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Common Era, abbreviated as CE, is a designation for the world's most commonly used year-numbering system. The numbering of years using Common Era notation is identical to the numbering used with Anno Domini (BC/AD) notation, 2010 being the current year in both notations and neither using a year zero. Common Era is also known as Christian Era and Current Era, with all three expressions abbreviated as CE. (Christian Era is, however, also abbreviated AD, for Anno Domini.) Dates before the year 1 CE are indicated by the usage of BCE, short for "Before the Common Era", "Before the Christian Era", or "Before the Current Era". Both the BCE/CE and BC/AD notations are based on a sixth-century estimate for the year in which Jesus was conceived or born, with the common era designation originating among Christians in Europe at least as early as 1615 (at first in Latin).
The Gregorian calendar, and the year-numbering system associated with it, is the calendar system with most widespread usage in the world today. For decades, it has been the de facto global standard, recognized by international institutions such as the United Nations and the Universal Postal Union. There are many names in many languages used to designate this year-numbering system that originated in Western Europe. Common Era notation has been adopted in several non-Christian cultures, by many scholars in religious studies and other academic fields, and by others wishing to be sensitive to non-Christians, because Common Era does not explicitly make use of religious titles for Jesus, such as Christ and Lord, which are used in the BC/AD notation.
The year numbering system used with Common Era notation was devised by the monk Dionysius Exiguus in the year 525 to replace the Diocletian years, because he did not wish to continue the memory of a tyrant who persecuted Christians. He attempted to number years from an event he referred to as the Incarnation of Jesus, although scholars today generally agree that he miscalculated by a small number of years. Dionysius labeled the column of the Easter table in which he introduced the new era "Anni Domini Nostri Jesu Christi" Numbering years in this manner became more widespread with its usage by Bede in England in 731. Bede also introduced the practice of dating years before the supposed year of birth of Jesus, and the practice of not using a year zero. In 1422, Portugal became the last Western European country to switch to the system begun by Dionysius.
The term "Common Era" is traced back in English to its appearance as "Vulgar Era" (from the Latin word vulgus, the common people, i.e. those who are not royalty), to distinguish it from the regnal dating systems typically used in national law. The first use of the Latin equivalent (vulgaris aerae) discovered so far was in a 1615 book by Johannes Kepler. Kepler uses it again in a 1617 table of ephemerides. A 1635 English edition of that book has the title page in English - so far, the earliest-found usage of Vulgar Era in English. A 1701 book edited by John LeClerc includes "Before Christ according to the Vulgar Æra, 6". A 1716 book in English by Dean Humphrey Prideaux says, "before the beginning of the vulgar æra, by which we now compute the years from his incarnation." A 1796 book uses the term "vulgar era of the nativity".
The first so-far-discovered usage of "Christian Era" is as the Latin phrase aerae christianae on the title page of a 1584 theology book. In 1649, the Latin phrase æræ Christianæ appeared in the title of an English almanac. A 1652 ephemeris is the first instance so-far-found for English usage of "Christian Era".
The English phrase "common Era" appears at least as early as 1708, and in a 1715 book on astronomy is used interchangeably with "Christian Era" and "Vulgar Era". A 1759 history book uses common æra in a generic sense, to refer to the common era of the Jews. Common era and vulgar era are used as synonyms in 1770, in a translation of a book originally written in German. The 1797 edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica uses the terms vulgar era and common era synonymously. In 1835, in his book Living Oracles, Alexander Campbell, wrote: "The vulgar Era, or Anno Domini; the fourth year of Jesus Christ, the first of which was but eight days", and also refers to the common era as a synonym for vulgar era with "the fact that our Lord was born on the 4th year before the vulgar era, called Anno Domini, thus making (for example) the 42d year from his birth to correspond with the 38th of the common era..." The Catholic Encyclopedia uses the sentence: "Foremost among these [various eras] is that which is now adopted by all civilized peoples and known as the Christian, Vulgar or Common Era, in the twentieth century of which we are now living." During the 19th century, "Vulgar Era" came to be contrasted with "Christian Era", and "vulgar" came to mean "crudely indecent", thus no longer a synonym for "common".
The phrase "common era", in lower case, also appeared in the 19th century in a generic sense, not necessarily to refer to the Christian Era, but to any system of dates in common use throughout a civilization. Thus, "the common era of the Jews", "the common era of the Mahometans", "common era of the world", "the common era of the foundation of Rome". When it did refer to the Christian Era, it was sometimes qualified, e.g., "common era of the Incarnation", "common era of the Nativity", or "common era of the birth of Christ".
Some Jewish academics were already using the CE and BCE abbreviations by the mid-19th century, such as in 1856, when Rabbi and historian, Morris Jacob Raphall used the abbreviation in his book, Post-Biblical History of The Jews.
An adapted translation of Common Era into Latin as Era Vulgaris was adopted in the 20th century by some followers of Aleister Crowley, and thus the abbreviation "e.v." or "EV" may sometimes be seen as a replacement for AD.
The terms "Common Era", "Anno Domini", "Before the Common Era" and "Before Christ" can be applied to dates that rely on either the Julian calendar or the Gregorian calendar. Modern dates are understood in the Western world to be in the Gregorian calendar, but for older dates writers should specify the calendar used. Dates in the Gregorian calendar in the Western world have always used the era designated in English as Anno Domini or Common Era, but over the millennia a wide variety of eras have been used with the Julian calendar.
