like a huge extinct comet rather than a rocky planetary body.

.Later, periodic comets were usually named after their discoverers, but comets that had appeared only once continued to be referred to by the year of their apparition.^ Boudreaux, Palomar's leading tackler over a two-year period, went out in style in his final game as a Comet.
  • Palomar College FOOTBALL 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC www.palomar.edu [Source type: General]

^ The last comet to reach that size was Comet Hyakutake in 1996, which appeared as a blue-green, moon-sized apparition, although not anywhere as bright as the moon.

^ The comet itself has not yet been discovered and is likely to return to Earth's vicinity only once every 200 - 10,000 years.

.In the early 20th century, the convention of naming comets after their discoverers became common, and this remains so today.^ That means it is not any of the comets catalogued since 1805 (when cataloguing was not as complete or as sophisticated as it has been since the early 20th Century).

.A comet is named after up to three independent discoverers.^ The comet is currently a chain of over three dozen separate fragments, named alphabetically, stretching across the sky by several times the angular diameter of the Moon.

.In recent years, many comets have been discovered by instruments operated by large teams of astronomers, and in this case, comets may be named for the instrument.^ Its name is Comet McNaught, and it may well be the brightest comet that nobody saw.

^ The comet itself has not yet been discovered and is likely to return to Earth's vicinity only once every 200 - 10,000 years.

^ It shows that the Earth would be swept by a meteor shower in May 2006 named Tau Herculids, precisely coming from comet SW-3.

For example, Comet IRAS-Araki-Alcock was discovered independently by the IRAS satellite and amateur astronomers Genichi Araki and George Alcock. .In the past, when multiple comets were discovered by the same individual, group of individuals, or team, the comets' names were distinguished by adding a numeral to the discoverers' names (but only for periodic comets); thus Comets Shoemaker-Levy 1–9.^ Thus, the crop circle registered that the carrier of information on the danger of comet would be the same one as that of the world message of September 6, 2006 .

^ By combining available data, Brown estimated Sedna's size at about halfway between Pluto and Quaoar, the planetoid discovered by the same team in 2002.

^ The comet itself has not yet been discovered and is likely to return to Earth's vicinity only once every 200 - 10,000 years.

.Today, the large numbers of comets discovered by some instruments has caused this system to be impractical, and no attempt is made to ensure that each comet is given a unique name.^ Today, some comet historians consider it as a “Super Comet,” far above the run of even Great Comets.

^ The answer I think is that it's blacker than black and the only object it could be is a comet, which makes up some of the darkest objects in the solar system."

^ The press release of the European Space Agency in January 1996 is clear "Only some rare comets made the experiment of an increase in so large and unexpected luminosity.

Instead, the comets' systematic designations are used to avoid confusion.
.Until 1994, comets were first given a provisional designation consisting of the year of their discovery followed by a lowercase letter indicating its order of discovery in that year (for example, Comet 1969i (Bennett) was the 9th comet discovered in 1969).^ The comet itself has not yet been discovered and is likely to return to Earth's vicinity only once every 200 - 10,000 years.

^ Discovered in 1930, the comet comes nearest to the Earth every 5 years.

^ The track the fragments are following is a line of Sun-warmed comet debris, dust and fine sand, that the comet left in space on its previous 5.4-year cycles around the Sun.

Once the comet had been observed through perihelion and its orbit had been established, the comet was given a permanent designation of the year of its perihelion, followed by a Roman numeral indicating its order of perihelion passage in that year, so that Comet 1969i became Comet 1970 II (it was the second comet to pass perihelion in 1970)[41]
.Increasing numbers of comet discoveries made this procedure awkward, and in 1994 the International Astronomical Union approved a new naming system.^ Astronomers are informed of the existence of a certain number of comet fragments but are technically incapable of counting them all.

^ The press release of the European Space Agency in January 1996 is clear "Only some rare comets made the experiment of an increase in so large and unexpected luminosity.

^ Official names for them may be decided by the International Astronomical Union in August 2006.

Comets are now designated by the year of their discovery followed by a letter indicating the half-month of the discovery and a number indicating the order of discovery (a system similar to that already used for asteroids), so that the fourth comet discovered in the second half of February 2006 would be designated 2006 D4. Prefixes are also added to indicate the nature of the comet:
  • P/ indicates a periodic comet (defined for these purposes as any comet with an orbital period of less than 200 years or confirmed observations at more than one perihelion passage);
  • C/ indicates a non-periodic comet (defined as any comet that is not periodic according to the preceding definition);
  • X/ indicates a comet for which no reliable orbit could be calculated (generally, historical comets);
  • D/ indicates a comet which has broken up or been lost, referred to as dark comet;[42]
  • A/ indicates an object that was mistakenly identified as a comet, but is actually a minor planet.
.After their second observed perihelion passage, periodic comets are also assigned a number indicating the order of their discovery.^ This test, meeting the requirements to evaluate the reactivity of those countries, will take place on MAY 16, 2006, the period of the closest passage of comet SW3.

[43] So Halley's Comet, the first comet to be identified as periodic, has the systematic designation 1P/1682 Q1. .Comet Hale-Bopp's designation is C/1995 O1. Comets which first received a minor planet designation keep the latter, which leads to some odd names such as P/2004 EW38 (Catalina-LINEAR).^ Similarly, NO ONE on this planet understands the reasons of the fragmentation of the comet 73P/SW-3 in 1995 in the first place!

^ They're not like the Great Comets Hayutake and Hale-Bopp of 1996 and 1997.

^ Comet McNaught is currently brighter than magnitude -1: as bright as Comet Hale-Bopp was in late March/early April 1997.

.There are only five bodies in our Solar System that are cross-listed as both comets and asteroids: 2060 Chiron (95P/Chiron), 4015 Wilson-Harrington (107P/Wilson-Harrington), 7968 Elst-Pizarro (133P/Elst-Pizarro), 60558 Echeclus (174P/Echeclus), and 118401 LINEAR (176P/LINEAR).^ This is the first time that a fragmented comet crosses our road at such a short distance.

^ As of March 2006, at least 40 different fragments of the comet are known to be flying through the solar system.

^ The answer I think is that it's blacker than black and the only object it could be is a comet, which makes up some of the darkest objects in the solar system."

History of study

Early observations and thought

Halley's Comet depicted on the Bayeux Tapestry which shows King Harold I being told of Halley's Comet before the Battle of Hastings in 1066.
.Before the invention of the telescope, comets seemed to appear out of nowhere in the sky and gradually vanish out of sight.^ Mabus must die first before the great slaughter can take place and he must die when a spectacular comet is visible in the night skies.

^ Technically, nothing has appeared in the sky thus far in many centuries that has truly earned the right to be called the Blue Star Kachina except Comet Hyakutake.

^ To Hale (well-known codiscoverer of Comet Hale-Bopp) it appeared essentially starlike in a telescope until he switched to high power.

They were usually considered bad omens of deaths of kings or noble men, or coming catastrophes, or even interpreted as attacks by heavenly beings against terrestrial inhabitants.[44] From ancient sources, such as Chinese oracle bones, it is known that their appearances have been noticed by humans for millennia. .Some authorities interpret references to "falling stars" in Gilgamesh, the Book of Revelation, and the Book of Enoch as references to comets, or possibly bolides.^ It may or may not be the star Wormwood that appears in the Book of Revelation.

^ However, other interpreters of the Hopi prophecies believe the Blue Star Kachina will be a cosmic event, a real star, supernova, or comet that will herald in a terrible global war.

^ A small asteroid collision in the Mediterranean Sea, prophesied by Nostradamus and also in the Book of Revelation, I believed would happen sooner, possibly as early as 2008.

One very famous old recording of a comet is the appearance of Halley's Comet on the Bayeux Tapestry, which records the Norman conquest of England in AD 1066.[45]
.In the first book of his Meteorology, Aristotle propounded the view of comets that would hold sway in Western thought for nearly two thousand years.^ Boudreaux, Palomar's leading tackler over a two-year period, went out in style in his final game as a Comet.
  • Palomar College FOOTBALL 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC www.palomar.edu [Source type: General]

^ It is possible there could be two major comets this year.

^ One has to go back to 1910, however, when two comets bright enough to be seen in daylight occurred in the same year.

.He rejected the ideas of several earlier philosophers that comets were planets, or at least a phenomenon related to the planets, on the grounds that while the planets confined their motion to the circle of the Zodiac, comets could appear in any part of the sky.^ Wednesday, residents of the northern part of Troms and the western areas of Finnmark could clearly see a ball of fire taking several seconds to travel across the sky.

^ Also, since the last close encounter with Nibiru (Planet X) was in antiquity, it is possible the comet in question could be the very same.

^ The Warning sounds very much like two comets (or comet fragments in this case) will appear to be on a collision course with the earth -- or with each other at close proximity to our planet.

[46] .Instead, he described comets as a phenomenon of the upper atmosphere, where hot, dry exhalations gathered and occasionally burst into flame.^ A light meteor shower should also occur starting late next week as tiny bits of comet crash into the Earth's atmosphere.

.Aristotle held this mechanism responsible for not only comets, but also meteors, the aurora borealis, and even the Milky Way.^ The McNaught Comet, otherwise known as C/2006 P1, has been given the title "Great Comet of 2007," even though it's only January.

^ The great distance means a meteor shower is unlikely; but 73P is such a strange comet that even the unlikely is possible.

[47]
.A few later classical philosophers did dispute this view of comets.^ Meanwhile, backyard skywatchers have been tracking the comet's disintegration, and there are a few days left to catch the view .

^ There were early hints that this Comet McNaught could present itself nicely during its closest approach to the sun, but few anticipated what did happen.

.Seneca the Younger, in his Natural Questions, observed that comets moved regularly through the sky and were undisturbed by the wind, behavior more typical of celestial than atmospheric phenomena.^ Therefore, Mabus does not die sometime after a comet has passed -- he dies while the comet is still being observed in the sky by many millions of people.

^ The comet's nucleus has shattered into more than 33 pieces, and is likely to continue to disintegrate.

^ The comet's nucleus has broken into more than 40 fragments.

.While he conceded that the other planets do not appear outside the Zodiac, he saw no reason that a planet-like object could not move through any part of the sky, humanity's knowledge of celestial things being very limited.^ Similarly, NO ONE on this planet understands the reasons of the fragmentation of the comet 73P/SW-3 in 1995 in the first place!

^ "We suspect that every comet goes through an episode like this," says Kelley of those comets that don't die by plunging into the Sun or into a planet.

^ In both cases, there is no reason so that there are not other fragments around, and especially behind S. We see that the fragment S is an extremely serious candidate for a collision with the Earth.

[48] .However, the Aristotelian viewpoint proved more influential, and it was not until the 16th century that it was demonstrated that comets must exist outside the Earth's atmosphere.^ However, I still maintain that an easy naked-eye comet must yet appear ...

^ A light meteor shower should also occur starting late next week as tiny bits of comet crash into the Earth's atmosphere.

^ There exists more than 300,000 underwater volcanoes on Earth, including one substantial part on this dorsal.

.In 1577, a bright comet was visible for several months.^ Red degaard said the meteorite was visible to an area of several hundred kilometers despite the brightness of the midnight sunlit summer sky.

^ In the autumn of 2000 and winter of 2001 I experienced several vivid dreams regarding a strange red comet, the third in a series, visible over a period of many months at night and especially in daylight.

^ What if the " dart " is Comet C/2006 P1 McNaught , now visible in the southern hemisphere and visible earlier this month in the north until about January 13?

.The Danish astronomer Tycho Brahe used measurements of the comet's position taken by himself and other, geographically separated, observers to determine that the comet had no measurable parallax.^ In the above plate taken on May 17, 2001, one can see the separation of the two cometary bodies that were once a single comet's head.

^ The comet is so close that astronomers are hoping to determine not only the composition of the comet but also of the solar wind.

.Within the precision of the measurements, this implied the comet must be at least four times more distant from the earth than the moon.^ At that time, the comet was a faint and distant object.

^ Because Schwassmann-Wachmann 3 is much closer to both the Earth and the sun than Tempel 1 was, it currently appears about 20 times brighter in X-rays.

^ None of the pieces will come closer than 5.5 million miles to Earth during the comet's closest approaches May 12-28.

[49]

Orbital studies

The orbit of the comet of 1680, fit to a parabola, as shown in Isaac Newton's Principia
.Although comets had now been demonstrated to be in the heavens, the question of how they moved through the heavens would be debated for most of the next century.^ And when they hit, they do not disintegrate harmlessly in the atmosphere as most would on Earth.

^ Moving now to the date of the planetary simulation for May 14, 2006 ; for centuries the comet Schwassmann-Wachmann has made hundreds of revolutions around the sun while remaining whole.

^ It is not now at all a question of belief, but of data giving extensive detailed reports, that demonstrate certainty in the UFO phenomena.

.Even after Johannes Kepler had determined in 1609 that the planets moved about the sun in elliptical orbits, he was reluctant to believe that the laws that governed the motions of the planets should also influence the motion of other bodies—he believed that comets travel among the planets along straight lines.^ "I do not believe this comet will be Planet X (see the Planet X section).

^ Is the "Ball of Redemption" the recently-discovered red "planet" Sedna, now moving towards the sun and inner solar system in its highly elliptical, comet-like orbit, or a fiery brown dwarf star hurtling in our direction and as of yet unseen -- a sun that collapsed inwardly, a dark star that has tremendous gravitational influence on everything that it passes, a death star.

^ This year 2006, on the other hand, the Earth and the comet coincide in their orbits perfectly.

Galileo Galilei, although a staunch Copernicanist, rejected Tycho's parallax measurements and held to the Aristotelian notion of comets moving on straight lines through the upper atmosphere.[citation needed]
.The first suggestion that Kepler's laws of planetary motion should also apply to the comets was made by William Lower in 1610.[49] In the following decades other astronomers, including Pierre Petit, Giovanni Borelli, Adrien Auzout, Robert Hooke, Johann Baptist Cysat, and Giovanni Domenico Cassini all argued for comets curving about the sun on elliptical or parabolic paths, while others, such as Christian Huygens and Johannes Hevelius, supported comets' linear motion.^ Comet 73P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 3 has been passing Earth all month as it approaches the point nearest the sun in its orbit.

^ Moving now to the date of the planetary simulation for May 14, 2006 ; for centuries the comet Schwassmann-Wachmann has made hundreds of revolutions around the sun while remaining whole.

^ The following day, observers in Cordoba described the comet as a “ blazing star ” near the Sun .

[citation needed]
.The matter was resolved by the bright comet that was discovered by Gottfried Kirch on November 14, 1680. Astronomers throughout Europe tracked its position for several months.^ There hasn't been a comet that bright since Comet Ikeya-Seki appeared in October and November 1965 (some observations place Ikeya-Seki's utmost magnitude at - 10 ).

^ Even backyard astronomers will be able to take pictures as the mini-comets file through the constellations Cygnus and Pegasus on May 12 , 13 and 14 .

^ Cooke and other astronomers will be watching the bright comet fragments to calculate their various trajectories for future years.

.In 1681, the Saxon pastor Georg Samuel Doerfel set forth his proofs that comets are heavenly bodies moving in parabolas of which the sun is the focus.^ When the Sun is rising in the east the comet is seen just ahead of the Sun, and at sunset, the comet appears in the west just after the Sun sets under the horizon.

^ The comet's evening show is nearly over for Northern Hemisphere skywatchers now as it sets just moments after the Sun on Sunday and then ahead of the Sun by mid-week.

^ Heavenly Body Comet McNaught Lights up the Night Sky .

.Then Isaac Newton, in his Principia Mathematica of 1687, proved that an object moving under the influence of his inverse square law of universal gravitation must trace out an orbit shaped like one of the conic sections, and he demonstrated how to fit a comet's path through the sky to a parabolic orbit, using the comet of 1680 as an example.^ "We suspect that every comet goes through an episode like this," says Kelley of those comets that don't die by plunging into the Sun or into a planet.

^ Scientists using NASA's Swift satellite have detected X-rays from a comet that is now passing the Earth and rapidly disintegrating on what could be its final orbit around the sun.

^ Will the next spectacular comet to grace our skies also be one prophesied by Nostradamus ...

[50]
.In 1705, Edmond Halley applied Newton's method to twenty-three cometary apparitions that had occurred between 1337 and 1698. He noted that three of these, the comets of 1531, 1607, and 1682, had very similar orbital elements, and he was further able to account for the slight differences in their orbits in terms of gravitational perturbation by Jupiter and Saturn.^ These elements are from the solar wind, not the comet.

^ Orbital elements of broken comet .

^ However, between the end of 2002 and mid-2003, when SW-3 had its slowest speed, Jupiter and Saturn influenced the previously fragmented comet.

.Confident that these three apparitions had been three appearances of the same comet, he predicted that it would appear again in 1758–9.[51] (Earlier, Robert Hooke had identified the comet of 1664 with that of 1618,[52] while Giovanni Domenico Cassini had suspected the identity of the comets of 1577, 1665, and 1680.[53] Both were incorrect.^ COMET KURTZ , another Super Comet, appeared in 1680 and reached an official magnitude of -18 , but may have achieved a magnitude of around -20 to -22 at its brightest.

^ Thus, the crop circle registered that the carrier of information on the danger of comet would be the same one as that of the world message of September 6, 2006 .

^ The last comet to reach that size was Comet Hyakutake in 1996, which appeared as a blue-green, moon-sized apparition, although not anywhere as bright as the moon.

