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Graphic of a wave packet representing the fastest possible communications medium, a photon.
Communication is a process of transferring information from one entity to another. .Communication processes are sign-mediated interactions between at least two agents which share a repertoire of signs and semiotic rules.^ Blocks to Listening - Listening Between the Lines - Active Listening - Communication Styles two-way Communication - Listening and Stress - When the Phone Rings - Remembering What You Hear - Notetaking - Concentration.

.Communication is commonly defined as "the imparting or interchange of thoughts, opinions, or information by speech, writing, or signs". Although there is such a thing as one-way communication, communication can be perceived better as a two-way process in which there is an exchange and progression of thoughts, feelings or ideas (energy) towards a mutually accepted goal or direction (information).^ One way communication is no communication at all.

^ One-Way: Communication is not just speaking.

^ Job Skills Dating and Communication There are some steps that you can take to try and make your dating go better so that you can enjoy your dates, rather than get scared and feel like running away.
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[1]
.Communication is a process whereby information is enclosed in a package and is channeled and imparted by a sender to a receiver via some medium.^ Overload: Even when communicating in the language of the receivers, you can still lose them if you overload them with too much information or too complex ideas.

^ Interpersonal Skills Improving a Child's Communication Skills with Toys This article provides information about some toys that can improve a child's communication skills.
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The receiver then decodes the message and gives the sender a feedback. .All forms of communication require a sender, a message, and a receiver.^ All team members should have been provided communications log forms.

^ The EOC communications forms break the message down to groups of five words.

^ It delivers practical examples of what not to do, and what to do, when caught in those worst-of-all-possible-situations that require a higher level of communication competence.

.Communication requires that all parties have an area of communicative commonality.^ It delivers practical examples of what not to do, and what to do, when caught in those worst-of-all-possible-situations that require a higher level of communication competence.

.There are auditory means, such as speech, song, and tone of voice, and there are nonverbal means, such as body language, sign language, paralanguage, touch, eye contact, through media, i.e., picures, graphics and sound, and writing.^ Mircosoft used the term in 2001 or 2002 to describe their “speech server” which automated and “improved” companies’ telephone customer service through voice recognition.
  • Znetlady: Modern Media: Communications 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC weblog.znetlady.com [Source type: General]

Contents

Information communication revolutions

Over time, technology has progressed and has created new forms of and ideas about communication. The newer advances include media and communications psychology. Media psychology is an emerging field of study. These technological advances revolutionized the processes of communication. Researchers have divided how communication was transformed into three revolutionary stages:
In the 1st Information Communication Revolution, the first written communication began, with pictographs. These writings were made on stone, which were too heavy to transfer. During this era, written communication was not mobile, but nonetheless existed.
.In the 2nd Information Communication Revolution, writing began to appear on paper, papyrus, clay, wax, etc.^ Work Experience Become a Information Broker - Education Requirements and Necessary Skills If you've ever had to write an extensive research paper, then you've probably already had experience with online research.
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^ Interpersonal Communication Professional Communication Skills and Characteristics: An Overview In this paper I am going to write about the importance of communication in our life.
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Common alphabets were introduced, allowing the uniformity of language across large distances. Much later the Gutenberg printing-press was invented. Gutenberg created this printing-press after a long period of time in the 15th century. In the 3rd Information Communication Revolution, information can now be transferred via controlled waves and electronic signals.
.Communication is thus a process by which meaning is assigned and conveyed in an attempt to create shared understanding.^ Working inside of principles mean you create the best practices that fit your organization or situation and thus, have far better success for your efforts.
  • Znetlady: Modern Media: Communications 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC weblog.znetlady.com [Source type: General]

.This process requires a vast repertoire of skills in intrapersonal and interpersonal processing, listening, observing, speaking, questioning, analyzing, and evaluating.^ Personal Essay Why Listening is a Valuable Communication Skill Listening is a communication process and, to be successful, is an active process.
  • Communication Skills - Associated Content - Topic - associatedcontent.com 11 September 2009 3:43 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]

It is through communication that collaboration and cooperation occur.[2]
There are also many common barriers to successful communication, two of which are message overload (when a person receives too many messages at the same time), and message complexity.[3] Communication is a continuous process. The psychology of media communications is an emerging area of increasing attention and study.

Types of communication

Albert Mehrabian (UCLA, 1967)[4] identified three major parts that convey meaning in human face to face communication: body language, voice tonality, and words. He conducted research to determine how people make meaning when a speaker says one thing but means another. If the speaker is sending a mixed message the listener will rely on the following cues to determine true meaning:[5]
  • 55% of impact is determined by body language—postures, gestures, and eye contact,
  • 38% by the tone of voice, and
  • 7% by the content or the words spoken.
Mehrabian says this only applies in situations where the speaker is talking about feelings or attitudes.
.Although the exact percentage of influence may differ due to variables such as the perceptions or biases of the listener and the speaker, communication as a whole is meant to convey meaning and thus, in some cases, can be universal.^ And, individuals have access to lots and lots more individuals they can influence due to their ability to communicate and publish via networks.
  • Znetlady: Modern Media: Communications 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC weblog.znetlady.com [Source type: General]

A system of signals, such as voice sounds, intonations or pitch, gestures or written symbols can communicate thoughts or feelings. .If a language employs communicating with signals, voice, sounds, gestures, or written symbols, can animal communications be considered to be a language?^ Communication Skills Cued Speech for Speech, Language, and Communication Cued Speech is an excellent alternative to sign language as a tool for improving speech, English language skills (as well as many other spoken and written languages), and visual communication.
  • Communication Skills - Associated Content - Topic - associatedcontent.com 11 September 2009 3:43 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]