Although Jews have their own Hebrew calendar, they often find it necessary to use the Gregorian Calendar as well. The reasons for some using Common Era notation are described below:
Jews do not generally use the words "A.D." and "B.C." to refer to the years on the Gregorian calendar. "A.D." means "the year of our L-rd," and we do not believe Jesus is the L-rd. Instead, we use the abbreviations C.E. (Common or Christian Era) and B.C.E. (Before the Common Era).
Indeed, Common Era notation has also been in use for Hebrew lessons for "more than a century".
Some American academics in the fields of education and history have adopted CE and BCE notation, although there is some disagreement. The Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society of Pennsylvania, which is the leading publishing body of the Jehovah's Witnesses, uses CE and BCE exclusively in its publications. More visible uses of Common Era notation have recently surfaced at major museums in the English-speaking world: The Smithsonian Institution prefers Common Era usage, though individual museums are not required to use it. Furthermore, several style guides now prefer or mandate its usage. Even some style guides for Christian churches prefer its use: for example, the Episcopal Diocese Maryland Church News.
In the United States, the usage of the BCE/CE notation in textbooks is growing. Some publications have moved over to using it exclusively. For example, the 2007 World Almanac was the first edition to switch over to the BCE/CE usage, ending a 138-year usage of the traditional BC/AD dating notation. It is used by the College Board in its history tests, by the Norton Anthology of English Literature, and by the United States Naval Observatory. Others have taken a different approach. The US-based History Channel uses BCE/CE notation in articles on non-Christian religious topics such as Jerusalem and Judaism. In June 2006, the Kentucky State School Board reversed its decision that would have included the designations BCE and CE as part of state law, leaving education of students about these concepts a matter of discretion at the local level.
Communist Eastern Germany used v. u. Z. (vor unserer Zeitrechnung, before our chronology) and u. Z. (unserer Zeitrechnung, of our chronology) instead of v. Chr. (vor Christus, before Christ) and n. Chr. (nach Christus/Christi Geburt, after Christ/the Nativity of Christ). The use of the terms still differs regionally and ideologically. In Hungary, similarly to the Bulgarian case, i. e. (időszámításunk előtt, before our era) and i. sz. (időszámításunk szerint, according to our era) are still widely used instead of traditional Kr. e. (Krisztus előtt, Before Christ) and Kr. u. (Krisztus után, After Christ), which were unofficially reinstituted after the Communist period. In Poland generally the only used term is naszej ery/przed naszą erą (of our era/before our era). The terms przed Chrystusem/po Chrystusie (before Christ/after Christ) are possible but nearly never used in contemporary Poland.
In Asia, the Chinese use the term "Common Era (公元)". The Japanese use seireki (西暦), which translates to "Western Calendar". The Koreans use the word Seogi (서기, 西紀), which means "Western Era" for AD/CE and Kiwonjeon (기원전, 紀元前) which is an abbreviation of Seoryok Kiwonjeon (서력기원전, 西曆紀元前) which means "Before the Origin of the Western Calendar".
A range of arguments has been presented for the adoption of the Common Era notation. The label Anno Domini is almost certainly inaccurate; "scholars generally believe that Christ was born some years before A.D. 1, the historical evidence is too sketchy to allow a definitive dating."
It is argued that the use of BCE/CE shows sensitivity to those who use the same year numbering system as the one that originated with and is currently used by Christians, but who are not themselves Christian. Former United Nations Secretary-General Kofi Annan argued, "[T]he Christian calendar no longer belongs exclusively to Christians. People of all faiths have taken to using it simply as a matter of convenience. There is so much interaction between people of different faiths and cultures - different civilizations, if you like - that some shared way of reckoning time is a necessity. And so the Christian Era has become the Common Era."
The abbreviation BCE, just as with BC, always follows the year number. Unlike AD, which traditionally precedes the year number, CE always follows the year number (if context requires that it be written at all). Thus, the current year is written as 2010 in both notations (or, if further clarity is needed, as 2010 CE, or as AD 2010), and the year that Socrates died is represented as 399 BCE (the same year that is represented by 399 BC in the BC/AD notation). The abbreviations are sometimes written with small capital letters, or with full stops (e.g., "BCE" or "C.E.").
Critics including astrobiologist Duncan Steel argue that if one is going to replace BC/AD with BCE/CE then one should reject all aspects of the dating system (including time of day, days of the week and months of the year) as they all have origins related to pagan, astrological, Jewish and Christian beliefs. Steel makes note of the consistency of the Quaker system (now rarely used), which removed all such references, and rejects religious arguments against BC/AD as selective.
Anthropologist Carol Delaney argues that the substitution of BC/AD to BCE/CE is merely a euphemism that conceals the political implications without modifying the actual source of contention. English language expert Kenneth G. Wilson speculated in his style guide that "if we do end by casting aside the A.D./B.C. convention, almost certainly some will argue that we ought to cast aside as well the conventional numbering system [that is, the method of numbering years] itself, given its Christian basis." In fact, the very short lived French Revolutionary Calendar did just that, making year one the first year of the revolution, and rejecting the seven day week (with its connections to Genesis) for a ten day week.
Raimon Panikkar claims that using the designation BCE/CE is a "return... to the most bigoted Christian colonialism" and offensive to non-Christians who have not been sharing the era.
Some critics assert that the use of identifiers which have common spellings is more ambiguous than the use of identifiers with divergent spellings. Both C.E. and B.C.E. have in common the letters "C.E.", which is more likely to cause confusion, they claim, than identifiers with clearly different spelling.
Because the BC/AD notation is based on the supposed year of the conception or birth of Jesus of Nazareth, the removal of reference to him in era notation is perceived by some Christians as offensive. Some groups oppose the Common Era notation for explicitly religious reasons; for example, the Southern Baptist Convention supports retaining the BC/AD abbreviations as "a reminder of the preeminence of Christ and His gospel in world history". The Southern Baptist Convention has criticized the use of BCE and CE as being the result of "secularization, anti-supernaturalism, religious pluralism, and political correctness" and encourages its members to "retain the traditional method of dating and avoid this revisionism".