) .Halley's predicted return date was later refined by a team of three French mathematicians: Alexis Clairaut, Joseph Lalande, and Nicole-Reine Lepaute, who predicted the date of the comet's 1759 perihelion to within one month's accuracy.^ In fact, we show that the 1930 observations date from one of the few expected appearances of the tau Herculid shower and predict that detectable activity will be produced in 2022 and 2049.

^ One year later will then come The Miracle and a short time after, as little as several months or as long as a few years, a global holocaust called The Chastisement .

^ That makes my prediction for a "great comet" in 2007 PREDICTION FULFILLED , although nine months early (see 2007 (Part Two) ).

[54] .When the comet returned as predicted, it became known as Halley's Comet (with the later-day designation of 1P/Halley).^ In the days and weeks that followed, the comet became visible in the morning sky as an immense object sporting a brilliant tail.

Its next appearance will be in the year 2061. See the book 2061: Odyssey Three by Sir Arthur C. Clarke.
.Among the comets with short enough periods to have been observed several times in the historical record, Halley's Comet is a unique one in that it is consistently bright enough to be visible to the naked eye while passing through the inner Solar System.^ "It is visible with naked eyes in a large city!"

^ IT'S one of the many mysteries of the solar system.

^ "To my amazement, 17P had brightened to naked-eye visibility," exclaimed Bob King when he spotted Comet Holmes shortly before dawn in Duluth, Minnesota.

.Since the confirmation of the periodicity of Halley's Comet, quite a few other periodic comets have been discovered through the use of the telescope.^ The 73P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 3 the 73rd recognized periodic comet in our solar system -- will be viewable to North Alabama residents using a telescope or binoculars during the first couple of weeks in May.

^ Bear in mind the other thing reported: this comet has not yet been discovered .

^ There are 175 comets referred as short period, of which the most famous is Halley's Comet.

.The second comet found to have a periodic orbit was Encke's Comet (with the official designation of 2P/Encke).^ Except for periodic comets with known solar orbits, no one knows when the next one is coming until ...

.During the period 1819 - 21 the German mathematician and physicist Johann Franz Encke computed the orbits for a series of comets that had been observed in 1786, 1795, 1805, and 1818, and he concluded that they were same comet, and successfully predicted its return in 1822.[39] By 1900, seventeen comets had been observed through more than one passage through their perihelions, and then recognized as being periodic comets.^ Therefore, Mabus does not die sometime after a comet has passed -- he dies while the comet is still being observed in the sky by many millions of people.

^ Thus, the crop circle registered that the carrier of information on the danger of comet would be the same one as that of the world message of September 6, 2006 .

^ The comet's nucleus has shattered into more than 33 pieces, and is likely to continue to disintegrate.

.As of April 2006, 175 comets have achieved this distinction, though several of these seem to have been destroyed or lost.^ The McNaught Comet, otherwise known as C/2006 P1, has been given the title "Great Comet of 2007," even though it's only January.

^ You need to know that up to recently, before I discovered what you have just read on this fragmented comet, I received on April 7, 2006 a telepathic message from extraterrestrial friends.

^ Space Weather News for April 7, 2006 http://spaceweather.com Dying comet 73P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 3 continues to break apart.

In ephemerides, comets are often denoted by the symbol .

Studies of physical characteristics

.Isaac Newton described comets as compact and durable solid bodies moving in oblique orbits, and their tails as thin streams of vapor emitted by their nuclei, ignited or heated by the sun.^ The following day, observers in Cordoba described the comet as a “ blazing star ” near the Sun .

^ On each orbit around the sun, the comet lays down a new debris stream along a slightly different path.

^ On that day, some observers described the comet’s silvery radiance as scarcely fainter than the limb of the Sun , suggesting a magnitude somewhere between -15 and -20!

Newton suspected that comets were the origin of the life-supporting component of air. .Newton also believed that the vapors given off by comets might replenish the planets' supplies of water (which was gradually being converted into soil by the growth and decay of plants), and the sun's supply of fuel.^ "I do not believe this comet will be Planet X (see the Planet X section).

^ "We suspect that every comet goes through an episode like this," says Kelley of those comets that don't die by plunging into the Sun or into a planet.

^ The comet consisting of ice, the sun vaporizes a part of its surface to the approach of the perihelion - not nearest to the center of revolution, i.e.

From his huge vapouring train perhaps to shake
Reviving moisture on the numerous orbs,
Thro' which his long ellipsis winds; perhaps
To lend new fuel to declining suns,
To light up worlds, and feed th' ethereal fire."
 
James Thomson, "The Seasons" (1730; 1748)
.As early as the 18th century, some scientists had made correct hypotheses as to comets' physical composition.^ That means it is not any of the comets catalogued since 1805 (when cataloguing was not as complete or as sophisticated as it has been since the early 20th Century).

^ The press release of the European Space Agency in January 1996 is clear "Only some rare comets made the experiment of an increase in so large and unexpected luminosity.

.In 1755, Immanuel Kant hypothesized that comets are composed of some volatile substance, whose vaporization gives rise to their brilliant displays near perihelion.^ This material reflects sunlight, giving a comet its brilliance.

[55] .In 1836, the German mathematician Friedrich Wilhelm Bessel, after observing streams of vapor during the appearance of Halley's Comet in 1835, proposed that the jet forces of evaporating material could be great enough to significantly alter a comet's orbit, and he argued that the non-gravitational movements of Encke's Comet resulted from this phenomenon.^ There were early hints that this Comet McNaught could present itself nicely during its closest approach to the sun, but few anticipated what did happen.

^ At this time Comet McNaught qualifies as a " great comet " (one out of eight such comets seen during the last 263 years).

^ In any event, the comet of this article could very well be the "great" comet I have predicted will either appear or be "discovered" in October 2007.

[56]
However, another comet-related discovery overshadowed these ideas for nearly a century. .Over the period 1864–1866 the Italian astronomer Giovanni Schiaparelli computed the orbit of the Perseid meteors, and based on orbital similarities, correctly hypothesized that the Perseids were fragments of Comet Swift-Tuttle.^ Scientists using NASA's Swift satellite have detected X-rays from a comet that is now passing the Earth and rapidly disintegrating on what could be its final orbit around the sun.

^ Astronomers are informed of the existence of a certain number of comet fragments but are technically incapable of counting them all.

^ METEOR WATCH: On May 31st, Earth will pass about five million miles from the dusty orbit of crumbling comet 73P/Schwassmann Wachmann 3.

.The link between comets and meteor showers was dramatically underscored when in 1872, a major meteor shower occurred from the orbit of Comet Biela, which had been observed to split into two pieces during its 1846 apparition, and was never seen again after 1852.[40] A "gravel bank" model of comet structure arose, according to which comets consist of loose piles of small rocky objects, coated with an icy layer.^ Fragment B of dying comet 73P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 3 has split in two.

^ None of the pieces will come closer than 5.5 million miles to Earth during the comet's closest approaches May 12-28.

^ The comet's nucleus has shattered into more than 33 pieces, and is likely to continue to disintegrate.

.By the middle of the twentieth century, this model suffered from a number of shortcomings: in particular, it failed to explain how a body that contained only a little ice could continue to put on a brilliant display of evaporating vapor after several perihelion passages.^ The comet consisting of ice, the sun vaporizes a part of its surface to the approach of the perihelion - not nearest to the center of revolution, i.e.

.In 1950, Fred Lawrence Whipple proposed that rather than being rocky objects containing some ice, comets were icy objects containing some dust and rock.^ The answer I think is that it's blacker than black and the only object it could be is a comet, which makes up some of the darkest objects in the solar system."

^ Comets are "dirty snowballs," chunks of ice and rock left over from the formation of the solar system 4.5 billion years ago, scientists say.

^ On that day, some observers described the comet’s silvery radiance as scarcely fainter than the limb of the Sun , suggesting a magnitude somewhere between -15 and -20!

[57] This "dirty snowball" model soon became accepted. .It was confirmed when an armada of spacecraft (including the European Space Agency's Giotto probe and the Soviet Union's Vega 1 and Vega 2) flew through the coma of Halley's Comet in 1986 to photograph the nucleus and observed the jets of evaporating material (though see also "Debate over comet composition", below).^ The press release of the European Space Agency in January 1996 is clear "Only some rare comets made the experiment of an increase in so large and unexpected luminosity.

^ (CNN) -- NASA and the European Space agency have released new images from the Hubble Space Telescope showing the dramatic breakup of comet Schwassmann-Wachmann 3.

^ For no apparent reason, the comet's nucleus split into at least three " mini-comets " flying single file through space.

.The American space probe Deep Space 1 flew past the nucleus of Comet Borrelly on September 21, 2001 and confirmed that the characteristics of Halley's Comet are common on other comets as well.^ The situation is reminiscent of the Deep Impact probe, which penetrated comet Tempel 1 about a year ago.

^ A well-placed comet like Hale-Bopp , in other words.

^ For no apparent reason, the comet's nucleus split into at least three " mini-comets " flying single file through space.

.Although comets formed in the outer Solar System, radial mixing of material during the early formation of the Solar System is thought to have redistributed material throughout the proto-planetary disk,[58] so comets also contain crystalline grains which were formed in the hot inner Solar System.^ Scientists think that atomic particles that comprise the solar wind interact with comet material to produce X-rays, a theory that Swift might prove true.

^ As of March 2006, at least 40 different fragments of the comet are known to be flying through the solar system.

^ The answer I think is that it's blacker than black and the only object it could be is a comet, which makes up some of the darkest objects in the solar system."

This is seen in comet spectra as well as in sample return missions.
Comet Wild 2 exhibits jets on light side and dark side, stark relief, and is dry.
.The Stardust spacecraft, launched in February 1999, collected particles from the coma of Comet Wild 2 in January 2004, and returned the samples to Earth in a capsule in January 2006. Claudia Alexander, a program scientist for Rosetta from NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory who has modeled comets for years, reported to space.com about her astonishment at the number of jets, their appearance on the dark side of the comet as well as on the light side, their ability to lift large chunks of rock from the surface of the comet and the fact that comet Wild 2 is not a loosely cemented rubble pile.^ This year 2006, on the other hand, the Earth and the comet coincide in their orbits perfectly.

^ "This is a rare opportunity to watch a comet in its death throesfrom very close range," says Don Yeomans, head of NASA's Near Earth Object Program at JPL. .

^ Less sensational information and news about the comet is provided here - http://www.physorg.com/news67263241.html - in an article on PhysOrg.com from May 19.

[59]
.Forthcoming space missions will add greater detail to our understanding of what comets are made of.^ The press release of the European Space Agency in January 1996 is clear "Only some rare comets made the experiment of an increase in so large and unexpected luminosity.

^ The size of this space object will be too small for our telescopes since it will be a small lagging fragment of a comet.

.In July 2005, the Deep Impact probe blasted a crater on Comet Tempel 1 to study its interior.^ A deep study on comet SW-3 was published...

^ The situation is reminiscent of the Deep Impact probe, which penetrated comet Tempel 1 about a year ago.

And in 2014, the European Rosetta probe will orbit Comet Churyumov-Gerasimenko and place a small lander on its surface.
.Rosetta observed the Deep Impact event, and with its set of very sensitive instruments for cometary investigations, it used its capabilities to observe Tempel 1 before, during and after the impact.^ The situation is reminiscent of the Deep Impact probe, which penetrated comet Tempel 1 about a year ago.

.At a distance of about 80 million kilometres from the comet, Rosetta was the only spacecraft other than Deep Impact itself to view the comet.^ And not just a little: More than 1.5 million kilometres!

^ Here is a comment of Philippe Morel of the Astronomical Company of France: "On June 6, 2006 it will enter again the very restricted circle of the comets whose distance nearest to the Earth will be lower than 15 million kilometers.

^ The answer I think is that it's blacker than black and the only object it could be is a comet, which makes up some of the darkest objects in the solar system."

Debate over composition

Comet Borrelly exhibits jets, yet is hot and dry.
Debate continues about how much ice is in a comet. .In 2001, NASA's Deep Space 1 team, working at NASA's Jet Propulsion Lab, obtained high-resolution images of the surface of Comet Borrelly.^ Images and data of the comet provided recently by the Hubble Space Telescope will also go into that effort, he said.

^ (CNN) -- NASA and the European Space agency have released new images from the Hubble Space Telescope showing the dramatic breakup of comet Schwassmann-Wachmann 3.

^ This infrared image of Comet 73P/Schwassman-Wachmann 3, based on readings taken by NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope from May 4 to 6, shows at least distinct 36 fragments .

.They announced that comet Borrelly exhibits distinct jets, yet has a hot, dry surface.^ That's a distinction last held by the yet-brighter Comet Ikeya-Seki in 1965.

The assumption that comets contain water and other ices led Dr. Laurence Soderblom of the U.S. Geological Survey to say, "The spectrum suggests that the surface is hot and dry. It is surprising that we saw no traces of water ice." However, he goes on to suggest that the ice is probably hidden below the crust as "either the surface has been dried out by solar heating and maturation or perhaps the very dark soot-like material that covers Borrelly's surface masks any trace of surface ice".[60]
The recent Deep Impact probe has also yielded results suggesting that the majority of a comet's water ice is below the surface, and that these reservoirs feed the jets of vaporised water that form the coma of Tempel 1.[61]
However, more recent data from the Stardust mission show that materials retrieved from the tail of comet Wild 2 were crystalline and could only have been "born in fire."[62][63] More recent still, the materials retrieved demonstrate that the "comet dust resembles asteroid materials."[64] .These new results have forced scientists to rethink the nature of comets and their distinction from asteroids.^ Thousands of people throughout the world, and among them scientists of great reputation, have studied and reflected on the nature and the origin of these UFOs, observed by hundreds of thousands of witnesses.

^ The dust, however, is forensic evidence that may provide more insight into the nature of this new comet when the meteor shower is seen again in the future.

[65]

Notable comets

Great comets

Comet McNaught (C/2006 P1)
.While hundreds of tiny comets pass through the inner solar system every year, very few are noticed by the general public.^ As of March 2006, at least 40 different fragments of the comet are known to be flying through the solar system.

^ Imagine a crop circle showing the solar system, MISSING the EARTH [i] which does not appear on its proper orbit, a few weeks after this fragmentation.

^ The breakup has accelerated in recent weeks as the comet again approaches the sun, as it does every 5.3 years.

.About every decade or so, a comet will become bright enough to be noticed by a casual observer—such comets are often designated Great Comets.^ Designated C/2006 P1, it would become the Great Comet of 2007.

^ At this time Comet McNaught qualifies as a " great comet " (one out of eight such comets seen during the last 263 years).

^ The comet or comets Nostradamus prophesied about could end up being as bright as was Comet Kurtz in 1680 (magnitude -18) or the Great September Comet of 1882 (magnitude -17), both which peaked at magnitudes of -220 or greater (almost as bright as the the sun).

.In times past, bright comets often inspired panic and hysteria in the general population, being thought of as bad omens.^ Ironically, despite being so close, these comets will not be very bright.

.More recently, during the passage of Halley's Comet in 1910, the Earth passed through the comet's tail, and erroneous newspaper reports inspired a fear that cyanogen in the tail might poison millions,[66] while the appearance of Comet Hale-Bopp in 1997 triggered the mass suicide of the Heaven's Gate cult.^ They're not like the Great Comets Hayutake and Hale-Bopp of 1996 and 1997.

^ Comet 73P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 3 has been passing Earth all month as it approaches the point nearest the sun in its orbit.

^ Scientists using NASA's Swift satellite have detected X-rays from a comet that is now passing the Earth and rapidly disintegrating on what could be its final orbit around the sun.

.To most people, however, a great comet is simply a beautiful spectacle.^ However, most of his comet predictions have yet to be realised.

^ There would be a third comet or something celestial, the third in a series according to the prophecy, and when it would appear, most of the people on earth would die.

Predicting whether a comet will become a great comet is notoriously difficult, as many factors may cause a comet's brightness to depart drastically from predictions. .Broadly speaking, if a comet has a large and active nucleus, will pass close to the Sun, and is not obscured by the Sun as seen from the Earth when at its brightest, it will have a chance of becoming a great comet.^ Comet 73P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 3 has been passing Earth all month as it approaches the point nearest the sun in its orbit.

^ Scientists using NASA's Swift satellite have detected X-rays from a comet that is now passing the Earth and rapidly disintegrating on what could be its final orbit around the sun.

^ May 26: The Moon can't be seen this evening, because it's New, nearly between Earth and the Sun, at 11:26 p.m.

.However, Comet Kohoutek in 1973 fulfilled all the criteria and was expected to become spectacular, but failed to do so.^ However, astronomer John Bortle, of Stormville, NY, has concluded that this comet could hold a major surprise for all of us.

.Comet West, which appeared three years later, had much lower expectations (perhaps because scientists were much warier of glowing predictions after the Kohoutek fiasco), but became an extremely impressive comet.^ Because Schwassmann-Wachmann 3 is much closer to both the Earth and the sun than Tempel 1 was, it currently appears about 20 times brighter in X-rays.

^ "Over the next two or three days we should see more of this happening, because the Earth is stilling passing through the debris tail of this comet."

^ As an extra bonus, the planet Mercury appears within three degrees to Luna's lower left.

[67]
.The late 20th century saw a lengthy gap without the appearance of any great comets, followed by the arrival of two in quick succession—Comet Hyakutake in 1996, followed by Hale-Bopp, which reached maximum brightness in 1997 having been discovered two years earlier.^ They're not like the Great Comets Hayutake and Hale-Bopp of 1996 and 1997.

^ The German-led ROSAT mission, now decommissioned, was the first to detect X-rays from a comet, from Hyakutake in 1996.