.Animals do not have a written form of a language, but use a language to communicate with each another.^ Communication Skills Cued Speech for Speech, Language, and Communication Cued Speech is an excellent alternative to sign language as a tool for improving speech, English language skills (as well as many other spoken and written languages), and visual communication.
  • Communication Skills - Associated Content - Topic - associatedcontent.com 11 September 2009 3:43 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]

In that sense, animal communication can be considered as a separate language.
Human spoken and written languages can be described as a system of symbols (sometimes known as lexemes) and the grammars (rules) by which the symbols are manipulated. .The word "language" is also used to refer to common properties of languages.^ The word "language" is also used to refer to common properties of languages.
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^ Language development for toddlers includes: using two-word combinations, taking turns speaking and listening, using the word no frequently, and using gestures to express needs and desires.
  • Communication Skills - Definition, Description, Common problems, Parental concerns, Resources 11 September 2009 3:43 UTC www.healthofchildren.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Explain the context of your point so your listener clearly understands why you're talking to them, use simple words and language to express your point.
  • How To Improve Communication 11 September 2009 3:43 UTC www.articlesbase.com [Source type: General]

Language learning is normal in human childhood. .Most human languages use patterns of sound or gesture for symbols which enable communication with others around them.^ Communication Skills Cued Speech for Speech, Language, and Communication Cued Speech is an excellent alternative to sign language as a tool for improving speech, English language skills (as well as many other spoken and written languages), and visual communication.
  • Communication Skills - Associated Content - Topic - associatedcontent.com 11 September 2009 3:43 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]

.There are thousands of human languages, and these seem to share certain properties, even though many shared properties have exceptions.^ There are thousands of human languages, and these seem to share certain properties, even though many shared properties have exceptions.
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^ Constructed languages such as Esperanto, programming languages, and various mathematical formalisms are not necessarily restricted to the properties shared by human languages.
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^ Communication happens at many levels (even for one single action), in many different ways, and for most beings, as well as certain machines.
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There is no defined line between a language and a dialect, but the linguist Max Weinreich is credited as saying that "a language is a dialect with an army and a navy". Constructed languages such as Esperanto, programming languages, and various mathematical formalisms are not necessarily restricted to the properties shared by human languages.
Bernard Luskin, UCLA, 1970, advanced computer assisted instruction and began to connect media and psychology into what is now the field of media psychology. .In 1998, the American Association of Psychology, Media Psychology Division 46 Task Force report on psychology and new technologies combined media and communication as pictures, graphics and sound increasingly dominate modern communication.^ So, let’s go about getting social media relations insight with something every communications professional is intimate with – the news media.
  • Znetlady: Modern Media: Communications 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC weblog.znetlady.com [Source type: General]

^ The report is a dramatic example of the growing citizen journalism movement and of how personal media empowers and defines communication in our connected society.
  • Znetlady: Modern Media: Communications 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC weblog.znetlady.com [Source type: General]

^ I have missed posting, but we’ve been working diligently on creating a training program for marketing and communications pros on using new media tools.
  • Znetlady: Modern Media: Communications 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC weblog.znetlady.com [Source type: General]

Nonverbal communication

.Nonverbal communication is the process of communicating through sending and receiving wordless messages.^ Animal Communication Clear Communication: Receiving the Right Message Communication is a two-way street.
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^ Clear communication requires active participation by the person receiving the message, as well as by the person sending the message.
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.Such messages can be communicated through gesture, body language or posture; facial expression and eye contact, object communication such as clothing, hairstyles or even architecture, or symbols and infographics, as well as through an aggregate of the above, such as behavioral communication.^ Social Life Communication Skills: The Importance of Eye Contact A word is a word, but a word expressed upon the sincerity of the eyes will allow the words spoken to reach the minds of those they are spoken to.
  • Communication Skills - Associated Content - Topic - associatedcontent.com 11 September 2009 3:43 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]

^ Clear communication requires active participation by the person receiving the message, as well as by the person sending the message.
  • Communication Skills - Associated Content - Topic - associatedcontent.com 11 September 2009 3:43 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]

Nonverbal communication plays a key role in every person's day to day life, from employment to romantic engagements.
Speech may also contain nonverbal elements known as paralanguage, including voice quality, emotion and speaking style, as well as prosodic features such as rhythm, intonation and stress. Likewise, written texts have nonverbal elements such as handwriting style, spatial arrangement of words, or the use of emoticons. A portmanteau of the English words emotion (or emote) and icon, an emoticon is a symbol or combination of symbols used to convey emotional content in written or message form.
.Other communication channels such as telegraphy fit into this category, whereby signals travel from person to person by an alternative means.^ I don't want to teach you how to talk to people, but I want to share with you some of my personal experiences in trying to communicate with others.
  • Communication Skills - Associated Content - Topic - associatedcontent.com 11 September 2009 3:43 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]

^ Communication Skills Cued Speech for Speech, Language, and Communication Cued Speech is an excellent alternative to sign language as a tool for improving speech, English language skills (as well as many other spoken and written languages), and visual communication.
  • Communication Skills - Associated Content - Topic - associatedcontent.com 11 September 2009 3:43 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]

^ Conversation Skills Effective Communication, a Means of Eliciting Popular Participations In development communication, one effective way of eliciting popular participation is through the use of appropriate media or communication channels.
  • Communication Skills - Associated Content - Topic - associatedcontent.com 11 September 2009 3:43 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]