According to a Los Angeles Times report, it was a student's use of BCE/CE notation, inspired by its use within Wikipedia, which prompted the history teacher Andrew Schlafly to found Conservapedia, a cultural conservative wiki. One of its "Conservapedia Commandments" is that users must always apply BC/AD notation, since its sponsors perceive BCE/CE notation to "deny the historical basis" of the dating system.
Notes and references
- ^ Astronomical Almanac -- Online. (2009). United States Naval Observatory. s.v. calendar, Gregorian in Glossary.
- ^ Doggett, L. E. (1992). "Calendars". in P. K. Seidelmann. Explanatory Supplement to the Astronomical Almanac. Sausalito, California: University Science Books. p. 581. ISBN 0-935702-68-7. "The Gregorian calendar today serves as an international standard for civil use....Years are counted from the initial epoch defined by Dionysius Exiguus"
- ^ Two separate systems that also do not use religious titles, the astronomical system and the ISO 8601 standard do use a year zero. The year 1 BCE (identical to the year 1 BC) is represented as 0 in the astronomical system, and as 0000 in ISO 8601. Presently, ISO 8601 dating requires usage of the Gregorian calendar for all dates, however; whereas astronomical dating and Common Era dating allow usage of the Julian calendar for dates before 1582 CE.
- ^ Dictionaries: Common Era and Christian Era used interchangeably
- ^ Sources supporting interchangeabilty with Current Era
- ^ Dictionaries: CE
- ""CE"". Dictionary.com The American Heritage Science Dictionary. (© 2002). Houghton Mifflin. http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/CE. Retrieved 9 September 2007. "CE – Abbreviation for Common Era."
- "CE". Merriam Webster Online Dictionary. Merriam-Webster. 2003. http://merriam-webster.com/dictionary/CE. Retrieved 13 December 2007. "Main Entry: CE – Function: abbreviation – 3 Christian Era —often punctuated; Common Era —often punctuated".
- "C.E.". Collins Dictionary of the English Language. London & Glasgow: Collins. 1980. ISBN 0 00 433080-3. "C.E. 5. Common Era.".
- ""C.E."". Dictionary.com American Heritage Abbreviations Dictionary, Third Edition. (© 2005). Houghton Mifflin. http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/C.E.. Retrieved 9 September 2007. "C.E. – 4. Common Era"
- ""C.E."". Dictionary.com Dictionary.com Unabridged (v 1.1). (© 2006). Random House. http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/C.E.. Retrieved 9 September 2007. "C.E. – 5. common era."
- "ce"""c.e."". Dictionary.com WordNet 3.0. (© 2006). Princeton University. http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/c.e.. Retrieved 9 September 2007. "ce, c.e. – adverb – 1. of the period coinciding with the Christian era; preferred by some writers who are not Christians; 'in 200 CE' [syn: CE]" – WP editorial note: the source does not mention any suffix like "[syn: CE]" for entry "ce" as shown for entry "c.e.".
- ^ Oxford Pocket Dictionary and Thesaurus. (American edition) (1997). New York: Oxford University Press. s.v. A.D.
- ^ Dictionaries: BCE
- ""BCE"". Dictionary.com The American Heritage Science Dictionary. (© 2002). Houghton Mifflin. http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/BCE. Retrieved 11 September 2007. "BCE – Abbreviation for before the Common Era."
- "BCE". Merriam Webster Online Dictionary. Merriam-Webster. 2003. http://mw1.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/BCE. Retrieved 9 September 2007. "Main Entry: BCE – Function: abbreviation – 3 before the Christian Era —often punctuated; before the Common Era —often punctuated".
- "B.C.E.". Collins Dictionary of the English Language. London & Glasgow: Collins. 1980. ISBN 0 00 433080-3. "B.C.E. abbrev. for Before Common Era (used, esp. by non-Christians, in numbering years B.C.)".
- ""B.C.E."". Dictionary.com American Heritage Abbreviations Dictionary, Third Edition. (© 2005). Houghton Mifflin. http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/B.C.E.. Retrieved 11 September 2007. "B.C.E. – Before the Common Era"
- ""B.C.E."". Dictionary.com The American Heritage New Dictionary of Cultural Literacy, Third Edition. (2005). Houghton Mifflin. http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/B.C.E.. Retrieved 11 September 2007. "B.C.E. – An abbreviation sometimes used in place of b.c. It means 'before the Common Era.' – [Chapter:] Conventions of Written English"
- ""B.C.E."". Dictionary.com Dictionary.com Unabridged (v 1.1). (© 2006). Random House. http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/B.C.E.. Retrieved 11 September 2007. "B.C.E. – 4. before (the) Common (or Christian) Era."
- "bce"""b.c.e."". Dictionary.com WordNet 3.0. (© 2006). Princeton University. http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/b.c.e.. Retrieved 11 September 2007. "bce, b.c.e. – adverb – of the period before the Common Era; preferred by some writers who are not Christians; "in 200 BCE" [syn: BCE]" – WP editorial note: the source does not mention any suffix like "[syn: BCE]" for entry "bce" as shown for entry "b.c.e.".