^ Discovered in 1930, the comet comes nearest to the Earth every 5 years.

The first great comet of the 21st century was Comet McNaught, which became visible to naked eye observers in January 2007. It was the brightest in over 40 years.

Sungrazing comets

The Great Comet of 1882, is a member of the Kreutz group
.A Sungrazing comet is a comet that passes extremely close to the Sun at perihelion, sometimes within a few thousand kilometres of the Sun's surface.^ When comets get close to the sun, they heat up.

^ There were early hints that this Comet McNaught could present itself nicely during its closest approach to the sun, but few anticipated what did happen.

^ Comet 73P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 3 has been passing Earth all month as it approaches the point nearest the sun in its orbit.

.While small sungrazers can be completely evaporated during such a close approach to the Sun, larger sungrazers can survive many perihelion passages.^ The comet consisting of ice, the sun vaporizes a part of its surface to the approach of the perihelion - not nearest to the center of revolution, i.e.

^ Whether any of the many fragments survive the trip around the Sun remains to be seen in the weeks ahead.

However, the strong tidal forces they experience often lead to their fragmentation.
.About 90% of the sungrazers observed with SOHO are members of the Kreutz group, which all originate from one giant comet that broke up into many smaller comets during its first passage through the inner solar system.^ The comet has broken up into this many pieces so far.

^ "During its 1996 passage it broke apart.

^ Similarly, NO ONE on this planet understands the reasons of the fragmentation of the comet 73P/SW-3 in 1995 in the first place!

[68] The other 10% contains some sporadic sungrazers, but four other related groups of comets have been identified among them: the Kracht, Kracht 2a, Marsden and Meyer groups. .The Marsden and Kracht groups both appear to be related to Comet 96P/Machholz, which is also the parent of two meteor streams, the Quadrantids and the Arietids.^ Comet debris streams linked to specific comets, like that seen in the Spitzer image, are the cause of many regular, predictable meteor showers.

[69]

Unusual comets

The quasi-circular orbit of 29P/Schwassmann-Wachmann compared to Jupiter and Saturn.
Of the thousands of known comets, some are very unusual. .Encke's Comet orbits from outside the main asteroid belt to just inside the orbit of the planet Mercury while the Comet 29P/Schwassmann-Wachmann currently travels in a nearly circular orbit entirely between the orbits of Jupiter and Saturn.^ And it is an euphemism The mysterious comet is, at the moment of this start, hundreds of million kilometers of the belt of asteroids.

^ PHOTO OP: On May 7th, the biggest fragment of dying comet 73P/Schwassmann Wachmann 3 will glide by the Ring Nebula in Lyra.

^ Comet 73P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 3 has been passing Earth all month as it approaches the point nearest the sun in its orbit.

[70] 2060 Chiron, whose unstable orbit is between Saturn and Uranus, was originally classified as an asteroid until a faint coma was noticed.[71] Similarly, Comet Shoemaker-Levy 2 was originally designated asteroid 1990 UL3.[72] .Roughly six percent of the near-earth asteroids are thought to be extinct nuclei of comets which no longer experience outgassing.^ Giant telescopes around the world are capturing more spectacular views of the near-Earth disintegration of Comet 73P/Schwassman-Wachmann 3.

^ It's the details that have been elusive, and why Comet 73P/Schwassman-Wachmann 3's break-up so conveniently near Earth is getting so much attention.

[33]
.Some comets have been observed to break up during their perihelion passage, including great comets West and Ikeya-Seki.^ At this time Comet McNaught qualifies as a " great comet " (one out of eight such comets seen during the last 263 years).

^ That's a distinction last held by the yet-brighter Comet Ikeya-Seki in 1965.

^ There hasn't been a comet that bright since Comet Ikeya-Seki appeared in October and November 1965 (some observations place Ikeya-Seki's utmost magnitude at - 10 ).

.Biela's Comet was one significant example, when it broke into two pieces during its passage through the perihelion in 1846. These two comets were seen separately in 1852, but never again afterward.^ It separated into two visible fragments for three months in 1846.

^ "During its 1996 passage it broke apart.

^ At this time Comet McNaught qualifies as a " great comet " (one out of eight such comets seen during the last 263 years).

.Instead, spectacular meteor showers were seen in 1872 and 1885 when the comet should have been visible.^ It wouldn't be the first time a dying comet produced a meteor shower: .

^ The great distance means a meteor shower is unlikely; but 73P is such a strange comet that even the unlikely is possible.

^ Comet debris streams linked to specific comets, like that seen in the Spitzer image, are the cause of many regular, predictable meteor showers.

.A lesser meteor shower, the Andromedids, occurs annually in November, and it is caused when the Earth crosses the orbit of Biela's Comet.^ This year 2006, on the other hand, the Earth and the comet coincide in their orbits perfectly.

^ Comet 73P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 3 has been passing Earth all month as it approaches the point nearest the sun in its orbit.

^ Scientists using NASA's Swift satellite have detected X-rays from a comet that is now passing the Earth and rapidly disintegrating on what could be its final orbit around the sun.

[73]
.Another significant cometary disruption was that of Comet Shoemaker-Levy 9, which was discovered in 1993. At the time of its discovery, the comet was in orbit around Jupiter, having been captured by the planet during a very close approach in 1992.[74] This close approach had already broken the comet into hundreds of pieces, and over a period of six days in July 1994, these pieces slammed into Jupiter's atmosphere—the first time astronomers had observed a collision between two objects in the solar system.^ Shoemaker-Levy 9 was ripped to pieces by the gravity of the planet Jupiter in July 1992, made a final pass around the sun, and then slammed into Jupiter's atmosphere nearly two years later.

^ Ironically, despite being so close, these comets will not be very bright.

^ The comet has broken up into this many pieces so far.

[75] .It has also been suggested that the object likely to have been responsible for the Tunguska event in 1908 was a fragment of Encke's Comet.^ The size of this space object will be too small for our telescopes since it will be a small lagging fragment of a comet.

[76]

Observation

Example of a comet's path plotted by planetarium software (Sky Map Pro)
.A new comet may be discovered photographically using a wide-field telescope or visually with binoculars.^ Less sensational information and news about the comet is provided here - http://www.physorg.com/news67263241.html - in an article on PhysOrg.com from May 19.

^ The 73P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 3 the 73rd recognized periodic comet in our solar system -- will be viewable to North Alabama residents using a telescope or binoculars during the first couple of weeks in May.

^ Using a 4-inch refracting telescope , Mike Holloway of Arkansas photographed the pair last night as they passed the 5th magnitude star chi Bootes: .

.However, even without access to optical equipment, it is still possible for the amateur astronomer to discover a Sun-grazing comet online by downloading images accumulated by some satellite observatories such as SOHO.^ Scientists using NASA's Swift satellite have detected X-rays from a comet that is now passing the Earth and rapidly disintegrating on what could be its final orbit around the sun.

^ Big telescopes will continue to take turns looking at the comet when there is time and until the comet is too close to the Sun for the telescopes to look without damaging their instruments.

^ Fragment B of Comet 73P/ Schwassmann-Wachmann 3 and some of the mini-comets that have broken off (Image: Subaru Telescope) .

[77]
.Comets visible to the naked eye are fairly infrequent, but comets that put on fine displays in amateur class telescopes (50 mm to 100 cm) occur fairly often—as often as several times a year, occasionally with more than one in the sky at the same time.^ Thus, the crop circle registered that the carrier of information on the danger of comet would be the same one as that of the world message of September 6, 2006 .

^ The comet's nucleus has shattered into more than 33 pieces, and is likely to continue to disintegrate.

^ The comet, called 73P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 3, is visible with even a small, backyard telescope.

.Commonly available astronomical software will plot the orbits of these known comets.^ The relative positions of these planets tended to cause the fragments to deviate towards the outside of the elliptic orbit of the comet.

^ Astronomers have been observing this comet for more than 75 years, and its path around the sun is well known.

.They are fast compared to other objects in the sky, but their movement is usually subtle in the eyepiece of a telescope.^ OTHER OBJECTS IN THE SKY THIS MONTH .

.However, from night to night, they can move several degrees, which is why observers find it useful to have a sky chart such as the one in the adjoining illustration.^ This is why, when that arrives, the reasons of this one, the intervention of extraterrestrial for reason of nuclear weapons, will remain engraved in the memory of the people because such an intervention is necessary!

^ Using a 4-inch refracting telescope , Mike Holloway of Arkansas photographed the pair last night as they passed the 5th magnitude star chi Bootes: .

^ However, they were unlikely to be quite as incredible as Tuesday night ' s meteor, which caused quite a stir across the region.

.The type of display presented by the comet depends on its composition and how close it comes to the sun.^ Big telescopes will continue to take turns looking at the comet when there is time and until the comet is too close to the Sun for the telescopes to look without damaging their instruments.

^ When comets get close to the sun, they heat up.

^ The comet is so close that astronomers are hoping to determine not only the composition of the comet but also of the solar wind.

.Because the volatility of a comet's material decreases as it gets further from the sun, the comet becomes increasingly difficult to observe as a function of not only distance, but the progressive shrinking and eventual disappearance of its tail and the reflective elements it carries.^ The material glows in infrared because it is heated by the sun.

^ If this fragmentation were only due to the sun we would have, among 175 existing comets, a majority of them in a normal state of fragmentation.

^ This tsunami caused human and material devastations not only on the coasts of Chile, but also with Hawaii and further still in Japan.

.Comets are most interesting when their nucleus is bright and they display a long tail, which to be seen sometimes requires a large field of view best provided by smaller telescopes.^ Hubble Space Telescope is providing astronomers with extraordinary views of Comet 73P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 3.

^ These observations provide an unprecedented opportunity to study the demise of a comet nucleus.

^ Following the debris trail The astronomers are hoping that by measuring the brightness of the extent of the debris trail, which can't be see in visible light, they can find out whether most of the comet vaporises from evaporating ice, the house-sized chunks seen in recent Hubble Space Telescope images, or by way of meteor-sized debris seen in the Spitzer images.

Therefore, large amateur instruments (apertures of 25 cm or larger) that have fainter light grasp do not necessarily confer an advantage in terms of viewing comets. .The opportunity to view spectacular comets with relatively small aperture instruments in the 8 cm to 15 cm range is more frequent than might be guessed from the relatively rare attention they get in the mainstream press.^ "This is a rare opportunity to watch a comet in its death throesfrom very close range," says Don Yeomans, head of NASA's Near Earth Object Program at JPL. .

^ The comet's nucleus has shattered into more than 33 pieces, and is likely to continue to disintegrate.

^ Space Weather News for May 10, 2006 http://spaceweather.com HERE THEY COME: More than 60 fragments of dying comet 73P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 3 are racing toward Earth.

In popular culture

The depiction of comets in popular culture is firmly rooted in the long Western tradition of seeing comets as harbingers of doom and as omens of world-altering change.[78] Halley's Comet alone has caused a slew of frightful or excited publications of all sorts at each of its reappearances. It was especially noted that the birth and death of some notable persons coincided with separate appearances of the comet, such as with writers Mark Twain (who correctly speculated that he'd "go out with the comet" in 1910)[78] and Eudora Welty, to whose life Mary Chapin Carpenter dedicated the song Halley Came to Jackson.[78]
.In science fiction, the impact of comets has been depicted as a threat overcome by technology and heroism (Deep Impact, 1998), or as a trigger of global apocalypse (Lucifer's Hammer, 1979) or of waves of zombies (Night of the Comet, 1984).^ The situation is reminiscent of the Deep Impact probe, which penetrated comet Tempel 1 about a year ago.

[78] .Near impacts have been depicted in Jules Verne's Off on a Comet and Tove Jansson's Comet in Moominland, while a large manned space expedition visits Halley's Comet in Sir Arthur C. Clarke's novel 2061: Odyssey Three.^ The press release of the European Space Agency in January 1996 is clear "Only some rare comets made the experiment of an increase in so large and unexpected luminosity.

^ For no apparent reason, the comet's nucleus split into at least three " mini-comets " flying single file through space.

See also

References

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Further reading

  • Schechner, S. J. (1997). Comets, Popular Culture, and the Birth of Modern Cosmology. Princeton University Press. .
  • Brandt, J.C. and Chapman, R.D.: Introduction to comets, Cambridge University Press 2004

External links


Quotes

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiquote

.
Great accidents are the law; the order of things cannot get along without them; and, to see the apparitions of comets, one would be tempted to believe that Heaven itself is in need of star actors.
^ "I do not believe this comet will be Planet X (see the Planet X section).

^ At this time Comet McNaught qualifies as a " great comet " (one out of eight such comets seen during the last 263 years).

^ Thus, the crop circle registered that the carrier of information on the danger of comet would be the same one as that of the world message of September 6, 2006 .

~ Victor Hugo
.Comets are small astronomical objects similar to asteroids but composed largely of ice.^ A large, elongated "potato", 2003 EL61 could someday turn into the brightest comet ever known, according to astronomers.

^ The size of this space object will be too small for our telescopes since it will be a small lagging fragment of a comet.

^ "And if Sedna has captured such an object, there must be hundreds of other large comet objects in the vicinity."

  • What you fellows call progress moves by two springs, men and events. But sad to say, from time to time the exceptional is necessary. For events as well as for men, the stock company is not enough; geniuses are needed among men, and revolutions among events. .Great accidents are the law; the order of things cannot get along without them; and, to see the apparitions of comets, one would be tempted to believe that Heaven itself is in need of star actors.^ "I do not believe this comet will be Planet X (see the Planet X section).

    ^ At this time Comet McNaught qualifies as a " great comet " (one out of eight such comets seen during the last 263 years).

    ^ Thus, the crop circle registered that the carrier of information on the danger of comet would be the same one as that of the world message of September 6, 2006 .

    .At the moment you least expect it, God placards a meteor on the wall of the firmament.^ You can expect at any moment disaster in this material world, but the comet is the sign that there will be some great disaster.

    Some strange star comes along, underlined by an enormous tail. And that makes Caesar die. Brutus strikes him with a knife, and God with a comet. .
  • When the Deep Impact probe hit Comet 9P/Tempel, there was almost no change in brightness.^ There hasn't been a comet that bright since Comet Ikeya-Seki appeared in October and November 1965 (some observations place Ikeya-Seki's utmost magnitude at - 10 ).

    ^ The situation is reminiscent of the Deep Impact probe, which penetrated comet Tempel 1 about a year ago.

    ^ "There's no easy explanation for such blackness except for the fact that the comet is a seething boiling cauldron of organic material," he said.

    ... .This outburst by Comet Holmes is extreme!^ Back in 1892, Comet Holmes underwent a second outburst about 75 days after the first.

    .
    • Brian G. Marsden, on the unprecedented brightening of Comet Holmes, as quoted in "Mystery Comet Explodes into Brightness" (26 October 2007) at Physorg.com.^ "To my amazement, 17P had brightened to naked-eye visibility," exclaimed Bob King when he spotted Comet Holmes shortly before dawn in Duluth, Minnesota.

      ^ Less sensational information and news about the comet is provided here - http://www.physorg.com/news67263241.html - in an article on PhysOrg.com from May 19.

      ^ There hasn't been a comet that bright since Comet Ikeya-Seki appeared in October and November 1965 (some observations place Ikeya-Seki's utmost magnitude at - 10 ).

      Within the space of a few hours between 23-24 October 2007 it brightened from a very dim and obscure object requiring powerful telescopes to see into one easily visible to the naked eye.
I see myself as a huge fiery comet, a shooting star. Everyone stops, points up and gasps "Oh look at that!" Then — whoosh, and I'm gone... ~ Jim Morrison
  • I see myself as a huge fiery comet, a shooting star. Everyone stops, points up and gasps "Oh look at that!" Then — whoosh, and I'm gone... and they'll never see anything like it ever again... and they won't be able to forget me — ever.
.
By being seldom seen, I could not stir but like a comet I was wonder'd at.
^ Comet debris streams linked to specific comets, like that seen in the Spitzer image, are the cause of many regular, predictable meteor showers.

^ It looked red and not really like any comet I have ever seen.

^ If there is a sigificant jump in magnitudes like this time, we could be looking at a blazing blue or blue-green star of magnitude -10 to -15, rivaling the four or five brightest comets ever seen since the death of Nostradamus.

~ .William Shakespeare
  • When in your middle years
    The great comet comes again
    Remember me, a child,
    Awake in the summer night,
    Standing in my crib and
    Watching that long-haired star
    So many years ago.^ At this time Comet McNaught qualifies as a " great comet " (one out of eight such comets seen during the last 263 years).

    ^ We read in The Kolbrin of another time that God sent a comet or star to be marvelled at before the true agent of great destruction was to follow: .

    ^ The situation is reminiscent of the Deep Impact probe, which penetrated comet Tempel 1 about a year ago.


    .Go out in the dark and see
    Its plume over water
    Dribbling on the liquid night,
    And think that life and glory
    Flickered on the rushing
    Bloodstream for me once, and for
    All who have gone before me,
    Vessels of the billion-year-long
    River that flows now in your veins.
    ^ BELOW LEFT: Quarterback Matt Christian, who had 301 yards in total offense before coming out after three quarters.
    • Palomar College FOOTBALL 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC www.palomar.edu [Source type: General]

    ^ There are many others who believe it will not reach us until sometime before the end of the Mayan calendar in the year 2012.

    ^ The planetoid, once dubbed Planet X, was discovered earlier this year at the furthest edge of the Solar System, eight billion miles from Earth.

.
Ruling the calm spaciousness of that heaven was the great comet, now green-white, and wonderful for all who had eyes to see.
^ One of the most famous is by White Feather who says the blue star will be "a dwelling-place in the heavens" that falls to earth with a great crash.