These signals can in themselves be representative of words, objects or merely be state projections. Trials have shown that humans can communicate directly in this way[6] without body language, voice tonality or words.
Categories and Features G. W. Porter divides non-verbal communication into four broad categories:
Physical. This is the personal type of communication. It includes facial expressions, tone of voice, sense of touch, sense of smell, and body motions.
Aesthetic. This is the type of communication that takes place through creative expressions: playing instrumental music, dancing, painting and sculpturing.
Signs. This is the mechanical type of communication, which includes the use of signal flags, the 21-gun salute, horns, and sirens.
Symbolic. This is the type of communication that makes use of religious, status, or ego-building symbols.
Static Features
Distance. The distance one stands from another frequently conveys a non-verbal message. In some cultures it is a sign of attraction, while in others it may reflect status or the intensity of the exchange.
Orientation. People may present themselves in various ways: face-to-face, side-to-side, or even back-to-back. For example, cooperating people are likely to sit side-by-side while competitors frequently face one another.
Posture. Obviously one can be lying down, seated, or standing. These are not the elements of posture that convey messages. Are we slouched or erect ? Are our legs crossed or our arms folded ? Such postures convey a degree of formality and the degree of relaxation in the communication exchange.
Physical Contact. Shaking hands, touching, holding, embracing, pushing, or patting on the back all convey messages. They reflect an element of intimacy or a feeling of (or lack of) attraction.
Dynamic Features
Facial Expressions. A smile, frown, raised eyebrow, yawn, and sneer all convey information. Facial expressions continually change during interaction and are monitored constantly by the recipient. There is evidence that the meaning of these expressions may be similar across cultures.
Gestures. One of the most frequently observed, but least understood, cues is a hand movement. Most people use hand movements regularly when talking. While some gestures (e.g., a clenched fist) have universal meanings, most of the others are individually learned and idiosyncratic.
.Looking. A major feature of social communication is eye contact.^ Social Life Communication Skills: The Importance of Eye Contact A word is a word, but a word expressed upon the sincerity of the eyes will allow the words spoken to reach the minds of those they are spoken to.
  • Communication Skills - Associated Content - Topic - associatedcontent.com 11 September 2009 3:43 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]

It can convey emotion, signal when to talk or finish, or aversion. The frequency of contact may suggest either interest or boredom.

Visual communication

Visual communication as the name suggests is communication through visual aid. It is the conveyance of ideas and information in forms that can be read or looked upon. Primarily associated with two dimensional images, it includes: signs, typography, drawing, graphic design, illustration, colour and electronic resources. It solely relies on vision. It is form of communication with visual effect. It explores the idea that a visual message with text has a greater power to inform, educate or persuade a person. It is communication by presenting information through visual form.
The evaluation of a good visual design is based on measuring comprehension by the audience, not on aesthetic or artistic preference. There are no universally agreed-upon principles of beauty and ugliness. There exists a variety of ways to present information visually, like gestures, body languages, video and TV. Here, focus is on the presentation of text, pictures, diagrams, photos, et cetera, integrated on a computer display. The term visual presentation is used to refer to the actual presentation of information. Recent research in the field has focused on web design and graphically oriented usability. Graphic designers use methods of visual communication in their professional practice.

Understanding the Field of Communication

The field of communication is typically broken into three distinct camps: human communication, mass communications, and communication disorders [7]
Human Communication or Communication Studies is the study of how individuals communicate. Some examples of the distinct areas that human communication scholars study are:
Examples of Mass Communications include:
Examples of Communication Disorders include:

Oral Communication

Oral communication is a process whereby information is transferred from a sender to receiver usually by a verbal means but visual aid can support the process.. The receiver could be an individual person, a group of persons or even an audience. There are a few of oral communication types: discussion, speeches, presentations, etc. .However, often when you communicate face to face the body language and your voice tonality has a bigger impact than the actual words that you are saying.^ Job Skills Dating and Communication There are some steps that you can take to try and make your dating go better so that you can enjoy your dates, rather than get scared and feel like running away.
  • Communication Skills - Associated Content - Topic - associatedcontent.com 11 September 2009 3:43 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]

^ Following Directions The Five P's of Effective Business Communication and Presentations In order to have the "WOW" factor in your communication and next presentation, you need to work the the 5 P's.
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^ Interpersonal Communication Communication Skills are Key to Becoming a Top-Notch Salesperson It is your ability to get along with others that will ultimately decide whether you succeed or fail.
  • Communication Skills - Associated Content - Topic - associatedcontent.com 11 September 2009 3:43 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]

.A widely cited and widely mis-interpreted figure, used to emphasize the importance of delivery, is that "communication is 55% body language, 38% tone of voice, 7% content of words", the so-called 55/38/7 rule.^ Importance of Education Fathers Play Key Role in Language and Communication Development for Infants For many fathers, the interaction with their child, especially from birth to 24 months, is important to the child's language development.
  • Communication Skills - Associated Content - Topic - associatedcontent.com 11 September 2009 3:43 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]

^ Social Life Communication Skills: The Importance of Eye Contact A word is a word, but a word expressed upon the sincerity of the eyes will allow the words spoken to reach the minds of those they are spoken to.
  • Communication Skills - Associated Content - Topic - associatedcontent.com 11 September 2009 3:43 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]