- ^ a b "Earliest-found use of "vulgaris aerae" (Latin for Common Era) (1615)". http://worldcat.org/wcpa/oclc/62188677. Retrieved 12 January 2008. Johannes Kepler (1615) (in Latin). Joannis Keppleri Eclogae chronicae: ex epistolis doctissimorum aliquot virorum & suis mutuis, quibus examinantur tempora nobilissima: 1. Herodis Herodiadumque, 2. baptismi & ministerii Christi annorum non plus 2 1/4, 3. passionis, mortis et resurrectionis Dn. N. Iesu Christi, anno aerae nostrae vulgaris 31. non, ut vulgo 33., 4. belli Iudaici, quo funerata fuit cum Ierosolymis & Templo Synagoga Iudaica, sublatumque Vetus Testamentum. Inter alia & commentarius in locum Epiphanii obscurissimum de cyclo veteri Iudaeorum.. Francofurti : Tampach. "anno aerae nostrae vulgaris"
- ^ a b History of the World Christian Movement. http://books.google.com/books?id=C2akvQfa-QMC&pg=PR11&dq=before+%22common+era%22+christian&lr=&sig=J5x3M_bx6EXYYxL57m08w5OYzWk. Retrieved 11 January 2008. Irvin, Dale T.; Sunquist, Scott (2001). History of the World Christian Movement. Continuum International Publishing Group. p. xi. ISBN 0567088669. "The influence of western culture and scholarship upon the rest of the world in turn led to this system of dating becoming the most widely used one across the globe today. Many scholars in historical and religious studies in the West in recent years have sought to lessen the explicitly Christian meaning of this system without abandoning the usefulness of a single, common, global form of dating. For this reason the terms common era and before the common era, abbreviated as CE and BCE, have grown in popularity as designations. The terms are meant, in deference to non-Christians, to soften the explicit theological claims made by the older Latin terminology, while at the same time providing continuity with earlier generations of mostly western Christian historical research."
- ^ Get Set for Religious Studies. http://books.google.com/books?id=-VLt0uQrzXMC&pg=PA18&dq=before+common+era+christian+non-christian&lr=&sig=rl3B9VZmkG8RtbP6WZifd9iCJ2A. Retrieved 11 January 2008. Corrywright, Dominic; Morgan, Peggy (2006). Get Set for Religious Studies. Edinburgh University Press. p. 18. ISBN 074862032X. "Also note where AD (from the Latin 'in the year of our Lord') and BC (before Christ) are used in datings, for although the numerical calculation of this system is now the international convention, the terminology used in religious studies is CE (common era) and BCE (before the common era), which are more neutrally descriptive terms"
- ^ Andrew Herrmann (2006-05-27). "BCE date designation called more sensitive". Chicago Sun-Times. Archived from the original on 2008-10-03. http://web.archive.org/web/20071012132841/http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qn4155/is_20060527/ai_n16436633. Retrieved 15 June 2007. "Herrmann observes, "The changes — showing up at museums, in academic circles and in school textbooks — have been touted as more sensitive to people of faiths outside of Christianity." However, Herrmann notes, "The use of BCE and CE have rankled some Christians" .
- ^ Anno Domini (which means in the year of the/our Lord)"Anno Domini". Merriam Webster Online Dictionary. Merriam-Webster. 2003. http://www.m-w.com/dictionary/Anno%20Domini. Retrieved 4 February 2008. "Etymology: Medieval Latin, in the year of the Lord". Translated as "in the year of (Our) Lord" in Blackburn, B & Holford-Strevens, L, (2003), The Oxford Companion to the Year, Oxford University Press, 782.
- ^ "Historical background of the use of "CE" and "BCE" to identify dates". Ontario Consultants on Religious Tolerance. http://www.religioustolerance.org/ce_info1.htm#wce. "According to David Barrett et al., editors of the "World Christian Encyclopedia: A comparative survey of churches and religions - AD 30 to 2200," there are 19 major world religions which are subdivided into a total of 270 large religious groups, and many smaller ones. The vast majority do not recognize Yeshua of Nazareth as either God or Messiah. Expecting followers of other religions to imply this status for Yeshua can create ill feeling."
- ^ Heustis, Reer R, Jr. (9 September 2007). "Common Era and the culture war". RenewAmerica. http://www.renewamerica.us/columns/heustis/070909. "referred to as Year of our Lord, which is an unmistakable reference to the Lord Jesus Christ....Not every person believes that Jesus is the Lord, they argue, and therefore, he should not have to acknowledge Christ's Lordship...Make no mistake about it: Jesus Christ is not only the Lord of Christians — He is also the Lord of all."
- ^ a b Pedersen, O., (1983), "The Ecclesiastical Calendar and the Life of the Church" in Coyne, G.V. et al. (Eds.) The Gregorian Reform of the Calendar, Vatican Observatory, p. 50.
- ^ Doggett, L.E., (1992), "Calendars" in Seidelmann, P.K., The Explanatory Supplement to the Astronomical Almanac, Sausalito CA: University Science Books, p. 579.
- ^ Bromiley, Geoffrey W. (1995). The International Standard Bible Encyclopedia. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing. ISBN 0802837816. http://books.google.ca/books?id=BW_1mt4oebQC&pg=PA686&dq=jesus+birth+year+before. Retrieved 25 December 2008.
- ^ Pedersen, O., (1983), "The Ecclesiastical Calendar and the Life of the Church" in Coyne, G.V. et al. (Eds.) The Gregorian Reform of the Calendar, Vatican Observatory, p. 52.
- ^ Bede wrote of the Incarnation of Jesus, but treated it as synonymous with birth. Blackburn, B & Holford-Strevens, L, (2003), The Oxford Companion to the Year, Oxford University Press, 778.
- ^ As noted in Zero#History of zero, the use of zero in Western civilization was uncommon before the 12th century.