^ Schwab, a 6-foot-8, 320-pounder who was an All-Southern Conference selection as a freshman, will play his sophomore season for the Comets this upcoming Fall.
  • Palomar College FOOTBALL 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC www.palomar.edu [Source type: General]

^ If my read on Tassey's vision is correct, the cosmic radiation from the outburst will enter through the eye into the brain and cause death for all who see it.

~ .H. G. Wells
  • I came in with Halley's Comet in 1835. It is coming again next year, and I expect to go out with it.^ At this time Comet McNaught qualifies as a " great comet " (one out of eight such comets seen during the last 263 years).

    ^ Boudreaux, Palomar's leading tackler over a two-year period, went out in style in his final game as a Comet.
    • Palomar College FOOTBALL 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC www.palomar.edu [Source type: General]

    ^ Five of the turnovers came on interceptions but the remaining turnover, on a fumble on the first play from scrimmage in the second half, took the Comets out of the game.
    • Palomar College FOOTBALL 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC www.palomar.edu [Source type: General]

    It will be the greatest disappointment of my life if I don't go out with Halley's Comet. .The Almighty has said, no doubt: "Now here are these two unaccountable freaks; they came in together, they must go out together.^ But these two were very different in the way that it felt like i was there and everything was in full color Now concerning the times.

    ^ It helped that the astronauts didn't stay long: Adding all Apollo missions together, they were on the lunar surface less than two weeks.

    ^ "They're very physical," Early said, "and they have an advantage in that they've been in this situation the last two years (winning both times in the Southern Cal finals).
    • Palomar College FOOTBALL 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC www.palomar.edu [Source type: General]

    .
    • Mark Twain, in Mark Twain, a Biography (1909) Twain died in 1910 when Comet Halley was again visible.
  • By being seldom seen, I could not stir
    But like a comet I was wonder'd at.^ Therefore, Mabus does not die sometime after a comet has passed -- he dies while the comet is still being observed in the sky by many millions of people.

    ^ Comet debris streams linked to specific comets, like that seen in the Spitzer image, are the cause of many regular, predictable meteor showers.

    ^ It looked red and not really like any comet I have ever seen.

    .
  • Ruling the calm spaciousness of that heaven was the great comet, now green-white, and wonderful for all who had eyes to see.^ One of the most famous is by White Feather who says the blue star will be "a dwelling-place in the heavens" that falls to earth with a great crash.

    ^ Schwab, a 6-foot-8, 320-pounder who was an All-Southern Conference selection as a freshman, will play his sophomore season for the Comets this upcoming Fall.
    • Palomar College FOOTBALL 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC www.palomar.edu [Source type: General]

    ^ If my read on Tassey's vision is correct, the cosmic radiation from the outburst will enter through the eye into the brain and cause death for all who see it.

    .
  • At first it had been an almost telescopic speck; it had brightened to the dimensions of the greatest star in the heavens; it had still grown, hour by hour, in its incredibly swift, its noiseless and inevitable rush upon our earth, until it had equaled and surpassed the moon.^ This is the first time that a fragmented comet crosses our road at such a short distance.

    ^ The following day, observers in Cordoba described the comet as a “ blazing star ” near the Sun .

    ^ There is a well-known prophecy by Nostradamus concerning a time when a pope will leave Rome when a brilliant star is burning in the heavens: .

    Now it was the most splendid thing this sky of earth has ever held. I have never seen a photograph that gave a proper idea of it. Never at any time did it assume the conventional tailed outline, comets are supposed to have. .
  • As I drew near the end, the sense of strangeness returned to me.^ The following day, observers in Cordoba described the comet as a “ blazing star ” near the Sun .

    It was more and more evident to me that this was a different humanity from any I had known, unreal, having different customs, different beliefs, different interpretations, different emotions. It was no mere change in conditions and institutions the comet had wrought. It had made a change of heart and mind.

External links

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1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

COMET (Gr. .Ko Orris , long-haired), in astronomy, one of a class of seemingly nebulous bodies, moving under the influence of the sun's attraction in very eccentric orbits.^ Comets are nebulous celestial bodies orbiting the sun.
  • Comets, awesome celestial objects 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC www.astronomytoday.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Very early ideas of what comets were included clouds of fire in the Earth 's atmosphere, or extra bodies moving though the heavens.
  • Comets 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC filer.case.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These Icy comets are orbiting the Sun in two different places, both of which are very distant.
  • Comets - Astronomy For Kids - KidsAstronomy.com 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC www.kidsastronomy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A comet is visible only in a small arc of its orbit near perihelion, differing but slightly from the arc of a parabola.^ Comets are only visible when they're near the sun in their highly eccentric orbits.

^ Careful observations of comet tails--for example, of comet Hale-Bopp in 1997-- often show two tails with slightly different directions and slightly different colors, too.
  • Comets 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC www.phy6.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Since the comet is light only when it is near the Sun (and is it vaporizing), comets are dark (virtually invisible) throughout most of their orbit.

.An obvious but not sharp classification of comets is into bright comets visible to the naked eye, and telescopic comets which can be seen only with a telescope.^ The comet is so bright now, however, that it can be seen with the naked eye in the eastern sky around 4 AM. .

^ This comet was seen with Comet Beliawsky to the unaided eye.
  • Comet list Compiled by Christie POnder 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC www.weatherfriend.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They were visible to the naked eye!
  • Tale of a Comet 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC www.astrobio.net [Source type: Original source]

.The telescopic class is much the more numerous of the two, only from 20 to 30 bright comets usually appearing in any one century, while several telescopic comets, frequently 6 or 8, are generally observed in the course of a year.^ There have been only two bright comets, Hale-Bopp and Hyakutake.
  • A bright comet in year 2010 - 2012? -- an Astrology, New Age and Bible Prophecy analysis 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC www.revelation13.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most comets usually have two tails, and usually one is much brighter than the other.
  • Comets 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC filer.case.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A bright comet in year 2010 - 2012?
  • A bright comet in year 2010 - 2012? -- an Astrology, New Age and Bible Prophecy analysis 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC www.revelation13.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A bright comet consists of (I) a star-like nucleus; (2) a nebulous haze, called the coma, surrounding this nucleus, the latter fading into the haze by insensible gradations; (3) a tail or luminous stream flowing from the coma in a direction opposite to that of the sun.^ The nucleus and the coma together are called the head of the comet.
  • Comets - UEN 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC www.uen.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Surrounding the nucleus is the bright coma.
  • Comets : Comets, meteors and asteroids : Astronomy fact files : Astronomy & time : Explore online : NMM 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC www.nmm.ac.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Comet Head The nucleus and coma of a comet.
  • Asteroid, Comet and Meteor Facts 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC www.kidscosmos.org [Source type: General]

.The nuclei and comae of different comets exhibit few peculiarities to the unaided vision except in respect to brightness; but the tails of comets differ widely, both in brightness and in extent.^ Comet tails are expansions of the coma.
  • The Outer Planets: Comets 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC lasp.colorado.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The comet's tail or tails fan out from the coma.
  • Astronomy.com - Comets 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC www.astronomy.com [Source type: General]

^ Identify the different types of comet tails.
  • Comets- Teacher Pages- Lesson Plan 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC amazing-space.stsci.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.They range from a barely visible brush or feather of light to a phenomenon extending over a considerable arc of the heavens, which, comparatively bright near the head of the comet, becomes gradually fainter and more diffuse towards its end, fading out by gradations so insensible that a precise length cannot be assigned to it.^ Comets are invisible except when they are near what?
  • Comets - UEN 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC www.uen.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sometimes the end of a comet is more spectacular.
  • Comets 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC www.phy6.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ SCIENCE Comet Holmes becomes visible .
  • Articles about Comets - Los Angeles Times 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC articles.latimes.com [Source type: News]

.When a telescopic comet is first discovered the nucleus is frequently invisible, the object presenting the appearance of a faint nebulous haze, scarcely distinguishable in aspect from a nebula.^ This was the first comet discovered with the aid of a telescope (on Nov.
  • Great Comets in History 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC ssd.jpl.nasa.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We can distinguish between a comet and an asteroid solely on the basis of the object's appearance through a telescope.
  • Asteroids and Comets - Explore the Cosmos | The Planetary Society 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC www.planetary.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ First appearance of the comet Halley .
  • Comets, history, composition, light of curves 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC www.mallorcaweb.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.When the nucleus appears it may at first be only a comparatively faint condensation, and may or may not develop into a point of light as the comet approaches the sun.^ The tail develops when the comet is near the Sun.

^ This icy nucleus changes radically when a comet approaches the Sun.
  • Comets Teacher Page- Scientific Background 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC amazing-space.stsci.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Comet Flies into Sun .
  • Comet Video 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC vodpod.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A tail also is generally not seen at great distances from the sun, but gradually develops as the comet approaches perihelion, to fade away again as the comet recedes from the sun.^ The comet is seen to `whip' around the Sun and then fade from view.

^ As it approaches the sun, it heats up and a tail appears, streaking away from the comet's head.
  • Comets page 1 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC www.wordcraft.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The comet is seen to fade rapidly as it approaches the Sun over a period of just 5 hours.

.A few comets are known to revolve in orbits with a regular period, while, in the case of others, no evidence is afforded by observation that the orbit deviates from a parabola.^ Other observations support their case.
  • Comet Ceasar and 2012 Doomsday 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC www.viewzone.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The shortest known period is Encke 's comet, which orbits every 3.3 years.
  • comet@Everything2.com 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC everything2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ How this pertains to other comets is not known.
  • Tom Bissell - A Comet's Tale 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC www.wesjones.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Were the orbit a parabola or hyperbola the comet would never return (see Orbit).^ A comet's orbit can be either an ellipse or a hyperbola.
  • conservation of energy & angular momentum in a comet orbit 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC www.phy.duke.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most of the comets we see in our part of the solar system, though, come from just outside the orbit of Neptune in a region called the Kuiper Belt.
  • The Space Place :: Catch a Comet! 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC spaceplace.nasa.gov [Source type: General]

^ However, the comet, appears suddenly and leaves in a short period of time, is one of rare astronomical events that we can never see the same one during our lifetime.
  • Comets 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC www.ne.jp [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Periodicity may be recognized in two ways: observations during the apparition may show that the notion is in an elliptic and not in a parabolic orbit; or a comet may have been observed at more than one return.^ A long-period comet will have an orbital period of more than 200 years.
  • Comets Teacher Page- Scientific Background 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC amazing-space.stsci.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ More comet pieces - Page Two .
  • Comets page 1 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC www.wordcraft.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Two tails where observed with this comet, one straight and one curved.
  • Comet list Compiled by Christie POnder 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC www.weatherfriend.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In the latter case the comet is recognized as distinctly periodic, and therefore a member of the solar system.^ Comets are important members of our solar system, and their study is important to mankind.
  • Comet Club Introduction | The Astronomical League 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC www.astroleague.org [Source type: General]

^ Comets are commonly distinguished from other components of the solar system by their rather nebulous appearance and extremely elongated orbits.
  • Comets, awesome celestial objects 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC www.astronomytoday.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The cloud of comets that enshrouds the solar system may not be as diffuse or as massive as previously believed .
  • Comets and Asteroids - New Scientist 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC www.newscientist.com [Source type: News]

.The shortest periods range between 3 and 10 years.^ The orbits of many comets have periods ranging from hundreds of years to tens of millions of years, indicating that they spend much of the time far outside the orbits of Neptune and Pluto.
  • Comets : Comets, meteors and asteroids : Astronomy fact files : Astronomy & time : Explore online : NMM 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC www.nmm.ac.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The actual periods of comets run from 3.3 years (the shortest known) to many thousands of years.
  • http://www.factmonster.com/ipka/A0004502.html 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC www.factmonster.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • http://www.infoplease.com/ipa/A0004502.html 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC www.infoplease.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In addition, however, there exist many periodic orbits , some with a period of less than 10 years.
  • Comets 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC www.phy6.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The majority of comets which have been observed are shown by observation to be periodic; the period is usually very long, being sometimes measured by centuries, but generally by thousands of years.^ A long-period comet will have an orbital period of more than 200 years.
  • Comets Teacher Page- Scientific Background 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC amazing-space.stsci.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most comets have very long periods (over 200 years).

^ Comet Halley has a period of 76 years.
  • Build You Own Comet 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC www.noao.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It is conceivable that a comet might revolve in a hyperbolic orbit.^ The total energy will be negative if the comet is bound to the sun, i.e., if it has an elliptical orbit and not a hyperbolic one; the total energy will be positive if the comet is unbound and has a hyperbolic orbit about the sun.
  • conservation of energy & angular momentum in a comet orbit 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC www.phy.duke.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Any comet is not known that has come near to the Earth with a hyperbolic orbit; this would mean that its origin was in the outer space of the Solar System.
  • Comets, history, composition, light of curves 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC www.mallorcaweb.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But what might occur with a shorter-period comet that does not move on a highly elliptical orbit?
  • Comet Holmes In The Electric Universe 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC www.rense.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Although there are several of these bodies observations on which indicate such an orbit, the deviation from the parabolic form has not in any case been so well marked as to be fully established.^ There are at least 30,000 of these giant boulders in this area, each in it own individual orbit around the Sun.
  • Asteroids and Comets - Celestial Objects on Sea and Sky 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC www.seasky.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Chinese astronomers record several observations as well.
  • Asteroid, Comet and Meteor Facts 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC www.kidscosmos.org [Source type: General]

^ But there's another reason for studying them: some of these bodies, known as near-Earth objects or NEOs, are on trajectories that could have an effect on the future of our planet.
  • Asteroids and Comets - Explore the Cosmos | The Planetary Society 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC www.planetary.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Circumstances lead to the classification of newly appearing comets as expected and unexpected. An expected comet is a periodic one of which the return is looked for at a determinate time and in a certain region of the heavens.^ Unfortunately for propagators of this theory, a closer study of records at the time reveals that the comet never appeared during Jesus' lifetime ; returning in 11 BC and 66 AD .
  • Halley's Comet@Everything2.com 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ All previous hypotheses, then, were now forgotten in the presence of the one great fact that Gallia was a comet and gravitating through remote solar regions.
  • Tale of a Comet 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC www.astrobio.net [Source type: Original source]

^ This includes all numbered periodic comets (those observed on at least two apparitions) and unnumbered comets whose orbital periods have been determined to be less than 200 years.

.When this is not the case the comet is an unexpected one.^ In the case of Comet Holmes, one might suppose that neither the conventional view of comets nor the electric hypothesis can explain what we're seeing.
  • Comet Holmes In The Electric Universe 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC www.rense.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One of the many use cases for Comet is a chat room application.
  • Sun GlassFish Enterprise Server v3 Prelude Developer's Guide - Sun Microsystems 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC docs.sun.com [Source type: Reference]

Physical Constitution of Comets

.The subject of the physical constitution of these bodies is one as to the details of which much uncertainty still exists.^ Both these fish have an almost identical body shape but the fins on the Comet are much longer, especially the caudal (tail) fin, and it is more deeply forked.
  • Comet Goldfish, Goldfish Care and Information 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC animal-world.com [Source type: General]

^ I won't get into too much detail because Ajax really is everywhere these days.
  • A is for Ajax and C is for Comet - Leah Culver's Blog 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC blog.leahculver.com [Source type: General]

.The considerations on which conclusions in this field rest are very various, and can best be set forth by beginning with what we may consider to be the best established facts.^ Discovered by Yuji Hyakutake in Japan on 30 January 1996, this conspicuous comet passed grandly through LASCO C3's field of view at the beginning of May 1996.

^ For example, the apparent motion of the Sun rising and setting in the sky may appear to be the result of the Sun moving around the Earth, when in fact it is the result of the Earth's rotation around its axis.
  • Comet 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC www.christa.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Three sets of data for the period November through January point to a very pronounced seasonal variation.

.We must regard it as well established that comets are not, like planets and satellites, permanent in mass, but are continuously losing minute portions of the matter which belongs to them, through a progressive dissipation - at least when they are in the neighbourhood of the sun.^ Just like the planets, comets orbit the Sun.
  • Leicester University Physics Department 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC www.star.le.ac.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If comets are made of matter, then they are attracted to the Sun just as the planets are.
  • The Galileo Project | Science | Comets 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC galileo.rice.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Comets 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC cnx.org [Source type: General]

^ Some comets crash into the Sun or get so close that they burn up; these comets are called sungrazers.

.When near perihelion the matter of a comet is seen to be undergoing a process in the nature of evaporation, successive envelopes of vapour rising from the nucleus to form the coma, and then gradually repelled from the sun to form the tail.^ Coma — The cloud that forms around a comet's nucleus.
  • Comets- Teacher Pages- Lesson Plan 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC amazing-space.stsci.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The coma and tails of a comet are transient features, present only when the comet is near the Sun.
  • Comets Teacher Page- Scientific Background 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC amazing-space.stsci.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The tail develops when the comet is near the Sun.

