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Command & Conquer
Command and Conquer cover art (Windows 95)
Developer(s) Westwood Studios
Looking Glass Studios (N64)
Publisher(s) Virgin Interactive
SEGA (Saturn)
Nintendo (N64)
Composer(s) Frank Klepacki
License Freeware (as of August 31, 2007)
Version MS-DOS: 1.22
Windows: 1.04a (Official), 1.06b revision 2 (unofficial)
Macintosh: 1.72
Platform(s) PC (MS-DOS, Windows), Apple Macintosh, Sega Saturn, PlayStation, Nintendo 64, PlayStation Portable (PSN),[1][2] PlayStation 3 (PSN) [2]
Release date(s) August 31, 1995


Genre(s) Real-time strategy
Mode(s) Single player, Multiplayer
Rating(s) ELSPA: 15+
Media 2x CD-ROM (original)
ROM Cartridge (N64)
Free Download (freeware)
System requirements DOS: 486 DX2 66 MHz, 8 MB RAM, MS-DOS 5.0, MCGA video card, Sound Blaster compatible sound card, 30 MB hard disk space, 2x CD-ROM drive[3]
Windows: Pentium 60 MHz, 8 MB RAM (16 MB "strongly recommended"), 1 MB DirectDraw compatible video card, DirectSound compatible sound card, 30 MB hard disk space, 2x CD-ROM drive[4]
Input methods Keyboard, Mouse

Command & Conquer, abbreviated to C&C and also known as "Tiberian Dawn",[3][4][5] is a 1995 real-time strategy computer game developed by Westwood Studios for MS-DOS and published by Virgin Interactive. It was the first of twelve games to date to be released under the Command & Conquer label, including a prequel and five sequels. On August 31, 2007, current publisher and owner of the C&C franchise Electronic Arts made Command & Conquer (Windows95/Gold version) freely available for download from their official website, to mark the franchise's 12th anniversary.

Set in an alternate history 1995, Command & Conquer tells the story of two globalized factions: the Global Defense Initiative of the United Nations, and the ancient quasi-cult, quasi-state organization, the Brotherhood of Nod. The factions become locked in a mortal struggle for control over a mysterious resource known as Tiberium that is slowly spreading and infecting the world.

Met with acclaim by consumers and critics, Command & Conquer was released for seven separate platforms along with becoming the initiator of the Command & Conquer franchise, and today generally is considered as the title which originally defined and popularized the modern real-time strategy genre.



One of the quintessential titles of the modern real time strategy genre,[6][7][8][9] Command & Conquer's gameplay mechanics will typically require the player to construct a base and then acquire a flow of resources, in order to fund the ongoing production of various forces to assault and conquer the opponent's base. Command & Conquer features around 50 different units and structures.[3] Virtually every type of structure in the game acts as a tech tree node, and additional units, structures and special abilities become available to the player as new structures are built and placed. Access to advanced units and abilities can be temporarily blocked if the required structures are destroyed, or if they are not being provided with adequate power by the supporting "power plant" structures.

All structures available to the player are built on-site at a "construction yard" building, which can either be already deployed on the battlefield as the mission starts or begin as a large-sized mobile construction vehicle ("MCV"), which is capable of deploying itself into an aforementioned construction yard at a suitable location of the player's choice. As a structure is being constructed, resources will steadily be deducted from the player's credits counter until construction is finished. When the construction yard has finished building the new structure, the player can select a spot next to a pre-existing structure in order to place it, where the prefabricated building will rapidly begin unfolding in a distinctive manner. Base defense is provided by specialized defensive structures, as well as fortification in the form of sandbags, wire fences and concrete walls. Later on in the game, the player can build lethal defensive structures like guard towers with machine guns or rockets, gun turrets, or the iconic "Obelisk of Light" of the Brotherhood of Nod.

While the two sides largely mirror each other in regards to tech trees and unit types, each has a distinct strategic preference. GDI units are intended to be sturdy and are often more powerful than their Nod counterparts, at the cost of being more expensive and having slower movement. GDI forces also have access to air and naval support. Stationary defenses include the guard tower and missile armed advanced guard tower which can engage ground and air targets. Conversely, Nod's units are cheap and fast, at the cost of withstanding less punishment. Nod forces are made to avoid direct engagement as much as possible, relying on hit-and-run tactics, active camouflage and guerrilla warfare to gain the advantage. Nod also has access to limited air support and naval support. Stationary defenses include the anti-tank gun turret, the Obelisk of Light laser guard towers and the surface to air missile (SAM) site.