- ^ a b "General Chronology". New Advent Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol III. Robert Appleton Company, New York. 1908. http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/03738a.htm. Retrieved 12 December 2007.
- ^ It is relatively recently the word vulgar has come to mean "crudely indecent"
- ^ In Latin, Common Era is written as Vulgaris Aerae. It also occasionally appears as æræ vulgaris, aerae vulgaris, aeram vulgarem, anni vulgaris, vulgaris aerae Christianae, and anni vulgatae nostrae aerae Christianas.
- ^ Second use of "vulgaris aerae" (Latin for Common Era) (1617). http://books.google.com/books?id=nBQGGgAACAAJ&rview=1. Retrieved 12 January 2008. Johannes Kepler, Jakob Bartsch (1617). Ephemerides novae motuum coelestium, ab anno vulgaris aerae MDCXVII[-XXXVI].... Johannes Plancus. "Part 3 has title: Tomi L Ephemeridvm Ioannis Kepleri pars tertia, complexa annos à M.DC.XXIX. in M.DC.XXXVI. In quibus & tabb. Rudolphi jam perfectis, et sociâ operâ clariss. viri dn. Iacobi Bartschii ... Impressa Sagani Silesiorvm, in typographeio Ducali, svmptibvs avthoris, anno M.DC.XXX."
- Translation of title (per 1635 English edition): New Ephemerids for the Celestiall Motions, for the Yeeres of the Vulgar Era 1617–1636
- ^ Earliest so-far-found use of vulgar era in English (1635). http://books.google.com/books?id=TIl2GwAACAAJ&dq=%22vulgar+era%22. Retrieved 18 December 2007. Johann Kepler, Adriaan Vlacq. Ephemerides of the Celestiall Motions, for the Yeers of the Vulgar Era 1633....
- ^ vulgar era in English (1701). http://books.google.com/books?id=jakGAAAAQAAJ&pg=PA5-IA4&dq=%22vulgar+era%22. Retrieved 14 December 2007. John LeClerc, ed (1701). The Harmony of the Evangelists. London: Sam Buckley. p. 5. "Before Christ according to the Vulgar AEra, 6"
- ^ Prideaux use of "Vulgar Era" (1716). 1799 reprint. http://books.google.com/books?id=1DQHAAAAQAAJ&pg=PA5&vq=vulgar&dq. Retrieved 14 December 2007. Humphrey Prideaux, D.D. (1716). The Old and New Testament Connected in the History of the Jews and Neighbouring Nations. 1. Edinburgh: D. Schaw & Co.. p. 1. "This happened in the seventh year after the building of Rome, and in the second year of the eighth Olympiad, which was the seven hundred forty-seventh year before Christ, i. e. before the beginning of the vulgar æra, by which we now compute the years from his incarnation."
- ^ Merriam Webster accepts the date of 1716, but does not give the source. "Merriam Webster Online entry for Vulgar Era". http://www.m-w.com/dictionary/vulgarera. Retrieved 12 December 2007.
- ^ "vulgar era of the nativity" (1796). http://books.google.com/books?id=nK6IPj-Wk-kC&pg=PA10&dq=%22vulgar+era+of+the+NATIVITY%22. Retrieved 18 December 2007. Rev. Robert Walker, Isaac Newton, Thomas Falconer. Analysis of Researches Into the Origin and Progress of Historical Time, from the Creation to .... London: T. Cadell Jr. and W. Davies. p. 10. "Dionysius the Little brought the vulgar era of the nativity too low by four years."
- ^ "1584 Latin use of aerae christianae". http://worldcat.org/wcpa/oclc/123471534. Retrieved 13 January 2008. Grynaeus, Johann Jacob; Beumler, Marcus (1584) (in Latin). De Eucharistica controuersia, capita doctrinae theologicae de quibus mandatu, illustrissimi principis ac domini, D. Iohannis Casimiri, Comites Palatini ad Rhenum, Ducis Bauariae, tutoris & administratoris Electoralis Palatinatus, octonis publicis disputationibus (quarum prima est habita 4 Apr. anno aerae christianae 1584, Marco Beumlero respondente) praeses Iohannes Iacobus Grynaeus, orthodoxae fidei rationem interrogantibus placidè reddidit ; accessit eiusdem Iohannis Iacobi Grynaeus synopsis orationis, quam de disputationis euentu, congressione nona, quae indicit in 15 Aprilis, publicè habuit. (Microform) (Editio tertia ed.). Heidelbergae: Typis Iacobi Mylij. OCLC 123471534. "4 Apr. anno aerae christianae 1584"
- ^ "1649 use of æræ Christianæ in English book - 1st usage found in English". http://worldcat.org/wcpa/oclc/18533017. Retrieved 13 January 2008. WING, Vincent (1649). Speculum uranicum, anni æræ Christianæ, 1649, or, An almanack and prognosication for the year of our Lord, 1649 being the first from bissextile or leap-year, and from the creation of the world 5598, wherein is contained many useful, pleasant and necessary observations, and predictions ... : calculated (according to art) for the meridian and latitude of the ancient borrough town of Stamford in Lincolnshire ... and without sensible errour may serve the 3. kingdoms of England, Scotland, and Ireland.. London: J.L. for the Company of Stationers. "anni æræ Christianæ, 1649"
- ^ first appearance of "Christian Era" in English (1652). http://books.google.com/books?id=qDaKGAAACAAJ&dq=%22christian+era%22. Retrieved 19 December 2007. Sliter, Robert (1652). A celestiall glasse, or, Ephemeris for the year of the Christian era 1652 being the bissextile or leap-year: contayning the lunations, planetary motions, configurations & ecclipses for this present year ... : with many other things very delightfull and necessary for most sorts of men: calculated exactly and composed for ... Rochester. London: Printed for the Company of Stationers.