.If this process went on indefinitely every comet would, in the course of ages, be entirely dissipated.^ He went on to predict that the comet would return in 1758.
  • The UnMuseum - Comet Halley 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC www.unmuseum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If these processes were allowed to go on indefinitely the planet would be overrun and all life would go extinct.
  • Tom Bissell - A Comet's Tale 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC www.wesjones.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Of course, our case for the presence of bacteria in comets would be stronger if we could actually find on Earth fossilized bacteria in a meteorite that came from a comet.
  • Comets: The Delivery System. by Brig Klyce 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC www.panspermia.org [Source type: Academic]

.This result has actually happened in the case of some known comets, the best established example of which is that of Biela, in which the process of disintegration was clearly followed.^ It is now easily the best known comet.
  • Comets Background Page 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC cse.ssl.berkeley.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ An example of comet decay has actually been recorded.
  • Comets 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC www.phy6.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Halley's comet is the best known example of such a comet.
  • Comets : Comets, meteors and asteroids : Astronomy fact files : Astronomy & time : Explore online : NMM 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC www.nmm.ac.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.As the amount of matter lost by a comet at any one return cannot be estimated, and may be very small, it is impossible to set any limit to the period during which its life may continue.^ The menu is very limited, and the portions are small.
  • Comet Ping Pong - Chevy Chase - Washington, DC 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC www.yelp.com [Source type: General]

^ As a result, Comet have lost a customer for life.
  • Don’t buy from Comet 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC www.ibrian.co.uk [Source type: General]

^ The center of a comet, the nucleus, is very small compared to the rest of the comet, and is usually only a few kilometers in diameter.
  • Comets 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC filer.case.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It is still an unsettled question whether, in every case, the evaporation will ultimately cease, leaving a residuum as permanent as any other mass of matter.^ It's the difference between throwing a rock at your car and a snowball; one will leave a permanent mark, the other will not.

.The next question in logical order is one of great difficulty.^ Once line one has been entered my program would close the window and it would not show again until the next order is created.
  • Comet Sightings 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC abs.auerbach.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We didn't order one, because we had heard they were a huge disappointment, and after seeing a few that got delivered to the table next to ours I'm really glad we didn't.
  • Comet Ping Pong - Chevy Chase - Washington, DC 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC www.yelp.com [Source type: General]

.It is whether the nucleus of a comet is an opaque solid body, a cluster of such bodies, or a mass of particles of extreme tenuity.^ Nucleus of a Comet— The solid rocky part of a comet.
  • Comets- Teacher Pages- Lesson Plan 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC amazing-space.stsci.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The great significance of the goose may be due to the appearance of a heavenly body such as a comet, with wing-like protuberances.

^ As the spacecraft flew through dense clouds of gas and dust surrounding the comet’s nucleus, a container of aerogel trapped particles from the comet.
  • Comet Contains One of Life’s Precursors | Wired Science | Wired.com 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC www.wired.com [Source type: General]

.Some light is thrown on this and other questions by the spectroscope.^ Some are moved into sun grazing orbits that destroy the comets when they near the Sun, while others are thrown out of the solar system forever.
  • Skeptic World - Universe - Comets 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC www.skepticworld.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Some rotate evenly, others like badly thrown footballs.
  • Tom Bissell - A Comet's Tale 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC www.wesjones.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Life of Other Stars Questions Show – Running Out of Gravitons and Hitting the Brakes at Light Speed Ep.
  • Astronomy Cast - Ep. 19: Comets, Our Icy Friends from the Outer Solar System 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC www.astronomycast.com [Source type: General]

.This instrument shows in the spectrum of nearly every comet three bright bands, recognized as those of hydrocarbons.^ This year brought on three bright comets.
  • Comet list Compiled by Christie POnder 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC www.weatherfriend.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Many comets are somewhere in between in appearance, showing a compact bright core surrounded by a larger diffuse region.

^ "We suspect that every comet goes through an episode like this," says Kelley of those comets that don't die by plunging into the Sun or into a planet.

.The obvious conclusion is that the light forming these bands is not reflected sunlight, but light radiated by the gaseous hydrocarbons.^ The dust is not highly charged, and so forms a bent tail that slightly lags behind pointing directly away from the sun; its color is yellow because it reflects the light of the yellow sun.
  • Comets 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC filer.case.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The cometary gases become ionized by the action of the Sun's ultraviolet radiation and react to pressure from the solar wind, forming the comet's ion gas tail.
  • Comets 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC www.pibburns.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These gases glow, because they absorb sunlight and then re-emit more light.
  • Leicester University Physics Department 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC www.star.le.ac.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Since a gas at so great a distance from the sun cannot be heated to incandescence, the question arises how incandescence is excited.^ Whipple theorized that, as the comet approaches the Sun, solar heating causes the ices to sublimate (vaporize) rapidly, producing jets of gas on the nucleus’s surface.
  • Edwelda's Universe - Comets 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC home.comcast.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The two most important considerations in assessing the visibility of a comet are its distance from the Sun at closest approach, which controls the comet's activity, and its distance from Earth, preferably after the intense heating of it closest approach to the Sun.
  • Astronomy.com - Comets 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC www.astronomy.com [Source type: General]

^ The gas and dust tails consist of trains of gas and dust whose length can exceed the distance of the Earth from the Sun (1 AU).
  • Comets 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC www.pibburns.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The generalizations of recent years growing out of the phenomena of radioactivity make it highly probable that the source is to be found in some form of electrical excitation, produced by electrons or other corpuscles thrown out by the sun.^ This is one of the finest histories of this war that I have found, and gives details many other books leave out.

^ Recent calculations show that this asteroid-rich Kuiper belt (as it is now known) is probably the source of most of the short-period comets, such as Halley's comet, which orbits the Sun every 76 years.
  • Comets Teacher Page- Scientific Background 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC amazing-space.stsci.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At the same time, the solar wind -- that is, the flow of high-speed electrically charged particles from the sun-converts some of the comet's gases into ions (charged particles).
  • NASA - Comet 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC www.nasa.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The resemblance of the cometary spectrum to the spectrum of hydrocarbons in the Geissler tube lends great plausibility to this view. .It is remarkable that the great comet of 1882 also showed the bright lines of sodium with such intensity that they were observed in daylight by R. Copeland and W. O. Lohse.^ The Great Comet of 1831 was observed in January.
  • Comet list Compiled by Christie POnder 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC www.weatherfriend.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The great significance of the goose may be due to the appearance of a heavenly body such as a comet, with wing-like protuberances.

^ The reason for the great uncertainty stems from the fact that for the past few weeks the comet has been positioned at such a relatively small angular distance from the sun in the sky that it has been extremely difficult to get good measurements of its brightness.
  • Comet could brighten into brilliance - Space.com- msnbc.com 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC www.msnbc.msn.com [Source type: News]

.In addition to these gaseous spectra, all but the fainter comets show a continuous spectrum, crossed by the Fraunhofer lines, which is doubtless due to reflected sunlight.^ Comet McNaught's show continues .

^ However due to some high thin clouds reflecting lights for nearby cities all I saw was a faint cotton ball of light, no discernable tail.

^ These gases glow, because they absorb sunlight and then re-emit more light.
  • Leicester University Physics Department 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC www.star.le.ac.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It happens that, since the spectroscope has been perfected, no comet of great brilliancy has been favourably situated for observation.^ However, no observations have been reported since 2008 January.
  • Weekly Information about Bright Comets (2010 Jan. 16: North) 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC www.aerith.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It thus looks like our "Great Comet of 2000" (which, to be truthful, this object was never really expected to become) won't happen.
  • Comet LINEAR 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC www.swisr.org [Source type: General]

^ If there have been no recent updates try The German comet group page or Seiichi Yoshida's page for information or the Liga Iberoamericana de Astronoma for observations.
  • BAA Comet section 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC www.ast.cam.ac.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Until the opportunity is offered, the conclusions to be derived from spectroscopic observation cannot be further extended.
PLATE
.In the telescope the nucleus of a bright comet appears as an opaque mass, one or more seconds in diameter, the absolute dimensions comparing with those of the satellites of the planets, sometimes, indeed, equal to our moon.^ Buy one comet, get the second one FREE! .
  • Halley's Comet@Everything2.com 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Our first indication of this came in images taken with the Hubble Space Telescope in early July, which showed fragments starting to break off the comet's nucleus.
  • Comet LINEAR 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC www.swisr.org [Source type: General]

^ In 1682, the second Astronomer Royal of Great Britain, Dr. Edmond Halley (1656–1742), checked the orbit of a bright comet that was in the sky and then compared it with earlier comet orbits that were known in part.
  • http://www.infoplease.com/ipa/A0004502.html 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC www.infoplease.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

But the actual results of micrometric measures are found to differ very widely. .In the case of Donati's comet of 1858 the nucleus seemed to grow smaller as perihelion was approached.^ Brian Marsden of the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory has calculated that Comet Lulin passed through the perihelion point of its orbit (its closest approach to the sun) on Jan.
  • Newfound Comet Lulin to Grace Night Skies | LiveScience 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC www.livescience.com [Source type: General]

^ It sometimes happens that a comet loses its tail at perihelion; it then grows another one.
  • http://www.infoplease.com/ipa/A0004502.html 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC www.infoplease.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When a comet approaches within a few AU of the Sun, the surface of the nucleus begins to warm, and volatiles evaporate.
  • Comet Introduction 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC www.solarviews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This is evidently due to the fact that the coma immediately around the nucleus was so bright as apparently to form a part of it at considerable distances from the sun.^ Coma — The cloud that forms around a comet's nucleus.
  • Comets- Teacher Pages- Lesson Plan 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC amazing-space.stsci.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Surrounding the nucleus is the bright coma.
  • Comets : Comets, meteors and asteroids : Astronomy fact files : Astronomy & time : Explore online : NMM 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC www.nmm.ac.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The gases form a cloud around the nucleus called the coma .
  • Curious About Astronomy? Comets, Meteors and Asteroids 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC curious.astro.cornell.edu [Source type: General]

G. P. Bond estimated the diameter of the actual nucleus at Soo m. .That the nucleus is a body of appreciable mass seems to be made probable by the fact that, except for the central attraction of such a body, a comet would speedily be dissipated by the different attractions of the sun on different parts of the mass, which would result in each particle pursuing an orbit of its own.^ What are the different parts of a comet and where do they come from?
  • Lecture notes for "Comets, Links to the Origins of the Solar System" by: Dr. Walter Harris 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC tellus.ssec.wisc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some asteroids such as Mathilde are very light and are probably "rubble piles" made up of lots of small particles loosely held together.
  • Curious About Astronomy? Comets, Meteors and Asteroids 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC curious.astro.cornell.edu [Source type: General]

^ The great significance of the goose may be due to the appearance of a heavenly body such as a comet, with wing-like protuberances.

.It follows that there must be a mass sufficient to hold the parts of the comet, if not absolutely together, at least in each other's immediate neighbourhood.^ It is the part of the comet that is always there, at least as long as the comet exists.
  • Comets 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC filer.case.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One theory holds that as a comet approaches the inner solar system, solar radiation causes part of its outer layers, composed of ice and other materials, to melt and evaporate, but this has not been proven.
  • Skeptic World - Universe - Comets 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC www.skepticworld.com [Source type: Original source]

^ There are several asteroids that we now suspect were actually once comets, but the comet part has died off.
  • Astronomy Cast - Ep. 19: Comets, Our Icy Friends from the Outer Solar System 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC www.astronomycast.com [Source type: General]

.How great a central mass may be required for this is a subject not yet investigated.^ They are so numerous that the total mass of comets in solar orbit may be as great as the total mass of the planets.
  • Comets: The Delivery System. by Brig Klyce 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC www.panspermia.org [Source type: Academic]

It might be supposed that the amount of matter must be sufficient to make the nucleus quite opaque. But two considerations based on observations militate against this view. .One is that an opaque body, reflecting much sunlight, would show a brighter continuous spectrum than has yet been found in any comet.^ Most comets usually have two tails, and usually one is much brighter than the other.
  • Comets 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC filer.case.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Comet McNaught's show continues .

^ Comet Borrelly, visited by NASA's Deep Space 1 probe in 2001, was found to have extremely dark patches over much of its surface.
  • Comet Ceasar and 2012 Doomsday 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC www.viewzone.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Another and yet more remarkable observation is on record which goes far to prove not only the tenuity, but the transparency of a cometary nucleus.^ There goes only so far.
  • Ajaxian » Comet: A New Approach to Ajax Applications 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC ajaxian.com [Source type: General]

^ As far as the actual ping pong goes, that was another huge let down at Comet.
  • Comet Ping Pong - Chevy Chase - Washington, DC 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC www.yelp.com [Source type: General]

.The great comet of 1882 made a transit over the sun on the 17th of September, an occurrence unique in the history of astronomy.^ Broadly speaking, if a comet has a large and active nucleus, will pass close to the Sun, and is not obscured by the Sun as seen from the Earth when at its brightest, it will have a chance of becoming a great comet.
  • Skeptic World - Universe - Comets 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC www.skepticworld.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The comet or comets Nostradamus prophesied about could end up being as bright as was Comet Kurtz in 1680 (magnitude -18) or the Great September Comet of 1882 (magnitude -17), both which peaked at magnitudes of -220 or greater (almost as bright as the the sun).

^ This Great Comet was observed between early September to December.
  • Comet list Compiled by Christie POnder 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC www.weatherfriend.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

But the fact of the transit escaped attention except at the observatory of the Cape of Good Hope. .Here the comet was watched by W. H. Finlay and by W. L. Elkin as it approached the sun, and was kept in sight until it came almost or quite in contact with the sun's disk, when it disappeared.^ Second, as the comet approaches the Sun and warms up, gases within its icy core warm and burst much like geysers.

^ Three things can be observed: (1) The comet moves faster as it gets closer to the Sun; (2) The comet's tail always points away from the Sun; (3) The comet's tail becomes longer as the comet gets closer to the Sun, and eventually disappears as it moves farther away from the Sun.
  • Comets- Teacher Pages- Lesson Plan 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC amazing-space.stsci.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In this series of images, a fairly bright comet makes a very close pass by the Sun (masked by a white disk) and vaporizes entirely as a result.
  • Comets 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC www.uwgb.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It should, if opaque, have appeared a few minutes later, projected on the sun's disk; but not a trace of it could be seen.^ A few minutes later an impact could be heard and geophysics and seismology research foundation NORSAR registered a powerful sound and seismic disturbances at 02:13.25 a.m.

^ Some later impacts, however, were close enough to the edge of Jupiter that the rising fireball after impact could be seen.
  • Comets 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC www.uwgb.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This March comet was so bright that on February 28th, it could be seen all day close to the sun, with a 3 degree tail!
  • Comet list Compiled by Christie POnder 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC www.weatherfriend.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The sun was approaching Table Mountain at the critical moment, and its limb was undulating badly, making the detection of a minute point difficult.^ Comet 73P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 3 has been passing Earth all month as it approaches the point nearest the sun in its orbit.

^ Schwassmann-Wachmann 3 goes around the sun every 5.4 years, and is on course to make the closest approach of this orbit on June 7.

The possibility of a very small opaque nucleus is therefore still left open; yet the remarkable conclusion still holds, that, immediately around a possible central nucleus, the matter of the head of the comet was so rare as not to intercept FIG. I. - Comet 1892, I. (Swift), 1892, April 26.
PLATE II.
.By permission of Lick Observatory (E. E. Barnard) FIG. 3. - Halley'S Comet, 1910, April 27. By permission of Helwan Observatory, Egypt.^ By 1910, however, astronomers were able to predict the path of the comet so accurately that only a few people were distressed by the possibility of Halley's comet hitting the planet.
  • The UnMuseum - Comet Halley 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC www.unmuseum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Chuck Claver of the National Optical Astronomy Observatories in Tucson, Arizona, captured Comet Hale-Bopp from his backyard in Oro Valley, Arizona, on the evening of April, 9 1997.
  • Astronomy.com - Comets 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC www.astronomy.com [Source type: General]

^ Sometime during the year of 1910 Comet Halley made an appearance.
  • Comet list Compiled by Christie POnder 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC www.weatherfriend.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

any appreciable fraction of the sun's light. .This result seems also to show that, with the possible exception of a very small central mass, what seems to telescopic vision as a nucleus is really only the central portion of the coma, which, as the distance from the centre increases, becomes less and less dense by imperceptible gradations.^ The menu is very limited, and the portions are small.
  • Comet Ping Pong - Chevy Chase - Washington, DC 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC www.yelp.com [Source type: General]

^ The only real life is this very moment.

^ The central nucleus shined like a bright star, and the dust coma looked like 17P/Holmes in outburst.
  • Weekly Information about Bright Comets (2010 Jan. 16: North) 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC www.aerith.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Another fact tending towards this same conclusion is that after this comet passed perihelion it showed several nuclei following each other.^ This comet tends to brighten after the perihelion passage.
  • Weekly Information about Bright Comets (2010 Jan. 16: North) 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC www.aerith.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The next real progress was to show that comets obeyed the same natural laws as other bodies in the heavens, and this had to wait until someone--Sir Isaac Newton--determined what those laws were.
  • Comets Background Page 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC cse.ssl.berkeley.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As predicted by Mark Twain in 1909 he would die with the next showing of Halley's comet and he did indeed pass away this year with the comet Halley in the sky.
  • Comet list Compiled by Christie POnder 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC www.weatherfriend.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Evidently the powerful attraction of the sun had separated the parts of the apparent nucleus, which were following each other in nearly the same orbit.^ After all, small comets are just a part of the meteoric dust and debris that orbits the Sun and falls into the Earth's atmosphere on a daily basis.

^ This means that while nearly everything in the solar system goes round in the same direction, because of the original solar nebula's rotation, half of the comets circulate the other way.
  • Comets Background Page 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC cse.ssl.berkeley.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Planets have nearly circular orbits, whereas comets have elongated paths around the Sun.
  • Comets Teacher Page- Scientific Background 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC amazing-space.stsci.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.As they could not have been completely brought together again, we may suppose that in such cases the smaller nuclei were permanently separated from the main body.^ The great significance of the goose may be due to the appearance of a heavenly body such as a comet, with wing-like protuberances.