[8] This is not however what the cited research shows – rather, when conveying emotion, if body language, tone of voice, and words disagree, then body language and tone of voice will be believed more than words.[9] For example, a person saying "I'm delighted to meet you" while mumbling, hunched over, and looking away will be interpreted as insincere. .Further discussion at Albert Mehrabian: Three elements of communication.^ Skills Essential Elements of Human Communication - Research and Analysis Essay A research and analysis essay written for my Human Communication course, discussing the basic elements of human communication.
  • Communication Skills - Associated Content - Topic - associatedcontent.com 11 September 2009 3:43 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]

^ Language Therapy Communication, Teambuilding, and Coaching in Leadership This paper discusses the necessary elements for successful leadership as it pertains to communication, team-building and coaching.
  • Communication Skills - Associated Content - Topic - associatedcontent.com 11 September 2009 3:43 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]

.You can notice that the content or the word that you are using is not the determining part of a good communication.^ Icebreaker How Good Communication Skills Best Serve You f you come across any problem or if you have solution to any problem and if you do not tell any one, this important information will remain unused.
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^ It will help if you have good verbal as well as written-communication skills.
  • Communication Skills - Associated Content - Topic - associatedcontent.com 11 September 2009 3:43 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]

^ Personal Inventory Working for Associated Content Equips You with Skills that You Can Use on Any Job Working as a Content Producer for Associated Content can equip you with a valuable set of skills that can serve you well on any job.
  • Communication Skills - Associated Content - Topic - associatedcontent.com 11 September 2009 3:43 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]

The “how you say it” has a major impact on the receiver. You have to capture the attention of the audience and connect with them. For example, two persons saying the same joke, one of them could make the audience die laughing related to his good body language and tone of voice. However, the second person that has the exact same words could make the audience stare at one another.[citation needed]
.In an oral communication, it is possible to have visual aid helping you to provide more precise information.^ You're More in Demand Than Ever You may wonder what professions are available with a communications degree.
  • Communication Skills - Associated Content - Topic - associatedcontent.com 11 September 2009 3:43 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]

^ Communication Skills The Importance of Good Non-Verbal Communication This article details the importance of non-verbal communication, gives examples of common non-verbal mistakes, and provides solutions to improve your non-verbal communication so that you appear more confident.
  • Communication Skills - Associated Content - Topic - associatedcontent.com 11 September 2009 3:43 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]

^ By PennyB   |  Published 7/8/2008 More topics: Communication Skills Encourage Your Children to Have Friends and Help Develop Their Social Skills Encouraging your children to have friends will do more for their social development that you can imagine.
  • Communication Skills - Associated Content - Topic - associatedcontent.com 11 September 2009 3:43 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]

.Often enough, we use a presentation program in presentations related to our speech to facilitate or enhance the communication process.^ Physical Therapy Augmentative and Alternative Communication and Socialization An observation of research conducted on the views of non-disordered children to those who have speech disorders and use Augmentative and Alternative Communication devices.
  • Communication Skills - Associated Content - Topic - associatedcontent.com 11 September 2009 3:43 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]

.Although, we cannot communicate by providing only visual content because we would not be talking about oral communication anymore.^ Interpersonal Skills Improving a Child's Communication Skills with Toys This article provides information about some toys that can improve a child's communication skills.
  • Communication Skills - Associated Content - Topic - associatedcontent.com 11 September 2009 3:43 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]

Communication Modeling

Shannon and Weaver Model of Communication
Communication major dimensions scheme
Communication code scheme
Linear Communication Model
Interactional Model of Communication
Berlo's Sender-Message-Channel-Receiver Model of Communication
Transactional Model of Communication
The first major model for communication came in 1949 by Claude Shannon and Warren Weaver for Bell Laboratories [10] The original model was designed to mirror the functioning of radio and telephone technologies. Their initial model consisted of three primary parts: sender, channel, and receiver. The sender was the part of a telephone a person spoke into, the channel was the telephone itself, and the receiver was the part of the phone where one could hear the other person. Shannon and Weaver also recognized that often there is static that interferes with one listening to a telephone conversation, which they deemed noise.
In a simple model, often referred to as the transmission model or standard view of communication, information or content (e.g. a message in natural language) is sent in some form (as spoken language) from an emisor/ sender/ encoder to a destination/ receiver/ decoder. This common conception of communication simply views communication as a means of sending and receiving information. The strengths of this model are simplicity, generality, and quantifiability. Social scientists Claude Shannon and Warren Weaver structured this model based on the following elements:
  1. An information source, which produces a message.
  2. A transmitter, which encodes the message into signals
  3. A channel, to which signals are adapted for transmission
  4. A receiver, which 'decodes' (reconstructs) the message from the signal.
  5. A destination, where the message arrives.
.Shannon and Weaver argued that there were three levels of problems for communication within this theory.^ Effective Communication Communication in Declaration of Independence Within the Declaration of Independence there are several components that demonstrate impressive communication skills.
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The technical problem: how accurately can the message be transmitted?
The semantic problem: how precisely is the meaning 'conveyed'?
The effectiveness problem: how effectively does the received meaning affect behavior?
Daniel Chandler critiques the transmission model by stating
It assumes communicators are isolated individuals.
No allowance for differing purposes.
No allowance for differing interpretations.
No allowance for unequal power relations.
No allowance for situational contexts.
In 1960, David Berlo expanded on Shannon and Weaver’s (1949) linear model of communication and created the SMCR Model of Communication [11]. The Sender-Message-Channel-Receiver Model of communication separated the model into clear parts and has been expanded upon by other scholars.
Communication is usually described along a few major dimensions: Message (what type of things are communicated), source / emisor / sender / encoder (by whom), form (in which form), channel (through which medium), destination / receiver / target / decoder (to whom), and Receiver. Wilbur Schram (1954) also indicated that we should also examine the impact that a message has (both desired and undesired) on the target of the message [12]. Between parties, communication includes acts that confer knowledge and experiences, give advice and commands, and ask questions. .These acts may take many forms, in one of the various manners of communication.^ These acts may take many forms, in one of the various manners of communication.
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^ Many communications companies have benefitted by taking advantage of these programs.
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^ One-to-many - In communication, one-to-many is the act of publishing or broadcasting from one sender to many receivers.
  • Communication Topics at Duck Duck Go 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC duckduckgo.com [Source type: Reference]