Tiberium, the game's sole resource (except for the occasional money crate), is acquired by specialized "harvester" units which bring their cargo to a "refinery" structure and which in turn will convert the crystals into usable resources, expressed as credits. The Tiberium itself requires storage space in the form of "refineries" and, in the case of excess, "storage silo" facilities. Deposits of Tiberium are able to slowly regenerate and proliferate on the battlefield if not depleted beforehand, and can also cause nearby plant life to mutate itself into so-called "Blossom Trees". Blossom Trees seed Tiberium spores to their surroundings, and once one or several are present on the battlefield Tiberium deposits will regenerate themselves on the map indefinitely.


Command & Conquer features two story-driven single-player campaigns which together consist of a total of 50 missions.[3] The player is required to complete about 15 missions as either GDI or Nod to end a single-player campaign successfully, however the missions can differ depending on the route of conquest the player takes throughout the campaign, which allows for a higher replay value with each playthrough.[3] Each of the mission briefings in the single-player campaigns is presented in the form of a full-motion video which features live actors, with the two campaigns together having over 60 minutes worth of FMV material.[3] Campaign mission objectives range from complete destruction of enemy forces to selective destruction, special operations or objective defense. Some of the missions of C&C first innovated various twists to the standard RTS single-player formula such as limited or no base building, and mission-specific rewards for goal completion. A common bonus reward for the GDI faction for example is the availability of the "Airstrike" power after the destruction of all SAM sites on the map.

Five "secret" missions are included on the Command & Conquer CDs, and can be accessed by providing the word funpark as a command line parameter. In the original DOS release, The Covert Operations expansion pack (which updated the game version to 1.20) was required to access these missions. The DOS C&C 1.22 patch also unlocks the funpark parameter and the 'Untamed Land' track. According to the release notes of patch 1.02 of the Command & Conquer: The First Decade compilation pack:[10]

Creating a shortcut for Command & Conquer and adding on 'funpark -cd.' (without quotes) to the end of the 'Target' will allow the funpark missions to be accessed when the user selects 'New Game' from the Command & Conquer in game menu.

Note that the -cd. parameter is added to activate the game's inbuilt No-CD system, which is used by the First Decade compilation pack.


The original MS-DOS release features multiplayer with up to four players, which was a rarity at the time,[6] and supports play over network, null modem and modem.[3] Multiplayer over an internet connection was added in the Gold Edition/Windows 95 Edition release of Command & Conquer, which sports several other improvements over the original DOS version.[11]

As a result of changes to the IPX protocol libraries for the Windows XP and Windows 2000 environments, however, network play through this method has been rendered unavailable, except for matches that are played over parallel or serial link. Westwood Studios released a patch that disabled the game's LAN function to prevent the malfunctioning protocol from crashing the game on startup. This problem was later solved when an alternative version of the patch was released by a community member.[12] The patch converts the game's network traffic to the UDP protocol.

Despite the fact the combination of the community-controlled XWIS servers and the unofficial network patch enabled online play again, the method to start a game through an external application remains tedious, and the system only supports 2-player games. Several attempts have been made to enhance and facilitate multiplayer gaming. In 2009, an anonymous community member calling himself "CnCNetServer" released the CnCNet[1] application for this purpose. It works with a server which sends the game's packets to all other players that are logged in, but which intercepts and replaces packets so the game uses online IP addresses in its LAN player list. The game then runs a normal LAN game, the only difference being that the opponents are online.