^ Or this could be the SCO alliance of Russia, China and four Central Asian states, which may be gaining new members soon such as Iran.
  • More on comets: Comets Hale-Bopp, Hyakutake, and the comet collision with Jupiter-- an Astrology, Bible Prophecy, and New Age analysis 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC revelation13.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the above plate taken on May 17, 2001, one can see the separation of the two cometary bodies that were once a single comet's head.

.In addition to this, the remarkable similarity of the orbit of this comet to that of several others indicates a group of bodies moving in nearly the same orbit.^ A heavenly icy body subject to the sun's force of attraction, moving in a elliptical or parabolic orbit, which sometimes degenerates into a hyperbola leading to the escape of the comet from the solar system.

^ The next real progress was to show that comets obeyed the same natural laws as other bodies in the heavens, and this had to wait until someone--Sir Isaac Newton--determined what those laws were.
  • Comets Background Page 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC cse.ssl.berkeley.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Indeed, from a cursory examination of the moons and small bodies found in the outer solar system it is clear that comets must have begun their journey from at or beyond the orbit of Jupiter.
  • Lecture notes for "Comets, Links to the Origins of the Solar System" by: Dr. Walter Harris 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC tellus.ssec.wisc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The other members of the group were the great comets of 1843, 1880 and 1887. The latter, though so bright as to be conspicuous to the naked eye, showed no nucleus whatever.^ Can the small comets be seen by the naked eye?

^ Marsden group comet (no.

^ It is not a naked eye object though.

.The closely related orbits of the four bodies are also remarkable for approaching nearer the sun at perihelion than does the orbit of any other known body.^ Halley reached perihelion at a time when Earth was on the opposite side of the Sun, and the comet never came closer to Earth than 0.417 AU (38.7 million miles or 62.4 million km), which is about three times the distance of its 1910 approach.
  • Astronomy.com - Comets 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC www.astronomy.com [Source type: General]

^ Comet 73P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 3 has been passing Earth all month as it approaches the point nearest the sun in its orbit.

^ Comets' orbits are constantly changing: their origins are in the outer solar system, and they have a propensity to be highly affected (or perturbed) by relatively close approaches to the major planets.
  • Skeptic World - Universe - Comets 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC www.skepticworld.com [Source type: Original source]

.All of these comets pass through the matter of the sun's corona with a velocity of more than 100 m.^ The comet passes nicely, but all these fragments will not.

^ Each time a comet passes close to the sun, it loses more of its ice.
  • Curious About Astronomy? Comets, Meteors and Asteroids 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC curious.astro.cornell.edu [Source type: General]

^ I wouldn't put more than 100 W FM through it, though.
  • Comet GP-9 dual band base antenna Product Reviews 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC www.eham.net [Source type: General]

per second without suffering any retardation. .As it is beyond all reasonable probability that several independent bodies should have moved in orbits so nearly the same, the conclusion is that the comets were originally portions of one mass, which gradually separated in the course of ages by the powerful attraction of the sun as the collection successively passed the perihelion.^ Comets may not have originated in the Oort cloud, but rather may have been gravitationally flung there following close encounters with the sun , Jupiter, or even nearby stars .
  • Comet 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC www.christa.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A heavenly icy body subject to the sun's force of attraction, moving in a elliptical or parabolic orbit, which sometimes degenerates into a hyperbola leading to the escape of the comet from the solar system.

^ Long period comets with periods of thousands of years or more are believed to originate in the Oort Cloud, a vast spherical swarm of comets extending a light year or more from the Sun.
  • Comets 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC www.uwgb.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It may be remarked that observations on the comet of 1843 seemed to show a slight ellipticity of the orbit, corresponding to a period of several centuries; but the deviation of all the orbits from a parabola is too slight to be established by observations.^ More than a century later, Isaac Newton showed that comets obeyed Johannes Kepler's laws of planetary motion and concluded "comets are a sort of planet revolved in very eccentric orbits around the Sun."
  • Astronomy.com - Comets 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC www.astronomy.com [Source type: General]

^ Recent calculations show that this asteroid-rich Kuiper belt (as it is now known) is probably the source of most of the short-period comets, such as Halley's comet, which orbits the Sun every 76 years.
  • Comets Teacher Page- Scientific Background 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC amazing-space.stsci.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Edmond Halley took this notion and drew up a table of the parameters of the twenty-odd brightest comets that had been seen over the previous several centuries.
  • Comets 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC cnx.org [Source type: General]

.The periods of the comets are therefore unknown except that they must be counted by centuries and possibly by thousands of years.^ They are a proud people, proud of thousands of years of recorded history, proud of having survived the European invasion, and of having been instrumental in helping to win independence for Mexico.
  • 2012: No Comet | Universe Today 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC www.universetoday.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Long period comets with periods of thousands of years or more are believed to originate in the Oort Cloud, a vast spherical swarm of comets extending a light year or more from the Sun.
  • Comets 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC www.uwgb.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The orbits of many comets have periods ranging from hundreds of years to tens of millions of years, indicating that they spend much of the time far outside the orbits of Neptune and Pluto.
  • Comets : Comets, meteors and asteroids : Astronomy fact files : Astronomy & time : Explore online : NMM 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC www.nmm.ac.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Another fact which increases the complexity of the question is the well-established connexion of comets with meteoric showers.^ Previously asked questions about Comets, Meteors and Asteroids: .
  • Curious About Astronomy? Comets, Meteors and Asteroids 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC curious.astro.cornell.edu [Source type: General]

^ This is the parent comet to the Perseid meteor shower, which occurs in August.
  • Comet list Compiled by Christie POnder 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC www.weatherfriend.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It wouldn't be the first time a dying comet produced a meteor shower: .

.The shower of November 13-15, now known as the Leonids, which recurred for several centuries at intervals of about onethird of a century, are undoubtedly due to a stream of particles left behind by a comet observed in 1866. The same is true of Biela's comet, the disintegrated particles of which give rise to the Andromedids, and probably true also of the Perseids, or August meteors, the orbits of which have a great similarity to a comet seen in 1862. The general and well-established conclusion seems to be that, in addition to the visible features of a comet, every such body is followed in its orbit by a swarm of meteoric particles which must have been gradually detached and separated from it.^ This is the parent comet to the Perseid meteor shower, which occurs in August.
  • Comet list Compiled by Christie POnder 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC www.weatherfriend.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This comet was seen from early August to early December.
  • Comet list Compiled by Christie POnder 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC www.weatherfriend.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A Great Comet was observed in July and the tail was about 7 degrees long.
  • Comet list Compiled by Christie POnder 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC www.weatherfriend.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

(See Meteor.) .The source of the repulsive force by which the matter forming the tail of a comet is driven away from the sun is another question that has not yet been decisively answered.^ The tail always points away from the Sun -- not away from the comet’s direction of motion.
  • Comet Facts - Explore the Cosmos | The Planetary Society 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC planetary.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The only permanent feature of a comet is its nucleus , which is a small body that may be seen as a stellar image in large telescopes when tail and nebulosity do not exist, particularly when the comet is still far away from the Sun.
  • comet (astronomy) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Its gas or "ion" tail (blue) consists of ionized glowing gas blown away from the comet's head by the solar wind.
  • Where do comets come from? - space - 02 February 2009 - New Scientist 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC www.newscientist.com [Source type: General]

.Two causes have been suggested, of which one has only recently been brought to light.^ But these two objects HG and GB1 have only one speed from approximately 5 km/s.

^ Recent reports place a pair of motorcyclists at the scene, one rider shining the bright light at the Mercedes.

^ The documentation does not specify what conditions could trigger a exception; the only one I can think of is File Not Open and I would want that to cause a crash.
  • Comet Sightings 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC abs.auerbach.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This is the repulsion of the sun's rays, a form of action the probability of which was shown by J. Clerk Maxwell in 1870, and which was experimentally established about thirty years later.^ By the time the fragments of the comet have descended to about 600 miles, the "snowball" fragments have been vaporized by the Sun's rays.

^ Because Schwassmann-Wachmann 3 is much closer to both the Earth and the sun than Tempel 1 was, it currently appears about 20 times brighter in X-rays.

^ It took about five years before scientists had a suitable explanation for X-ray emission.

.The intensity of this action on a particle is proportional to the surface presented by the particle to the rays, and therefore to the square of its diameter, while its mass, and therefore its gravitation to the sun, are proportional to the cube of the diameter.^ As its coma expanded, Comet Holmes briefly became larger in diameter than the Sun, though the mass of the coma was negligible.
  • Comets 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC www.uwgb.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Scientists think that X-rays are produced through a process called charge exchange, in which highly (and positively) charged particles from the sun that lack electrons steal electrons from chemicals in the comet.

^ When one nears the Sun, the heat vaporizes its surface, releasing gases and dust particles, which form a cloud (coma) around the nucleus.
  • comet (astronomy) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It follows that if the size and mass of a particle in space are below a certain limit, the repulsion of the rays will exceed the attraction of the sun, and the particle will be driven off into space.^ Better it is then to build peace within our civilization, before it takes-off into space.

^ Scientists think that X-rays are produced through a process called charge exchange, in which highly (and positively) charged particles from the sun that lack electrons steal electrons from chemicals in the comet.

^ The Hubble Space Telescope can be turned into an oven simply by aiming its lenses to the Sun, but the risk is necessary and the safety protocols are ignored.

.But, in order that this repulsive force may act, the particles, however minute they may be, must be opaque.^ The speed at which they travel, and the opposing force of Earth's atmosphere, cause the particles to explode.
  • Tom Bissell - A Comet's Tale 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC www.wesjones.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On May 6th 1955 they became the first-ever rock 'n' roll act to give a concert at Carnegie Hall.

.Moreover, theory shows that there is a lower as well as an upper limit to their magnitude, and that it is only between certain definable limits of magnitude that the force acts.^ The stage is also only big enough for the drummer so there is no separation between the crowd and the band.
  • The Comet Tavern - Seattle, WA 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC www.yelp.com [Source type: General]

^ Dark Comets There's only one difference between dark comets and regular comets -- we won't see the approach of the dark comet.
  • Comet Ceasar and 2012 Doomsday 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC www.viewzone.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Copernicus's De Revolutionibus (1543) had been around for a generation, and there were other cosmological theories as well that challenged the existing cosmology.
  • Comets 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC cnx.org [Source type: General]

Conceiving the particle to be of the density of water, and considering its diameter as a diminishing variable, theory shows that the repulsion will balance gravity when the diameter has reached (3.0015 of a millimetre. As the diameter is reduced below this limit the ratio of the repulsive to the attractive force increases, but soon reaches a maximum, after which it diminishes down to a diameter of o 00007 mm., when the two actions are again balanced. Below this limit the light speedily ceases to act. It follows that a purely gaseous body, such as would emit a characteristic bright line spectrum, would not be subject to the repulsion. .We must therefore conclude that both the solid and gaseous forms of matter are here at play, and this view is consonant with the fact that the comet leaves behind it particles of meteoric matter.^ They believe the outer crust of the missing object could be made of sticky organic particles left behind when the ice that traditionally forms a comet melts away and was captured by Sedna.

^ Earth plows through the dust, and the particles form meteors as they hit the atmosphere.
  • Curious About Astronomy? Comets, Meteors and Asteroids 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC curious.astro.cornell.edu [Source type: General]

^ Gas-Ion Tail— This type of comet tail forms when the solar wind separates gases from the coma, pushing them outward away from the Sun in a straight path.
  • Comets- Teacher Pages- Lesson Plan 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC amazing-space.stsci.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Another possible cause is electrical repulsion. .The probability of this cause is suggested by recent discoveries in radioactivity and by the fact that the sun undoubtedly sends forth electrical emanations which may ionize the gaseous molecules rising from the nucleus, and lead to their repulsion from the sun, thus resulting in the phenomena of the tail.^ By his second study, 15 apparent sungrazing comets had been discovered by the SOLWIND and Solar Maximum Mission satellites, and Marsden noted these "discoveries suggest that members may in fact be coming back to the Sun more or less continuously."
  • Astronomy.com - Comets 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC www.astronomy.com [Source type: General]

^ If a comet approaches to within 5 astronomical units (750 million kilometers or 465 million miles) of the Sun, fluorescence of tail gases can become an important contributor to the brightness of the comet, together with the light reflected from the nucleus and coma.
  • Comet Facts - Explore the Cosmos | The Planetary Society 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC planetary.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The only permanent feature of a comet is its nucleus , which is a small body that may be seen as a stellar image in large telescopes when tail and nebulosity do not exist, particularly when the comet is still far away from the Sun.
  • comet (astronomy) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.But well-established laws are not yet sufficiently developed to lead to definite conclusions on this point, and the question whether both causes are combined, and, if not, to which one the phenomena in question is mainly due, must be left to the future.^ One of the questions stood out at me and made me ponder what my definition of the answer is: .
  • The Comet Guy 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC thecometguy.com [Source type: General]

^ One said it was a combination of both, that the earth quakes were ...

^ It is not a question of whether a comet will strike Earth, it is a question of when the next one will hit.
  • Comet Facts - Explore the Cosmos | The Planetary Society 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC planetary.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A curious circumstance, which may be explained by a duplex character of the matter forming a cometary tail, is the great difference between the visual and photographic aspect of these bodies.^ Each makes a different kind of cometary tail.
  • Comets: The Delivery System. by Brig Klyce 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC www.panspermia.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The hosts, Pamela and Fraser, are fun to listen to, extremely knowledgeable, and are able to explain difficult subject matter with great analogies.
  • Astronomy Cast - Ep. 19: Comets, Our Icy Friends from the Outer Solar System 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC www.astronomycast.com [Source type: General]

^ In the vast majority of media forms, it is the other way around when it comes to bashing or alienating people's position on these matters.
  • 2012: No Comet | Universe Today 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC www.universetoday.com [Source type: Original source]

.The soft, delicate, feathery-like form which the comet with its tail presents to the eye is wanting in a photograph, which shows principally a round head with an irregularly formed tail much like the knotted stalk of a plant.^ Comet Kohoutek in 1973 looked like a exceptionally promising comet, but it turned out to be much fainter than predicted and for a time became a synonym for an over-hyped disappointment.
  • Comets 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC www.uwgb.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Second, as the comet approaches the Sun and warms up, gases within its icy core warm and burst much like geysers.

^ Snapshot 1 shows a large coma, a short tail, and an orientation that closely matches that of the comet when it underwent its most recent outburst.
  • Enigmatic Comet Holmes - Wolfram Demonstrations Project 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC demonstrations.wolfram.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It follows that the light emitted by the central axis of the tail greatly exceeds in actinic power the diffuse light around it.^ The ion tail is usually bluish because tiny objects like atoms scatter blue light most effectively, and also the atoms and molecules are excited and emit blue light.
  • Comets 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC www.uwgb.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A careful comparison of the form and intensity of the photographic and visual tails may throw much light on the question of the constitution of these bodies, but no good opportunity of making the comparison has been afforded since the art of celestial photography has been brought to its present state of perfection.^ Inside of Jupiter's orbit, the ice within the nucleus may begin to sublimate, forming a coma , tails , and a hydrogen cloud .
  • Comet 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC www.christa.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At that point we may see its tail shooting up from the horizon as a shaft of light!

^ It states in Revelation 18 that no one will buy her goods any more, including cattle and sheep, and souls of men.
  • More on comets: Comets Hale-Bopp, Hyakutake, and the comet collision with Jupiter-- an Astrology, Bible Prophecy, and New Age analysis 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC revelation13.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The main conclusions to which the preceding facts and considerations point is that the matter of a comet is partly solid and partly gaseous. .The gaseous form is shown conclusively by the spectroscope, but in view of the extreme delicacy of the indications with this instrument no quantitative estimate of the gas can be made.^ Gas-Ion Tail— This type of comet tail forms when the solar wind separates gases from the coma, pushing them outward away from the Sun in a straight path.
  • Comets- Teacher Pages- Lesson Plan 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC amazing-space.stsci.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This cloud is made by solar wind striking the surface of the nucleus, causing a mixture of gas and dust to form around it.
  • Comets- Teacher Pages- Lesson Plan 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC amazing-space.stsci.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.As there is no central mass sufficient to hold together a continuous atmosphere of elastic gas of any sort, it seems probable that the gaseous molecules are only those rising from the coma, possibly by ordinary evaporation, but more probably by the action of the ultra-violet and other rays of the sun giving rise to an ionization of disconnected gaseous molecules.^ There is no sun.

^ I'm just trying to state in simple terms the fact that comets out-gas material to form their coma and tail when exposed to solar heating, and that a "fresh" comet of sorts would have more of said material.

^ In both cases, there is no reason so that there are not other fragments around, and especially behind S. We see that the fragment S is an extremely serious candidate for a collision with the Earth.

.The matter cannot be wholly gaseous because in this case there could be no central force sufficient to keep the parts of the comet together.^ There are several asteroids that we now suspect were actually once comets, but the comet part has died off.
  • Astronomy Cast - Ep. 19: Comets, Our Icy Friends from the Outer Solar System 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC www.astronomycast.com [Source type: General]

^ There are no small plates, no microbrews (that I could find), no gastropub fare, no shoegazer tolerance, no air freshener in the bathrooms, etc etc - and I like it.
  • The Comet Tavern - Seattle, WA 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC www.yelp.com [Source type: General]

^ A collision within 4 years is even possible as there could be less than a year's warning with some comet orbits.
  • 2012: No Comet | Universe Today 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC www.universetoday.com [Source type: Original source]

.The facts also point to the conclusion that the solid matter of a comet is formed of a swarm or cloud of small disconnected masses, probably having much resemblance to the meteoric masses which are known to be flying through the solar system and possibly of the same general kind as these.^ Are noctilucent clouds produced by small comets?