.The form depends on the abilities of the group communicating.^ The form depends on the abilities of the group communicating.
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^ The city of Evanston says they welcome new forms of communication because they know it helps them to do their jobs to the best of their abilities.

^ You can ask your friends to join you and can form a “communication skills improvement group.” You should get what you have written each day corrected by your English teacher or a friend who is good in English.
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Together, communication content and form make messages that are sent towards a destination. The target can be oneself, another person or being, another entity (such as a corporation or group of beings).
Communication can be seen as processes of information transmission governed by three levels of semiotic rules:
  1. Syntactic (formal properties of signs and symbols),
  2. Pragmatic (concerned with the relations between signs/expressions and their users) and
  3. Semantic (study of relationships between signs and symbols and what they represent).
Therefore, communication is social interaction where at least two interacting agents share a common set of signs and a common set of semiotic rules. This commonly held rules in some sense ignores autocommunication, including intrapersonal communication via diaries or self-talk, both secondary phenomena that followed the primary acquisition of communicative competences within social interactions.
In light of these weaknesses, Barnlund (2008) proposed a transactional model of communication [13]. The basic premise of the transactional model of communication is that individuals are simultaneously engaging in the sending and receiving of messages.
.In a slightly more complex form a sender and a receiver are linked reciprocally.^ Slide 4 : 1.Concept of Communication • In a slightly more complex form a sender and a receiver are linked reciprocally.
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^ Surprisingly, even this fairly simple form of communication is fought with many types of problems such as encoding and decoding bias on both the sender and the receiver side.
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^ Slide 3 : 1.Concept of Communication • information or content is sent in some form from an sender/ encoder to a destination/ receiver/ decoder.
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This second attitude of communication, referred to as the constitutive model or constructionist view, focuses on how an individual communicates as the determining factor of the way the message will be interpreted. Communication is viewed as a conduit; a passage in which information travels from one individual to another and this information becomes separate from the communication itself. .A particular instance of communication is called a speech act.^ A particular instance of communication is called a speech act.
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^ In the presence of "communication noise" on the transmission channel (air, in this case), reception and decoding of content may be faulty, and thus the speech act may not achieve the desired effect.
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^ The word phenomenon can refer to a particular communication event, text, act, or conversation.
  • Communications 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.unc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The sender's personal filters and the receiver's personal filters may vary depending upon different regional traditions, cultures, or gender; which may alter the intended meaning of message contents. .In the presence of "communication noise" on the transmission channel (air, in this case), reception and decoding of content may be faulty, and thus the speech act may not achieve the desired effect.^ In the presence of "communication noise" on the transmission channel (air, in this case), reception and decoding of content may be faulty, and thus the speech act may not achieve the desired effect.
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^ The act of communicating; transmission.
  • Communication Definition | Definition of Communication at Dictionary.com 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC dictionary.reference.com [Source type: Reference]
  • Communications Definition | Definition of Communications at Dictionary.com 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC dictionary.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Although the exact percentage of influence may differ from variables such as the listener and the speaker, communication as a whole strives for the same goal and thus, in some cases, can be universal.
  • 1 Communication 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.myplick.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

One problem with this encode-transmit-receive-decode model is that the processes of encoding and decoding imply that the sender and receiver each possess something that functions as a code book, and that these two code books are, at the very least, similar if not identical. Although something like code books is implied by the model, they are nowhere represented in the model, which creates many conceptual difficulties.
Theories of coregulation describe communication as a creative and dynamic continuous process, rather than a discrete exchange of information. Canadian media scholar Harold Innis had the theory that people use different types of media to communicate and which one they choose to use will offer different possibilities for the shape and durability of society (Wark, McKenzie 1997). His famous example of this is using ancient Egypt and looking at the ways they built themselves out of media with very different properties stone and papyrus. Papyrus is what he called 'Space Binding'. it made possible the transmission of written orders across space, empires and enables the waging of distant military campaigns and colonial administration. The other is stone and 'Time Binding', through the construction of temples and the pyramids can sustain their authority generation to generation, through this media they can change and shape communication in their society (Wark, McKenzie 1997).
The Krishi Vigyan Kendra Kannur under Kerala Agricultural University has pioneered a new branch of agricultural communication called Creative Extension.