Command & Conquer is set in the latter half of the 1990s after a meteorite crash lands near the river Tiber in Italy.[13] The impact introduces an alien substance to the world dubbed Tiberium, which becomes of unprecedented value due to its unique property of leeching precious metals from the surrounding soil and crystallizing them.[14] However, the process also causes emission of extremely toxic gases.[15]

An ancient and quasi-religious secret society, known as the Brotherhood of Nod, proves to somehow have foreseen the potentials of this new substance, and reveals itself to have been investing in the development of technology to harvest the Tiberium crystals ahead of the established scientific communities.[16] They soon control almost half of the known supply of what has become the most valuable commodity on the global trade markets,[17] and use these assets to sustain a rapidly growing army of followers worldwide under the leadership of a charismatic and self-proclaimed messianic figure, who is known only as Kane.[18]

Following a series of relentless international bombings which culminate in the destruction of the fictional Grain Trade Center in Vienna, a wave of mass panic and fear begins to sweep the globe.[19] These acts are ultimately attributed to Brotherhood of Nod terrorists and their leader, Kane.[19] The United Nations Security Council realizes Nod has systematically begun with the unfolding of a centuries-old plan for world domination, and sanctions the G7-based Global Defense Initiative task force to intervene on its behalf,[20] inadvertently setting a conflict in motion that will escalate into a modern world war.[21]


Command & Conquer features two sub-plots based on the two playable factions of the game, to make one overarching plot. Commanding the Global Defense Initiative's troops, the player becomes instrumental in eliminating Nod's European forces. Under the command of General Mark Jamison Sheppard, the player completes a range of missions ranging from securing a beach to rescuing civilians and scientists to defending GDI bases from Nod assaults. The player will be taken to battlefields in various countries of Europe such as Germany, Poland, Austria, the Czech Republic, and more. Finally, the player besieges the Temple of Nod in Sarajevo, Bosnia, which Kane uses as his main base of operations.[22]

As a new recruit to the Brotherhood of Nod, the player initially performs tasks for the Brotherhood's second-in-command, a man known as Seth.[23] After Seth attempts to deploy the player in an operation against the United States' military without Kane's approval, Kane kills him and thereafter issues commands to the player directly.[24] The player is entrusted with the mission of driving GDI forces out of Africa through the use of both conventional and unconventional warfare. In order to give Nod a decisive advantage in the conflict, the player is ultimately assigned to gain control of GDI's space-based ion cannon, and establish Nod's Temple on South African soil.[25] The campaign ends with the entire African continent coming directly under Nod influence and the Brotherhood being ready to commit themselves to achieving the same with Europe. The conclusion of the campaign allows the player to choose a historical landmark to destroy with GDI's successfully hijacked ion cannon.[26] Potential targets include the White House, the British Houses of Parliament, the Eiffel Tower and the Brandenburg Gate.


The creation of Command & Conquer has been characterized by its developers as being a culmination of work at Westwood Studios which had been in progress for several years, with development on C&C having begun in earnest in early 1993.[6][7] According to former executive producer and Westwood co-founder Brett W. Sperry: "Command & Conquer was the net result of the Dune II wish list."[7] With Dune II becoming the blueprint for the real-time strategy genre, it would subsequently lay the foundations for C&C itself as well.[7] Also according to Sperry, "With Dune II, a commercial and critical success, it was time to build the ultimate RTS without the "leg up" from a license like Dune, and thus Command & Conquer was born. I was fanatical about calling the game "Command & Conquer" -exactly like that- because to me, it perfectly expressed what you did in the game."[7]

The original concept of the Command & Conquer fiction was created by Brett Sperry, Eydie Laramore and Joseph Bostic.[27] Like its predecessor Dune II, Command & Conquer was originally intended to be a high fantasy game featuring wizards and warriors.[6][9] However, due to the political climate of the early 1990s, and the events of the Gulf War in particular, the developers felt that a contemporary war environment would be more accessible.[6] According to Westwood co-founder Louis Castle: "War was in the news and the threat of terrorism was on everyone's mind. That definitely had an effect on the fictional world of C&C, though a parallel universe was created to avoid dealing with the sobering issues of a real war."[6] "We wanted to make it a contemporary war for a contemporary world, with contemporary politics. At the time, Brett [Sperry] had said that it seemed to him that the next wars won't be fought nation-to-nation, but fought between Western society and a kind of anarchistic terror organization that doesn't have a centralized government. It turned out to be very prophetic".[9] In an interview, Kane actor Joseph D. Kucan mentioned that the Brotherhood of Nod faction was an invention of Eydie Laramore in particular, with the two of them having extensively discussed biblical metaphor and imaged backstory.[28]