^ Comets that orbit in the outer Solar System generally go unnoticed.
  • Comets 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC www.uwgb.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ So the astronauts have probably flown through these things and not known it.

.The question whether there is any central solid of considerable mass is still undecided; it can only be said that if so, it is probably small relative to cosmic masses in general - more likely less than greater than loo m.^ The smallest asteroids that we've observed in detail are only tens of meters in size, but there are probably a great number of small rocks in space that are currently too small for us to detect.
  • Curious About Astronomy? Comets, Meteors and Asteroids 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC curious.astro.cornell.edu [Source type: General]

^ As former Apollo 9 astronaut, Rusty Schweickart said in a recent phone conversation, "in the process of finding the big ones, you also find a bunch of small ones, and the smaller ones are obviously far more numerous than the large ones."
  • Comet | QUEST Community Science Blog - KQED 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC www.kqed.org [Source type: General]

^ Instead of there being 940 of them, there are more like 600,000 of them.
  • Comet | QUEST Community Science Blog - KQED 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC www.kqed.org [Source type: General]

in diameter. .The light of the comet therefore proceeds from two sources: one the incandescence of gases, the other the sunlight reflected from the solid parts.^ Nucleus of a Comet— The solid rocky part of a comet.
  • Comets- Teacher Pages- Lesson Plan 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC amazing-space.stsci.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This material reflects sunlight, giving a comet its brilliance.

^ This comet had two tails one very bright tail was curved and at a length of about 15 degrees.
  • Comet list Compiled by Christie POnder 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC www.weatherfriend.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.No estimate can be formed of the ratio between these two kinds of light until a bright comet shall be spectroscopically observed during an entire apparition.^ The main difference between the two apparitions was the comet's distance from Earth.
  • Astronomy.com - Comets 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC www.astronomy.com [Source type: General]

^ This year had two bright comets.
  • Comet list Compiled by Christie POnder 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC www.weatherfriend.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ordinarily, this comet doesn't become an unaided-eye apparition, usually cruising by well below the necessary brightness for this type of visibility.
  • Comet | QUEST Community Science Blog - KQED 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC www.kqed.org [Source type: General]

Origin and Orbits of Comets

.The great difference which we have pointed out between comets and the permanent bodies of the solar system naturally suggested the idea that these bodies do not belong to that system at all, but are nebulous masses, scattered through the stellar spaces, and brought one by one into the sphere of the sun's attraction.^ These elements are from the solar wind, not the comet.

^ Descartes argued that comets were bodies that traveled from one solar system to another.
  • Comets 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC cnx.org [Source type: General]

^ The Sun contains over 99% of all mass in our solar system.
  • Comet 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC www.christa.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The results of this view are easily shown to be incompatible with the observed facts. .The sun, carrying the whole solar system with it, is moving through space with a speed of about 10 m.^ Some of the nuclear warfare detection systems automatically confuse these fireballs hurtling through space at tremendous speeds as invading nuclear warheads from an unknown enemy; counter attacks are mistakenly dispatched in response.

^ July 21st, 2009 Tags: comets , Jupiter , NASA , solar system by Eliza Strickland in Space .

^ As of March 2006, at least 40 different fragments of the comet are known to be flying through the solar system.

per second. .If it approached a comet nearly at rest the result would be a relative motion of this amount which, as the comet came nearer, would be constantly increased, and would result in the comet describing relative to the sun a markedly hyperbolic orbit, deviating too widely from a parabola to leave any doubt, even in the most extreme cases.^ Motion and discovery of comets - Types of orbits .
  • comet (astronomy) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In these, most nebular material still flows inward toward the sun; but near the midplane, the inward flow ceases or even reverses, letting the outward diffusion of material to the comet-forming region proceed."
  • Comets: The Delivery System. by Brig Klyce 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC www.panspermia.org [Source type: Academic]

^ We are constantly finding new comets; the SOHO satellite was put in orbit specifically to observe the Sun, but it has also ended up helping people discover over a thousand different Sun-grazing comets, which approach very close to the Sun and in some cases melt or even fall into the Sun as they get near.
  • Astronomy Cast - Ep. 19: Comets, Our Icy Friends from the Outer Solar System 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC www.astronomycast.com [Source type: General]

.Moreover, a large majority of comets would then have their aphelia in the direction of the sun's motion, and therefore their perihelia in the opposite direction.^ What really interests me is that comets and their impacts with Earth are - apart from the sun - the only bodies that have a direct effect on evolution, on life, on the origin of life.
  • Tom Bissell - A Comet's Tale 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC www.wesjones.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A comet’s orbit is more eccentric; therefore, its distance to the Sun varies considerably.
  • comet (astronomy) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If the small comets were moving in random directions relative to Earth, there would be no such daily variation.

Neither of these results corresponds to the fact. .The conclusion is that if we regard a comet as a body not belonging to the solar system, it is at least a body which before its approach to the sun had the same motion through the stellar spaces that the sun has.^ Indeed, from a cursory examination of the moons and small bodies found in the outer solar system it is clear that comets must have begun their journey from at or beyond the orbit of Jupiter.
  • Lecture notes for "Comets, Links to the Origins of the Solar System" by: Dr. Walter Harris 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC tellus.ssec.wisc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Second, as the comet approaches the Sun and warms up, gases within its icy core warm and burst much like geysers.

^ The conclusion of many astronomers is that the known solar system is surrounded in all directions by a tenuous halo of icy outcasts, thrown from the sun's immediate vicinity billions of years ago by the gravity of the giant planets.
  • Where do comets come from? - space - 02 February 2009 - New Scientist 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC www.newscientist.com [Source type: General]

.As this unity of motion must have been maintained from the beginning, we may regard comets as belonging to the solar system in the sense of not being visitors from distant regions of space.^ Students may not realize that comets are a part of the Solar System.
  • Comets- Teacher Pages- Lesson Plan 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC amazing-space.stsci.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Since it is theorized that this is Comet Lulin's first foray into the inner Solar system, it will be packed full of "fresh" ice to sublimate, and may suddenly go into outburst like Comet Holmes did.

^ Indeed, from a cursory examination of the moons and small bodies found in the outer solar system it is clear that comets must have begun their journey from at or beyond the orbit of Jupiter.
  • Lecture notes for "Comets, Links to the Origins of the Solar System" by: Dr. Walter Harris 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC tellus.ssec.wisc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The acceptance of this seemingly inevitable conclusion leads to another: that no comet yet known moves in a really hyperbolic orbit, but that the limit of eccentricity must be regarded as 1, or that of the parabola.^ Comets move to No.
  • Palomar College FOOTBALL 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC www.palomar.edu [Source type: General]

^ A heavenly icy body subject to the sun's force of attraction, moving in a elliptical or parabolic orbit, which sometimes degenerates into a hyperbola leading to the escape of the comet from the solar system.

^ Indeed, from a cursory examination of the moons and small bodies found in the outer solar system it is clear that comets must have begun their journey from at or beyond the orbit of Jupiter.
  • Lecture notes for "Comets, Links to the Origins of the Solar System" by: Dr. Walter Harris 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC tellus.ssec.wisc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

It is true that seeming evidence of hyperbolic eccentricity is sometimes afforded by observations and regarded by some astronomers as sufficient. The objections to the reality of the hyperbolic orbit are two. .(1) A comet moving in a decidedly hyperbolic orbit must have come from so great a distance within a finite time, say a few millions of years, as to have no relation to the sun, and must after its approach to the sun return into space, never again to visit our system.^ (Beginner) How many comets are currently orbiting our sun?
  • Curious About Astronomy? Comets, Meteors and Asteroids 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC curious.astro.cornell.edu [Source type: General]

^ Our remaining time is but a few days.

^ Comets move to No.
  • Palomar College FOOTBALL 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC www.palomar.edu [Source type: General]

.In this case the motion of the sun through space renders it almost infinitely improbable that the orbit would have been so nearly a parabola as all such orbits are actually found to be.^ Comets such as Halley's are agglomerations of dust and ice that orbit the sun on highly elliptical paths, acquiring their spectacular tails in the headwind of charged particles streaming from the sun.
  • Where do comets come from? - space - 02 February 2009 - New Scientist 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC www.newscientist.com [Source type: General]

^ Comet 73P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 3 has been passing Earth all month as it approaches the point nearest the sun in its orbit.

^ Today the consensus is that all such fossils are Earthly contaminants, but the case is not settled.
  • Comets: The Delivery System. by Brig Klyce 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC www.panspermia.org [Source type: Academic]

.(2) The apparent deviation from a very elongated ellipse has never been in any case greater than might have been the result of errors of observation on bodies of this class.^ (BTW, this was the case with the recent image I took of C/2004 Q2 and I ended up with less than desirable results.

.This being granted, a luminous view of the causes which lead to the observed orbits of comets is readily gained by imagining these bodies to be formed of nebulous masses, which originally accompanied the sun in its journey through space, but at distances, in most cases, vastly greater than that of the farthest planet.^ Most comets are believed to originate in the Oort cloud located at large distance from the Sun.

^ Comets may not have originated in the Oort cloud, but rather may have been gravitationally flung there following close encounters with the sun , Jupiter, or even nearby stars .
  • Comet 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC www.christa.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In these, most nebular material still flows inward toward the sun; but near the midplane, the inward flow ceases or even reverses, letting the outward diffusion of material to the comet-forming region proceed."
  • Comets: The Delivery System. by Brig Klyce 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC www.panspermia.org [Source type: Academic]

.Such a mass, when drawn towards the sun, would move round it in a nearly parabolic orbit, similar to the actual orbits of the great majority of comets.^ The great significance of the goose may be due to the appearance of a heavenly body such as a comet, with wing-like protuberances.

^ A heavenly icy body subject to the sun's force of attraction, moving in a elliptical or parabolic orbit, which sometimes degenerates into a hyperbola leading to the escape of the comet from the solar system.

^ A comet’s orbit is more eccentric; therefore, its distance to the Sun varies considerably.
  • comet (astronomy) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The period might be measured by thousands, tens of thousands, or hundreds of thousands of years, according to the distances of the comet in the beginning; but instead of bodies extraneous to the system, we should have bodies properly belonging to the system and making revolutions around the sun.^ This begins a thousand year Millenium period of peace and prosperity on earth.
  • More on comets: Comets Hale-Bopp, Hyakutake, and the comet collision with Jupiter-- an Astrology, Bible Prophecy, and New Age analysis 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC revelation13.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Indeed, from a cursory examination of the moons and small bodies found in the outer solar system it is clear that comets must have begun their journey from at or beyond the orbit of Jupiter.
  • Lecture notes for "Comets, Links to the Origins of the Solar System" by: Dr. Walter Harris 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC tellus.ssec.wisc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For myself, it was a real treat, as unaided-eye comets are fairly rare — and though Holmes, making its way around the Sun every 7 years, isn't like a Haley that only passes by once (or, if you're lucky, twice) in a lifetime, Holmes also doesn't normally put in an appearance.
  • Comet | QUEST Community Science Blog - KQED 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC www.kqed.org [Source type: General]

.Were it not for the effect of planetary attraction long periods like these would be the general rule, though not necessarily universal.^ These two changes would not have any effect on existing programs.
  • Comet Sightings 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC abs.auerbach.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, the theory would like that it is the star which is extremely hot by gravitational compression, generating a nuclear fusion.

^ I would like to learn more about Linux tcp tuning so I can make a more informed decision about these settings.
  • Richard Jones | comet | Richard Jones, Esq. 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC www.metabrew.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.But at every return to perihelion the motion of a comet will be to some extent either accelerated or retarded by the action of Jupiter or any other planet in the neighbourhood of which it may pass.^ Inevitably every time I'm there, some drunk dude (or girl) either falls over or into me and I wind up having to hoist them up and pass them onto their friends, who are usually equally as loaded.
  • The Comet Tavern - Seattle, WA 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC www.yelp.com [Source type: General]

^ Comets have more deuterium in them (or at least the particular comet that was observed) than we find in ocean water, so if comets are all made the same way, either there had to be some way of getting rid of the deuterium on Earth, or perhaps our water came from some other mechanism.
  • Astronomy Cast - Ep. 19: Comets, Our Icy Friends from the Outer Solar System 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC www.astronomycast.com [Source type: General]

^ There are some indications that the comet Hale-Bopp may be related.

Commonly the action will be so slight as to have little influence on the orbit and the time of revolution. .But should the comet chance to pass the orbit of Jupiter just in front of the planet, its motion would be retarded and the orbit would be changed into one of shorter period.^ The eccentric orbit of this dark planet is speculated to cross the comet belt once every 26 million years or so, sending swarms of small comets streaming into the inner solar system and toward the Earth itself.

^ Shoemaker-Levy 9 was ripped to pieces by the gravity of the planet Jupiter in July 1992, made a final pass around the sun, and then slammed into Jupiter's atmosphere nearly two years later.

^ Indeed, from a cursory examination of the moons and small bodies found in the outer solar system it is clear that comets must have begun their journey from at or beyond the orbit of Jupiter.
  • Lecture notes for "Comets, Links to the Origins of the Solar System" by: Dr. Walter Harris 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC tellus.ssec.wisc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Should it pass behind the planet, its motion would be accelerated and its period lengthened.^ At such huge distances, it would not be passing planets that throw the comets sunwards - it would be the tug of the Milky Way and nearby stars.
  • Where do comets come from? - space - 02 February 2009 - New Scientist 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC www.newscientist.com [Source type: General]

.In such cases the orbit might be changed to a hyperbola, and then the comet would never return.^ If the small comets were moving in random directions relative to Earth, there would be no such daily variation.

^ There is another way to solve the problem of tracking a comet that might seem much easier that I would not discount: An external guide scope and camera guiding on the comets nucleus.

^ Yep the Comet customer service is rubbish and I would never buy anything from then again.
  • Don’t buy from Comet 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC www.ibrian.co.uk [Source type: General]

.It follows that there is a tendency towards a gradual but constant diminution in the total number of comets.^ The total number of comets in both regions is unknown, but it is believed to be immense with up to several hundred of billion in the Oort cloud, with several billion more in the Kupier belt.
  • Lecture notes for "Comets, Links to the Origins of the Solar System" by: Dr. Walter Harris 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC tellus.ssec.wisc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Comet is a TOTAL dive bar, but there's something happy about it.
  • The Comet Tavern - Seattle, WA 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC www.yelp.com [Source type: General]

^ Will there be a "cosmic aftershock" that will again cause the comet's brightness to again spike a similar number of days after the big Oct.

.If we call &e the amount by which the eccentricity of a cometary orbit is less than unity, Ae will be an extremely minute fraction in the case of the original orbits.^ A collision within 4 years is even possible as there could be less than a year's warning with some comet orbits.
  • 2012: No Comet | Universe Today 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC www.universetoday.com [Source type: Original source]

^ (BTW, this was the case with the recent image I took of C/2004 Q2 and I ended up with less than desirable results.

^ Originally I had a servlet.init() which was calling the register (which also had the same contextPath as the servlet, is this both cases above?
  • The Grizzly Comet or why space shuttle Discovery launch was delayed. | Java.net 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC weblogs.java.net [Source type: General]

.If we call S the change which the eccentricity 1 - Ae undergoes by the action of the planets during the passage of the comet through our system, it will leave the system with the eccentricity i - Ae 6. The possibilities are even whether 6 shall be positive or negative.^ The eccentric orbit of this dark planet is speculated to cross the comet belt once every 26 million years or so, sending swarms of small comets streaming into the inner solar system and toward the Earth itself.

^ The bubble — called the " coma " — is much larger than the icy nucleus; in fact, a typical comet coma fills a volume of space greater than a planet, even if the nucleus itself is a modest object only tens of miles across.
  • Comet | QUEST Community Science Blog - KQED 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC www.kqed.org [Source type: General]

^ One of the building blocks of life has been found on a comet hurtling through the solar system, adding evidence to the theory that earthly biology began when comets and meteors bombarded our young planet and seeded it with the precursors of life .

If negative, the eccentricity will be diminished and the period shortened. .If positive, and greater than fie, the eccentricity 1 - [le + 8 will be greater than 1, and then the comet will be thrown into a hyperbolic orbit and become for ever a wanderer through the stellar spaces.^ The eccentric orbit of this dark planet is speculated to cross the comet belt once every 26 million years or so, sending swarms of small comets streaming into the inner solar system and toward the Earth itself.

^ "We suspect that every comet goes through an episode like this," says Kelley of those comets that don't die by plunging into the Sun or into a planet.

^ A collision within 4 years is even possible as there could be less than a year's warning with some comet orbits.
  • 2012: No Comet | Universe Today 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC www.universetoday.com [Source type: Original source]

.The nearer a comet passes to a planet, especially to Jupiter, the greatest planet, the greater 5 may be.^ In May 2006, SW-3 will be not only among the rare ones to also approach close to the Earth, but also among comets having known the greatest magnitude ever reached.

^ The Ufological Research Centre said on its website last week that a tsunami could hit the Atlantic after a comet passes close to earth on Thursday, May 25.

^ METEOR WATCH: On May 31st, Earth will pass about five million miles from the dusty orbit of crumbling comet 73P/Schwassmann Wachmann 3.