Communication Noise

In every communication models, noise is anything that interferes with the decoding of messages sent over the channel by an encoder. There are many examples of noise:
Environmental Noise: Noise that physically disrupts communication, such as standing next to loud speakers at a party, or a construction site next to a classroom making it hard to hear the professor.
Physiological-Impairment Noise: physical maladies that prevent effective communication, such as actual deafness or blindness preventing messages from being received correctly.
Semantic Noise: different interpretations of the meanings of certain words, like how the word "weed" can be interpreted as both an undesirable plant in your yard or marijuana, or how "LOL" is easily recognizable by most teens, but complete gibberish to older readers.
Syntactical Noise: mistakes in grammar can disrupt communication, such as abrupt changes in verb tense during a sentence, or differing sentence structures between different cultures.
Organizational Noise: poorly structured communication can prevent the receiver from accurate interpretations, like unclear and badly stated directions can make the receiver even more lost, or how unfocused and disorganized lectures by professors are extremely hard for students to understand.
Cultural Noise: stereotypical assumptions can cause misunderstandings, such as unintentionally offending Jews by wishing them a "Merry Christmas,” or how Democrats and Republicans alike are bigoted about the other party’s policies.
Psychological Noise: certain attitudes can make communication difficult, like when great anger or sadness causes someone to lose focus on the present, or how more serious psychological diseases like autism severely hamper effective communication.[14]

Nonhuman communication

Communication in many of its facets is not limited to humans, or even to primates. Every information exchange between living organisms — i.e. transmission of signals involving a living sender and receiver — can be considered a form of communication.[15] Thus, there is the broad field of animal communication, which encompasses most of the issues in ethology. Also very primitive animals such as corals are competent to communicate.[16] On a more basic level, there is cell signaling, cellular communication, and chemical communication between primitive organisms like bacteria,[17] and within the plant and fungal kingdoms. .All of these communication processes are sign-mediated interactions with a great variety of distinct coordinations.^ All of these communication processes are sign-mediated interactions with a great variety of distinct coordinations.
  • 1 Communication 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.myplick.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Additionally fungi communicate with same and related species as well as with nonfungal organisms in a great variety of symbiotic interactions, especially with bacteria, unicellular eukaryotes, plants and insects.
  • 1 Communication 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.myplick.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These signals can affect the communication process in obvious or subtle ways.
  • Communication - Upward and downward communication, The communication process, Perception, Audience adaptation, Communication barriers 11 September 2009 3:43 UTC www.referenceforbusiness.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Animal communication is any behaviour on the part of one animal that has an effect on the current or future behavior of another animal.^ For a treatment of animal communication , see animal behaviour .
  • communication (social behaviour) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Give you a measurable, comparative frame of reference with which you can relate and evaluate your current and future communication effectiveness, and compare and monitor your progress toward more effective communication.
  • Communication Skills 11 September 2009 3:43 UTC www.humanext.com [Source type: General]

^ Communication is the exchange and flow of information and ideas from one person to another.
  • Communication & Leadership 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.nwlink.com [Source type: Original source]

.Of course, human communication can be subsumed as a highly developed form of animal communication.^ Human-animal communication - Human-animal communication is easily observed in everyday life.
  • Communication Topics at Duck Duck Go 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC duckduckgo.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Where the message is recorded in some form 'senders' may well have little idea of who the 'receivers' may be (particularly, of course, in relation to mass communication).
  • Transmission Model of Communication 11 September 2009 3:43 UTC www.aber.ac.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Skills Essential Elements of Human Communication - Research and Analysis Essay A research and analysis essay written for my Human Communication course, discussing the basic elements of human communication.
  • Communication Skills - Associated Content - Topic - associatedcontent.com 11 September 2009 3:43 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]

The study of animal communication, called zoosemiotics' (distinguishable from anthroposemiotics, the study of human communication) has played an important part in the development of ethology, sociobiology, and the study of animal cognition. This is quite evident as humans are able to communicate with animals, especially dolphins and other animals used in circuses. However, these animals have to learn a special means of communication. Animal communication, and indeed the understanding of the animal world in general, is a rapidly growing field, and even in the 21st century so far, many prior understandings related to diverse fields such as personal symbolic name use, animal emotions, animal culture and learning, and even sexual conduct, long thought to be well understood, have been revolutionized.

Plants and fungi

Among plants, communication is observed within the plant organism, i.e. within plant cells and between plant cells, between plants of the same or related species, and between plants and non-plant organisms, especially in the rootzone. Plant roots communicate in parallel with rhizobia bacteria, with fungi and with insects in the soil. This parallel sign-mediated interactions which are governed by syntactic, pragmatic and semantic rules are possible because of the decentralized "nervous system" of plants. The original meaning of the word "neuron" in Greek is "vegetable fiber" and as recent research shows, most of the intraorganismic plant communication processes are neuronal-like.[18] Plants also communicate via volatiles in the case of herbivory attack behavior to warn neighboring plants. In parallel they produce other volatiles which attract parasites which attack these herbivores. In Stress situations plants can overwrite the genetic code they inherited from their parents and revert to that of their grand- or great-grandparents.[19]
Fungi communicate to coordinate and organize their own growth and development such as the formation of mycelia and fruiting bodies. Additionally fungi communicate with same and related species as well as with nonfungal organisms in a great variety of symbiotic interactions, especially with bacteria, unicellular eukaryotes, plants and insects. The used semiochemicals are of biotic origin and they trigger the fungal organism to react in a specific manner, in difference while to even the same chemical molecules are not being a part of biotic messages doesn’t trigger to react the fungal organism. It means, fungal organisms are competent to identify the difference of the same molecules being part of biotic messages or lack of these features. So far five different primary signalling molecules are known that serve to coordinate very different behavioral patterns such as filamentation, mating, growth, pathogenicity. Behavioral coordination and the production of such substances can only be achieved through interpretation processes: self or non-self, abiotic indicator, biotic message from similar, related, or non-related species, or even “noise”, i.e., similar molecules without biotic content-[20]