- ^ first so-far-found use of common era in English (1708). http://books.google.com/books?id=D_wvAAAAYAAJ&pg=RA2-PA515&dq=%22common+era%22&lr=lang_en&as_drrb_is=b&as_minm_is=1&as_miny_is=800&as_maxm_is=1&as_maxy_is=1740&as_brr=0&cd=2#v=onepage&q=%22common%20era%22&f=false. Retrieved 2010-01-18. The History of the Works of the Learned. 10. London. January 1708. p. 513.
- ^ Gregory, David; John Nicholson, John Morphew (1715). The Elements of Astronomy, Physical and Geometrical. v. 1. London: printed for J. Nicholson, and sold by J. Morphew. p. 252. http://books.google.com/books?id=ze8ehe65hwcC&pg=RA2-PA252&dq=%22Common+Era%22+%22before+chrift%22++chriftian+common+era. Retrieved 5 January 2008. "Some say the World was created 3950 Years before the common Æra of Christ" Before Christ and Christian Era appear on the same page 252, while Vulgar Era appears on page 250
- ^ 1759 use of common æra. http://books.google.com/books?id=tn0EAAAAYAAJ&pg=RA1-PA130&dq=%22Common+aEra%22+%22chrift%22. Retrieved 12 January 2008. Sale, George (1759). An Universal History: From the Earliest Accounts to the Present Time By George Sale,. 13. London: C. Bathurst [etc.]. pp. 130. "at which time they fixed that for their common era" In this case, their refers to the Jews.
- ^ common era and vulgar era as synonyms in English (1770). http://books.google.com/books?id=gBETAAAAIAAJ&pg=PA105&dq=%22Common+Era%22+%22vulgar+Era%22+date:1-1800. Retrieved 5 January 2008. Hooper, William; Bielfeld, Jacob Friedrich (1770). The Elements of Universal Eurdition (v. 2). London: G. Scott, printer, for J Robson, bookseller in New-Bond Street, and B. Law in Ave-Mary Lane. pp. 105, 63. "in the year of the world 3692, and 312 years before the vulgar era.... The Spanish era began with the year of the world 3966, and 38 years before the common era (p63)"
- ^ "vulgar era" in 1797 EB. 1797. p. 228 v. 14 pt. 1 P (Peter). http://books.google.com/books?id=W3xMAAAAMAAJ&pg=RA1-PA228&dq=%22vulgar+era%22. Retrieved 14 December 2007. "St Peter died in the 66th year of the vulgar era"
"common era" in 1797 EB. 1797. p. 50 v. 14 pt. 1 P (Paul). http://books.google.com/books?id=W3xMAAAAMAAJ&pg=PA50&dq=%22common+era%22. Retrieved 14 December 2007. "This happened in the 33rd year of the common era, fome time after our Saviour's death."
George Gleig, ed (1797). Encyclopædia Britannica: Or, A Dictionary of Arts, Sciences, and Miscellaneous Literature (Third Edition in 18 volumes). Edinburgh. v. 14 pt. 1 P.
- ^ Alexander Campbell (1835). The Living Oracles, Fourth Edition. pp. 16–20. http://www.mun.ca/rels/restmov/texts/acampbell/tlo4/TLO400L4.HTM. Retrieved 12 December 2007.
- ^ Alexander Campbell (1835). The Living Oracles, Fourth Edition. pp. 15–16. http://www.mun.ca/rels/restmov/texts/acampbell/tlo4/TLO400L3.HTM. Retrieved 12 December 2007.
- ^ "common era of the Jews" (1874). http://books.google.com/books?as_brr=1&id=GMfyJ2PeD-cC&q=%22common+era+of+the+jews%22&pgis=1. Retrieved 12 December 2007. "the common era of the Jews places the creation in BC 3760" A. Whitelaw, ed (1874). Conversations Lexicon. V. Oxford University Press. p. 207.
- ^ "common era of the Jews" (1858). http://books.google.com/books?id=e6oCAAAAQAAJ&pg=PA176&dq=%22common+era+of+the+jews%22. Retrieved 13 December 2007. "Hence the present year, 1858, in the common era of the Jews, is AM 5618-5619, a difference of more than 200 years from our commonly-received chronology." Rev. Bourchier Wrey Savile, MA (1858). The first and second Advent: or, The past and the future with reference to the Jew, the Gentile, and the Church of God. London: Wertheim, Macintosh and Hunt. p. 176.
- ^ "common era of the Mahometans" (1856). http://books.google.com/books?id=4WEBAAAAQAAJ&dq=%22common+era+of+the%22&q=%22common+era+of+the+Mahometans%22&pgis=1. Retrieved 13 December 2007. "Its epoch is the first of March old style. The common era of the Mahometans, as has already been stated, is that of the flight of Mahomet." Johannes von Gumpach (1856). Practical tables for the reduction of Mahometan dates to the Christian calendar. Oxford University. p. 4.
- ^ "common era of the world" (1801). http://books.google.com/books?id=bXIAAAAAMAAJ&pg=PA354&dq=%22common+era+of+the%22. Retrieved 14 December 2007. William Jones (1801). The Theological, Philosophical and Miscellaneous Works of the Rev. William Jones. London: Rivington.
- ^ "common era of the foundation of Rome" (1854). http://books.google.com/books?id=6FKHIeUQ2J0C&pg=PA284&dq=%22common+era+of+the+foundation+of+rome%22. Retrieved 13 December 2007. Alexander Fraser Tytler, Lord Woodhouselee (1854). Universal History: From the Creation of the World to the Beginning of the Eighteenth Century. Boston: Fetridge and Company. p. 284.