The Tiberium substance was introduced to replace the spice from Dune II as the mined resource for building and expanding, with Louis Castle stating: "It solved one of the fundamental problems we had with making an RTS, which was that we wanted to have a central resource that everybody was fighting over. Dune has spice, which made perfect sense—and it was also used when we came to the idea of Tiberium. It became the anchor of the C&C universe because people were arguing over a limited resource that represented wealth and power."[9] The original concept of Tiberium was inspired by the 1957 B-movie "The Monolith Monsters".[6]

The music of Command & Conquer was composed and produced by Westwood Studios' former sound director and video game music composer Frank Klepacki. The original soundtrack can be listened to on hisweb site,[29] along with various cues that were cut from the game, most of which are also present on the discs of the DOS version and the expansion pack.


Since Command & Conquer's initial success in 1995, versions of the game have been released for many different platforms over time.

Command & Conquer: Gold (a.k.a. Command & Conquer: Windows 95 Edition) is a re-release of the original game for Windows 95 and above. It features an improved engine and interface similar to that of its prequel, Command & Conquer: Red Alert. The new game engine runs at a resolution of 640×400, twice that of the original's 320×200 MCGA resolution. A resolution of 640×480 is also available, but it should be noted that in this mode the graphics are centered rather than scaled, distorting the game's aspect ratio. The Covert Operations can also be installed with C&C Gold. A Macintosh version of the game shared most elements with the Windows 95/Gold version, making it share its 640×480 screen resolution and better GUI graphics compared to the various console ports. The PC version of "The Covert Operations" add-on can be installed on the Mac as well, by copying the two files from The Covert Operations disk starting with "sc" to the C&C folder, and then increasing the game memory.[30] The method of manually copying these "sc" files works on the Windows 95 version as well.

A screenshot of the N64 version of the game.

The game's Sega Saturn port appears exactly like the original MS-DOS release. This version can be played with either English, German, French or Japanese in-game voices by changing the system's language setting accordingly, although the FMVs remain in the language that the release was targeted for (English being the most widely spread one, as the others were exclusively distributed in their respective countries). The PlayStation port is near identical to the Sega Saturn version, but it featured five missions exclusive to this port. The game is incompatible with the PlayStation's link cable however, precluding the possibility of multiplayer modes. The Covert Operations is included. This version has also been released on the Playstation Network in Europe.[2]

The Nintendo 64 version updated certain graphical elements to 3D, though the terrain texture remained the same. The game offered an optional high-resolution 640×480 mode and a MIDI rendition of the PC version's soundtrack. The videos were removed due to cartridge storage constraints, and replaced with either static images accompanied by the cutscenes' audio tracks, or with cutscenes converted to real-time 3D scenes. This release did not include The Covert Operations, but did have four new missions which were called Special Ops[31]

Released as freeware

To mark the 12th anniversary of Command and Conquer, EA has released Command and Conquer: Tiberian Dawn for Windows as freeware. The game can be downloaded as 2 x 500 MB. iso images from EA's website.[32]

Expansion packs

The Covert Operations

An expansion pack titled The Covert Operations was released by Westwood Studios in 1996. It includes fifteen new "-very- difficult" single player missions, ten new multiplayer maps and seven new high quality CD audio tracks (as well as lower quality in-game versions).[5] Unlike the original games, the expansions missions can be played at any time and in any order, and, with the exception of the dinosaur bonus missions, are not accompanied by briefing cutscenes. The expansion packs files contain unused music tracks that are present in the DOS version of Command & Conquer, but not in the Windows 95 (Gold) version.

Installing the expansion pack on older DOS versions of the game patches them to version 1.20. On Windows systems, a DOS emulator is needed to start the setup program. However, to install the expansion pack on the Windows 95 (Gold) version of the game, it is sufficient to just copy two specific files from the CD to the game directory.[33]

Special Operations

The Nintendo 64 and PlayStation versions each have a set of additional extra missions called 'Special Operations'. These were unique to their console, and were not available to the PC version until they were extracted by fans. All of these missions are included in the unofficial 1.06b patch for C&C95, adding an additional 10 official missions to the Covert Operations missions list.[34]

Sole Survivor

Command & Conquer: Sole Survivor was a multiplayer spin-off of Command & Conquer. It featured a deathmatch-style game in which each player controls a unit of the original C&C game and travels around the game arena collecting crates to increase the unit's firepower, armor, speed, attack range and reloading speed. Sole Survivor was often compared to a first-person shooter, however played with a bird's eye view of the arena. It featured no single-player mode and the multiplayer had no hints of a storyline, and the game was omitted from inclusion in the Command & Conquer: The First Decade compilation pack released in 2006.