Communication as academic discipline

Communication as an academic discipline, sometimes called "communicology,"[21] relates to all the ways we communicate, so it embraces a large body of study and knowledge. The communication discipline includes both verbal and nonverbal messages. A body of scholarship all about communication is presented and explained in textbooks, electronic publications, and academic journals. In the journals, researchers report the results of studies that are the basis for an ever-expanding understanding of how we all communicate.
.Communication happens at many levels (even for one single action), in many different ways, and for most beings, as well as certain machines.^ Communication happens at many levels (even for one single action), in many different ways, and for most beings, as well as certain machines.
  • 1 Communication 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.myplick.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Many researchers, working within the relevant concerns of their disciplines, have also sought possible theories or laws of cause and effect to explain the ways in which human dispositions are affected by certain kinds of communication under certain circumstances, and the reasons for the change.
  • communication (social behaviour) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Surprisingly, even this fairly simple form of communication is fought with many types of problems such as encoding and decoding bias on both the sender and the receiver side.
  • Leadership Communication Skills 11 September 2009 3:43 UTC www.legacee.com [Source type: General]

.Several, if not all, fields of study dedicate a portion of attention to communication, so when speaking about communication it is very important to be sure about what aspects of communication one is speaking about.^ What do people write about in Communication Studies?
  • Communications 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.unc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One way communication is no communication at all.

^ One-Way: Communication is not just speaking.

Definitions of communication range widely, some recognizing that animals can communicate with each other as well as human beings, and some are more narrow, only including human beings within the different parameters of human symbolic interaction.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Schwartz, Gary E.; Simon, William L.; Carmona, Richard (2008). The Energy Healing Experiments. Simon & Schuster. p. 129. ISBN 0743292399. http://books.google.com/books?id=lj7CUO6uo4YC&pg=PA129&dq=Communication%20two-way%20process&f=false. "All communication is a process of exchanging energy and exchanging information." 
  2. ^ "communication". office of superintendent of Public instruction. Washington. http://www.k12.wa.us/CurriculumInstruct/Communications/default.aspx. Retrieved March 14, 2008. 
  3. ^ Montana, Patrick J. & Charnov, Bruce H. 2008. Management. 4th ed. New York. Barron's Educational Series, Inc. Pg 333.
  4. ^ http://www.presentationmagazine.com/the-mehrabian-myth-898.htm
  5. ^ Mehrabian and Ferris (1967). "Inference of Attitude from Nonverbal Communication in Two Channels". In: The Journal of Counseling Psychology Vol.31, 1967, pp.248-52.
  6. ^ Warwick, K, Gasson, M, Hutt, B, Goodhew, I, Kyberd, P, Schulzrinne, H and Wu, X: “Thought Communication and Control: A First Step using Radiotelegraphy”, IEE Proceedings on Communications, 151(3), pp.185-189, 2004
  7. ^ Wrench, J. S., McCroskey, J. C., & Richmond, V. P. (2008). Human communication in everyday life: Explanations and applications. Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon.
  8. ^ Mehrabian, A. (1971). Silent messages. Wadsworth, Belmont, California.
  9. ^ Debunking the 55%, 38%, 7% Rule, by Judith E. Pearson
  10. ^ Shannon, C. E., & Weaver, W. (1949). The mathematical theory of communication. Urbana, Illinois: University of Illinois Press.
  11. ^ Berlo, D. K. (1960). The process of communication. New York, New York: Holt, Rinehart, & Winston.
  12. ^ Schramm, W. (1954). How communication works. In W. Schramm (Ed.), The process and effects of communication (pp. 3-26). Urbana, Illinois: University of Illinois Press.
  13. ^ Barnlund, D. C. (2008). A transactional model of communication. In. C. D. Mortensen (Eds.), Communication theory (2nd ed., pp47-57). New Brunswick, New Jersey: Transaction.
  14. ^ Roy M. Berko, et al., Communicating. 11th ed. (Boston, MA: Pearson Education, Inc., 2010) 9-12
  15. ^ Witzany G. (2010) Biocommunication and Natural Genome Editing. Springer Verlag
  16. ^ Witzany G, Madl P. (2009). Biocommunication of corals. International Journal of Integrative Biology 5(3): 152-163.
  17. ^ Witzany G (2008). Bio-Communication of Bacteria and their Evolutionary Roots in Natural Genome Editing Competences of Viruses. Open Evolution Journal 2: 44-54.
  18. ^ Baluska, F.; Marcuso, Stefano; Volkmann, Dieter (2006). Communication in plants: neuronal aspects of plant life. Taylor & Francis US. p. 19. ISBN 3540284758. http://books.google.com/books?id=IH9N4SKWTokC&pg=PA19&dq=plant+communication+processes+are+neuronal-like#v=onepage&q=plant%20communication%20processes%20are%20neuron-like&f=false. "...the emergence of plant neurobiology as the most recent area of plant sciences." 
  19. ^ Witzany, G. (2006). Plant Communication from Biosemiotic Perspective. Plant Signaling and Behavior 1(4): 169-178.
  20. ^ Witzany, G. (2007). Applied Biosemiotics: Fungal Communication. In: Witzany, G. (Ed). Biosemiotics in Transdisciplinary Contexts. Helsinki, Umweb, pp. 295-301.
  21. ^ http://www.communicology.org/content/definition-communicology

References


Study guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiversity

The goal of this page is to prompt students to think about how the mediums of communication limit the nature of what people can and cannot communicate to each other.