- ^ "common era of the Incarnation" (1833). http://books.google.com/books?id=HKgMAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA711&dq=%22common+era+of+the+incarnation%22. Retrieved 13 December 2007. The Encyclopaedia Britannica: A Dictionary of Arts, Sciences, and General Literature. V (9 ed.). New York: Henry G. Allen and Company. 1833. p. 711.
- ^ "common era" "of the Nativity" (1864). http://books.google.com/books?id=um44AAAAMAAJ&dq=%22common+era+of+the+Nativity%22&q=%22common+era%22+%22of+the+Nativity%22&pgis=1. Retrieved 13 December 2007. "It should be observed, however, that these years correspond to 492 and 493, a portion of the annals of Ulster being counted from the Incarnation, and being, therefore, one year before the common era of the Nativity of our Lord." James Henthorn Todd (1864). St. Patrick, Apostle of Ireland, A Memoir of his Life and Mission. Dublin: Hodges, Smith & Co, Publishers to the University. pp. 495, 496, 497.
- ^ "common era of the birth of Christ" (1812). http://books.google.com/books?id=PGdCAAAAIAAJ&pg=PR16&dq=%22common+era+of+the%22. Retrieved 14 December 2007. Heneage Elsley (1812). Annotations on the Four Gospels and the Acts of the Apostles (2nd edition) (2nd ed.). London: A. J. Valpy for T. Payne. xvi.
- ^ The term common era does not appear in this book; the term Christian era [lowercase] does appear a number of times. Nowhere in the book is the abbreviation explained or expanded directly. Search for era in this book.. http://books.google.com/books?id=r7CbDH5hTe8C&pg=PA75&vq=era.
- ^ "What is Thelema?". http://www.thelema101.com/calendar. Retrieved 2010-01-18.
- ^ "Jewish Calendar: Numbering of Jewish Years". Jewish Virtual Library. http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/Judaism/calendar.html#Years. Retrieved 2 September 2007.
- ^ a b Michael Gormley (24 April 2005). "Use of B.C. and A.D. faces changing times". Houston Chronicle. p. A–13. http://www.chron.com/CDA/archives/archive.mpl?id=2005_3864650. Retrieved 30 August 2007. (Registration required.)
- ^ See, for example, the Society for Historical Archaeology states in its more recent style guide "Do not use C.E. (current era) ... or B.C.E.; convert these expressions to A.D. and B.C." Society for Historical Archaeology (December 2006). "Style Guide". http://www.sha.org/publications/style_guide.htm#V-d. Retrieved 29 August 2007. . Whereas the American Anthropological Association style guide American Anthropological Society (January 2003). "AAA Style Guide" (PDF). http://www.aaanet.org/pubs/style_guide.pdf. Retrieved 9 September 2006. takes a different approach.
- ^   Also see, for example, comment "In this publication, instead of the traditional 'AD' and 'BC', the more accurate 'CE' (Common Era) and 'BCE' (before the Common Era) are used." in The Bible — God's Word or Man's?, p. 16 footnote, published by the Watchtower Bible and Tract Society of New York, Inc.
- ^ Smithsonian Institution. "World History Standards". Smithsonian Education. http://www.smithsonianeducation.org/educators/field_trips/standards/world_history_standards.html. Retrieved 9 September 2006.
- ^ "Submission Guidelines for The Ostracon". The Ostracon — Journal of the Egyptian Studies Society. http://www.egyptstudy.org/ostracon/guidelines.html. Retrieved 9 September 2006. "For dates, please use the now-standard "BCE-CE" notation, rather than "BC-AD." Authors with strong religious preferences may use "BC-AD," however.".
- "Contributor Guidelines" (pdf). The Pomegranate: the International Journal of Pagan Studies. http://equinoxjournals.com/ojs/equinoxdownloads/authors/pomguide.pdf. Retrieved 3 October 2008. "All dates should be in the format BCE/CE, unless in quoted material.". – Scholar search
- "Author Guidelines". American Journal of Philology. http://www.press.jhu.edu/journals/american_journal_of_philology/guidelines.html. Retrieved 10 August 2007. "Eras and dates. The journal prefers B.C.E., C.E.".
- "Manuscript Submission Guidelines". Journal for the Study of the Pseudepigrapha. http://www.sagepub.com/journalManuscript.aspx?pid=10754. Retrieved 10 August 2007. "we prefer BCE, CE".
- "Style Guide" (DOC). Canadian Journal of Cultural Studies. http://www.yorku.ca/topia/docs/styleguide. Retrieved 10 August 2007. "Please use BCE (Before Current Era) and CE (Current Era) rather than B.C. and A.D.".
- ^ "Maryland Church News Submission Guide & Style Manual" (PDF). Maryland Church News. 1 April 2005. http://www.ang-md.org/mcn/style_guide.pdf. Retrieved 9 September 2006.
- ^ "AP: World History". http://www.collegeboard.com/student/testing/ap/history_world/topic.html?worldhist. Retrieved 9 September 2006.
- ^ "Introduction to Calendars". U. S. Naval Observatory Astronomical Applications Department. 15 October 2004. http://aa.usno.navy.mil/faq/docs/calendars.php. Retrieved 9 September 2006.
- ^ "Jerusalem Timeline". History Channel. http://www.history.com/minisite.do?content_type=Minisite_Generic&content_type_id=50287&display_order=3&mini_id=1051. Retrieved 9 September 2006. ;"Jerusalem: Biographies". History Channel. http://www.history.com/minisite.do?content_type=Minisite_Generic&content_type_id=992&display_order=2&mini_id=1051. Retrieved 9 September 2006.