Reception and legacy

Command & Conquer was released to universal acclaim in 1995, and the game's runaway success during the mid-1990s has often been credited with originally having defined modern real-time strategy as well as having played a significant role in popularizing the RTS genre with the wider gaming audience.[6][7][8][9][35][36][37][38] The resulting C&C franchise has been described as being "nearly synonymous with RTS gaming" and "legendary" by professional reviewers,[7][9] and continues to this day with a series of 12 games, having sold 21 million copies worldwide prior to the launch of Command & Conquer: Generals in 2003.[39] Command & Conquer was later released as a free download by Electronic Arts.[32]

One of the defining features of the franchise would remain the use of live action full-motion video cutscenes, which play between missions and which serve to both further a typically epic storyline as well as provide players with their objectives for the next level through mission briefings.[7]

The game's content easily fits on a single CD-ROM. However, each box of Command & Conquer contained two CD copies of the game, immediately making multiplayer gaming possible with only a single purchase of the game (although each disc featured different single-player campaigns). Westwood Studios advertised this on the packaging with the slogan "A second copy, so you and your friend can destroy each other". This resulted in Command & Conquer becoming the first RTS game title to feature competitive online play,[6] and this is considered the most pertinent outside factor in the success of Command & Conquer.[9]

See also


  1. ^ Command & Conquer (PSP) at IGN
  2. ^ a b c PSN Update at Three Speech
  3. ^ a b c d e f g Westwood Studios (1998-10-23). "Official Command & Conquer FAQ v3.0". Retrieved 2007-05-13. 
  4. ^ a b Westwood Studios (1998-10-23). "Official Command & Conquer Gold FAQ v1.3". Retrieved 2007-05-13. 
  5. ^ a b Westwood Studios (1996-02-06). "Official Command & Conquer Read Me v2.7", C&C: The Covert Operations CD-ROM.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i Paul Mallinson (2002-05-31). "Games that changed the world: Command & Conquer". CVG magazine. Retrieved 2006-12-22. 
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h Bruce Geryk. "A History of Real-Time Stategy Games". GameSpot. Retrieved 2008-05-22. 
  8. ^ a b Mark H. Walker. "Strategy Gaming: Part II". GameSpy. Retrieved 2008-05-22. 
  9. ^ a b c d e f g Will Porter. "Command & Conquer - Origins". Computerandvideogames staff. Retrieved 2008-05-29. 
  10. ^ "Command & Conquer The First Decade Patch 1.02 Release Notes". Electronic Arts. Retrieved April 2006. 
  11. ^ Stephen Poole (1997-04-16). "Command & Conquer Gold Edition for PC Review". Gamespot. Retrieved 27 December 2006. 
  12. ^ "Understorm: Command & Conquer 95 and Red Alert 1 LAN Patch". Retrieved 2010-03-15. 
  13. ^ EVA: Tiberium is named after the Tiber river in Italy where it was first discovered. (Command & Conquer) Westwood Studios, 1995
  14. ^ EVA: Tiberium continues to confound the scientific community, soaking up ground minerals and soil nutrients like a sponge. The end result of this unique leeching process creates the formation of Tiberium crystals, rich in precious metals and available for collection with a minimum of mining expense. (Command & Conquer) Westwood Studios, 1995
  15. ^ EVA: Human contact with Tiberium is extremely toxic and often fatal; exposure should be avoided. (Command & Conquer) Westwood Studios, 1995
  16. ^ Male newscaster: New Tiberium harvesting methods instituted by the Brotherhood of Nod increased profitability by 49%. (Command & Conquer) Westwood Studios, 1995
  17. ^ Male newscaster: Nod Tiberium holdings now account for almost half of the world's known supply, giving the quasi-terrorist group incredible leverage in the London Gold Exchange. (Command & Conquer) Westwood Studios, 1995