Contents

Communication in software

.A second goal is to prompt students to think about the way that communication technology (and software in particular) is playing an increasingly important role in providing the mediums of communication and to ask students to ponder the impact of technological decisions on communication.^ We don't normally think much about how we'll communicate.

^ Importance of Education Fathers Play Key Role in Language and Communication Development for Infants For many fathers, the interaction with their child, especially from birth to 24 months, is important to the child's language development.
  • Communication Skills - Associated Content - Topic - associatedcontent.com 11 September 2009 3:43 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]

^ Conversation Skills Essential Communication Skills for Professionals Soft skills are known to play a major role in the success or failure experienced in the workplace.
  • Communication Skills - Associated Content - Topic - associatedcontent.com 11 September 2009 3:43 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]

Explorations and Activities

This section may be well served by the Software Freedom/Controlling Communication Activity.
Alternatively, the following related activities or explorations might help the students explore and discover the key concepts in this section. Each is framed in terms of the key questions it raises.

Activity: Designing Communication

An activity or discussion around an actual communications technology that has been intentionally designed to prevent a certain type of use.
Some good examples include Digital Rights Management technologies that prevent copying or types of copying. Questions to raise in discussion might include:
  • Was the design of the system fair or unfair? Why?
  • Whose interests were being served by the design in question? Whose interests were not being served?
  • If students could redesign the system, how would they do so?
.This might also involve an experiment that prompts the users to modify an existing communication program on their computer (e.g., through the creation of "filters").^ I have missed posting, but we’ve been working diligently on creating a training program for marketing and communications pros on using new media tools.
  • Znetlady: Modern Media: Communications 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC weblog.znetlady.com [Source type: General]

^ Through dramatic role-plays and habit-altering insights and exercises, participants experiment with different styles of communication and experience the results first hand.

This might be as simple as an email filter that hid, redirected, or changed incoming messages. It might also be a filter for the IM client that made a superficial or meaningful change. It could be something more complex as well.
Students would then be asked to share their projects with each other and reflect on issues that each one raised:
  • What is the purpose of the filter? What is the effect? .Are these different?
  • Would these systems make it easier or more difficult for people to communicate with you?
  • How might these filters affect the way you understand messages?
  • In what ways might your understanding of a message be different than the intention?^ This flexible, customizable workshop gives you everything you need to deliver the skills people need most at work: Communicating effectively to reach positive outcomes in difficult situations when the stakes are high and the challenges are great.

    ^ Recommendations for specific models will be on a different page, since high end communications equipment recommendations are more complex and usually for communications centers.

    ^ Guarantee: Viewers will learn skills that earn them respect, and make them more effective communicators.

    Is this a problem? Why or why not?
  • Would you use this filter? Why or why not?

Exploration: Communication Control and Censorship

An activity that prompts students to compare any previous background or reading they have done in the area of censorship with the idea of network filtering or more "innocent" changes to communication technology that alter the terms on which students communicate.

Key concepts

Student could walk away from this section with:
  • An understanding of the way that medium can effect messages being communicated.
  • Knowledge of the power of communication technology (and computer software in particular) to control and limit the spread and the message of information.
  • A feeling for the way the interests of individuals and organizations -- for better or for worse -- can be reflected in the technologies and have a meaningful effect on what is and is not communicated and how.
  • An understanding of the student's role in relation to this technology and a feeling that they are not completely passive observers
  • The various methods of communication that affect civic discourse and how media can be leveraged to influence political decisions.

Additional readings

Related activities

See also

References

  1. Donnelly, E., & Neville, L. (2008). .Communication and interpersonal skills.^ Interpersonal Skills Communication True communication, what it is and what it isn't.
    • Communication Skills - Associated Content - Topic - associatedcontent.com 11 September 2009 3:43 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Interpersonal Communication Communication Skills are Key to Becoming a Top-Notch Salesperson It is your ability to get along with others that will ultimately decide whether you succeed or fail.
    • Communication Skills - Associated Content - Topic - associatedcontent.com 11 September 2009 3:43 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Salesperson How to Improve Your Interpersonal Communication Skills How to increase your oral communication skills by being specific and clear, and owning your messages.
    • Communication Skills - Associated Content - Topic - associatedcontent.com 11 September 2009 3:43 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]

    Cromwell Press: United Kingdom.

Wikibooks

Up to date as of January 23, 2010

Simple English

File:Rudy Giuliani
A man communicating with a microphone

Communication is when information is passed from a sender to a recipient using a medium. There are different media that can be used:

Communication can be spoken (a word) or non-spoken (a smile). Communication has many ways, and happens all the time. Not only humans communicate, most other animals do too. Some communication is done without thinking, such as by changing in posture
File:Communication.gif
This is similar to communication by talking

How communication works

Communication works by exchanging information or messages. In very basic terms

  1. The sender makes a message, from an idea. This is usually called encoding
  2. The sender transmits the message through the medium.
  3. The recipient receives the message and decodes it.

Besides the content of the message, there are other things that are important. These are not part of the message itself, but rather of its context

  • Who is communicating, and what status does the communicator have.
  • Communication messages usually do not come alone, but are accompanied by other messages. These are also interpreted.

For a message exchange to be successful, the sender and the recipient must have agreed on a vocabulary. The word hedge can mean completely different things based on the context. In biology a hedge is a row of shrubs or trees that make a barrier or form a border. In finance, a hedge is an investment made to reduce the risk of another investment. In linguistics a hedge is a word or set of words that make other words less important. Without any information it is therefore very difficult to know which hedge is really meant by the speaker.

Other pages

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Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 13, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Communication, which are similar to those in the above article.








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