.If 5 is a considerable negative fraction, the eccentricity will be so reduced that the comet will after the approach be one of short period.^ The two most important considerations in assessing the visibility of a comet are its distance from the Sun at closest approach, which controls the comet's activity, and its distance from Earth, preferably after the intense heating of it closest approach to the Sun.
  • Astronomy.com - Comets 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC www.astronomy.com [Source type: General]

^ In May 2006, SW-3 will be not only among the rare ones to also approach close to the Earth, but also among comets having known the greatest magnitude ever reached.

^ The closest to Earth, called short-period comets, are found just beyond Neptune in the Kuiper Belt, named after the astronomer Gerard Kuiper.
  • Tom Bissell - A Comet's Tale 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC www.wesjones.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It follows that, however long the period of a comet may be, there is a possibility of its becoming one of short period if it approaches Jupiter.^ Comets may not have originated in the Oort cloud, but rather may have been gravitationally flung there following close encounters with the sun , Jupiter, or even nearby stars .
  • Comet 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC www.christa.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ None of the pieces will come closer than 5.5 million miles to Earth during the comet's closest approaches May 12-28.

^ However, between the end of 2002 and mid-2003, when SW-3 had its slowest speed, Jupiter and Saturn influenced the previously fragmented comet.

.There have been several cases of this during the past two centuries, the most recent being that of Brooks's comet, 1889, V. Soon after its discovery this body was found to have a period of only about seven years.^ His most recent comet find was on Aug.

^ Several years ago I worked on theories about a comet seen during the last ...

^ This is extremely rare, the only other cases of a bright comet being seen during a ...

.The question why it had not been observed at previous returns was settled after the orbit had been determined by computing its motion in the past.^ NEAT observes the new asteroid until its orbit can be reasonably determined, at which point Ostro takes over.
  • Tom Bissell - A Comet's Tale 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC www.wesjones.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It was thus found that in October 1886 the comet had passed in the immediate neighbourhood of Jupiter, the action of which had been such as to change its orbit from one of long period to the short observed period.^ I found out it’s a short (6 year) period comet.
  • Tom’s Astronomy Blog » Blog Archive » More Comet 17P/Holmes 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC tomsastroblog.com [Source type: General]

^ Indeed, from a cursory examination of the moons and small bodies found in the outer solar system it is clear that comets must have begun their journey from at or beyond the orbit of Jupiter.
  • Lecture notes for "Comets, Links to the Origins of the Solar System" by: Dr. Walter Harris 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC tellus.ssec.wisc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Earth often passes through the orbits of cometary debris, causing meteor showers such as the Perseid meteor shower around August 10 every year, when we cross the orbit of comet Swift-Tuttle.
  • Comets: The Delivery System. by Brig Klyce 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC www.panspermia.org [Source type: Academic]

.A similar case was that of Lexel's comet, seen in 1770. Originally moving in an unknown orbit, it encountered the planet Jupiter, made two revolutions round the sun, in the second of which it was observed, then again encountered the planet, to be thrown out of its orbit into one which did not admit of determination.^ Since this date the comet carried out two elliptic revolutions around the sun.

^ At times comets are also moved into Sun-grazing orbits, resulting in their destruction.

^ The eccentric orbit of this dark planet is speculated to cross the comet belt once every 26 million years or so, sending swarms of small comets streaming into the inner solar system and toward the Earth itself.

The comet was never again found.
.A general conclusion which seems to follow from these conditions, and is justified by observations, so far as the latter go, is that comets are not to be regarded as permanent bodies like the planets, but that the conglomerations of matter which compose them are undergoing a process of gradual dissipation in space.^ The great significance of the goose may be due to the appearance of a heavenly body such as a comet, with wing-like protuberances.

^ But the comet travels faster than the Earth, and because it follows a parallel trajectory, any danger will seem isolated.

^ The object is a mysterious planet-like body three times farther from Earth than Pluto.

This process is especially rapid in the case of the fainter periodic comets. .It was first strikingly brought out in the case of Biela's comet.^ Five of the turnovers came on interceptions but the remaining turnover, on a fumble on the first play from scrimmage in the second half, took the Comets out of the game.
  • Palomar College FOOTBALL 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC www.palomar.edu [Source type: General]

.This object was discovered in 1772, was observed to be periodic after several revolutions had been made, and was observed with a fair degree of regularity at different returns until 1852. At the previous apparition it was found to have separated into two masses, and in 1852 these masses were so widely separated that they might be considered as forming two comets.^ We are constantly finding new comets; the SOHO satellite was put in orbit specifically to observe the Sun, but it has also ended up helping people discover over a thousand different Sun-grazing comets, which approach very close to the Sun and in some cases melt or even fall into the Sun as they get near.
  • Astronomy Cast - Ep. 19: Comets, Our Icy Friends from the Outer Solar System 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC www.astronomycast.com [Source type: General]

^ The numbers and trajectories of the long-period comets seen so far suggest that the Oort cloud contains trillions of objects a kilometre across or larger, with a combined mass several times that of Earth.
  • Where do comets come from? - space - 02 February 2009 - New Scientist 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC www.newscientist.com [Source type: General]

^ Wanted to give the comet a sense of scale/size by going wide and including the two trees (living and dead) and the swamp.
  • McNaughts Comet Eyre Peninsula South Australia on Flickr - Photo Sharing! 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC www.flickr.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Notwithstanding careful search at times and places when the comet was due, no trace of it has since been seen.^ Similarly, NO ONE on this planet understands the reasons of the fragmentation of the comet 73P/SW-3 in 1995 in the first place!

^ At this time Comet McNaught qualifies as a " great comet " (one out of eight such comets seen during the last 263 years).

^ There hasn't been a comet that bright since Comet Ikeya-Seki appeared in October and November 1965 (some observations place Ikeya-Seki's utmost magnitude at - 10 ).

.An examination of the table of periodic comets given at the end of this article will show that the same thing is probably true of several other comets, especially Brorsen's and Tempers, which have each made several revolutions since last observed, and have been sought for in vain.^ Comets have more deuterium in them (or at least the particular comet that was observed) than we find in ocean water, so if comets are all made the same way, either there had to be some way of getting rid of the deuterium on Earth, or perhaps our water came from some other mechanism.
  • Astronomy Cast - Ep. 19: Comets, Our Icy Friends from the Outer Solar System 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC www.astronomycast.com [Source type: General]

^ Several things are hot and have a tail, like a comet: .
  • 2012: No Comet | Universe Today 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC www.universetoday.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Also, since the last close encounter with Nibiru (Planet X) was in antiquity, it is possible the comet in question could be the very same.

.In view of the seemingly inevitable dissipation of comets in the course of ages, and of the actually observed changes of their orbits by the attraction of Jupiter, the question arises whether the orbits of all' comets of short period may not have been determined by the attraction of the planets, especially of Jupiter.^ Comets may not have originated in the Oort cloud, but rather may have been gravitationally flung there following close encounters with the sun , Jupiter, or even nearby stars .
  • Comet 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC www.christa.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ What they had found was twenty-one pieces of a comet that had been torn apart by Jupiter's orbit the previous July.
  • Tom Bissell - A Comet's Tale 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC www.wesjones.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Comet 73P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 3 has been passing Earth all month as it approaches the point nearest the sun in its orbit.

In this case the orbit would, for a period of several centuries, have continued to nearly intersect that of the planet. .We find, as a matter of fact, that several periodic comets either pass near Jupiter or have their aphelia in the neighbourhood of the orbit of Jupiter.^ What they had found was twenty-one pieces of a comet that had been torn apart by Jupiter's orbit the previous July.
  • Tom Bissell - A Comet's Tale 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC www.wesjones.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Comet 73P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 3 has been passing Earth all month as it approaches the point nearest the sun in its orbit.

^ Scientists using NASA's Swift satellite have detected X-rays from a comet that is now passing the Earth and rapidly disintegrating on what could be its final orbit around the sun.

.The approach, however, is not sufficiently close to have led to the change unless in former times the proximity of the orbits was much greater than it is now.^ It's worth remembering that four billion years ago, when life on Earth first appeared, the number of comets nearing the sun was hundreds or thousands of times greater than it is now (6) .
  • Comets: The Delivery System. by Brig Klyce 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC www.panspermia.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Because Schwassmann-Wachmann 3 is much closer to both the Earth and the sun than Tempel 1 was, it currently appears about 20 times brighter in X-rays.

^ The Warning sounds very much like two comets (or comet fragments in this case) will appear to be on a collision course with the earth -- or with each other at close proximity to our planet.

.As the orbits of all the bodies of the solar system are subject to a slow secular change of their form and position, this may only show that it must have been thousands of years since the comet became one of short period.^ A change in one or more objects may effect the system itself.
  • Comet 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC www.christa.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ IT'S one of the many mysteries of the solar system.

^ Since it is theorized that this is Comet Lulin's first foray into the inner Solar system, it will be packed full of "fresh" ice to sublimate, and may suddenly go into outburst like Comet Holmes did.

.The two cases of most difficulty are those of Halley's and Encke's comets.^ The two most important considerations in assessing the visibility of a comet are its distance from the Sun at closest approach, which controls the comet's activity, and its distance from Earth, preferably after the intense heating of it closest approach to the Sun.
  • Astronomy.com - Comets 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC www.astronomy.com [Source type: General]

^ Halley's Comet During the climax of a war between two Chinese kings, Wu-Wang and Chow Hsin, this very dominant comet was in the sky.
  • Comet list Compiled by Christie POnder 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC www.weatherfriend.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Warning sounds very much like two comets (or comet fragments in this case) will appear to be on a collision course with the earth -- or with each other at close proximity to our planet.

.The orbit of the former is so elongated and so inclined to the general plane of the planetary orbits that its secular variation must be very slow indeed.^ Objects will fly in some kind of orbit, but this orbit is clearly defined by the laws of physics so in order to Hit Earth it must be in a very precise orbit with a very precise speed.
  • 2012: No Comet | Universe Today 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC www.universetoday.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The seasonal variations of the small comet fluxes are due to events in the distant disk of comets which lies generally parallel to the orbital planes of the planets, including that of Earth.

.But it does not pass near the orbit of any planet except Venus; and even here the proximity is far from being sufficient to have produced an appreciable change in the period.^ Therefore, Mabus does not die sometime after a comet has passed -- he dies while the comet is still being observed in the sky by many millions of people.

^ It will be visible near the planet Venus and the constellations Aquila (near the celestial equator) and Ophiuchus (in the southern hemisphere).

^ It is very very hard to change an orbit coming from the Oort cloud that actually comes near Earth.
  • 2012: No Comet | Universe Today 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC www.universetoday.com [Source type: Original source]

.The orbit of Encke's comet is entirely within the orbit of Jupiter, and it also cannot have passed near enough to a planet for thousands of years to have had its orbit changed by the action in question.^ The eccentric orbit of this dark planet is speculated to cross the comet belt once every 26 million years or so, sending swarms of small comets streaming into the inner solar system and toward the Earth itself.

^ Shoemaker-Levy 9 was ripped to pieces by the gravity of the planet Jupiter in July 1992, made a final pass around the sun, and then slammed into Jupiter's atmosphere nearly two years later.

^ Earth often passes through the orbits of cometary debris, causing meteor showers such as the Perseid meteor shower around August 10 every year, when we cross the orbit of comet Swift-Tuttle.
  • Comets: The Delivery System. by Brig Klyce 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC www.panspermia.org [Source type: Academic]

.It therefore seems difficult to regard these two comets as other than permanent members of the solar system.^ These elements are from the solar wind, not the comet.

^ These have greatly advanced our knowledge of our own solar system and the wider universe....
  • 2012 End of the World, Killer Comet Hits Earth 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC 2012-comet.com [Source type: General]

^ July 30th, 2009 Tags: comets , Oort Cloud , solar system by Eliza Strickland in Space .

Special Periodic Comets

.One of the most remarkable periodic comets with which we are acquainted is that known to astronomers as Halley's.^ It has been known as Halley's Comet ever since.
  • Astronomy.com - Comets 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC www.astronomy.com [Source type: General]

^ Of these, one of the most dreaded and feared is the so-called Millennium Comet.

^ In May 2006, SW-3 will be not only among the rare ones to also approach close to the Earth, but also among comets having known the greatest magnitude ever reached.

.Having perceived that the elements of the comet of 1682 were nearly the same as those of two comets which had respectively appeared in 1531 and 1607, Edmund when the resemblance of the two orbits led to the conclusion of the identity of the bodies, the period of which was soon made evident by continued observations.^ Fraser: I guess the problem with long period comets from the Oort Clouds is that they don’t have a regular orbit that we can calculate and predict (as we do with the near-Earth asteroids); five months warning is about as much as you get, so having those comets out there is nerve-wracking!
  • Astronomy Cast - Ep. 19: Comets, Our Icy Friends from the Outer Solar System 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC www.astronomycast.com [Source type: General]

^ Comet Ping Pong portrays itself as a gourmet pizza place, which puts it into the same catagory as Two Amy's, Mia's, Pizzaria Paradiso, etc...
  • Comet Ping Pong - Chevy Chase - Washington, DC 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC www.yelp.com [Source type: General]

^ At the ongoing European Planetary Science Congress , astronomers declared that the comet completed two complete orbits of the gas giant, and remained in orbit from 1949 to 1961.

The comets of Pons and Olbers are remarkable for having an almost equal period. .But their orbits are otherwise totally different, so that there does not seem to be any connexion between them.^ Remarkably, some heat-shock proteins of widely different species are closely related; in fact, there are even similarities between those of bacteria and those of eukaryotes....
  • Comets: The Delivery System. by Brig Klyce 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC www.panspermia.org [Source type: Academic]

Brorsen's comet seems also to be completely dissipated, not having been seen since 1879.
.There are also a number of cases in which a comet has been observed through one apparition, and found to be apparently periodic, but which was not seen to return at the end of its supposed period.^ The comet swarms are defined by number and period.

^ One of the building blocks of life has been found on a comet hurtling through the solar system, adding evidence to the theory that earthly biology began when comets and meteors bombarded our young planet and seeded it with the precursors of life .

^ There is a 700 year potential period when the Mayan calendar ends.
  • 2012: No Comet | Universe Today 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC www.universetoday.com [Source type: Original source]

.In some of these cases it seems likely that the comet passed near the planet Jupiter and thus had its orbit entirely changed.^ We are constantly finding new comets; the SOHO satellite was put in orbit specifically to observe the Sun, but it has also ended up helping people discover over a thousand different Sun-grazing comets, which approach very close to the Sun and in some cases melt or even fall into the Sun as they get near.
  • Astronomy Cast - Ep. 19: Comets, Our Icy Friends from the Outer Solar System 6 February 2010 10:57 UTC www.astronomycast.com [Source type: General]

^ "We suspect that every comet goes through an episode like this," says Kelley of those comets that don't die by plunging into the Sun or into a planet.

^ Comet 73P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 3 has been passing Earth all month as it approaches the point nearest the sun in its orbit.

.It is possible that in other cases the apparent periodicity is due to the unavoidable errors of observation to which, owing to their diffused outline, the nuclei of comets are liable.^ The Warning sounds very much like two comets (or comet fragments in this case) will appear to be on a collision course with the earth -- or with each other at close proximity to our planet.

^ Some mounts have lower periodic error than others and therefore will have better success in unguided imaging.

^ This is extremely rare, the only other cases of a bright comet being seen during a ...

(S. N.)


Simple English

File:CometDiagram.gif
Diagram of a comet's orbit

A comet is a ball of mostly ice that moves around in outer space. They are often described as "dirty snowballs". They are very different from asteroids. In the solar system, the orbits of comets go farther than Pluto. Most are very far away from the Sun, but some come near enough to Earth for us to see at night. They have long "tails", because the Sun melts the ice. A comet's tail does not trail behind it, but points directly away from the Sun, because it is blown by the solar wind.

The hard centre of the comet is the nucleus. It is one of the blackest things in the solar system. When light shone on the nucleus of Halley's Comet, the comet reflected only 4% of the light back to us.

Periodic comets visit again and again. Non-periodic or single-apparition comets visit only once.

People have seen some comets when they broke into pieces: Comet Biela was one example. Another comet was seen when it hit a planet: Comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 hit Jupiter in 1994. Some comets orbit (go around) together in groups. Astronomers think these comets are broken pieces that used to be one object.

Famous comets

History of comets

In old times, people used to be scared of comets. They did not know what they were, or where they came from. Some thought that they were fireballs sent from demons or gods to destroy the earth. They said that each time a comet appeared, it would bring bad luck with it. Whenever a comet appeared, a king would die. One of these examples is shown in the Bayeux Tapestry, when Halley's Comet returned. Comets were also known to end wars and thought to bring famine.

It was not until the Renaissance when scientists started to look at comets with less superstition and base their observations on science. Tycho Brahe reasoned that comets did not come from the earth, and his calculations showed that comets must be six times farther than the earth is from the moon.

Edmond Halley (whom Halley's Comet is named after) reasoned that comets are periodic, that is, they appear once every several hundreds of years. This led to the first prediction of a comet's return, Halley's Comet.

Isaac Newton also studied comets, but he thought that comets were do to "vapours rising from the soil". In other words, he thought that gasses came up from the ground to form comets. Newton later said that comets make U-turns around the sun. He asked Edmond Halley to publish the research in his book Philosophiae Natrualis Principia Mathematica. Before Newton said this, people believed that comets go in to the sun, then another comes out from behind the sun.

All this new information and research gave people confidence, but some still thought that comets were messengers from the gods. One 18th century vision said that comets were the places that hell was, where souls would ride, being burned up by the heat of the sun and frozen by the cold of space.

Although today we know a lot about comets, there will always be people who will be afraid when a comet returns.

Other pages

rue:Комета


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 28, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Comet, which are similar to those in the above article.








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