  18. ^ Female newscaster: Kane, the single-named charismatic Nod leader, and self-proclaimed prophet, is among those missing and assumed dead. (Command & Conquer) Westwood Studios, 1995
  19. ^ a b Male newscaster: The Grain Trade Center in Vienna was the seventeenth urban bombing in four weeks, blamed on Nod terrorists. (Command & Conquer) Westwood Studios, 1995
  20. ^ EVA: Sanctioned by the United Nations, the Global Defense Initiative has one goal: eliminate multi-national terrorism in an effort to preserve freedom. (Command & Conquer) Westwood Studios, 1995
  21. ^ GDI Archives; The Global Defense Initiative: The clash between GDI and Nod has escalated into full world wars twice before - the First Tiberium War (TWI) erupted when both powers were in their formative states, and that terrible war was followed by another worldwide firestorm several years later. (Command & Conquer 3: Tiberium Wars, GDI Intel Database) Electronic Arts, 2007
  22. ^ General Mark Jamison Sheppard: We found him, Commander. Kane's temple and base of operations. This field operative's covert transmission came to us live just five minutes ago, so there's no doubt that Kane's inside. He surrounded himself with his own crack militia. Getting to him... won't be easy. Ironic, isn't it? Kane's planted his temple just outside of Sarajevo. If that sounds familiar, it's because that's where another madman started World War I. And here we are, trying to stop this madman from doing it again. Commander, there is to be no quarter given. No leniency in dealing with Kane and his zealots. Wipe his temple of the face of the Earth. Destroy the bastard. (Command & Conquer) Westwood Studios, 1995
  23. ^ Seth: So. You're the new addition to the Brotherhood. Well, I'm Seth. Just, Seth. From God, to Kane, to Seth. (Command & Conquer) Westwood Studios, 1995
  24. ^ Kane:Yes, power shifts more quickly than some people think. I am Kane. While I heed your troops back from the States, I want you to take what men you have left and secure this abandoned GDI base. Once in, build up an arsenal of weapons and use them to wipe out the remaining GDI presence. Oh, and congratulations on your promotion. (Command & Conquer) Westwood Studios, 1995
  25. ^ Kane: Your efforts have landed us here, my faithful friend. The temple is complete, and we are about to embark upon our greatest exploit. For now relax, and watch as my netrunners dance through the web of cyberspace. Once inside, the world is at my fingertips. (Command & Conquer) Westwood Studios, 1995
  26. ^ Kane: ...the world. Where to strike? Where will the world most keenly feel the blade of GDI treachery? You have done much to aid the Brotherhood towards this final victory. The choice, my friend, is yours. (Command & Conquer) Westwood Studios, 1995
  27. ^ Command & Conquer For Windows 95, english manual. Virgin Interactive Entertainment. 1995. 
  28. ^ "Joe Kucan interview (retrieved from". "JCDX" and "Fatman". Archived from the original on 2006-01-27. Retrieved 4 October 2007. 
  29. ^ "Frank Klepacki". Frank Klepacki. Retrieved 2010-03-15. 
  30. ^ "Command & Conquer (macintosh) Support page". Matthew Hills. 1998-08-04. Archived from the original on 2000-06-03. Retrieved June 2, 2008. 
  31. ^ "Command & Conquer Nintendo 64 GameSpot review". Jeff Gerstmann. 1999-07-06. 
  32. ^ a b "C&C 12th ANNIVERSARY! DOWNLOAD C&C GOLD FREE". Electronic Arts. 2007-08-31. Archived from the original on 2007-09-01. Retrieved 1 September 2007. 
  33. ^ "How to install The Covert Operations in Windows XP". 
  34. ^ "Command & Conquer Gold Project 1.06". 2009-06-16. Retrieved 2010-03-15. 
  35. ^ "Command & Conquer". Metracritic. Retrieved 2007-04-25. 
  36. ^ Dan Adams (2006-04-07). "The State of the RTS". IGN. Retrieved 2008-05-22. 
  37. ^ "The Essential 50 Part 31: Herzog Zwei". Retrieved 17 December 2006. 
  38. ^ Walker, Mark. "Strategy Gaming: Part I -- A Primer". GameSpy. Retrieved October 28, 2007. 
  39. ^ Stephen Coleman (2003-02-11). "Command & Conquer Generals Ships". IGN. Retrieved 2006-11-26. 

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