- ^ "State School Board reverses itself on B.C./A.D. controversy". Family Foundation of Kentucky. http://www.tffky.org/articles/Press%20Releases/prs%2006-14-06%20MC.html. Retrieved 4 October 2006.
- ^ Joe Biesk (15 June 2006). "School board keeps traditional historic designations". Louisville Courier-Journal. http://www.kctcs.edu/todaysnews/index.cfm?tn_date=2006-06-16#5119. Retrieved 13 December 2007.
- ^ "Kentucky Board of Education Report" (PDF). Kentucky Board of Education Report. 10 June 2006. http://cpe.ky.gov/NR/rdonlyres/5F08162C-899F-47FE-9367-1DDD82DE74E6/0/6_CommissionerofEdReport.pdf. Retrieved 13 December 2007.
- ^ Doggett, L. (1992). "Calendars". in P. Kenneth Seidelmann. Explanatory Supplement to the Astronomical Almanac. Sausalito, CA: University Science Books. p. 579. ISBN 0-935702-68-7.
- ^ a b c "Comments on the use of CE and BCE to identify dates in history". ReligiousTolerance.com. http://www.religioustolerance.org/ceintro.htm. Retrieved 11 July 2008.
- ^ Annan, Kofi A., (then Secretary-General of the United Nations) (28 June 1999). "Common values for a common era: Even as we cherish our diversity, we need to discover our shared values". Civilization: The Magazine of the Library of Congress. http://www.un.org/News/ossg/sg/stories/articleFull.asp?TID=37. Retrieved 21 December 2007.
- ^ Wilson, Kenneth G. (1993). "The Columbia Guide to Standard American English – A.D., B.C., (A.)C.E., B.C.E.". http://www.bartleby.com/68/20/120.html. Retrieved 16 June 2007.
- ^ "Major Rule Changes in The Chicago Manual of Style, Fifteenth Edition". University of Chicago Press. 15th ed.: 2003. http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/about15_rules.html. Retrieved 12 September 2007. "Certain abbreviations traditionally set in small caps are now in full caps (AD, BCE, and the like), with small caps an option."
- ^ Steel, Duncan (1999), Marking time: the epic quest to invent the perfect calendar, p. 111, http://books.google.com.au/books?id=fsni_qV-FJoC&pg=PA111#v=onepage&q=&f=false, retrieved 26 August 2009
- ^ Investigating Culture: An Experiential Introduction to Anthropology. http://books.google.com/books?id=ETOrkt7DeN0C&pg=PA86&lpg=PA86&dq=common+era+euphemism&source=web&ots=SD_-W5H1iK&sig=K_4v6oeAJ5htOwJPO4DoGGI883A. Retrieved 19 September 2007. Carol Lowery Delaney (2004). Investigating Culture: An Experiential Introduction to Anthropology. Blackwell Publishing. p. 86. ISBN 0631222375. "I find CE a euphemism because the common era still begins with Christ's birth and,thus, conceals the political implications."
- ^ Abraham on Trial: The Social Legacy of Biblical Myth. http://books.google.com/books?id=x8woAhT3jKAC&pg=PA267&dq=%22common+era%22+euphemism&ei=P5ZoR6jmE46IswP4nq2-Ag&sig=xVrbcvShT2i2ytyzlSPxfZqtNcw. Carol Lowery Delaney (1998). Abraham on Trial: The Social Legacy of Biblical Myth. Princeton University Press. p. 267. ISBN 0691070504.
- ^ Kenneth G. Wilson (1993). "The Columbia Guide to Standard American English". http://www.bartleby.com/68/20/120.html. Retrieved 13 December 2007. "Common era (C.E.) itself needs a good deal of further justification, in view of its clearly Christian numbering. Most conservatives still prefer A.D. and B.C. Best advice: don’t use B.C.E., C.E., or A.C.E. to replace B.C. and A.D. without translating the new terms for the very large number of readers who will not understand them. Note too that if we do end by casting aside the A.D./B.C. convention, almost certainly some will argue that we ought to cast aside as well the conventional numbering system itself, given its Christian basis."
- ^ Panikkar, Raimon. Christophany: The Fullness of Man (Maryville, NY: Orbis Books, 2004), 173.
- ^ Whitney, Susan (2006-12-02). "Altering history? Changes have some asking 'Before what?'". The Deseret News. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qn4188/is_20061202/ai_n16891064. Retrieved 13 December 2007. "I find this attempt to restructure history offensive," Lori Weintz wrote, in a letter to National Geographic publishers.... The forward to your book says B.C. and A.D. were removed so as to 'not impose the standards of one culture on others.'... It's 2006 this year for anyone on Earth that is participating in day-to-day world commerce and communication. Two thousand six years since what? Most people know, regardless of their belief system, and aren't offended by a historical fact."
- ^ a b "On Retaining The Traditional Method Of Calendar Dating (B.C./A.D.)". Southern Baptist Convention. June 2000. http://www.sbc.net/resolutions/amResolution.asp?ID=298. "This practice [of BCE/CE] is the result of the secularization, anti-supernaturalism, religious pluralism, and political correctness pervasive in our society... retention [of BC/AD] is a reminder to those in this secular age of the importance of Christ’s life and mission and emphasizes to all that history is ultimately His Story."
- ^ Simon, Stephanie (22 June 2007). "A conservative's answer to Wikipedia". Los Angeles Times. http://articles.latimes.com/2007/jun/19/nation/na-schlafly19.
- ^ Conservapedia Commandments at Conservapedia